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Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30224160/how-to-get-by-with-half-a-loop-an-investigation-of-visual-and-auditory-codes-in-a-case-of-impaired-phonological-short-term-memory-pstm
#1
Jeremy J Tree, David Playfoot
In the field of cognitive neuropsychology of phonological short-term memory (pSTM), a key debate surrounds the issue of how impairment on tasks deemed to tap this system imply a dissociable phonological input and output buffer system, with the implication that impairments can be fractionated across disruption to separate functional components (Nickels, Howard & Best, 1997). This study presents CT, a conduction aphasic who showed no impairment on basic auditory discrimination tasks, but had very poor nonword repetition...
August 27, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30149964/a-paradox-of-apparent-brainless-behavior-the-time-course-of-compound-word-recognition
#2
Daniel Schmidtke, Victor Kuperman
A review of the behavioral and neurophysiological estimates of the time-course of compound word recognition brings to light a paradox whereby temporal activity associated with lexical variables in behavioral studies predates temporal activity of seemingly comparable lexical processing in neuroimaging studies. However, under the assumption that brain activity is a cause of behavior, the earliest reliable behavioral effect of a lexical variable must represent an upper temporal bound for the origin of that effect in the neural record...
August 7, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30213545/information-and-learning-in-processing-adjective-inflection
#3
Dušica Filipović Đurđević, Petar Milin
We investigated the processing of inflected Serbian adjective forms to bring together quantitative linguistic measures from two frameworks - information theory and discrimination learning. From each framework we derived several quantitative descriptions of an inflectional morphological system and fitted two separate regression models to the processing latencies that were elicited by inflected adjectival forms presented in a visual lexical decision task. The model, which was based on lexical distributional and information theory revealed a dynamic interplay of information...
August 6, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30170826/rtms-evidence-for-a-dissociation-in-short-term-memory-for-spoken-words-and-nonwords
#4
Nicola J Savill, Piers Cornelissen, Anja Pahor, Elizabeth Jefferies
Differing patterns of verbal short-term memory (STM) impairment have provided unique insights into the relationship between STM and broader language function. Lexicality effects (i.e., better recall for words than nonwords) are larger in patients with phonological deficits following left temporoparietal lesions, and smaller in patients with semantic impairment and anterior temporal damage, supporting linguistic accounts of STM. However, interpretation of these patient dissociations are complicated by (i) non-focal damage and (ii) confounding factors and secondary impairments...
August 6, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30165324/holistic-face-perception-is-impaired-in-developmental-prosopagnosia
#5
John Towler, Katie Fisher, Martin Eimer
Individuals with developmental prosopagnosia (DP) have severe difficulties recognising familiar faces. A current debate is whether these face recognition impairments derive from problems with face perception and in particular whether individuals with DP cannot utilize holistic representations of individual faces. To assess this hypothesis, we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) during a sequential face identity matching task where successively presented pairs of upright faces were either identical or differed with respect to their internal features, their external features, or both...
August 6, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30149965/the-role-of-complementary-learning-systems-in-learning-and-consolidation-in-a-quasi-regular-domain
#6
Jelena Mirković, Lydia Vinals, M G Gaskell
We examine the role of off-line memory consolidation processes in the learning and retention of a new quasi-regular linguistic system similar to the English past tense. Quasi-regular systems are characterized by a dominance of systematic, regular forms (e.g., walk-walked, jump-jumped) alongside a smaller number of high frequency irregulars (e.g., sit-sat, go-went), and are found across many cognitive domains, from spelling-sound mappings to inflectional morphology to semantic cognition. Participants were trained on the novel morphological system using an artificial language paradigm, and then tested after different delays...
August 1, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30219571/processing-number-and-length-in-the-parietal-cortex-sharing-resources-not-a-common-code
#7
Valentina Borghesani, Maria Dolores de Hevia, Arnaud Viarouge, Pedro Pinheiro-Chagas, Evelyn Eger, Manuela Piazza
A current intense discussion in numerical cognition concerns the relationship between the processing of numerosity and other non-numerical quantities. In particular, it is a matter of debate whether number and other quantities (e.g., size, length) are represented separately in the brain or whether they share a common generalized magnitude representation. We acquired high-resolution functional MRI data while adult subjects engaged in a magnitude comparison task involving either numerosity (i.e., which of the two sets has more elements?) or line length (i...
July 31, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30177399/decoding-the-processing-stages-of-mental-arithmetic-with-magnetoencephalography
#8
Pedro Pinheiro-Chagas, Manuela Piazza, Stanislas Dehaene
Elementary arithmetic is highly prevalent in our daily lives. However, despite decades of research, we are only beginning to understand how the brain solves simple calculations. Here, we applied machine learning techniques to magnetoencephalography (MEG) signals in an effort to decompose the successive processing stages and mental transformations underlying elementary arithmetic. Adults subjects verified single-digit addition and subtraction problems such as 3 + 2 = 9 in which each successive symbol was presented sequentially...
