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Mathematical Biosciences

Z Asghar, N Ali, M Sajid
Bacteria which do not have organelles of motility, such as flagella, adopt gliding as a mode of locomotion. In gliding motility bacterium moves under its own power by secreting a layer of slime on the substrate. The exact mechanism by which a glider achieves motility is yet in controversy but there are evidences which support the wave-like undulation on the surface of the organism, as a possible mechanism of motility. Based on this observation, a model of undulating sheet over a layer of slime is examined as a possible model of the gliding motion of a bacterium...
May 24, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
Marko Raseta, Jon Pitchford, James Cussens, John Doe
There is an urgent need to refine strategies for testing the safety of chemical compounds. This need arises both from the financial and ethical costs of animal tests, but also from the opportunities presented by new in-vitro and in-silico alternatives. Here we explore the mathematical theory underpinning the formulation of optimal testing strategies in toxicology. We show how the costs and imprecisions of the various tests, and the variability in exposures and responses of individuals, can be assembled rationally to form a Markov Decision Problem...
May 23, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
Pio Gabrielle B Calderon, Mustafa Habib, Franz Kappel, Aurelio A de Los Reyes
The human cardiovascular system (CVS) and respiratory system (RS) work together in order to supply oxygen (O2) and other substrates needed for metabolism and to remove carbon dioxide (CO2). Global and local control mechanisms act on the CVS in order to adjust blood flow to the different parts of the body. This, in turn, affects the RS since the amount of O2 and CO2 transported, respectively to and away from the tissues depends on the cardiac output and blood flow in both the systemic and pulmonary circuits of the CVS...
May 19, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
Xuebing Zhang, Hongyong Zhao
This paper deals with a delayed reaction-diffusion predator-prey model with non-continuous threshold harvesting. Sufficient conditions for the local stability of the regular equilibrium, the existence of Hopf bifurcation and Turing bifurcation are obtained by analyzing the associated characteristic equation. By utilizing upper-lower solution method and Lyapunov functions the globally asymptotically stability of a unique regular equilibrium and asymptotically stability of a unique pseudoequilibrium are studied respectively...
May 19, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
Raluca Eftimie, Matthieu Perez, Pietro-Luciano Buono
The growth and invasion of cancer cells are very complex processes, which can be regulated by the cross-talk between various signalling pathways, or by single signalling pathways that can control multiple aspects of cell behaviour. TGF-β is one of the most investigated signalling pathways in oncology, since it can regulate multiple aspects of cell behaviour: cell proliferation and apoptosis, cell-cell adhesion and epithelial-to-mesenchimal transition via loss of cell adhesion. In this study, we use a mathematical modelling approach to investigate the complex roles of TGF-β signalling pathways on the inhibition and growth of tumours, as well as on the epithelial-to-mesenchimal transition involved in the metastasis of tumour cells...
May 13, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
Abbas Rammal, Eric Perrin, Valeriu Vrabie, Rabih Assaf, Hassan Fenniri
Infrared spectroscopy provides useful information on the molecular compositions of biological systems related to molecular vibrations, overtones, and combinations of fundamental vibrations. Mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy is sensitive to organic and mineral components and has attracted growing interest in the development of biomarkers related to intrinsic characteristics of lignocellulose biomass. However, not all spectral information is valuable for biomarker construction or for applying analysis methods such as classification...
May 13, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
Tom Britton, Ali Traoré
We consider a stochastic model describing the spread of a vector borne disease in a community where individuals (hosts and vectors) die and new individuals (hosts and vectors) are born. The time to extinction of the disease, TQ, starting in quasi-stationary (conditional on non extinction) is studied. Properties of the limiting distribution are used to obtain an approximate expression for E(TQ), the mean-parameter in the exponential distribution of the time to extinction, for a finite population. It is then investigated numerically and by means of simulations how E(TQ) and its approximations depend on the different model parameters...
May 13, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
Brandon Ashley, Weijiu Liu
Type 1 diabetes patients need external insulin to maintain blood glucose within a narrow range from 65 to 108 mg/dl (3.6 to 6.0 mmol/l). A mathematical model for the blood glucose regulation is required for integrating a glucose monitoring system into insulin pump technology to form a closed-loop insulin delivery system on the feedback of the blood glucose, the so-called "artificial pancreas". The objective of this paper is to treat the exogenous glucose from food as a glucose disturbance and then develop a closed-loop feedback and feedforward control system for the blood glucose regulation system subject to the exogenous glucose disturbance...
May 8, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
Ying Chen, Brendan C Fry, Anita T Layton
The metabolism of glucose provides most of the ATP required for energy-dependent transport processes. In the inner medulla of the mammalian kidney, limited blood flow and O2 supply yield low oxygen tension; therefore, a substantial fraction of the glucose metabolism in that region is anaerobic. Lactate is considered to be a waste product of anaerobic glycolysis, which yields two lactate molecules for each glucose molecule consumed, thereby likely leading to the production and accumulation of a significant amount of lactate in the inner medulla...
May 8, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
Subhas Khajanchi, Sandip Banerjee
The paper describes a mathematical model with synergistic interaction between the malignant glioma cells and the immune system, namely, macrophages, activated Cytotoxic T-Lymphocytes (CTLs), the immunosuppressive cytokine Transforming Growth Factor - β (TGF-β) and the immuno-stimulatory cytokine Interferon - γ (IFN-γ), using a system of coupled non-linear ordinary differential equations (ODEs). We have introduced a new immunotherapeutic drug T11 Target structure (T11TS) into the model, which boosts the macrophages and CTLs to kill the glioma cells...
