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Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226255/action-perception-as-hypothesis-testing
#1
Francesco Donnarumma, Marcello Costantini, Ettore Ambrosini, Karl Friston, Giovanni Pezzulo
We present a novel computational model that describes action perception as an active inferential process that combines motor prediction (the reuse of our own motor system to predict perceived movements) and hypothesis testing (the use of eye movements to disambiguate amongst hypotheses). The system uses a generative model of how (arm and hand) actions are performed to generate hypothesis-specific visual predictions, and directs saccades to the most informative places of the visual scene to test these predictions - and underlying hypotheses...
January 31, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219653/the-neurocognitive-basis-of-borrowed-context-information
#2
Meagan O'Neill, Rachel A Diana
Falsely remembered items can be accompanied by episodic context retrieval. This finding is difficult to explain because there is no episode that binds the remembered item to the experimenter-controlled context features. The current study examines the neural correlates of false context retrieval when the context features can be traced to encoding episodes of semantically-similar items. Our neuroimaging results support a "dissociated source" mechanism for context borrowing in false memory. We found that parahippocampal cortex (PHc) activation, thought to indicate context retrieval, was greater during trials that involved context borrowing (an incorrect, but plausible source decision) than during baseline correct context retrieval...
January 30, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215821/holistic-versus-feature-based-binding-in-the-medial-temporal-lobe
#3
Rebecca N van den Honert, Gregory McCarthy, Marcia K Johnson
A central question for cognitive neuroscience is how feature-combinations that give rise to episodic/source memories are encoded in the brain. Although there is much evidence that the hippocampus (HIP) is involved in feature binding, and some evidence that other brain regions are as well, there is relatively little evidence about the nature of the resulting representations in different brain regions. We used multivoxel pattern analysis (MVPA) to investigate how feature combinations might be represented, contrasting two possibilities, feature-based versus holistic...
January 23, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202133/toddlers-later-diagnosed-with-autism-exhibit-multiple-structural-abnormalities-in-temporal-corpus-callosum-fibers
#4
Noa Fingher, Ilan Dinstein, Michal Ben-Shachar, Shlomi Haar, Anders M Dale, Lisa Eyler, Karen Pierce, Eric Courchesne
Interhemispheric functional connectivity abnormalities are often reported in autism and it is thus not surprising that structural defects of the corpus callosum (CC) are consistently found using both traditional MRI and DTI techniques. Past DTI studies however, have subdivided the CC into 2 or 3 segments without regard for where fibers may project to within the cortex, thus placing limitations on our ability to understand the nature, timing and neurobehavioral impact of early CC abnormalities in autism. Leveraging a unique cohort of 97 toddlers (68 autism; 29 typical) we utilized a novel technique that identified seven CC tracts according to their cortical projections...
January 23, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196647/the-dorsal-visual-stream-revisited-stable-circuits-or-dynamic-pathways
#5
REVIEW
Claudio Galletti, Patrizia Fattori
In both macaque and human brain, information regarding visual motion flows from the extrastriate area V6 along two different paths: a dorsolateral one towards areas MT/V5, MST, V3A, and a dorsomedial one towards the visuomotor areas of the superior parietal lobule (V6A, MIP, VIP). The dorsolateral visual stream is involved in many aspects of visual motion analysis, including the recognition of object motion and self motion. The dorsomedial stream uses visual motion information to continuously monitor the spatial location of objects while we are looking and/or moving around, to allow skilled reaching for and grasping of the objects in structured, dynamically changing environments...
January 23, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192723/influence-of-age-and-cognitive-performance-on-resting-state-brain-networks-of-older-adults-in-a-population-based-cohort
#6
Christiane Jockwitz, Svenja Caspers, Silke Lux, Simon B Eickhoff, Kerstin Jütten, Stefan Lenzen, Susanne Moebus, Noreen Pundt, Andrew Reid, Felix Hoffstaedter, Karl-Heinz Jöckel, Raimund Erbel, Sven Cichon, Markus M Nöthen, N Jon Shah, Karl Zilles, Katrin Amunts
Aging leads to global changes in brain structure and cognitive performance, with reorganization of functional brain networks. Importantly, these age-related changes show higher inter-individual variability in older subjects. To particularly address this variability is a challenge for studies on lifetime trajectories from early to late adulthood. The present study therefore had a dedicated focus on late adulthood to characterize the functional connectivity in resting-state networks (RSFC) in relation to age and cognitive performance in 711 older adults (55-85 years) from the 1000BRAINS project...
