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Mathematical Biosciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610888/applying-differential-dynamic-logic-to-reconfigurable-biological-networks
#1
Daniel Figueiredo, Manuel A Martins, Madalena Chaves
Qualitative and quantitative modeling frameworks are widely used for analysis of biological regulatory networks, the former giving a preliminary overview of the system's global dynamics and the latter providing more detailed solutions. Another approach is to model biological regulatory networks as hybrid systems, i.e., systems which can display both continuous and discrete dynamic behaviors. Actually, the development of synthetic biology has shown that this is a suitable way to think about biological systems, which can often be constructed as networks with discrete controllers, and present hybrid behaviors...
June 10, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606825/assessment-of-motor-skill-task-performance-with-a-task-progress-weighted-error-measure
#2
T Eakin
A quantitative measure has been developed for the assessment and skill ordering of target-cued motor control and coordination task performances. It is similar to the classical root mean square error (RMSE) measure but modified with task progress weighting that attenuates with target proximity to its destination and amplifies as data sampling occurrences accumulate prior to task completion. The measure has the same mathematical form whether the task design is of the tracing type or of the tracking type, and thus can be used in cross task type comparisons...
June 9, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606824/a-quantitative-approach-to-the-stabilizing-role-of-dispersal-in-metapopulations
#3
Ignacio Bajo, Alfonso Ruiz-Herrera
We study a classical model for a population that reproduces and disperses in a landscape of heterogeneous patches. Under symmetrical dispersal, we provide a sufficient condition to ensure the existence of a globally attracting fixed point. This condition is used in order to prove that certain patches with complex dynamics can be stabilized by the combination with stable patches. Specifically, given a patch with complex dynamics, we estimate the necessary number of patches with simple dynamics so that the whole metapopulation has a globally attracting equilibrium...
June 9, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600136/an-all-encompassing-global-convergence-result-for-processive-multisite-phosphorylation-systems
#4
Mitchell Eithun, Anne Shiu
Phosphorylation, the enzyme-mediated addition of a phosphate group to a molecule, is a ubiquitous chemical mechanism in biology. Multisite phosphorylation, the addition of phosphate groups to multiple sites of a single molecule, may be distributive or processive. Distributive systems, which require an enzyme and substrate to bind several times in order to add multiple phosphate groups, can be bistable. Processive systems, in contrast, require only one binding to add all phosphate groups, and were recently shown to be globally stable...
June 6, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583848/psychological-effect-on-single-species-population-models-in-a-polluted-environment
#5
Fengying Wei, Lihong Chen
We formulate and investigate the psychological effect of single-species population models in a polluted environment in this paper. For the deterministic single-species population model, the conditions that guarantee the local extinction and persistence in the mean are derived firstly. We then show that, around the pollution-free equilibrium, the stochastic single-species population is weakly persistent in the mean, and is stochastically permanent under some conditions. As a consequence, some numerical simulations demonstrate the efficiency of the main results...
June 2, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576678/immune-therapeutic-strategies-using-optimal-controls-with-l-1-and-l-2-type-objectives
#6
O Bara, S M Djouadi, J D Day, S Lenhart
Therapeutic strategies to correct an excessive immune response to pathogenic infection is investigated as an optimal control problem. The control problem is formulated around a four dimensional mathematical model describing the inflammatory response to a pathogenic insult with two therapeutic control inputs which have either a direct pro- or anti-inflammatory effect in the given system. We use Pontryagin's maximum principle and discuss necessary optimality conditions. We consider both an L(1) type objective functional as well as an L(2) type objective...
May 31, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551421/interaction-of-gliding-motion-of-bacteria-with-rheological-properties-of-the-slime
#7
Z Asghar, N Ali, M Sajid
Bacteria which do not have organelles of motility, such as flagella, adopt gliding as a mode of locomotion. In gliding motility bacterium moves under its own power by secreting a layer of slime on the substrate. The exact mechanism by which a glider achieves motility is yet in controversy but there are evidences which support the wave-like undulation on the surface of the organism, as a possible mechanism of motility. Based on this observation, a model of undulating sheet over a layer of slime is examined as a possible model of the gliding motion of a bacterium...
