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Advances in Psychosomatic Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25832520/joint-hypermobility-anxiety-and-psychosomatics-two-and-a-half-decades-of-progress-toward-a-new-phenotype
#1
REVIEW
Antoni Bulbena, Guillem Pailhez, Andrea Bulbena-Cabré, Nuria Mallorquí-Bagué, Carolina Baeza-Velasco
The strong association between a heritable collagen condition and anxiety was an unexpected finding that we first described in 1988 at the Hospital del Mar in Barcelona. Since then, several clinical and nonclinical studies have been carried out. In this paper, after summarizing the concept and diagnosis of joint hypermobility (hyperlaxity), we review case-control studies in both directions (anxiety in joint hypermobility and joint hypermobility in anxiety disorders) as well as studies on nonclinical samples, review papers and one incidence study...
2015: Advances in Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25832519/huntington-s-disease-looking-beyond-the-movement-disorder
#2
REVIEW
Mary K Morreale
Although Huntington's disease is classically considered a motor disease, psychiatric, behavioral, and cognitive symptoms are often presenting signs of illness. Even in isolation, these comorbidities can lead to impairment in function and significant distress for patients and their families. Intended for treating psychiatrists, this review discusses the clinical presentation and treatment of Huntington's disease.
2015: Advances in Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25832518/psychodermatology
#3
REVIEW
Gabrielle E Brown, Mona Malakouti, Eric Sorenson, Rishu Gupta, John Y M Koo
Psychodermatology is an underappreciated field that studies psychocutaneous disorders, which are conditions that have both dermatologic and psychiatric characteristics. Underlying psychiatric comorbidity is estimated to occur in up to one-third of dermatologic patients, and psychiatric illness may either be the cause or the consequence of dermatologic disease. Psychodermatologic patients lack insight and often do not recognize a psychiatric etiology for their symptoms and therefore comprise some of the most challenging cases to treat...
2015: Advances in Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25832517/coping-with-losses-grief-and-mourning-in-prostate-cancer
#4
REVIEW
Daniela Wittmann
Prostate cancer is a highly prevalent disease with a high likelihood of survival. If treated, survivors live with significant and lasting treatment-related side effects. Surgical treatment is associated with urinary incontinence and erectile dysfunction, and radiation leads to urinary and bowel irritability as well as erectile dysfunction. Patients who undergo hormonal treatment cope with sexual dysfunction, bone density loss, hot flashes, mood symptoms, and cardiac and metabolic disorders. Functional losses have a significant impact on patients and their partners' quality of life and are associated with distress and psychosocial morbidity...
2015: Advances in Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25832516/telomeres-early-life-stress-and-mental-illness
#5
REVIEW
Samuel J Ridout, Kathryn K Ridout, Hung-Teh Kao, Linda L Carpenter, Noah S Philip, Audrey R Tyrka, Lawrence H Price
Telomeres are structures of tandem TTAGGG repeats that are found at the ends of chromosomes and preserve genomic DNA by serving as a disposable buffer to protect DNA termini during chromosome replication. In this process, the telomere itself shortens with each cell division and can consequently be thought of as a cellular 'clock', reflecting the age of a cell and the time until senescence. Telomere shortening and changes in the levels of telomerase, the enzyme that maintains telomeres, occur in the context of certain somatic diseases and in response to selected physical stressors...
2015: Advances in Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25832515/fibromyalgia-and-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-management-issues
#6
REVIEW
Julius Bourke
Fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome represent two of the most commonly encountered functional somatic syndromes in clinical practice. Both have been contentious diagnoses in the past, and this diagnostic dispute has resulted in a therapeutic nihilism that has been of great detriment to their management and to alleviation of the intense suffering and disability that they have caused their innumerable sufferers. A new age has dawned in terms of a better understanding of these syndromes' physiology and improved approaches to their management...
