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Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709682/hemifield-coding-in-ventral-object-sensitive-areas-evidence-from-visual-hemiagnosia
#1
Johannes Rennig, Hans-Otto Karnath, Sonja Cornelsen, Helmut Wilhelm, Marc Himmelbach
Electrophysiological monkey and human neuroimaging studies have reported a lateralization of signal processing in object perception. However, it is unclear whether these results point to a unique topographically organized signal processing in either hemisphere, or if these results represent a rather negligible spatial organization of otherwise redundant object perception systems in both hemispheres. We tested a group of 10 patients with lesions to ventral object processing regions and spared primary visual functions with lateral presentations of different categories of object stimuli...
June 28, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711816/unilateral-subthalamotomy-in-parkinson-s-disease-cognitive-psychiatric-and-neuroimaging-changes
#2
Ignacio Obeso, Enrique Casabona, Rafael Rodríguez-Rojas, Maria Luisa Bringas, Raúl Macías, Nancy Pavón, Jose A Obeso, Marjan Jahanshahi
Unilateral subthalamotomy is an effective treatment for the cardinal motor features of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, non-motor changes possibly associated with right or left subthalamotomy remain unknown. Our aim was to assess cognitive, psychiatric and neuroimaging changes after treatment with unilateral subthalamotomy. Fourteen medicated patients with PD were evaluated before and after (mean 6 months after operation) unilateral subthalamotomy (5 right, 9 left). In addition to motor assessments, cognitive (global cognition and executive functions), psychiatric (apathy, depression, anxiety, mania, hypo- and hyperdopaminergic behaviours, impulsivity), quality of life evaluations and volume of lesions were obtained...
June 27, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711815/geschwind-syndrome-in-frontotemporal-lobar-degeneration-neuroanatomical-and-neuropsychological-features-over-9-years
#3
Laura Veronelli, Sara J Makaretz, Megan Quimby, Bradford C Dickerson, Jessica A Collins
Geschwind Syndrome, a characteristic behavioral syndrome frequently described in patients affected by temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), consists of the following features: hyper-religiosity, hypergraphia, hyposexuality, and irritability. Here we report the 9-year-clinical course of a case of Geschwind Syndrome that developed as a first and salient clinical expression of right temporal lobe variant of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Only one patient affected by frontotemporal dementia has previously been shown to present with Geschwind Syndrome...
June 27, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715675/resting-state-brain-networks-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease-and-impulse-control-disorders
#4
Alessandro Tessitore, Gabriella Santangelo, Rosa De Micco, Alfonso Giordano, Simona Raimo, Marianna Amboni, Fabrizio Esposito, Paolo Barone, Gioacchino Tedeschi, Carmine Vitale
INTRODUCTION: To investigate intrinsic neural networks connectivity changes in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with and without impulse control disorders (ICD). METHODS: Fifteen patients with PD with ICD (ICD+), 15 patients with PD without ICD (ICD-) and 24 age and sex-matched healthy controls (HC) were enrolled in the study. To identify patients with and without ICD and/or punding, we used the Minnesota Impulsive Disorders Interview (MIDI) and a clinical interview based on diagnostic criteria for each symptom...
June 24, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710908/mental-reinstatement-of-encoding-context-improves-episodic-remembering
#5
Inês Bramão, Anna Karlsson, Mikael Johansson
This study investigates context-dependent memory retrieval. Previous work has shown that physically re-experiencing the encoding context at retrieval improves memory accessibility. The current study examined if mental reconstruction of the original encoding context would yield parallel memory benefits. Participants performed a cued-recall memory task, preceded either by a mental or by a physical context reinstatement task, and we manipulated whether the context reinstated at retrieval overlapped with the context of the target episode...
June 24, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711817/selection-and-application-of-familiar-and-novel-tools-in-patients-with-left-and-right-hemispheric-stroke-psychometrics-and-normative-data
#6
Ilka Buchmann, Jennifer Randerath
Frequently left brain damage (LBD) leads to limb apraxia, a disorder that can affect tool-use. Despite its impact on daily life, classical tests examining the pantomime of tool-use and imitation of gestures are seldom applied in clinical practice. The study's aim was to present a diagnostic approach which appears more strongly related to actions in daily life in order to sensitize applicants and patients about the relevance of the disorder before patients are discharged. Two tests were introduced that evaluate actual tool selection and tool-object-application: the Novel Tools (NTT) and the Familiar Tools (FTT) Test (parts of the DILA-S: Diagnostic Instrument for Limb Apraxia - Short Version)...
