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Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30415091/dysexecutive-disorders-and-their-diagnosis-a-position-paper
#1
REVIEW
Olivier Godefroy, Olivier Martinaud, Pauline Narme, Pierre-Alain Joseph, Chrystèle Mosca, Eugénie Lhommée, Thierry Meulemans, Virginie Czernecki, Céline Bertola, Pierre Labauge, Marc Verny, Anne Bellmann, Philippe Azouvi, Claire Bindschaedler, Eric Bretault, Claire Boutoleau-Bretonniere, Philippe Robert, Hermine Lenoir, Marianne Krier, Martine Roussel
Although executive function disorders are among the most prevalent cognitive impairments a consensus on diagnostic criteria has yet to be reached. With a view to harmonizing these criteria, the present position paper (i) focuses on the main dysexecutive disorders, (ii) examines recent approaches in both the behavioral and cognitive domains, (iii) defines diagnostic boundaries for frontal syndrome, (iv) reports on the frequency and profile of the executive function disorders observed in the main brain diseases, and (v) proposes an operationalization of diagnostic criteria...
October 17, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30419352/a-touching-sight-eeg-erp-correlates-for-the-vicarious-processing-of-affectionate-touch
#2
Annett Schirmer, Francis McGlone
Observers can simulate aspects of other people's tactile experiences. We asked whether they do so when faced with full-body social interactions, whether emerging representations go beyond basic sensorimotor mirroring, and whether they depend on processing goals and inclinations. In an EEG/ERP study, we presented line-drawn, dyadic interactions with and without affectionate touch. In an explicit and an implicit task, participants categorized images into touch versus no-touch and same versus opposite sex interactions, respectively...
October 16, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30391878/distinct-topological-properties-of-cue-evoked-attention-processing-network-in-persisters-and-remitters-of-childhood-adhd
#3
Yuyang Luo, Kurt P Schulz, Tara L Alvarez, Jeffrey M Halperin, Xiaobo Li
Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly prevalent and impairing neurodevelopmental disorder that persists into adulthood in a sizeable portion of afflicted children. The persistence of ADHD elevates the risk for adverse outcomes that result in substantial individual and societal burden. The objective of this study is to assess neurobiological substrates associated with variability of clinical outcomes in childhood ADHD, which has considerable value for the development of novel interventions that target mechanisms associated with recovery...
October 13, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30360897/cognitive-symptoms-in-us-government-personnel-in-cuba-the-mending-is-worse-than-the-hole
#4
Sergio Della Sala, Robert D McIntosh, Roberto Cubelli, Jason A Kacmarski, Holly M Miskey, Robert D Shura
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 13, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30399479/left-shifting-prism-adaptation-boosts-reward-based-learning
#5
Selene Schintu, Michael Freedberg, Zaynah M Alam, Sarah Shomstein, Eric M Wassermann
Visuospatial cognition has an inherent lateralized bias. Individual differences in the direction and magnitude of this bias are associated with asymmetrical D2/3 dopamine binding and dopamine system genotypes. Dopamine level affects feedback-based learning and dopamine signaling asymmetry is related to differential learning from reward and punishment. High D2 binding in the left hemisphere is associated with preference for reward. Prism adaptation (PA) is a simple sensorimotor technique, which modulates visuospatial bias according to the direction of the deviation...
October 12, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30420100/large-scale-temporo-parieto-frontal-networks-for-motor-and-cognitive-motor-functions-in-the-primate-brain
#6
REVIEW
Elena Borra, Giuseppe Luppino
The extent to which neural circuits and mechanisms underlying sensory, motor, and cognitive cortical functions in the human brain are shared with those of other animals, especially non-human primates, is currently a key issue in the field of comparative neuroscience. Cortical functions result from the conjoint function of different, reciprocally connected areas working together as large-scale functionally specialized networks, which can be investigated in human subjects thanks to the development of non-invasive functional and connectional imaging techniques...
October 11, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30414628/impairments-of-auditory-verbal-short-term-memory-do-selective-deficits-of-the-input-phonological-buffer-exist
#7
REVIEW
Tim Shallice, Costanza Papagno
The existence of the functional syndrome of auditory-verbal short-term storage impairment was used as strong supporting evidence for the presence of a phonological buffer in the first version of the Baddeley-Hitch working memory model. In later versions the syndrome corresponded to the selective impairment of the phonological input buffer. The present paper considers whether the correspondence between the functional syndrome, represented by 20 published cases, and a Baddeley-Hitch model component is still of value to memory theory...
