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Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919546/brain-morphometry-predicts-individual-creative-potential-and-the-ability-to-combine-remote-ideas
#1
David Bendetowicz, Marika Urbanski, Clarisse Aichelburg, Richard Levy, Emmanuelle Volle
For complex mental functions such as creative thinking, inter-individual variability is useful to better understand the underlying cognitive components and brain anatomy. Associative theories propose that creative individuals have flexible semantic associations, which allows remote elements to be formed into new combinations. However, the structural brain variability associated with the ability to combine remote associates has not been explored. To address this question, we performed a voxel-based morphometry (VBM) study and explored the anatomical connectivity of significant regions...
November 15, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912894/self-generation-and-positivity-effects-following-transcranial-random-noise-stimulation-in-medial-prefrontal-cortex-a-reality-monitoring-task-in-older-adults
#2
Nicola Mammarella, Alberto Di Domenico, Rocco Palumbo, Beth Fairfield
Activation of medial Prefrontal Cortex (mPFC) has been typically found during reality monitoring tasks (i.e., distinguishing between internal self-generated vs external information). No study, however, has yet investigated whether transcranial Random Noise Stimulation (tRNS) over the mPFC leads to a reduction in reality-monitoring misattributions in aging. In particular, stimulating mPFC should increase the number of cognitive operations engaged while encoding and this distinctive information may help older adults to discriminate between internal and external sources better...
November 15, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923173/electrophysiological-responses-to-symmetry-presented-in-the-left-or-in-the-right-visual-hemifield
#3
Damien Wright, Alexis D J Makin, Marco Bertamini
Symmetry is a highly salient feature in the visual world, abundant in both man-made and natural objects. In particular, humans find reflectional symmetry most salient. Electrophysiological work on symmetry perception has identified a difference wave known as the Sustained Posterior Negativity (SPN) originating from extrastriate areas. Amplitude is more negative for symmetrical than random patterns, from around 200 msec after stimulus onset. For the first time, we report responses to patterns presented exclusively in one hemifield...
November 10, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890325/functional-coupling-between-frontoparietal-and-occipitotemporal-pathways-during-action-and-perception
#4
R Matthew Hutchison, Jason P Gallivan
Several lines of evidence point to areas in the occipitotemporal pathway as being critical in the processes of visual perception and object recognition. Much less appreciated, however, is the role that this pathway plays in object-related processing for the purposes of visually guided action. Here, using functional MRI (fMRI) and functional connectivity (FC) measures, we examined interactions between areas in frontoparietal cortex (FPC) involved in grasping, reaching, eye movements, and tool use and areas in occipitotemporal cortex (OTC) involved in object-, face-, scene-, body-, tool-, and motion-related processing, both during the performance of sensorimotor and visual-perceptual tasks, as well as during passive fixation (resting-state)...
November 9, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875715/common-and-divergent-neural-correlates-of-anomia-in-amnestic-and-logopenic-presentations-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
Cristian E Leyton, John R Hodges, Olivier Piguet, Kirrie J Ballard
The majority of logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia (lv-PPA) cases harbour Alzheimer pathology, suggesting that lv-PPA constitutes an atypical presentation of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, even if caused by Alzheimer pathology, the clinical manifestations of lv-PPA differ from those observed in the typical or amnestic AD presentation: in lv-PPA, aphasia is the main feature while amnestic AD is characterised by impaired episodic memory. Anomia or impaired naming, however, is present in both AD presentations...
November 5, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871020/altered-functional-connectivity-of-interoception-in-illness-anxiety-disorder
#6
Dario Grossi, Mariachiara Longarzo, Mario Quarantelli, Elena Salvatore, Carlo Cavaliere, Paolofabrizio De Luca, Luigi Trojano, Marco Aiello
Interoception collects all information coming from the body and is sustained by several brain areas such as insula and cingulate cortex. Here, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate functional connectivity (FC) of networks implied in interoception in patients with Illness anxiety disorders (IADs). We observed significantly reduced FC between the left extrastriate body area (EBA) and the paracentral lobule compared to healthy controls. Moreover, the correlation analysis between behavioural questionnaires and ROI to ROI FC showed that higher levels of illness anxiety were related to hyper-connectivity between EBA and amygdala and hippocampus...