June 23, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705456/feeling-touch-on-the-own-hand-restores-the-capacity-to-visually-discriminate-it-from-someone-else-hand-pathological-embodiment-receding-in-brain-damage-patients
#7
Carlotta Fossataro, Valentina Bruno, Patrizia Gindri, Lorenzo Pia, Anna Berti, Francesca Garbarini
The sense of body ownership, i.e., the belief that a specific body part belongs to us, can be selectively impaired in brain-damaged patients. Recently, a pathological form of embodiment has been described in patients who, when the examiner's hand is located in a body-congruent position, systematically claim that it is their own hand (E+ patients). This paradoxical behavior suggests that, in these patients, the altered sense of body ownership also affects their capacity of visually discriminating the body-identity details of the own and the alien hand, even when both hands are clearly visible on the table...
June 23, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710907/distinct-contributions-of-the-fornix-and-inferior-longitudinal-fasciculus-to-episodic-and-semantic-autobiographical-memory
#8
Carl J Hodgetts, Mark Postans, Naomi Warne, Alice Varnava, Andrew D Lawrence, Kim S Graham
Autobiographical memory (AM) is multifaceted, incorporating the vivid retrieval of contextual detail (episodic AM), together with semantic knowledge that infuses meaning and coherence into past events (semantic AM). While neuropsychological evidence highlights a role for the hippocampus and anterior temporal lobe (ATL) in episodic and semantic AM, respectively, it is unclear whether these constitute dissociable large-scale AM networks. We used high angular resolution diffusion-weighted imaging and constrained spherical deconvolution-based tractography to assess white matter microstructure in 27 healthy young adult participants who were asked to recall past experiences using word cues...
June 20, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669509/out-of-body-experience-in-vestibular-disorders-a-prospective-study-of-210-patients-with-dizziness
#9
Christophe Lopez, Maya Elzière
Out-of-body experiences (OBEs) are states during which people experience their centre of awareness as located outside of their physical body, along with the sensation of seeing the environment from an elevated viewpoint. OBE is encountered in epilepsy, migraine and depersonalization, and it is not an uncommon experience in the general population. Current neuroscientific models of bodily self-consciousness consider that OBE are related to a failure to integrate visual, somatosensory and vestibular signals. These models have highlighted the importance of visual-vestibular mismatch in OBE...
June 8, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675834/effects-of-levodopa-on-corticostriatal-circuits-supporting-working-memory-in-parkinson-s-disease
#10
Alison C Simioni, Alain Dagher, Lesley K Fellows
Working memory dysfunction is common in Parkinson's disease, even in its early stages, but its neural basis is debated. Working memory performance likely reflects a balance between corticostriatal dysfunction and compensatory mechanisms. We tested this hypothesis by examining working memory performance with a letter n-back task in 19 patients with mild-moderate Parkinson's disease and 20 demographically matched healthy controls. Parkinson's disease patients were tested after an overnight washout of their usual dopamine replacement therapy, and again after a standard dose of levodopa...
June 7, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669510/word-selection-processing-in-parkinson-s-disease-when-nouns-are-more-difficult-than-verbs
#11
Maria C Silveri, Daniela Traficante, Maria R Lo Monaco, Laura Iori, Federica Sarchioni, Cristina Burani
Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) are impaired in verb production. Interpretations range from grammatical deficits to semantic-conceptual decay of action representation. The verb production deficit in PD can also be considered a dysexecutive disorder, specifically, a deficit of selection processing during word production, due to corticostriatal damage. Producing verbs is "more difficult" than producing nouns, because verb-forms must be selected from a large set of word-forms which share the verb-root, and the set of possible verb-forms is larger than the set of possible noun-forms when a noun has to be produced...
June 7, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662418/assessing-the-social-brain-in-dementia-applying-tasit-s
#12
Fiona Kumfor, Cynthia Honan, Skye McDonald, Jessica L Hazelton, John R Hodges, Olivier Piguet
The ability to recognise how other people are feeling and make judgements based on their inferred thoughts is essential for successful social interactions, and is thought to depend on a complex network of brain regions, commonly referred to as the "social brain". These abilities, together referred to as social cognition, are increasingly recognised as being compromised in some dementia syndromes, particularly in behavioural-variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), which is characterised by changes in personality and social conduct...
June 7, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651744/eying-the-future-eye-movement-in-past-and-future-thinking
#13
Mohamad El Haj, Quentin Lenoble
We investigated eye movement during past and future thinking. Participants were invited to retrieve past events and to imagine future events while their scan path was recorded by an eye-tracker. Past thinking triggered more fixation (p < .05), and saccade counts (p < .05) than future thinking. Past and future thinking triggered a similar duration of fixations and saccades, as well as a similar amplitude of saccades. Interestingly, participants rated past thinking as more vivid than future thinking (p < ...
