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Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773221/are-there-distinct-forms-of-accelerated-forgetting-and-if-so-why
#1
Andrew R Mayes, Nicola M Hunkin, Claire Isaac, Nils Muhlert
Whether accelerated long-term forgetting (ALF) and classic organic amnesia, particularly hippocampal-amnesia, differ qualitatively or merely quantitatively is disputed. Qualitative difference accounts postulate that ALF patients show normal recall memory for at least minutes, during which hippocampal-amnesics already show accelerated forgetting and impaired recall but, thereafter, ALF patients show accelerated forgetting and impaired delayed recall. These delayed impairments may be more severe than those shown by hippocampal-amnesics...
April 19, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758374/age-and-alzheimer-s-pathology-disrupt-default-mode-network-functioning-via-alterations-in-white-matter-microstructure-but-not-hyperintensities
#2
Christopher A Brown, Yang Jiang, Charles D Smith, Brian T Gold
The default mode network (DMN) comprises defined brain regions contributing to internally-directed thought processes. Reductions in task-induced deactivation in the DMN have been associated with increasing age and poorer executive task performance, but factors underlying these functional changes remain unclear. We investigated contributions of white matter (WM) microstructure, WM hyperintensities (WMH) and Alzheimer's pathology to age-related alterations in DMN function. Thirty-five cognitively normal older adults and 29 younger adults underwent working memory task fMRI and diffusion tensor imaging...
April 19, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758375/alterations-in-the-microstructure-of-white-matter-in-children-and-adolescents-with-tourette-syndrome-measured-using-tract-based-spatial-statistics-and-probabilistic-tractography
#3
Hilmar P Sigurdsson, Sophia E Pépés, Georgina M Jackson, Amelia Draper, Paul S Morgan, Stephen R Jackson
Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by repetitive and intermittent motor and vocal tics. TS is thought to reflect fronto-striatal dysfunction and the aetiology of the disorder has been linked to widespread alterations in the functional and structural integrity of the brain. The aim of this study was to assess white matter (WM) abnormalities in a large sample of young patients with TS in comparison to a sample of matched typically developing control individuals (CS) using diffusion MRI...
April 12, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739623/accelerated-long-term-forgetting-after-tia-or-minor-stroke-a-more-sensitive-measure-for-detecting-subtle-memory-dysfunction
#4
Sofie Geurts, Sieberen P van der Werf, Vincent I H Kwa, Roy P C Kessels
Cognitive changes after minor stroke or TIA have been reported, with studies describing a 'vascular' cognitive profile with spared episodic memory. Still, many patients also report memory complaints. Studies using long-term forgetting paradigms have detected memory impairment after prolonged intervals in contrast to standard delayed testing in other patient groups. This study examined whether accelerated long-term forgetting (ALF) is present in patients with minor stroke or TIA by comparing one-week delayed recall and recognition with the performance of a healthy control group...
April 12, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734006/disentangling-the-visual-motor-and-representational-effects-of-vestibular-input
#5
Naotoshi Abekawa, Elisa R Ferrè, Maria Gallagher, Hiroaki Gomi, Patrick Haggard
The body midline provides a basic reference for egocentric representation of external space. Clinical observations have suggested that vestibular information underpins egocentric representations. Here we aimed to clarify whether and how vestibular inputs contribute to egocentric representation in healthy volunteers. In a psychophysical task, participants were asked to judge whether visual stimuli were located to the left or to the right of their body midline. Artificial vestibular stimulation was applied to stimulate the vestibular organs...
April 12, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731103/anosognosia
#6
Daniel C Mograbi, Robin G Morris
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 12, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705718/neural-networks-supporting-audiovisual-integration-for-speech-a-large-scale-lesion-study
#7
Gregory Hickok, Corianne Rogalsky, William Matchin, Alexandra Basilakos, Julia Cai, Sara Pillay, Michelle Ferrill, Soren Mickelsen, Steven W Anderson, Tracy Love, Jeffrey Binder, Julius Fridriksson
Auditory and visual speech information are often strongly integrated resulting in perceptual enhancements for audiovisual (AV) speech over audio alone and sometimes yielding compelling illusory fusion percepts when AV cues are mismatched, the McGurk-MacDonald effect. Previous research has identified three candidate regions thought to be critical for AV speech integration: the posterior superior temporal sulcus (STS), early auditory cortex, and the posterior inferior frontal gyrus. We assess the causal involvement of these regions (and others) in the first large-scale (N = 100) lesion-based study of AV speech integration...