November 5, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912107/limits-to-tdcs-effects-in-language-failures-to-modulate-word-production-in-healthy-participants-with-frontal-or-temporal-tdcs
#7
Samuel J Westwood, Andrew Olson, R Chris Miall, Raffaele Nappo, Cristina Romani
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a method of non-invasive brain stimulation widely used to modulate cognitive functions. Recent studies, however, suggests that effects are unreliable, small and often non-significant at least when stimulation is applied in a single session to healthy individuals. We examined the effects of frontal and temporal lobe anodal tDCS on naming and reading tasks and considered possible interactions with linguistic activation and selection mechanisms as well as possible interactions with item difficulty and participant individual variability...
November 3, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852471/what-does-extinction-have-to-do-with-confabulation
#8
REVIEW
Armin Schnider, Louis Nahum, Radek Ptak
Behaviourally spontaneous confabulation denotes a distinct syndrome consisting of confabulations that patients act upon, disorientation, and amnesia. It corresponds to the stable form of the original Korsakoff syndrome. While the syndrome may also occur in confusional states and degenerative dementia, this article is about the syndrome as it occurs after acute and focal brain damage. The patients act according to ideas and obligations that can mostly be traced back to real experiences in their past, but which are not currently valid guides of thinking and behaviour...
November 1, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890323/ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex-generates-pre-stimulus-theta-coherence-desynchronization-a-schema-instantiation-hypothesis
#9
Asaf Gilboa, Morris Moscovitch
The ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) has long been implicated in monitoring of memory veracity, and more recently also in memory schema functions. In our model of strategic retrieval the two are related. We have proposed that the vmPFC has two schema-dependent functions: (i) to establish context-relevant templates against which the output of memory systems can be compared; (ii) to mediate automatic decision monitoring processes to ensure that only those responses that meet the criterion are enacted...
October 31, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855282/amygdala-and-auditory-cortex-exhibit-distinct-sensitivity-to-relevant-acoustic-features-of-auditory-emotions
#10
Alessia Pannese, Didier Grandjean, Sascha Frühholz
Discriminating between auditory signals of different affective value is critical to successful social interaction. It is commonly held that acoustic decoding of such signals occurs in the auditory system, whereas affective decoding occurs in the amygdala. However, given that the amygdala receives direct subcortical projections that bypass the auditory cortex, it is possible that some acoustic decoding occurs in the amygdala as well, when the acoustic features are relevant for affective discrimination. We tested this hypothesis by combining functional neuroimaging with the neurophysiological phenomena of repetition suppression (RS) and repetition enhancement (RE) in human listeners...
October 31, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894595/do-visual-illusions-affect-grasping-considerable-progress-in-a-scientific-debate-a-reply-to-whitwell-goodale-2016
#11
Karl K Kopiske, Nicola Bruno, Constanze Hesse, Thomas Schenk, Volker H Franz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 28, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875716/face-identity-is-encoded-in-the-duration-of-n170-adaptation
#12
Christina Shen, Joanna Stasch, Lisa Velenosi, Apoorva R Madipakkam, Henriette Edemann-Callesen, Andres H Neuhaus
Previous studies assessing the involvement of the face-sensitive N170 component of the event-related potential (ERP) in the processing of face identity have shown controversial results when assessing N170 amplitude in repetition suppression (RS) designs. On the other hand, N170 adaptation is robustly associated with the inter-stimulus interval (ISI) between immediate face repetitions. Interestingly, interactions of face identity and ISI could provide valuable information on early encoding of face identity, but have not been investigated so far...
October 28, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866039/sleep-eeg-maps-the-functional-neuroanatomy-of-executive-processes-in-adolescents-born-very-preterm
#13
Flavia M Wehrle, Beatrice Latal, Ruth L O'Gorman, Cornelia F Hagmann, Reto Huber
Executive function deficits are among the most frequent sequela of very preterm birth but the underlying neuronal mechanisms are not fully understood. We used high-density electroencephalography (EEG) recordings during sleep to assess alterations in the functional neuroanatomy of executive processes in adolescents born very preterm. The topographical distribution of sleep slow wave activity (SWA; 1-4.5 Hz EEG power) has previously been used to map cognitive abilities and is known to reflect the intensity of the prior use of the respective neuronal networks...