2015: Advances in Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25832514/fibromyalgia-and-chronic-fatigue-the-underlying-biology-and-related-theoretical-issues
#7
REVIEW
Graziella F Romano, Simona Tomassi, Alice Russell, Valeria Mondelli, Carmine M Pariante
There is an increasing interest in understanding the biological mechanism underpinning fibromyalgia (FM) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Despite the presence of mixed findings in this area, a few biological systems have been consistently involved, and the increasing number of studies in the field is encouraging. This chapter will focus on inflammatory and oxidative stress pathways and on the neuroendocrine system, which have been more commonly examined. Chronic inflammation, together with raised levels of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, has been increasingly associated with the manifestation of symptoms such as pain, fatigue, impaired memory, and depression, which largely characterise at least some patients suffering from CFS and FM...
2015: Advances in Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25832513/then-and-now-%C3%A2-hiv-consultation-psychiatry-update
#8
REVIEW
Harold W Goforth, Matthew Bader, Francisco Fernandez
Over the last 2 decades, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) illness has transformed to a chronic disease model. However, challenges, including the effects of co-morbid illnesses and the challenge of preventing future spread of the disease, continue to confront those infected with HIV. Addictions remain an important problem and a serious contributor to overall morbidity and mortality in this population. This book chapter seeks to illustrate the new developments in the treatment of these addictions as well as provide an overview of the medical updates regarding HIV and hepatitis C virus exposure prophylaxis and how they relate to the consultant psychiatrist...
2015: Advances in Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25832512/forensic-issues-in-medical-evaluation-competency-and-end-of-life-issues
#9
REVIEW
Sherif Soliman, Ryan C W Hall
Decision-making capacity is a common reason for psychiatric consultation that is likely to become more common as the population ages. Capacity assessments are frequently compromised by misconceptions, such as the belief that incapacity is permanent or that patients with dementia categorically lack capacity. This chapter will review the conceptual framework of decision-making capacity and discuss its application to medical decision-making. We will review selected developments in capacity assessment and recommend an approach to assessing decision-making capacity...
2015: Advances in Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25832511/dimensional-psychopharmacology-in-somatising-patients
#10
REVIEW
Massimo Biondi, Massimo Pasquini
Despite the recent DSM-5 review of somatoform disorders, which are now called somatic symptom and related disorders, the categorical definitions of these syndromes have inherent limitations because their causal mechanism or presumed aetiologies are still unknown. These limitations may affect everyday clinical practice and decision-making abilities. As a result, physicians have limited information at their disposal to treat these patients. Furthermore, the clinical presentations of somatic disorders may vary a lot...
2015: Advances in Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25832510/communication-with-patients-suffering-from-serious-physical-illness
#11
REVIEW
Luigi Grassi, Rosangela Caruso, Anna Costantini
Communication is the corner stone of the relationship with the patient in all medical settings with the main aims of creating a good inter-personal relationship, exchanging information, and making treatment-related decisions. In a rapidly changing cultural and social context, the paternalistic approach of doctors knowing the best and deciding what should be done for a patient has been replaced by a shared decision-making approach, with patients being advised to educate themselves, ask questions and influence the course of the discussion with their doctors...
2015: Advances in Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25832509/psychosomatic-medicine-in-the-21st-century-understanding-mechanisms-and-barriers-to-utilization
#12
Thomas N Wise, Richard Balon
The psychosomatic approach arose in antiquity as mankind looked for explanations for illness and death. With the rise of modern medicine, the links between emotions and medical conditions, such as cardiac disease and diabetes, were described by astute clinical observers, but the mechanisms for these conditions were based on correlation from observations rather than on experimental design. Psychoanalytic theory was often utilized to explain many common diseases. For example, peptic ulcer disease was blamed upon anger and stress, but scientific methodology discovered Helicobacter pylori to be the significant causal factor of this disease and resulted in the development of more effective treatments...
2015: Advances in Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23816869/epilogue
#13
Renato D Alarcón
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2013: Advances in Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23816868/bioethical-dimensions-of-cultural-psychosomatics-the-need-for-an-ethical-research-approach
#14
Fernando Lolas
Contemporary psychosomatics is a research-based technical discipline and its social power depends on how scientific knowledge is obtained and applied in practice, considering cultural contexts. This article presents the view that the dialogical principles on which bioethical discourse is based are more inclusive than professional ethics and philosophical reflection. The distinction is advanced between rule-guided behavior and norm-justifiable acts (substantiation and justification). The practical implications of good practices in the generation of valid, reliable, generalizable and applicable knowledge are emphasized...
