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Mathematical Biosciences

Fei Yuan, Lin Lu, YuHang Zhang, ShaoPeng Wang, Yu-Dong Cai
LncRNAs plays an important role in the regulation of gene expression. Identification of cancer-related lncRNAs GO terms and KEGG pathways is great helpful for revealing cancer-related functional biological processes. Therefore, in this study, we proposed a computational method to identify novel cancer-related lncRNAs GO terms and KEGG pathways. By using existing lncRNA database and Max-relevance Min-redundancy (mRMR) method, GO terms and KEGG pathways were evaluated based on their importance on distinguishing cancer-related and non-cancer-related lncRNAs...
August 4, 2018: Mathematical Biosciences
Bapan Ghosh, Debprasad Pal, Tarzan Legović, T K Kar
Non-equilibrium dynamics in the form of oscillations or chaos is often found to be a natural phenomenon in complex ecological systems. In this paper, we first analyze a tri-trophic food chain, which is an extension of the Rosenzweig-MacArthur di-trophic food chain. We then explore the impact of harvesting individual trophic levels to answer the following questions : a) when a non-equilibrium dynamics persists, b) whether it can locally be stabilized to a steady state, c) when the system switches from a stable steady state to a non-equilibrium dynamics and d) whether the Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY) always exists when the top predator is harvested...
August 2, 2018: Mathematical Biosciences
Karan Jain, Srinivasu Maka, Amit Patra
Coronary arteries are responsible for maintaining blood supply to the heart. When these arteries get blocked due to plaque deposition, the corresponding pathological condition is referred to as coronary artery disease. This disease develops gradually over the years and consequently, the function of the heart deteriorates, leading to a heart attack in many cases. As the symptoms manifest themselves only when it has become severe, detection of the disease often gets delayed. In order to detect it early and take preventive action, this work is aimed at detecting the arterial blockage in its early stage via cardiovascular modeling...
August 2, 2018: Mathematical Biosciences
B D'Acunto, L Frunzo, I Klapper, M R Mattei, P Stoodley
A mathematical model for dispersal phenomenon in multispecies biofilm based on a continuum approach and mass conservation principles is presented. The formation of dispersed cells is modeled by considering a mass balance for the bulk liquid and the biofilm. Diffusion of these cells within the biofilm and in the bulk liquid is described using a diffusion-reaction equation. Diffusion supposes a random character of mobility. Notably, biofilm growth is modeled by a hyperbolic partial differential equation while the diffusion process of dispersed cells by a parabolic partial differential equation...
August 1, 2018: Mathematical Biosciences
Gareth Leng, Duncan J MacGregor
The neuroendocrine systems of the hypothalamus are critical for survival and reproduction, and are highly conserved throughout vertebrate evolution. Their roles in controlling body metabolism, growth and body composition, stress, electrolyte balance and reproduction have been intensively studied, and have yielded a rich crop of original and challenging insights into neuronal function, insights that circumscribe a vision of the brain that is quite different from conventional views. Despite the diverse physiological roles of pituitary hormones, most are secreted in a pulsatile pattern, but arising through a variety of mechanisms...
July 31, 2018: Mathematical Biosciences
Stefan Diehl, Jesús Zambrano, Bengt Carlsson
A photobioreactor (PBR) contains microalgae which under illumination consume carbon dioxide and substrate dissolved in water, and produce oxygen. The process is used in water recovery resource facilities with a continuous flow of wastewaster through the PBR. With several PBRs in series the reduction of substrate can be improved. This paper contains a thorough analysis of a model of PBRs in series, where each PBR is modelled with a system of three ordinary differential equations for the concentrations of dissolved substrate and biomass (algae), and the internal cell quota of substrate to biomass...
July 27, 2018: Mathematical Biosciences
David J Price, Nigel G Bean, Joshua V Ross, Jonathan Tuke
Dose-response studies are used throughout pharmacology, toxicology and in clinical research to determine safe, effective, or hazardous doses of a substance. When involving animals, the subjects are often housed in groups; this is in fact mandatory in many countries for social animals, on ethical grounds. An issue that may consequently arise is that of unregulated between-subject dosing (transmission), where a subject may transmit the substance to another subject. Transmission will obviously impact the assessment of the dose-response relationship, and will lead to biases if not properly modelled...
July 25, 2018: Mathematical Biosciences
Abazar Arabameri, Davud Asemani, Jamshid Hajati
The immune system turns out to have both stimulatory and inhibitory factors influencing on tumor growth. In recent years, the pro-tumor role of immunity factors such as regulatory T cells and TGF-β cytokines has specially been considered in mathematical modeling of tumor-immune interactions. This paper presents a novel structural methodology for reviewing these models and classifies them into five subgroups on the basis of immune factors included. By using our experimental data due to immunotherapy experimentation in mice, these five modeling groups are evaluated and scored...
July 25, 2018: Mathematical Biosciences
Enahoro A Iboi, Abba B Gumel
A new mathematical model is designed and used to assess the impact of the newly-released Dengvaxia vaccine on the transmission dynamics of two co-circulating dengue strains (where strain 1 consists of dengue serotypes 1, 3 and 4; and strain 2 consists of dengue serotype 2). It is shown that the model exhibits the phenomenon of backward bifurcation when the disease-induced mortality in the host population exceeds a certain threshold value or if the vaccine does not provide perfect protection against infection with the two strains...