October 11, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30408642/primary-motor-cortex-crucial-for-action-prediction-a-tdcs-study
#8
Riccardo Paracampo, Mirella Montemurro, Manuel de Vega, Alessio Avenanti
The neural network underlying action observation - i.e., the action observation network - forms an anticipatory representation of observed actions. Although correlational studies suggest that the motor cortex (M1) might be involved in this anticipatory coding, it is unclear whether M1 is also causally essential for making accurate predictions about observed actions. To test the functional relevance of M1 to action prediction, we used offline monopolar transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). In four tDCS groups of healthy participants, we administered 15 min of anodal or cathodal constant currents of 1 or 2 mA over the left M1 before participants performed two tasks requiring them to make predictions about the outcomes of reaching-grasping human actions (Action Prediction - AP) or non-human movements (Non-human Prediction - NP)...
October 11, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30399478/stereotypic-behaviours-in-frontotemporal-dementia-and-progressive-supranuclear-palsy
#9
Sara Prioni, Veronica Redaelli, Paola Soliveri, Vincenza Fetoni, Federica Barocco, Paolo Caffarra, Augusto Scaglioni, Irene Tramacere, Floriano Girotti
INTRODUCTION: The behavioural variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), and the Richardson variant of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP-RS) share several clinical signs and symptoms. Since stereotypic behaviours are fairly common in bvFTD, and are also described in other degenerative dementias including Alzheimer's disease, and parkinsonisms with dementia, we aimed to examine the extent to which stereotypies also characterise PSP-RS. METHODS: We compared 53 bvFTD patients with 40 demented PSP-RS patients, seen consecutively as outpatients at four Italian Hospitals...
October 11, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30391879/vision-of-the-upper-limb-fails-to-compensate-for-kinesthetic-impairments-in-subacute-stroke
#10
Jennifer A Semrau, Troy M Herter, Stephen H Scott, Sean P Dukelow
Kinesthesia is an essential component of proprioception allowing for perception of movement. Due to neural injury, such as stroke, kinesthesia can be significantly impaired. Throughout neurorehabilitation, clinicians may encourage use of vision to guide limb movement to retrain impaired kinesthesia. However, little evidence exists that vision improves kinesthetic performance after stroke. We examined behavioral and neuroanatomical characteristics of kinesthesia post-stroke to determine if these impairments improve with vision...
October 11, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30391877/bi-cephalic-parietal-and-cerebellar-direct-current-stimulation-interferes-with-early-error-correction-in-prism-adaptation-toward-a-complex-view-of-the-neural-mechanisms-underlying-visuomotor-control
#11
Francesco Panico, Laura Sagliano, Dario Grossi, Luigi Trojano
Prism Adaptation (PA) represents a valid tool to assess short-term visuomotor plasticity. Two adaptive processes are involved during PA: recalibration, contributing to early error compensation, and spatial realignment, contributing to after-effect development. Classical models on PA posit that adaptive mechanisms underlying PA rely on segregated regions in the brain. Indeed, they ascribe recalibration to the activity of the Posterior Parietal Cortex (PPC) and spatial realignment to the activity of the Cerebellum...
October 11, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30340749/responsibility-of-neuropsychologists-the-case-of-the-sonic-attack
#12
EDITORIAL
Cortex Editorial Board
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 9, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30391880/value-driven-attentional-capture-in-neglect
#13
Alexia Bourgeois, Arnaud Saj, Patrik Vuilleumier
OBJECTIVE: Recent studies suggest that motivational cues such as rewards may be a powerful determinant of attentional selection, both in healthy subjects and in brain-damaged patients suffering from neglect. However, the exact brain mechanisms underlying these effects and their relation to other well-known attentional systems are still poorly known. METHODS: We designed a visual search paradigm to examine how value-based attentional priority could modulate spatial orienting in patients with pathological biases due to neglect after right hemispheric stroke...
October 5, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30388442/intact-automatic-motor-inhibition-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#14
Marius Keute, Kerstin Krauel, Hans-Jochen Heinze, Max-Philipp Stenner
Hyperactivity and impulsivity are defining symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), next to inattention. Hyperactive and impulsive behavior in ADHD is often thought to result from a deficit in inhibitory motor control. However, testing for such a deficit is complicated by coexisting deficits in ADHD, specifically an impairment in maintaining task set, e.g., due to inattention. Typical inhibition paradigms, such as Stop-signal, Go/NoGo or Flanker paradigms, are susceptible to a fundamental confound between inhibition and inattention because inhibition is an explicit goal in these tasks...