April 28, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
Phonindra Nath Das, Parul Mehrotra, Aseem Mishra, Nandadulal Bairagi, Samrat Chatterjee
Calcium ions aid in the generation of action potential in myocytes and are responsible for the excitation-contraction coupling of heart. The heart muscle has specialized patches of cells, called excitatory cells (EC) such as the Sino-atrial node cells capable of auto-generation of action potential and cells which receive signals from the excitatory cells, called non-excitatory cells (NEC) such as cells of the ventricular and auricular walls. In order to understand cardiac calcium homeostasis, it is, therefore, important to study the calcium dynamics taking into account both types of cardiac cells...
April 27, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
Joseph Páez Chávez, Thomas Götz, Stefan Siegmund, Karunia Putra Wijaya
In recent decades, Dengue fever and its deadly complications, such as Dengue hemorrhagic fever, have become one of the major mosquito-transmitted diseases, with an estimate of 390 million cases occurring annually in over 100 tropical and subtropical countries, most of which belonging to the developing world. Empirical evidence indicates that the most effective mechanism to reduce Dengue infections is to combat the disease-carrying vector, which is often implemented via chemical pesticides to destroy mosquitoes in their adult or larval stages...
April 20, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
R Rockenfeller, M Günther
We provide corrections to our paper "Extracting Low-Velocity Concentric and Eccentric Dynamic Muscle Properties from Isometric Contraction Experiments, Mathematical Biosciences 278 (2016), p. 77-93", where we used an erroneous form of Hatze's activation dynamics. The statements of the paper still hold true in general, even though the numerical values of Tables 1, 2, and 3 slightly vary. The authors would like to apologize for any inconvenience caused.
April 20, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
Shun Kurokawa
The existence of cooperation in this world is a mysterious phenomenon. One of the mechanisms that explain the evolution of cooperation is repeated interaction. If interactions between the same individuals repeat and individuals cooperate conditionally, cooperation can evolve. A previous study pointed out that if individuals have persistence (i.e., imitate its "own" behavior in the last move), cooperation can evolve. However, retaliation and persistence are not mutually exclusive decisions, but rather a trade-off in the decision making process of individuals...
April 18, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
Ming Chen, Meng Fan, Yang Kuang
Ecological stoichiometry studies the balance of energy and multiple chemical elements in ecological interactions to establish how the nutrient content affect food-web dynamics and nutrient cycling in ecosystems. In this study, we formulate a food chain with two limiting nutrients in the form of a stoichiometric population model. A comprehensive global analysis of the rich dynamics of the targeted model is explored both analytically and numerically. Chaotic dynamic is observed in this simple stoichiometric food chain model and is compared with traditional model without stoichiometry...
April 18, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
Kasbawati, Agus Yodi Gunawan, Kuntjoro Adjie Sidarto
An unstructured model for the growth of yeast cell on glucose due to growth inhibitions by substrate, products, and cell density is discussed. The proposed model describes the dynamical behavior of fermentation system that shows multiple steady states for a certain regime of operating parameters such as inlet glucose and dilution rate. Two types of steady state solutions are found, namely washout and non-washout solutions. Furthermore, different numerical impositions to the two parameters put in evidence three results regarding non-washout solution: a unique locally stable non-washout solution, a unique locally stable non-washout solution towards which other nearby solutions exhibit damped oscillations, and multiple non-washout solutions where one is locally stable while the other is unstable...
April 18, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
G Bini, F Bini, R Bedini, A Marinozzi, F Marinozzi
Bone quality is affected by trabecular architecture at microscopic level. Various abnormalities of bone tissue lead to altered strength and to an increased susceptibility to fracture, such as Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis, two major health burdens of our society. These are two complex musculoskeletal diseases that mainly concern bone tissue. In the last twenty years, there has been a growing interest in finding an appropriate topological model for the micro-architecture of trabecular bone tissue. In particular, we prove that these models involve general topological spaces...
April 6, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
Murali Krishna Enduri, Shivakumar Jolad
In this work we analyze the post monsoon Dengue outbreaks by analyzing the transient and long term dynamics of Dengue incidences and its environmental correlates in Ahmedabad city in western India from 2005 to 2012. We calculate the reproduction number Rp using the growth rate of post monsoon Dengue outbreaks and biological parameters like host and vector incubation periods and vector mortality rate, and its uncertainties are estimated through Monte-Carlo simulations by sampling parameters from their respective probability distributions...
April 5, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
Sanjay Kumar Pandey, Gireesh Ranjan, Shailendra Kumar Tiwari, Kushagra Pandey
The investigation is an attempt to explore the cause that generates high pressure in the distal oesophagus compared to that in the proximal part. We observe through computer simulation that peristaltic waves of even slightly but progressively increasing amplitude can generate high pressure near the distal end. This is illustrated through exponential growth in the wave amplitude, which represents the dependence of the rate of growth of amplitude on its current magnitude. This may be physically interpreted that the generation of high pressure in the lower oesophagus ensures complete bolus delivery to the stomach through the cardiac sphincter...
April 5, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
Venkateshan Kannan, Narsis A Kiani, Fredrik Piehl, Jesper Tegner
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease targeting the central nervous system (CNS) causing demyelination and neurodegeneration leading to accumulation of neurological disability. Here we present a minimal, computational model involving the immune system and CNS that generates the principal subtypes of the disease observed in patients. The model captures several key features of MS, especially those that distinguish the chronic progressive phase from that of the relapse-remitting. In addition, a rare subtype of the disease, progressive relapsing MS naturally emerges from the model...
March 29, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
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