July 16, 2018: Mathematical Biosciences
Andrew D Marquis, Andrea Arnold, Caron Dean-Bernhoft, Brian E Carlson, Mette S Olufsen
Mathematical models are essential tools to study how the cardiovascular system maintains homeostasis. The utility of such models is limited by the accuracy of their predictions, which can be determined by uncertainty quantification (UQ). A challenge associated with the use of UQ is that many published methods assume that the underlying model is identifiable (e.g. that a one-to-one mapping exists from the parameter space to the model output). In this study we present a novel workflow to calibrate a lumped-parameter model to left ventricular pressure and volume time series data...
July 11, 2018: Mathematical Biosciences
Maryam Movahedifar, Masoud Yarmohammadi, Hossein Hassani
This belief has been widely accepted that Bicoid (Bcd) protein distributes in a concentration gradient that organizes the anterior/posterior axis of the Drosophila embryo. Segment polarity protein provides positional cues for the development of head and thoracic segments. Therefore As a result of its essential role, modeling the Bicoid gradient has been welcomed by many researchers in various scientific fields. In this paper, We present investigation of gene expression profiles by means of Singular Spectrum Decomposition (SSD), an optimizing version of Singular Spectrum Analysis for filtering and extracting the bicoid gene expression signal...
July 4, 2018: Mathematical Biosciences
Jean-Frédéric Gerbeau, Damiano Lombardi, Eliott Tixier
In numerous applications in biophysics, physiology and medicine, the system of interest is studied by monitoring quantities, called biomarkers, extracted from measurements. These biomarkers convey some information about relevant hidden quantities, which can be seen as parameters of an underlying model. In this paper we propose a strategy to automatically design biomarkers to estimate a given parameter. Such biomarkers are chosen as the solution of a sparse optimization problem given a user-supplied dictionary of candidate features...
June 28, 2018: Mathematical Biosciences
Victoria May E Paguio, Franz Kappel, Peter Kotanko
Inflammation is prevalent in hemodialysis patients and is believed to significantly contribute to cardiovascular disease progression in end stage renal disease patients undergoing hemodialysis. Increased vascular permeability associated with inflammation is likely to influence the capillary wall properties, affecting vascular refilling during hemodialysis. In this paper, we present a model that incorporates inflammation into a vascular refilling model. We investigate how inflammation may affect the fluid volume and protein concentration dynamics in the plasma and interstitial spaces...
June 27, 2018: Mathematical Biosciences
Christine Bürli, Helmut Harbrecht, Peter Odermatt, Somphou Sayasone, Nakul Chitnis
We adapt a population-based model of Opisthorchis viverrini transmission dynamics to determine the effectiveness of three different interventions. The model includes the definitive hosts, humans; the reservoir hosts, dogs and cats; and the intermediate hosts, snails and fish. We consider the interventions: education campaigns to reduce the consumption of raw or undercooked fish, improved sanitation and treatment through mass drug administration. We fit model parameters to a data set from two islands in southern Lao PDR...
June 27, 2018: Mathematical Biosciences
Adrien Mazoyer
The classic Luria-Delbrück model can be interpreted as a Poisson compound (number of mutations) of exponential mixtures (developing time of mutant clones) of geometric distributions (size of a clone in a given time). This "three-ingredients" approach is generalized in this paper to the case where the split instant distributions of cells are not i.i.d. : the lifetime of each cell is assumed to depend on its birth date. This model takes also into account cell deaths and non-exponentially distributed lifetimes...
June 19, 2018: Mathematical Biosciences
Rahim Alhamzawi, Haithem Taha Mohammad Ali
Classical adaptive lasso regression is known to possess the oracle properties; namely, it performs as well as if the correct submodel were known in advance. However, it requires consistent initial estimates of the regression coefficients, which are generally not available in high dimensional settings. In addition, none of the algorithms used to obtain the adaptive lasso estimators provide a valid measure of standard error. To overcome these drawbacks, some Bayesian approaches have been proposed to obtain the adaptive lasso and related estimators...
June 16, 2018: Mathematical Biosciences
Sheldon Chen
Ascertaining a patient's kidney function is more difficult to do when the serum creatinine is changing than when it is stable. To accomplish the task, various kinetic clearance equations have been developed. To date, however, none of them have allowed for ongoing changes to the creatinine's volume of distribution. These diluting or concentrating effects on the [creatinine] can greatly impact the accuracy of kidney function assessment. Described herein is a model of creatinine kinetics that also accommodates volume changes...
May 22, 2018: Mathematical Biosciences
Ada W C Yan, Andrew J Black, James M McCaw, Nicolas Rebuli, Joshua V Ross, Annalisa J Swan, Roslyn I Hickson
Assessing the risk of disease spread between communities is important in our highly connected modern world. However, the impact of disease- and population-specific factors on the time taken for an epidemic to spread between communities, as well as the impact of stochastic disease dynamics on this spreading time, are not well understood. In this study, we model the spread of an acute infection between two communities ('patches') using a susceptible-infectious-removed (SIR) metapopulation model. We develop approximations to efficiently evaluate the probability of a major outbreak in a second patch given disease introduction in a source patch, and the distribution of the time taken for this to occur...
September 2018: Mathematical Biosciences
Edoardo Beretta, Vincenzo Capasso, Davide G Garao
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Mathematical Biosciences
G P Chuiko, O V Dvornik, S I Shyian, Ye A Baganov
This paper contains the results of computing of a blood pressure and a flow speed in a human aorta in a diastolic phase of a heart cycle. The model is based on the one-dimensional flow approach. The blood hammer effect means abrupt increasing of pressure in a blood vessels due to the sharp changes in flow speed. The closing of aortic valve at the proto-diastole phase causes such blood hammer. We consider an aorta as a simple cylindrical conduit with elastic walls. The aortic valve and the bifurcation were located in the opposite ends of the conduit...
September 2018: Mathematical Biosciences
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