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Journal of Health and Social Behavior

Adriana M Reyes, Melissa Hardy, Eliza Pavalko
We examine how the timing and sequencing of first marriage and childbirth are related to mortality for a cohort of 4,988 white and black women born between 1922 and 1937 from the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women. We use Cox proportional hazard models to estimate race differences in the association between family formation transitions and mortality. Although we find no relationships between marital histories and longevity, we do find that having children, the timing of first birth, and the sequencing of childbirth and marriage are associated with mortality...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Health and Social Behavior
Karen Lutfey Spencer
The term patient noncompliance emerged in the 1970s as a tool for analyzing why people do not follow medical directives. Despite its early popularity, the term has languished in sociology while flourishing in biomedical arenas. It seems flaccid in a contemporary healthcare context as it overestimates physician authority and is tone-deaf to biomedicalization. I draw from sociological and anthropological traditions, as well as qualitative interviews with terminally ill patients ( N = 26) and their caregivers ( N = 16), to consider facets of a biomedicalized health experience and implications for an updated vision of compliance...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Health and Social Behavior
Donna D McAlpine, Ellen McCreedy, Sirry Alang
Self-rated health is a valid measure of health that predicts quality of life, morbidity, and mortality. Its predictive value reflects a conceptualization of health that goes beyond a traditional medical model. However, less is known about self-rated mental health (SRMH). Using data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey ( N = 2,547), we examine how rating your mental health as good-despite meeting criteria for a mental health problem-predicts outcomes. We found that 62% of people with a mental health problem rated their mental health positively...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Health and Social Behavior
Hui Zheng, Linda K George
Medical expansion has become a prominent dynamic in today's societies as the biomedical model becomes increasingly dominant in the explanation of health, illness, and other human problems and behavior. Medical expansion is multidimensional and represented by expansions in three major components of the healthcare system: increasing medical investment, medical professionalization/specialization, and the relative size of the pharmaceutical industry. Using Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development health data and World Development Indicators 1981 to 2007, we find medical investment and medical professionalization/specialization significantly improve all three measures of life expectancy and decrease mortality rate even after controlling for endogeneity problems...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Health and Social Behavior
Samuel Stroope, Joseph O Baker
Scholars have long theorized that religious contexts provide health-promoting social integration and regulation. A growing body of literature has documented associations between individual religiosity and health as well as macro-micro linkages between religious contexts, religious participation, and individual health. Using unique data on individuals and county contexts in the United States, this study offers new insight by using multilevel analysis to examine meso-micro relationships between religion and health...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Health and Social Behavior
Jonathan Koltai, Scott Schieman, Ronit Dinovitzer
Prior research evaluates the health effects of higher status attainment by analyzing highly similar individuals whose circumstances differ after some experience a "status boost." Advancing that research, we assess health differences across organizational contexts among two national samples of lawyers who were admitted to the bar in the same year in their respective countries. We find that higher-status lawyers in large firms report more depression than lower-status lawyers, poorer health in the American survey, and no health advantage in Canada...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Health and Social Behavior
Liliya Leopold, Thomas Leopold
Research from the United States has supported two hypotheses. First, educational gaps in health widen with age-the cumulative (dis)advantage hypothesis. Second, this relationship has intensified across cohorts-the rising importance hypothesis. In this article, we used 23 waves of panel data (Socio-Economic Panel Study, 1992-2014) to examine both hypotheses in the German context. We considered individual and contextual influences on the association between education and health, and we assessed gender differences in health trajectories over the life course (ages 23 to 84) and across cohorts (born between 1930 and 1969)...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Health and Social Behavior
Ellen Idler, Kate Cartwright
Self-ratings of health (SRH) indicate current health-related quality of life and independently predict mortality. Studies show the SRH of older adults appears less influenced by physical health than the SRH of younger adults. But if physical health accounts less for the SRH of older adults, what factors take its place? To understand the relative contributions of social, emotional, and physical states to SRH by age, we analyzed data from the National Health Interview Survey 2006 to 2011 ( N = 153,341). In age-stratified regressions, physical health and functional limitations declined as correlates of SRH for older age strata, while social factors, such as gender and race, increased in importance...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Health and Social Behavior
Taylor W Hargrove
This study combines multiple-hierarchy stratification and life course perspectives to address two research questions critical to understanding U.S. young adult health. First, to what extent are racial-ethnic inequalities in body mass index (BMI) gendered and/or classed? Second, do racial-ethnic, gender, and socioeconomic inequalities in BMI widen or persist between adolescence and early adulthood? Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 cohort and growth curve models, results suggest that among white, black, and Hispanic American men and women ages 13 to 31, racial-ethnic inequality in BMI is greatest among women...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Health and Social Behavior
Stefanie Mollborn, Elizabeth Lawrence
Health lifestyles are important for health and social identity, yet little is known about their development in early life. We use data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort of 1998-99 (ECLS-K; N = 8,786) to track children's health lifestyles and assess a theoretical model of health lifestyle development. Latent class analyses identify health lifestyles at four time points from first to eighth grade, and multivariate models investigate their interrelationships and social contextual influences...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Health and Social Behavior