January 23, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189664/autobiographical-memory-and-structural-brain-changes-in-chronic-phase-tbi
#7
Carrie Esopenko, Brian Levine
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with a range of neuropsychological deficits, including attention, memory, and executive functioning attributable to diffuse axonal injury (DAI) with accompanying focal frontal and temporal damage. Although the memory deficit of TBI has been well characterized with laboratory tests, comparatively little research has examined retrograde autobiographical memory (AM) at the chronic phase of TBI, with no prior studies of unselected patients drawn directly from hospital admissions for trauma...
January 18, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161032/does-early-blindness-significantly-enhance-arithmetic-a-statistical-comment-of-a-paper-by-dormal-crollen-baumans-lepore-and-collignon-2016
#8
Jean-Paul Fischer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 16, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190516/changes-in-the-correlation-between-spatial-and-temporal-source-memory-performance-and-bold-activity-across-the-adult-lifespan
#9
E Ankudowich, S Pasvanis, M N Rajah
Studies investigating age-related functional differences associated with source memory have recently focused on the importance of clarifying the relationship between effects of age and performance on memory-related brain activations. One methodological challenge has been in discriminating between effects of age on memory-related brain activations that are independent from age-related differences in performance. In the current study, event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to identify brain activity during spatial and temporal source encoding and retrieval across the adult lifespan...
January 12, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162778/neural-mechanisms-of-mood-induced-modulation-of-reality-monitoring-in-schizophrenia
#10
Karuna Subramaniam, Kamalini G Ranasinghe, Daniel Mathalon, Srikantan Nagarajan, Sophia Vinogradov
Reality monitoring is the ability to accurately distinguish the source of self-generated information from externally-presented information. Although people with schizophrenia (SZ) show impaired reality monitoring, nothing is known about how mood state influences this higher-order cognitive process. Accordingly, we induced positive, neutral and negative mood states to test how different mood states modulate subsequent reality monitoring performance. Our findings indicate that mood affected reality monitoring performance in HC and SZ participants in both similar and dissociable ways...
January 12, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162777/assumptions-behind-scoring-source-versus-item-memory-effects-of-age-hippocampal-lesions-and-mild-memory-problems
#11
Elisa Cooper, Andrea Greve, Richard N Henson
Source monitoring paradigms have been used to separate: 1) the probability of recognising an item (Item memory) and 2) the probability of remembering the context in which that item was previously encountered (Source memory), conditional on it being recognised. Multinomial Processing Tree (MPT) models are an effective way to estimate these conditional probabilities. Moreover, MPTs make explicit the assumptions behind different ways to parameterise Item and Source memory. Using data from six independent groups across two different paradigms, we show that one would draw different conclusions about the effects of age, age-related memory problems and hippocampal lesions on Item and Source memory, depending on the use of: 1) standard accuracy calculation vs MPT analysis, and 2) two different MPT models...
January 12, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161031/fmri-activity-during-associative-encoding-is-correlated-with-cardiorespiratory-fitness-and-source-memory-performance-in-older-adults
#12
Scott M Hayes, Jasmeet P Hayes, Victoria J Williams, Huiting Liu, Mieke Verfaellie
Older adults (OA), relative to young adults (YA), exhibit age-related alterations in functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) activity during associative encoding, which contributes to deficits in source memory. Yet, there are remarkable individual differences in brain health and memory performance among OA. Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is one individual difference factor that may attenuate brain aging, and thereby contribute to enhanced source memory in OA. To examine this possibility, 26 OA and 31 YA completed a treadmill-based exercise test to evaluate CRF (peak VO2) and fMRI to examine brain activation during a face-name associative encoding task...
January 12, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161030/brain-behavior-relationships-in-source-memory-effects-of-age-and-memory-ability
#13
Liesel-Ann Meusel, Cheryl L Grady, Patricia E Ebert, Nicole D Anderson
There is considerable evidence for age-related decrements in source memory retrieval, but the literature on the neural correlates of these impairments is mixed. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine source memory retrieval-related brain activity, and the monotonic relationship between retrieval-related brain activity and source memory accuracy, as a function of both healthy aging (younger vs older) and memory ability within the older adult group (Hi-Old vs Lo-Old). Participants studied lists of word pairs, half visually, half aurally; these were re-presented visually in a scanned test phase and participants indicated if the pair was 'seen' or 'heard' in the study phase...
