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Caries Research

Lenita Marangoni-Lopes, Gabriela Rovai-Pavan, Carolina Steiner-Oliveira, Marinês Nobre-Dos-Santos
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate whether radiotherapy causes changes in the mineral composition, hardness, and morphology of enamel and dentin of primary teeth. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty specimens of primary teeth were subjected to radiotherapy. At baseline and after 1,080, 2,160, and 3,060 cGy, the specimens were subjected to microhardness, FT-Raman spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. The pH of artificial saliva was determined, as were the calcium and phosphate concentrations...
October 12, 2018: Caries Research
Nebu Philip
The principles of minimally invasive dentistry clearly dictate the need for clinically effective measures to remineralize early enamel caries lesions. While fluoride-mediated remineralization is the cornerstone of current caries management philosophies, a number of new remineralization strategies have been commercialized or are under development that claim to promote deeper remineralization of lesions, reduce the potential risks associated with high-fluoride oral care products, and facilitate caries control over a lifetime...
October 8, 2018: Caries Research
F Vida Zohoori, Anne Maguire, E Angeles Martinez-Mier, Marília Afonso Rabelo Buzalaf, Roy Sanderson, George J Eckert
The aim was to compare potential methods for fluoride analysis in microlitre-volume plasma samples containing nano-gram amounts of fluoride. METHODS: A group of 4 laboratories analysed a set of standardised biological samples as well as plasma to determine fluoride concentration using 3 methods. In Phase-1, fluoride analysis was carried out using the established hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDS)-diffusion method (1 mL-aliquot/analysis) to obtain preliminary measurement of agreement between the laboratories...
October 8, 2018: Caries Research
Marcelle Danelon, Luhana G Garcia, Juliano P Pessan, Amanda Passarinho, Emerson R Camargo, Alberto C B Delbem
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the remineralizing potential of a conventional toothpaste (1,100 ppm F) supplemented with nano-sized sodium hexametaphosphate (HMPnano) in artificial caries lesions in situ. DESIGN: This double-blinded crossed study was performed in 4 phases of 3 days each. Twelve subjects used palatal appliances containing 4 bovine enamel blocks with artificial caries lesions. Volunteers were randomly assigned into the following treatment groups: no F/HMP/HMPnano (Placebo); 1,100 ppm F (1100F); 1100F plus 0...
October 2, 2018: Caries Research
Yoshimi Nakayama, Hirofumi Ohnishi, Mitsuru Mori
Severe early childhood caries (S-ECC) has serious consequences for primary dentition, affecting the overall health, well-being, and quality of life of the child. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of risk factors, including environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), with S-ECC in 3-year-old Japanese children by a cross-sectional study. Study subjects were 2,825 children aged 3 years old. Of these individuals, after excluding the study subjects with missing values, a total of 2,277 children were included in the present analysis...
October 2, 2018: Caries Research
Alexandra Mussolino Queiroz, Claudia María Carpio Bonilla, Regina Guenka Palma-Dibb, Harley Francisco Oliveira, Paulo Nelson-Filho, Léa Assed Bezerra Silva, Marília Pacífico Lucisano, Francisco Wanderley Garcia Paula-Silva
The objectives of this study were to investigate changes in the activity and expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 in permanent teeth with or without exposure to radiotherapy, and the role of proteinase inhibitors in their inactivation. In situ zymography and immunofluorescence assays were performed to evaluate the activity and expression of two key gelatinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) in sections of permanent molars, assigned to irradiated and nonirradiated subgroups. Dental fragments were exposed to radiation at a dose of 2 Gy fractions for 5 consecutive days until a cumulative dose of 60 Gy was reached...
September 26, 2018: Caries Research
Joana Christina Carvalho, Ulrich Schiffner
This review assesses the development of oral health habits and status in European adults (35-44 years old) and senior citizens (65-74 years old) over the period of 1996-2016. There seem to be good opportunities for improving oral health habits by brushing twice daily with fluoride toothpaste among adults, as only 33-85% reported doing so. Caries experience was extensive among adults (≥92%). In adults of 23 countries, the mean DMFT score ranged from 6.6 to 17.6 (median 12.1). In senior citizens of 21 countries, the mean DMFT score varied from 14...