April 10, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715582/does-dynamic-information-about-the-speaker-s-face-contribute-to-semantic-speech-processing-erp-evidence
#8
David Hernández-Gutiérrez, Rasha Abdel Rahman, Manuel Martín-Loeches, Francisco Muñoz, Annekathrin Schacht, Werner Sommer
Face-to-face interactions characterize communication in social contexts. These situations are typically multimodal, requiring the integration of linguistic auditory input with facial information from the speaker. In particular, eye gaze and visual speech provide the listener with social and linguistic information, respectively. Despite the importance of this context for an ecological study of language, research on audiovisual integration has mainly focused on the phonological level, leaving aside effects on semantic comprehension...
April 9, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715581/equal-kinematics-and-visual-context-but-different-purposes-observer-s-moral-rules-modulate-motor-resonance
#9
Laila Craighero, Sonia Mele
Motor resonance is considered to be an index of the automatic under threshold motor replica of the observed action. Similar actions may be quite different in terms of long-term goals (e.g., grasp to eat vs grasp to throw) and, recently, it has been proposed that the distal goal subtly modulates movements execution, and that observers automatically use these differences in kinematics to discriminate between different intentions. This interpretation is in line with computational approaches proposing that in the agent the generative process causes that intention shapes the kinematics, and in the observer the recognition process causes that the kinematics cues the intention...
April 9, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709238/alleged-sonic-attack-supported-by-poor-neuropsychology
#10
Sergio Della Sala, Roberto Cubelli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 5, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715583/does-inhibition-cause-forgetting-after-selective-retrieval-a-reanalysis-and-failure-to-replicate
#11
Kevin W Potter, Lucas D Huszar, David E Huber
Retrieval practice can produce forgetting, but it remains unclear using only behavioral data whether this forgetting is caused by targeted inhibition versus interference. Therefore, Wimber et al. (2015) used pattern classifier analyses of fMRI data to track individual memories in a novel variant of retrieval induced forgetting. After initial learning, people recalled target images across selective retrieval practice trials, and cortical activity patterns gradually became more similar to those evoked by the target pictures (i...
April 4, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703446/adding-methylphenidate-to-prism-adaptation-improves-outcome-in-neglect-patients-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#12
Jacques Luauté, Laurent Villeneuve, Adeline Roux, Stuart Nash, Jean-Yves Bar, Eric Chabanat, François Cotton, Sophie Ciancia, Pierre-Olivier Sancho, Patrick Hovantruc, François Quelard, Thierry Sarraf, Yann Cojan, Fadila Hadj-Bouziane, Alessandro Farné, Audrey Janoly-Dumenil, Dominique Boisson, Sophie Jacquin-Courtois, Gilles Rode, Yves Rossetti
Spatial neglect is one of the main predictors of poor functional recovery after stroke. Many therapeutic interventions have been developed to alleviate this condition, but to date the evidence of their effectiveness is still scarce. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to test whether combining prism adaptation (PA) and methylphenidate (MP) could enhance the recovery of neglect patients at a functional level. METHODS: RITAPRISM is a multicentre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study comparing PA plus placebo (control) versus PA plus MP...
April 4, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684751/shedding-new-light-on-disorders-of-consciousness-diagnosis-the-dynamic-functional-connectivity
#13
Antonino Naro, Alessia Bramanti, Antonino Leo, Alberto Cacciola, Alfredo Manuli, Placido Bramanti, Rocco S Calabrò
It has been proposed that awareness may depend on the highly-dynamic functional connectivity of large-scale cortico-thalamo-cortical networks. We investigated how brain connectivity changes over time in the resting state in a group of patients with chronic disorders of consciousness (DoC). To this end, we assessed dynamic functional connectivity (DFC) in the resting state by analyzing the time-dependent EEG phase synchronization in five frequency bands (δ, θ, α, β, and γ). Patients in Minimally Conscious State (MCS) showed changes in DFC matrices and topography over time (mainly in the γ range), which were significantly different from those observed in patients with Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome (UWS)...
April 4, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753915/the-eyes-reveal-uncertainty-about-object-distinctions-in-semantic-variant-primary-progressive-aphasia
#14
Andreia V Faria, David Race, Kevin Kim, Argye E Hillis
At least three distinct variants of primary progressive aphasia (PPA) have been described, but they are difficult to distinguish early in the course, when individuals experience primarily anomia. People with svPPA are often the hardest to care for, because they have impaired comprehension of words and objects and often have negative changes in comportment. We sought to identify an early marker of semantic variant primary progressive aphasia (svPPA) and to enhance the understanding of the semantic deficit in svPPA...