October 28, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890324/motor-skill-learning-and-offline-changes-in-tga-patients-with-acute-hippocampal-ca1-lesions
#14
Juliane Döhring, Anne Stoldt, Karsten Witt, Robby Schönfeld, Günther Deuschl, Jan Born, Thorsten Bartsch
Learning and the formation of memory are reflected in various memory systems in the human brain such as the hippocampus based declarative memory system and the striatum-cortex based system involved in motor sequence learning. It is a matter of debate how both memory systems interact in humans during learning and consolidation and how this interaction is influenced by sleep. We studied the effect of an acute dysfunction of hippocampal CA1 neurons on the acquisition (on-line condition) and off-line changes of a motor skill in patients with a transient global amnesia (TGA)...
October 24, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842701/the-relationship-between-eye-movements-and-subsequent-recognition-evidence-from-individual-differences-and-amnesia
#15
Rosanna K Olsen, Vinoja Sebanayagam, Yunjo Lee, Morris Moscovitch, Cheryl L Grady, R Shayna Rosenbaum, Jennifer D Ryan
There is consistent agreement regarding the positive relationship between cumulative eye movement sampling and subsequent recognition, but the role of the hippocampus in this sampling behavior is currently unknown. It is also unclear whether the eye movement repetition effect, i.e., fewer fixations to repeated, compared to novel, stimuli, depends on explicit recognition and/or an intact hippocampal system. We investigated the relationship between cumulative sampling, the eye movement repetition effect, subsequent memory, and the hippocampal system...
October 22, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829498/current-knowledge-on-the-role-of-the-inferior-frontal-gyrus-in-theory-of-mind-a-commentary-on-schurz-and-tholen-2016
#16
Charlotte E Hartwright, Peter C Hansen, Ian A Apperly
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 22, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852003/the-neuropsychology-of-first-impressions-evidence-from-huntington-s-disease
#17
Reiner Sprengelmeyer, Andrew W Young, Eva-Maria Baldas, Iris Ratheiser, Clare A M Sutherland, Hans-Peter Müller, Georg Grön, Sigurd D Süssmuth, G Bernhard Landwehrmeyer, Michael Orth
Impairments of emotion recognition have been widely documented in Huntington's disease (HD), but little is known concerning how these relate to other aspects of social cognition, including first impressions of traits such as trustworthiness and dominance. Here, we introduce a novel and sensitive method to investigate the ability to evaluate trustworthiness and dominance from facial appearance, with control tasks measuring ability to perceive differences between comparable stimuli. We used this new method together with standard tests of face perception to investigate social cognition in HD...
October 21, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27838544/subliminally-and-consciously-induced-cognitive-conflicts-interact-at-several-processing-levels
#18
Ann-Kathrin Stock, Julia Friedrich, Christian Beste
Controlled behavior is susceptible to conflicts that can emerge from subliminal or consciously processed information. While research suggests that both sources of conflicting information may interact in their modulation of controlled behavior, it has remained unclear which cognitive sub-processes involved in controlled behavior are affected by this interaction; i.e., at which processing level subliminally and consciously induced response conflicts interact in modulating controlled behavior. Moreover, we investigated whether this interaction of subliminally and consciously induced response conflicts was due to a nexus between the two types of conflict like a common cognitive process or factor...
October 21, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899170/confabulation-developing-the-emotion-dysregulation-hypothesis
#19
REVIEW
Oliver H Turnbull, Christian E Salas
Confabulations offer unique opportunities for establishing the neurobiological basis of delusional thinking. As regards causal factors, a review of the confabulation literature suggests that neither amnesia nor executive impairment can be the sole (or perhaps even the primary) cause of all delusional beliefs - though they may act in concert with other factors. A key perspective in the modern literature is that many delusions have an emotionally positive or 'wishful' element, that may serve to modulate or manage emotional experience...
October 19, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866038/separating-content-specific-retrieval-from-post-retrieval-processing
#20
Amie N Doidge, Lisa H Evans, Jane E Herron, Edward L Wilding
According to cortical reinstatement accounts, neural processes engaged at the time of encoding are re-engaged at the time of memory retrieval. The temporal precision of event-related potentials (ERPs) has been exploited to assess this possibility, and in this study ERPs were acquired while people made memory judgments to visually presented words encoded in two different ways. There were reliable differences between the scalp distributions of the signatures of successful retrieval of different contents from 300 to 1100 ms after stimulus presentation...
October 19, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
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