September 18, 2018: Caries Research
Mariana Bezamat, Kathleen Deeley, Shahryar Khaliq, Ariadne Letra, Rafaela Scariot, Renato M Silva, Megan L Weber, Diego G Bussaneli, Paula C Trevilatto, Alejandro J Almarza, Hongjiao Ouyang, Alexandre R Vieira
The purpose of this cohort study was to identify associations between combined oral and bone disease phenotypes and genes present in cell regulatory pathways. The studied pathways play important roles in cellular growth, proliferation, differentiation, and homeostasis. DNA samples extracted from whole saliva of 3,912 individuals were genotyped and these data analyzed according to dental caries experience, periapical lesions, periodontitis, osteoporosis, or temporomandibular joint discomfort. Samples were obtained from the Dental Registry and DNA Repository project at the University of Pittsburgh...
September 11, 2018: Caries Research
Senda Charone, Erika Calvano Küchler, Aline de Lima Leite, Mileni Silva Fernandes, Vinicius Taioqui Pelá, Tatiana Martini, Bárbara Margarido Brondino, Ana Carolina Magalhães, Thiago J Dionisio, Carlos Ferreira Dos Santos, Marília Afonso Rabelo Buzalaf
Genes expressed during amelogenesis are candidates to increase the risk of dental fluorosis (DF). Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the association between polymorphisms in enamel development genes and susceptibility to DF in mice. Mice of both sexes, representing strains 129P3/J (n = 20; resistant to DF) and A/J (n = 20; susceptible to DF), were divided into 2 groups. Each strain received a diet with a low concentration of fluoride (F) and drinking water containing 0 or 50 mg/L of F for 6 weeks. Clinical evaluation and analysis of Vickers enamel microhardness of the incisors were performed...
August 27, 2018: Caries Research
Diego Girotto Bussaneli, Manuel Restrepo, Camila Maria Bullio Fragelli, Lourdes Santos-Pinto, Fabiano Jeremias, Rita de Cássia Loiola Cordeiro, Mariana Bezamat, Alexandre Rezende Vieira, Raquel Mantuaneli Scarel-Caminaga
Ameloblasts are sensitive cells whose metabolism and function may be affected by inflammatory stimuli. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible association between polymorphisms in immune response-related genes and molar-incisor hypomineralization (MIH), and their interaction with polymorphisms in amelogenesis-related genes. DNA samples were obtained from 101 nuclear families that had at least 1 MIH-affected child. Eleven single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were investigated in immune response genes using TaqMan® technology allele-specific probes...
August 21, 2018: Caries Research
Mark Laske, Niek J M Opdam, Ewald M Bronkhorst, Jozé C C Braspenning, Wil J M van der Sanden, Marie Charlotte D N J M Huysmans, Josef J Bruers
Contemporary minimally invasive treatment concepts for restorative treatment of primary caries lesions include both delayed intervention and smaller-sized preparations restricted to removal of carious tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate whether these concepts have resulted in a trend towards a more conservative choice made by dentists regarding treatment thresholds and restorative techniques. The results from previously conducted, precoded questionnaires developed by Espelid and Tveit, as well as from a recent Dutch questionnaire, were collected and analysed...
August 14, 2018: Caries Research
Shao-Wen Xiang, Jun Shao, Jian He, Xin-Yu Wu, Xiao-Hu Xu, Wang-Hong Zhao
Streptococcus mutans, the primary cause of dental caries, takes up carbohydrates through the phosphoenolpyruvate sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS). This study aimed to identify a novel membrane-targeted antimicrobial peptide (AMP) that could also target the L-ascorbate-specific PtxA component of the S. mutans PTS system. C10-KKWW was identified and selected using virtual screening of a lipopeptide library, a minimum inhibiting concentration (MIC) assay, cytotoxicity assays and a hemolysis assay. Surface plasmon resonance confirmed that C10-KKWW had a high binding affinity for PtxA...
August 14, 2018: Caries Research
Carla P Lozano, Natalia Díaz-Garrido, Jens Kreth, Rodrigo A Giacaman
Streptococcus mutans synthesizes 3 glucosyltransferases (Gtfs) associated with cariogenic biofilms, while commensal Streptococcus sanguinis produces only one; gtfP and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) by SpxB. The aim was to test the hypothesis that under a sucrose-induced cariogenic challenge, the expression of competition-related genes is differentially regulated depending on whether S. sanguinis or S. mutans primarily colonize enamel. Dual-species biofilms of S. sanguinis and S. mutans were formed under different colonization sequences on enamel slabs and exposed to 10% sucrose for 5 min, 3×/day for 5 days...