January 12, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142027/the-right-angular-gyrus-controls-spontaneous-eyeblink-rate-a-combined-structural-mri-and-tms-study
#14
Tamami Nakano
Spontaneous eyeblink rates vary greatly between people, from several to a few dozen blinks per minute. Nevertheless, it remains unknown which brain region controls generation of spontaneous eyeblinks. To investigate this issue, the present study examined brain anatomy, which reflects inter-individual variability in eyeblink rate using structural magnetic resonance images with voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in 57 participants. The gray matter volume of the right angular gyrus (rAG) was positively associated with an increased eyeblink rate...
January 12, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142025/describe-yourself-to-improve-your-autobiographical-memory-a-study-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Mohamad El Haj, Pascal Antoine
This study investigated whether retrieval of information related to conceptual self (i.e., self-images that encompass general factual and evaluative knowledge of one's identity) would improve autobiographical memory in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Participants with AD and controls were asked to retrieve autobiographical memories after providing statements to the question "Who am I? and after a control condition consisting of reading a general text. Autobiographical recall was analyzed with respect to specificity (general vs specific event), context recall (information describing the "when, where, and who" as well as affective states), and reliving (the subjective experience of recall)...
January 12, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189665/face-identity-matching-is-selectively-impaired-in-developmental-prosopagnosia
#16
Katie Fisher, John Towler, Martin Eimer
Individuals with developmental prosopagnosia (DP) have severe face recognition deficits, but the mechanisms that are responsible for these deficits have not yet been fully identified. We assessed whether the activation of visual working memory for individual faces is selectively impaired in DP. Twelve DPs and twelve age-matched control participants were tested in a task where they reported whether successively presented faces showed the same or two different individuals, and another task where they judged whether the faces showed the same or different facial expressions...
January 11, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111047/the-impact-of-level-of-education-on-age-related-deficits-in-associative-memory-behavioral-and-neuropsychological-perspectives
#17
Dwight J Peterson, Sanchita Gargya, Ksenia S Kopeikin, Moshe Naveh-Benjamin
Older adults have difficulty forming associations and binding distinct item components despite mostly preserved item memory potentially because they rely on more automatic, rather than strategic, processing when attempting to form, store, and retrieve associations from memory. An intriguing possibility is that older adults with greater access to strategic processes (e.g., those with a high level of education) may be less susceptible to age-related associative memory deficits. Two experiments assessed the degree to which a high level of education provides an effective dose of cognitive reserve (CR), potentially preserving associative memory...
December 30, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103527/distinct-cortico-striatal-connections-with-subthalamic-nucleus-underlie-facets-of-compulsivity
#18
Laurel S Morris, Kwangyeol Baek, Valerie Voon
The capacity to flexibly respond to contextual changes is crucial to adapting to a dynamic environment. Compulsivity, or behavioural inflexibility, consists of heterogeneous subtypes with overlapping yet discrete neural substrates. The subthalamic nucleus (STN) mediates the switch from automatic to controlled processing to slow, break or stop behaviour when necessary. Rodent STN lesions or inactivation are linked with perseveration or repetitive, compulsive responding. However, there are few studies examining the role of latent STN-centric neural networks and compulsive behaviour in healthy individuals...
December 29, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088652/convergence-of-interoception-emotion-and-social-cognition-a-twofold-fmri-meta-analysis-and-lesion-approach
#19
Federico Adolfi, Blas Couto, Fabian Richter, Jean Decety, Jessica Lopez, Mariano Sigman, Facundo Manes, Agustín Ibáñez
Guided by indirect evidence, recent approaches propose a tripartite crosstalk among interoceptive signaling, emotional regulation, and low-level social cognition. Here we examined the neurocognitive convergence of such domains. First, we performed three meta-analyses of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies to identify which areas are consistently coactivated by these three systems. Multi-level Kernel Density Analysis (MKDA) revealed major overlaps in the right anterior insular and frontotemporal regions (viz...
December 29, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081843/dissociable-effects-of-stimulus-range-on-perception-and-action
#20
Gal Namdar, Daniel Algom, Tzvi Ganel
We have recently reported the discovery that the ability to detect a minimum increment to a stimulus depends on the spread of the other stimuli for which this just noticeable difference (JND) is being measured (Namdar, Ganel, & Algom, 2016). In particular, the JND around a standard stimulus was larger when the other standards tested within the same experimental session spread a larger range. In this study we show that this range of standards effect (RSE) is limited to perceptual estimations and does not extend to action...
December 27, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
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