June 7, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668221/human-neuroimaging-reveals-the-subcomponents-of-grasping-reaching-and-pointing-actions
#14
Cristiana Cavina-Pratesi, Jason D Connolly, Simona Monaco, Teresa D Figley, A David Milner, Thomas Schenk, Jody C Culham
Although the neural underpinnings of visually guided grasping and reaching have been well delineated within lateral and medial fronto-parietal networks (respectively), the contributions of subcomponents of visuomotor actions have not been explored in detail. Using careful subtraction logic, here we investigated which aspects of grasping, reaching, and pointing movements drive activation across key areas within visuomotor networks implicated in hand actions. For grasping tasks, we find activation differences based on the precision required (fine > coarse grip: anterior intraparietal sulcus, aIPS), the requirement to lift the object (grip + lift > grip: aIPS; dorsal premotor cortex, PMd; and supplementary motor area, SMA), and the number of digits employed (3-/5- vs...
June 6, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667892/normal-aging-and-parkinson-s-disease-are-associated-with-the-functional-decline-of-distinct-frontal-striatal-circuits
#15
Aleksandra Gruszka, Adam Hampshire, Roger A Barker, Adrian M Owen
Impaired ability to shift attention between stimuli (i.e. shifting attentional 'set') is a well-established part of the dysexecutive syndrome in Parkinson's Disease (PD), nevertheless cognitive and neural bases of this deficit remain unclear. In this study, an fMRI-optimised variant of a classic paradigm for assessing attentional control (Hampshire and Owen 2006) was used to contrast activity in dissociable executive circuits in early-stage PD patients and controls. The results demonstrated that the neural basis of the executive performance impairments in PD is accompanied by hypoactivation within the striatum, anterior cingulate cortex (vACC), and inferior frontal sulcus (IFS) regions...
June 3, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651745/the-neural-monitoring-of-visceral-inputs-rather-than-attention-accounts-for-first-person-perspective-in-conscious-vision
#16
REVIEW
Catherine Tallon-Baudry, Florence Campana, Hyeong-Dong Park, Mariana Babo-Rebelo
Why should a scientist whose aim is to unravel the neural mechanisms of perception consider brain-body interactions seriously? Brain-body interactions have traditionally been associated with emotion, effort, or stress, but not with the "cold" processes of perception and attention. Here, we review recent experimental evidence suggesting a different picture: the neural monitoring of bodily state, and in particular the neural monitoring of the heart, affects visual perception. The impact of spontaneous fluctuations of neural responses to heartbeats on visual detection is as large as the impact of explicit manipulations of spatial attention in perceptual tasks...
June 3, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647325/the-processing-of-semantic-relatedness-in-the-brain-evidence-from-associative-and-categorical-false-recognition-effects-following-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-of-the-left-anterior-temporal-lobe
#17
Emiliano Díez, Carlos J Gómez-Ariza, Antonio M Díez-Álamo, María A Alonso, Angel Fernandez
A dominant view of the role of the anterior temporal lobe (ATL) in semantic memory is that it serves as an integration hub, specialized in the processing of semantic relatedness by way of mechanisms that bind together information from different brain areas to form coherent amodal representations of concepts. Two recent experiments, using brain stimulation techniques along with the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm, have found a consistent false memory reduction effect following stimulation of the ATL, pointing to the importance of the ATL in semantic/conceptual processing...
June 3, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646671/frontotemporal-lobar-degeneration-and-social-behaviour-dissociation-between-the-knowledge-of-its-consequences-and-its-conceptual-meaning
#18
Roland Zahn, Sophie Green, Helen Beaumont, Alistair Burns, Jorge Moll, Diana Caine, Alexander Gerhard, Paul Hoffman, Benjamin Shaw, Jordan Grafman, Matthew A Lambon Ralph
Inappropriate social behaviour is an early symptom of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) in both behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) and semantic dementia (SD) subtypes. Knowledge of social behaviour is essential for appropriate social conduct. The superior anterior temporal lobe (ATL) has been identified as one key neural component for the conceptual knowledge of social behaviour, but it is unknown whether this is dissociable from knowledge of the consequences of social behaviour. Here, we used a newly-developed test of knowledge about long-term and short-term consequences of social behaviour to investigate its impairment in patients with FTLD relative to a previously-developed test of social conceptual knowledge...
June 3, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673387/memory-representations-tree-structures-and-parameter-polysemy-comment-on-cooper-greve-and-henson-2017
#19
David Kellen, Henrik Singmann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646672/transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-to-visual-cortex-induces-suboptimal-introspection
#20
Megan A K Peters, Jeremy Fesi, Namema Amendi, Jeffrey D Knotts, Hakwan Lau, Tony Ro
Blindsight patients with damage to the visual cortex can discriminate objects but report no conscious visual experience. This provides an intriguing opportunity to allow the study of subjective awareness in isolation from objective performance capacity. However, blindsight is rare, so one promising way to induce the effect in neurologically intact observers is to apply transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to the visual cortex. Here, we used a recently-developed criterion-free method to conclusively rule out an important alternative interpretation of TMS-induced performance without awareness: that TMS-induced blindsight may be just due to conservative reporting biases for conscious perception...
June 2, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
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