May 24, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549867/integrated-testing-strategies-can-be-optimal-for-chemical-risk-classification
#8
Marko Raseta, Jon Pitchford, James Cussens, John Doe
There is an urgent need to refine strategies for testing the safety of chemical compounds. This need arises both from the financial and ethical costs of animal tests, but also from the opportunities presented by new in-vitro and in-silico alternatives. Here we explore the mathematical theory underpinning the formulation of optimal testing strategies in toxicology. We show how the costs and imprecisions of the various tests, and the variability in exposures and responses of individuals, can be assembled rationally to form a Markov Decision Problem...
May 23, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532814/control-aspects-of-the-human-cardiovascular-respiratory-system-under-a-nonconstant-workload
#9
Pio Gabrielle B Calderon, Mustafa Habib, Franz Kappel, Aurelio A de Los Reyes
The human cardiovascular system (CVS) and respiratory system (RS) work together in order to supply oxygen (O2) and other substrates needed for metabolism and to remove carbon dioxide (CO2). Global and local control mechanisms act on the CVS in order to adjust blood flow to the different parts of the body. This, in turn, affects the RS since the amount of O2 and CO2 transported, respectively to and away from the tissues depends on the cardiac output and blood flow in both the systemic and pulmonary circuits of the CVS...
May 19, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529143/dynamics-analysis-of-a-delayed-reaction-diffusion-predator-prey-system-with-non-continuous-threshold-harvesting
#10
Xuebing Zhang, Hongyong Zhao
This paper deals with a delayed reaction-diffusion predator-prey model with non-continuous threshold harvesting. Sufficient conditions for the local stability of the regular equilibrium, the existence of Hopf bifurcation and Turing bifurcation are obtained by analyzing the associated characteristic equation. By utilizing upper-lower solution method and Lyapunov functions the globally asymptotically stability of a unique regular equilibrium and asymptotically stability of a unique pseudoequilibrium are studied respectively...
May 19, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511959/pattern-formation-in-a-nonlocal-mathematical-model-for-the-multiple-roles-of-the-tgf-%C3%AE-pathway-in-tumour-dynamics
#11
Raluca Eftimie, Matthieu Perez, Pietro-Luciano Buono
The growth and invasion of cancer cells are very complex processes, which can be regulated by the cross-talk between various signalling pathways, or by single signalling pathways that can control multiple aspects of cell behaviour. TGF-β is one of the most investigated signalling pathways in oncology, since it can regulate multiple aspects of cell behaviour: cell proliferation and apoptosis, cell-cell adhesion and epithelial-to-mesenchimal transition via loss of cell adhesion. In this study, we use a mathematical modelling approach to investigate the complex roles of TGF-β signalling pathways on the inhibition and growth of tumours, as well as on the epithelial-to-mesenchimal transition involved in the metastasis of tumour cells...
May 13, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511958/selection-of-discriminant-mid-infrared-wavenumbers-by-combining-a-na%C3%A3-ve-bayesian-classifier-and-a-genetic-algorithm-application-to-the-evaluation-of-lignocellulosic-biomass-biodegradation
#12
REVIEW
Abbas Rammal, Eric Perrin, Valeriu Vrabie, Rabih Assaf, Hassan Fenniri
Infrared spectroscopy provides useful information on the molecular compositions of biological systems related to molecular vibrations, overtones, and combinations of fundamental vibrations. Mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy is sensitive to organic and mineral components and has attracted growing interest in the development of biomarkers related to intrinsic characteristics of lignocellulose biomass. However, not all spectral information is valuable for biomarker construction or for applying analysis methods such as classification...
May 13, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511957/a-stochastic-vector-borne-epidemic-model-quasi-stationarity-and-extinction
#13
Tom Britton, Ali Traoré
We consider a stochastic model describing the spread of a vector borne disease in a community where individuals (hosts and vectors) die and new individuals (hosts and vectors) are born. The time to extinction of the disease, TQ, starting in quasi-stationary (conditional on non extinction) is studied. Properties of the limiting distribution are used to obtain an approximate expression for E(TQ), the mean-parameter in the exponential distribution of the time to extinction, for a finite population. It is then investigated numerically and by means of simulations how E(TQ) and its approximations depend on the different model parameters...
May 13, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495545/asymptotic-tracking-and-disturbance-rejection-of-the-blood-glucose-regulation-system
#14
Brandon Ashley, Weijiu Liu
Type 1 diabetes patients need external insulin to maintain blood glucose within a narrow range from 65 to 108 mg/dl (3.6 to 6.0 mmol/l). A mathematical model for the blood glucose regulation is required for integrating a glucose monitoring system into insulin pump technology to form a closed-loop insulin delivery system on the feedback of the blood glucose, the so-called "artificial pancreas". The objective of this paper is to treat the exogenous glucose from food as a glucose disturbance and then develop a closed-loop feedback and feedforward control system for the blood glucose regulation system subject to the exogenous glucose disturbance...