August 14, 2018: Caries Research
Cor van Loveren
The World Health Organization guideline to use less sugar may be an opportunity and support for dentistry in its goal to get the message of using less sugar across to the public. Two ways (with all the combinations of these) to achieve a reduction of sugar consumption are the reduction of the amount of sugar in products or the reduction of the frequency of consumption of sugar-containing products. Which sugar-reducing strategy is best for caries prevention? To answer this question, this manuscript discusses the shape of the dose-response association between sugar intake and caries, the influence of fluoridated toothpaste on the association of sugar intake and caries and the relative contribution of frequency and amount of sugar intake to caries levels...
August 8, 2018: Caries Research
Klaus Pieper, Julia Winter, Monika Heinzel-Gutenbrunner, Jutta Margraf-Stiksrud
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to test the relationship between a newly developed sugar index and caries experience in 4th- and 6th-graders. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 1,019 fourth-graders and 925 sixth-graders from 2 regions in Northern Germany participated in the study. Caries experience was recorded by applying the ICDAS criteria. Tooth-brushing habits and other independent variables were examined psychometrically. Structured questions were formulated that were related to specific everyday eating situations, especially between main meals, which proved to be relevant for a higher caries risk...
August 8, 2018: Caries Research
Sharon R Smith, Stephanie T Johnson, Samantha M Oldman, Valerie B Duffy
PURPOSE: Rapid yet useful methods are needed to screen for dietary behaviors in clinical settings. We tested the feasibility and reliability of a pediatric adapted liking survey (PALS) to screen for dietary behaviors and suggest tailored caries and obesity prevention messages. METHODS: In an observational study, children admitted to a pediatric emergency department (PED) for nonurgent care were approached to complete the PALS (33 foods, 4 nonfoods including brushing teeth)...
August 8, 2018: Caries Research
Joao Breda, Jo Jewell, Amélie Keller
The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends a reduced intake of free sugars throughout the life course (strong recommendation) with a reduction of free sugars intake to less than 10% of the total energy intake (strong recommendation) and preferably below 5% of the total energy intake (conditional recommendation) in both adults and children. Available data clearly show that people already consume significantly more sugar than they should, increasing the risk for dental caries, overweight and obesity. The WHO recommendations are intended for use by the policy makers as a benchmark for assessing intake of sugars by populations and as a driving force for policy change...
August 7, 2018: Caries Research
Andreas G Schulte, Georgios Tsakos
Caries is the most prevalent chronic condition worldwide and the association between high-level intake of sugars and dental decay is strong and well established. Interestingly, to combat caries, dental practitioners and public health dentists in many countries have focused mainly on the application of different kinds of fluorides and fissure sealants but not on the reduction of sugar intake. Furthermore, for many years, sugars have not been the focus of dental research activities presented at the annual conferences of the European Organisation for Caries Research (ORCA) and the European Association of Dental Public Health (EADPH)...
August 7, 2018: Caries Research
Kritirat Kiatsirirote, Thanya Sitthisettapong, Prathip Phantumvanit, Daniel C N Chan
This study aimed to evaluate the clinical effect of a resin denture base containing 20wt% surface prereacted glass ionomer (S-PRG) fillers on saliva fluoride concentrations as a surrogate evaluation of caries control. The study was a double-blind randomized clinical trial with a total of 110 participants aged 35-60 years who wore a removable partial resin denture for 1.5 years. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive a partial resin denture fabricated either with or without 20wt% S-PRG fillers (n = 55 per group)...
July 27, 2018: Caries Research
E Angeles Martinez-Mier, Livia Maria Andaló Tenuta, Clifton M Carey, Jaime A Cury, Cor van Loveren, Kim Rud Ekstrand, Carolina Ganss, Andreas Schulte, Arif Baig, Habib Benzian, Peter Bottenberg, Mark J Buijs, Alan Ceresa, Joana Christina Carvalho, Roger Ellwood, Carlos González-Cabezas, Christopher Holmgren, Michael Knapp, Frank Lippert, Andrew Joiner, David J Manton, Stefania Martignon, Stephen Mason, Anahita Jablonski-Momeni, Walter Plett, Chris Rahiotis, Fábio Sampaio, Domenick T Zero
Toothpastes are the most universally accepted form of fluoride delivery for caries prevention. To provide anti-caries benefits, they must be able to release fluoride during the time of tooth brushing or post brushing into the oral cavity. However, there is no standard accepted procedure to measure how much fluoride in a toothpaste may be (bio) available for release. The European Organization for Caries Research proposed and supported a workshop with experts in fluoride analysis in toothpastes and representatives from industry...
July 24, 2018: Caries Research
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