2013: Advances in Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23816867/cultural-psychiatry-research-strategies-and-future-directions
#15
REVIEW
Laurence J Kirmayer, Lauren Ban
This chapter reviews some key aspects of current research in cultural psychiatry and explores future prospects. The first section discusses the multiple meanings of culture in the contemporary world and their relevance for understanding mental health and illness. The next section considers methodological strategies for unpacking the concept of culture and studying the impact of cultural variables, processes and contexts. Multiple methods are needed to address the many different components or dimensions of cultural identity and experience that constitute local worlds, ways of life or systems of knowledge...
2013: Advances in Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23816866/ethnopsychopharmacology-and-pharmacogenomics
#16
REVIEW
Hernán Silva
Significant differences in response to psychotropic drugs are observed in various ethnic and cultural groups. Ethnopsychiatry is the study of how culture and genetic differences in human groups determine and influence the response to psychotropic agents. Meanwhile, pharmacogenomics studies the influence of genetic variations in the response of patients to different drugs. Pharmacogenetic tests are used to predict drug response and the potential for adverse effects. There are important genetic variations that influence the metabolism and action of psychotropic drugs in different ethnic groups...
2013: Advances in Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23816865/culture-and-demoralization-in-psychotherapy
#17
REVIEW
John M de Figueiredo, Sara Gostoli
In most societies, members of a culture have attempted to help each other in times of trouble with various types of healing methods. Demoralization - an individual experience related to a group phenomenon - responds to certain elements shared by all psychotherapies. This article has three objectives: (1) to review the theoretical background leading to our current views on culture and demoralization in psychotherapy, (2) to discuss the methodological challenges faced in the cross-cultural study of demoralization and psychotherapy, and (3) to describe the clinical applications and research prospects of this area of inquiry...
2013: Advances in Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23816864/transcultural-aspects-of-somatic-symptoms-in-the-context-of-depressive-disorders
#18
REVIEW
Issa P Bagayogo, Alejandro Interian, Javier I Escobar
Somatic symptoms are a common presentation of mental disorders or psychological distress worldwide, and may often coexist with depressive and anxiety symptoms, thus accounting for what might be the most frequent psychiatric syndrome in primary care. Indeed, physical symptoms accompanying the clinical presentations of a variety of mental disorders may be considered as universal 'idioms of distress' that may vary across cultures, depending on attitudes and explanations embedded in each one of them. These variations in symptom presentations are the result of various interacting factors that ultimately determine how individuals identify and classify bodily sensations, perceive illness, and seek medical attention...
2013: Advances in Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23816863/cultural-psychiatry-in-the-french-speaking-world
#19
Joseph Westermeyer
For the last five centuries, France's international influence has been constant. This has been particularly evident in the areas of general culture, history and science. In psychiatry, the role of Pinel during the French Revolution, and the discovery of the first psychotropic agent, chlorpromazine, by Delay and Deniker are two outstanding historical facts. This chapter examines the contributions of French social scientists in the understanding of the sequelae of colonial exploitation, racism and political oppression...
2013: Advances in Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23816862/opening-up-mental-health-service-delivery-to-cultural-diversity-current-situation-development-and-examples-from-three-northern-european-countries
#20
Sofie Bäärnhielm, Cecilie Jávo, Mike-Oliver Mösko
There are inequalities in health among migrants and local populations in Europe. Due to migration, Germany, Norway and Sweden have become ethnic culturally diverse nations. There are barriers to mental health care access for refugees, migrants and minorities, and problems with quality of culturally sensitive care in the three countries. This is despite tax-funded health care systems based on equity in service provision. There is a need to develop culturally sensitive mental health services that respond to the increasing diversity of the populations...
2013: Advances in Psychosomatic Medicine
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