May 8, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495544/modeling-glucose-metabolism-and-lactate-production-in-the-kidney
#15
Ying Chen, Brendan C Fry, Anita T Layton
The metabolism of glucose provides most of the ATP required for energy-dependent transport processes. In the inner medulla of the mammalian kidney, limited blood flow and O2 supply yield low oxygen tension; therefore, a substantial fraction of the glucose metabolism in that region is anaerobic. Lactate is considered to be a waste product of anaerobic glycolysis, which yields two lactate molecules for each glucose molecule consumed, thereby likely leading to the production and accumulation of a significant amount of lactate in the inner medulla...
May 8, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461156/quantifying-the-role-of-immunotherapeutic-drug-t11-target-structure-in-progression-of-malignant-gliomas-mathematical-modeling-and-dynamical-perspective
#16
Subhas Khajanchi, Sandip Banerjee
The paper describes a mathematical model with synergistic interaction between the malignant glioma cells and the immune system, namely, macrophages, activated Cytotoxic T-Lymphocytes (CTLs), the immunosuppressive cytokine Transforming Growth Factor - β (TGF-β) and the immuno-stimulatory cytokine Interferon - γ (IFN-γ), using a system of coupled non-linear ordinary differential equations (ODEs). We have introduced a new immunotherapeutic drug T11 Target structure (T11TS) into the model, which boosts the macrophages and CTLs to kill the glioma cells...
April 28, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457965/calcium-dynamics-in-cardiac-excitatory-and-non-excitatory-cells-and-the-role-of-gap-junction
#17
Phonindra Nath Das, Parul Mehrotra, Aseem Mishra, Nandadulal Bairagi, Samrat Chatterjee
Calcium ions aid in the generation of action potential in myocytes and are responsible for the excitation-contraction coupling of heart. The heart muscle has specialized patches of cells, called excitatory cells (EC) such as the Sino-atrial node cells capable of auto-generation of action potential and cells which receive signals from the excitatory cells, called non-excitatory cells (NEC) such as cells of the ventricular and auricular walls. In order to understand cardiac calcium homeostasis, it is, therefore, important to study the calcium dynamics taking into account both types of cardiac cells...
April 27, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434995/an-sir-dengue-transmission-model-with-seasonal-effects-and-impulsive-control
#18
Joseph Páez Chávez, Thomas Götz, Stefan Siegmund, Karunia Putra Wijaya
In recent decades, Dengue fever and its deadly complications, such as Dengue hemorrhagic fever, have become one of the major mosquito-transmitted diseases, with an estimate of 390 million cases occurring annually in over 100 tropical and subtropical countries, most of which belonging to the developing world. Empirical evidence indicates that the most effective mechanism to reduce Dengue infections is to combat the disease-carrying vector, which is often implemented via chemical pesticides to destroy mosquitoes in their adult or larval stages...
April 20, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434718/corrigendum-to-extracting-low-velocity-concentric-and-eccentric-dynamic-muscle-properties-from-isometric-contraction-experiments-mathematical-biosciences-278-2016-77-93
#19
R Rockenfeller, M Günther
We provide corrections to our paper "Extracting Low-Velocity Concentric and Eccentric Dynamic Muscle Properties from Isometric Contraction Experiments, Mathematical Biosciences 278 (2016), p. 77-93", where we used an erroneous form of Hatze's activation dynamics. The statements of the paper still hold true in general, even though the numerical values of Tables 1, 2, and 3 slightly vary. The authors would like to apologize for any inconvenience caused.
April 20, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431890/which-facilitates-the-evolution-of-cooperation-more-retaliation-or-persistence
#20
Shun Kurokawa
The existence of cooperation in this world is a mysterious phenomenon. One of the mechanisms that explain the evolution of cooperation is repeated interaction. If interactions between the same individuals repeat and individuals cooperate conditionally, cooperation can evolve. A previous study pointed out that if individuals have persistence (i.e., imitate its "own" behavior in the last move), cooperation can evolve. However, retaliation and persistence are not mutually exclusive decisions, but rather a trade-off in the decision making process of individuals...
April 18, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
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