Philipp M Lersch, Marita Jacob, Karsten Hank
Using longitudinal survey data from the Socio-Economic Panel Study ( N = 3,003 respondents with 22,165 individual-year observations) and exploiting temporal and regional variation in state-level unemployment rates in West Germany, we explore differences in trajectories of individuals' self-rated health over a period of up to 23 years after leaving education under different regional labor market conditions. We find evidence for immediate positive effects of contextual unemployment when leaving education on individuals' health...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Health and Social Behavior
Michael T Light, Joey Marshall
The justifications for the dramatic expansion of the prison population in recent decades have focused on public safety. Prior research on the efficacy of incarceration offers support for such claims, suggesting that increased incarceration saves lives by reducing the prevalence of homicide. We challenge this view by arguing that the effects of mass incarceration include collateral infant mortality consequences that call into question the number of lives saved through increased imprisonment. Using an instrumental variable estimation on state-level data from 1978 to 2010, this article simultaneously considers the effects of imprisonment on homicide and infant mortality to examine two of the countervailing mortality consequences of mass incarceration...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Health and Social Behavior
Markus H Schafer
The onset of disability is believed to undermine social connectedness and raise the risk of social isolation, yet spatial environments are seldom considered in this process. This study examines whether unruly home and neighborhood conditions intensify the association between disability onset and several dimensions of social connectedness. I incorporate longitudinal data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project, which contains environmental evaluations conducted by trained observers ( N = 1,558)...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Health and Social Behavior
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December 2017: Journal of Health and Social Behavior
David M Frost, Allen J LeBlanc, Brian de Vries, Eli Alston-Stepnitz, Rob Stephenson, Cory Woodyatt
Social stress resulting from stigma, prejudice, and discrimination-"minority stress"-negatively impacts sexual minority individuals' health and relational well-being. The present study examined how being in a same-sex couple can result in exposure to unique minority stressors not accounted for at the individual level. Relationship timeline interviews were conducted with 120 same-sex couples equally distributed across two study sites (Atlanta and San Francisco), gender (male and female), and relationship duration (at least six months but less than three years, at least three years but less than seven years, and seven or more years)...
December 2017: Journal of Health and Social Behavior
Amy M Burdette, Belinda L Needham, Miles G Taylor, Terrence D Hill
Do health behaviors cluster together as health lifestyles in adolescence? Are these lifestyles socially patterned? Do these lifestyles impact physical health into adulthood? To answer these questions, we employed data from Waves 1 and 4 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health ( n = 7,827). Our latent class analysis revealed four health lifestyles: (a) low risk, (b) moderate risk with substance use, (c) moderate risk with inactivity, and (d) high risk. As suggested by health lifestyle theory, membership in these classes varied according to gender, race-ethnicity, and family structure...
December 2017: Journal of Health and Social Behavior
Mieke Beth Thomeer, Rachel Donnelly, Corinne Reczek, Debra Umberson
Two key components of end-of-life planning are (1) informal discussions about future care and other end-of-life preferences and (2) formal planning via living wills and other legal documents. We leverage previous work on the institutional aspects of marriage and on sexual-minority discrimination to theorize why and how heterosexual, gay, and lesbian married couples engage in informal and formal end-of-life planning. We analyze qualitative dyadic in-depth interviews with 45 midlife gay, lesbian, and heterosexual married couples ( N = 90 spouses)...
December 2017: Journal of Health and Social Behavior
Krystale E Littlejohn, Katrina Kimport
Most women of reproductive age have access to highly effective contraception, and all available methods are associated with side effects. Whether a woman will experience side effects is uncertain, however, which can pose challenges for clinicians who discuss the methods with patients. In this study, we analyze 102 contraceptive counseling visits to understand how clinicians discursively construct knowledge in the context of uncertainty. We find that while some present the uncertainty of side effects in a straightforward, patient-accessible way, others negotiate their predictions by (1) differentially constructing uncertainty, suggesting that positive side effects are likely and negative side effects are unlikely, and (2) contesting uncertainty, presenting the risk of serious side effects as controllable...
December 2017: Journal of Health and Social Behavior
Debra Umberson
Close relationships are a resource for mental and physical health that, like other social resources, is unequally distributed in the population. This article focuses on racial disparities in the loss of relationships across the life course. Racial disparities in life expectancy in the United States mean that black Americans experience the deaths of more friends and family members than do white Americans from childhood through later life. I argue that these losses are a unique type of stress and adversity that, through interconnected biopsychosocial pathways, contribute to disadvantage in health over the life course...
December 2017: Journal of Health and Social Behavior
Daniel A Menchik
This paper uses the case of the uneven use of a robotic technology to explain how physicians with similar training come to engage in different medical practices. I develop a conceptual framework in which their decisions to use advanced technologies are informed by "interdependent career types," a concept that incorporates features of the professional social context of physicians' work and the expertise they use, and reflects how medicine distributes expertise via formal and informal referral structures. I draw on data regarding specialized physicians' differentiated use of this technology over five years as well as interviews with those who continue to use the technology and those who have abandoned it...
December 2017: Journal of Health and Social Behavior
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