April 3, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703447/cognitive-and-functional-correlates-of-accelerated-long-term-forgetting-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#15
Samantha Audrain, Mary P McAndrews
While we know that hippocampal dysfunction is responsible for the memory deficits that patients with temporal lobe epilepsy exhibit at relatively short study-test delays, the role of this region in accelerated long-term forgetting (ALF) is not yet clear. In the present study, we probed the role of the hippocampus in ALF by directly comparing memory for associations to memory that could be supported by item recognition during a forced choice recognition task over delays ranging from 15-min to 72-h. We additionally examined resting-state functional connectivity between the hippocampus and cortical regions known to be involved in processing these types of stimuli, as well as the relationship between ALF and various clinical variables including structural abnormality in the hippocampus, lateralization of epileptic focus, presence of seizures across the retention period, and standardized composite memory scores...
March 30, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685768/accelerated-long-term-forgetting-and-behavioural-difficulties-in-children-with-epilepsy
#16
Michael B Gascoigne, Mary Lou Smith, Belinda Barton, Richard Webster, Deepak Gill, Suncica Lah
Patients with epilepsy have been shown to exhibit a range of memory deficits, including the rapid forgetting of newly-learned material over long, but not short, delays (termed accelerated long-term forgetting; ALF). Behavioural problems, such as mood disorders and social difficulties, are also overrepresented among children with epilepsy, when compared to patients with other chronic diseases and the general population. We investigated whether ALF was associated with behavioural or psychosocial deficits in children with epilepsy...
March 30, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684752/dynamic-semantic-cognition-characterising-coherent-and-controlled-conceptual-retrieval-through-time-using-magnetoencephalography-and-chronometric-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation
#17
Catarina Teige, Giovanna Mollo, Rebecca Millman, Nicola Savill, Jonathan Smallwood, Piers L Cornelissen, Elizabeth Jefferies
Distinct neural processes are thought to support the retrieval of semantic information that is (i) coherent with strongly-encoded aspects of knowledge, and (ii) non-dominant yet relevant for the current task or context. While the brain regions that support readily coherent and more controlled patterns of semantic retrieval are relatively well-characterised, the temporal dynamics of these processes are not well-understood. This study used magnetoencephalography (MEG) and dual-pulse chronometric transcranial magnetic stimulation (cTMS) in two separate experiments to examine temporal dynamics during the retrieval of strong and weak associations...
March 30, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684750/knowledge-about-writing-influences-reading-dynamic-visual-information-about-letter-production-facilitates-letter-identification
#18
Teresa Schubert, Caroline Reilhac, Michael McCloskey
How are reading and writing related? In this study, we address the relationship between letter identification and letter production, uncovering a link in which production information can be used to identify letters presented dynamically. By testing an individual with a deficit in letter identification, we identified a benefit which would be masked by ceiling effects in unimpaired readers. In Experiment 1 we found that letter stimuli defined by the direction of dot motion (tiny dots within letter move leftward, background dots move rightward) provided no advantage over static letters...
March 30, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704671/apathy-in-alzheimer-s-disease-and-frontotemporal-dementia-distinct-clinical-profiles-and-neural-correlates
#19
Fiona Kumfor, Alice Zhen, John R Hodges, Olivier Piguet, Muireann Irish
OBJECTIVE: Apathy is the most prevalent and disabling non-cognitive symptom of dementia and affects 90% of patients across the disease course. Despite its pervasiveness, how apathy manifests across dementia syndromes and the neurobiological mechanisms driving these symptoms are poorly understood. Here, we applied the multidimensional ABC model of apathy, which recognizes Affective, Behavioural and Cognitive apathy, in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and behavioural-variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD)...
March 29, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775838/deconstructing-skill-learning-and-its-physiological-mechanisms
#20
Danny Spampinato, Pablo Celnik
Acquiring complex motor skills involves learning a number of distinct motor components. Two fundamental elements that constitute a skill are the internal representation (i.e., the calibration of a sensorimotor map) and the sequence of movements needed to execute the task. Learning each of these likely rely on different neural substrates such as the cerebellum and primary motor cortex (M1), and physiological mechanisms. However, the specific neurophysiological processes underlying the acquisition of these components remains poorly understood...
March 27, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
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