October 5, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30392969/oculomotor-capture-reveals-trial-by-trial-neural-correlates-of-attentional-guidance-by-contents-of-visual-working-memory
#15
Valerie M Beck, Timothy J Vickery
Evidence from attentional and oculomotor capture, contingent capture, and other paradigms suggests that mechanisms supporting human visual working memory (VWM) and visual attention are intertwined. Features held in VWM bias guidance toward matching items even when those features are task irrelevant. However, the neural basis of this interaction is underspecified. Prior examinations using fMRI have primarily relied on coarse comparisons across experimental conditions that produce varying amounts of capture. To examine the neural dynamics of attentional capture on a trial-by-trial basis, we applied an oculomotor paradigm that produced discrete measures of capture...
October 4, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30388439/the-effect-of-spermidine-on-memory-performance-in-older-adults-at-risk-for-dementia-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
Miranka Wirth, Gloria Benson, Claudia Schwarz, Theresa Köbe, Ulrike Grittner, Dietmar Schmitz, Stephan J Sigrist, Jens Bohlken, Slaven Stekovic, Frank Madeo, Agnes Flöel
INTRODUCTION: Nutritional intervention with the natural polyamine spermidine, an autophagy-enhancing agent, can prevent memory loss in aging model organisms. This is the first human study to evaluate the impact of spermidine supplementation on memory performance in older adults at risk for the development of Alzheimer's disease. METHODS: Cognitively intact participants with subjective cognitive decline (n = 30, 60-80 years of age) were included in this three-months, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind Phase IIa pilot trial with a spermidine-rich plant extract supplement...
October 4, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30388438/classical-paintings-may-trigger-pain-and-pleasure-in-the-gendered-brain
#17
Beatrice de Gelder, Rebecca Watson, Minye Zhan, Matteo Diano, Marco Tamietto, Maarten J Vaessen
The human body is the most common object of pictorial representation in western art and its representations trigger a vast range of experiences from pain to pleasure. The goal of this study was to investigate brain activity triggered by paintings of male and female body images exemplifying conditions associated with pleasure or pain. Our findings show participant-general as well as gender specific brain activity for either the pain or the pleasure conditions. Although our participants were fully aware that they were viewing artworks, the inferior parietal lobule - known for its role in the perception of emotional body images - and the somatosensory cortex related to touch were selectively active for female body paintings in all participants in the pleasure conditions...
September 28, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30388441/rest-on-it-awake-quiescence-facilitates-insight
#18
Michael Craig, Georgina Ottaway, Michaela Dewar
Many scientific discoveries have been explained by a sudden gaining of insight with regards to an ongoing problem. Insight is characterised by a mental restructuring of acquired information, from which new explicit knowledge can be drawn, leading to qualitative changes in behaviour. Extended sleep facilitates the gaining of insight, possibly because it is conducive to the stabilisation and restructuring of new memory representations via consolidation. Research shows that a brief period of awake quiescence (quiet resting), too, can support consolidation: people remember more new memories if they quietly rest for several minutes after encoding than if they engage in a task involving ongoing sensory input after encoding...
September 27, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30343211/attenuating-anger-and-aggression-with-neuromodulation-of-the-vmpfc-a-simultaneous-tdcs-fmri-study
#19
Gadi Gilam, Rany Abend, Guy Gurevitch, Alon Erdman, Halen Baker, Ziv Ben-Zion, Talma Hendler
Angry outbursts during interpersonal provocations may lead to violence and prevails in numerous pathological conditions. In the anger-infused Ultimatum Game (aiUG), unfair monetary offers accompanied by written provocations induce anger. Rejection of such offers relates to aggression, whereas acceptance to anger regulation. We previously demonstrated the involvement of the ventro-medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) in accepting unfair offers and attenuating anger during an aiUG, suggestive of its role in anger regulation...
September 27, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30333085/differences-in-cytoarchitecture-of-broca-s-region-between-human-ape-and-macaque-brains
#20
Nicola Palomero-Gallagher, Karl Zilles
Areas 44 and 45 have been identified in non-human primates as homologs of the human Broca region. Distribution of large and smaller pyramids and the ventro-lateral localization in the posterior frontal lobe enable their identification in non-human primates. Since only humans hold the ability of language, it has been hypothesized that differences in microstructure may, together with other anatomical factors, e.g., white matter tract connectivity, volumes of cortical areas and their molecular differentiation, be responsible for the lack (non-human primates) or ability (humans) of language...
September 24, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
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