July 31, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30149236/cognitive-and-neural-markers-of-super-recognisers-face-processing-superiority-and-enhanced-cross-age-effect
#9
Elena Belanova, Josh P Davis, Trevor Thompson
Super-recognisers inhabit the extreme high end of an adult face processing ability spectrum in the population. While almost all research in this area has evaluated those with poor or mid-range abilities, evaluating whether super-recognisers' superiority generates distinct electrophysiological brain activity, and transcends to different age group faces (i.e., children's) is important for enhancing theoretical understanding of normal and impaired face processing. It may also be crucial for policing, as super-recognisers may be deployed to operations involving child identification and protection...
July 31, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30142573/anodal-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-of-the-right-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-impairs-long-term-retention-of-reencountered-memories
#10
Miklós Marián, Ágnes Szőllősi, Mihály Racsmány
Repeated encounter with encoded memories is often a fundamental component of long-term learning processes, however, the role of repeated access to encoded memories in long-term consolidation is yet to be clarified. Here we investigated whether the long-term retention of newly acquired associative memories is affected if one of the central areas of the attentional control network is stimulated before or after repeated access to acquired information. Non-clinical participants (undergraduate students, N = 118) were exposed to an associative verbal learning task...
July 31, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30130634/specific-differences-in-temporal-binding-aspects-of-the-attentional-blink-in-chromosome-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome
#11
Justin Kopec, Natalie Russo, Kevin M Antshel, Wanda Fremont, Wendy R Kates
Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11DS) is a genetic syndrome characterized by a variety of cognitive impairments, including difficulty with attention. 22q11DS is the strongest known genetic risk factor for developing schizophrenia, a disorder characterized by impairments in visual attention and temporal binding processes. Here we examine a specific temporal visual attention phenomenon (the attentional blink; AB) within two rapid serial visual presentation tasks, and compare those with 22q11DS to groups of typically developing individuals matched on chronological (CA) and mental age (MA)...
July 31, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30130633/neural-signatures-of-inhibitory-control-in-bilingual-spoken-production
#12
Eleonora Rossi, Sharlene Newman, Judith F Kroll, Michele T Diaz
Bilinguals activate both languages when they intend to speak even one language alone (e.g., Kroll, Bobb, & Wodniekca, 2006). At the same time, they are able to select the language they intend to speak and switch back and forth between languages rapidly, with few production errors. Previous research utilizing behavioral (Linck, Kroll, & Sunderman, 2009) and neuroimaging techniques (ERPs and fMRI; Guo, Liu, Misra, & Kroll, 2011; Misra, Guo, Bobb, & Kroll, 2012) suggest that successful bilingual speech production is enabled by active inhibition of the language not in use...
July 31, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30126613/localization-of-an-epileptic-orgasmic-feeling-to-the-right-amygdala-using-intracranial-electrodes
#13
Laurence Chaton, Maxime Chochoi, Nicolas Reyns, Renaud Lopes, Philippe Derambure, William Szurhaj
The limbic system has well-known functions in the regulation of human emotions and behaviour in general and sexual behaviour in particular. However, it is not clear which components of the limbic system are involved in orgasmic feelings. Although orgasmic aura can be elicited by direct electrical stimulation of the right mesial temporal lobe, the location of spontaneous and isolated orgasmic auras have not yet been reported in the literature. Here, we report on the first case of spontaneous orgasmic aura associated with a discharge in the right amygdala, following an investigation with depth electrodes in a woman with temporal lobe epilepsy...
July 31, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30121445/the-cerebellar-topography-of-attention-sub-components-in-spinocerebellar-ataxia-type-2
#14
Michela Lupo, Giusy Olivito, Claudia Iacobacci, Silvia Clausi, Silvia Romano, Marcella Masciullo, Marco Molinari, Mara Cercignani, Marco Bozzali, Maria Leggio
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease characterized by a progressive cerebellar syndrome and multiple-domain cognitive impairments. The cerebellum is known to contribute to distinct functional networks related to higher-level functions. The aims of the present study were to investigate the different sub-components of attention and to analyse possible correlations between attention deficits and specific cerebellar regions in SCA2 patients. To this purpose, 11 SCA2 patients underwent an exhaustive attention battery that evaluated several attention sub-components...
July 31, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30086826/does-attenuated-divisive-normalization-affect-gaze-processing-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-commentary-on-palmer-et-al-2018
#15
Ari Rosenberg, Adhira Sunkara
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 31, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30195825/spread-of-activity-following-tms-is-related-to-intrinsic-resting-connectivity-to-the-salience-network-a-concurrent-tms-fmri-study
#16
Colin Hawco, Aristotle N Voineskos, Jennifer K E Steeves, Erin W Dickie, Joseph D Viviano, Jonathan Downar, Daniel M Blumberger, Zafiris J Daskalakis
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) modulates activity at local and regions distal to the site of simulation. TMS has also been found to modulate brain networks, and it has been hypothesized that functional connectivity may predict the neuronal changes at local and distal sites in response to a TMS pulse. However, a direct relationship between resting connectivity and change in TMS-induced brain activation has yet to be demonstrated. Concurrent TMS-fMRI is a technique to directly measure this spread activity following TMS in real time...
July 30, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30172097/perceptual-facilitation-of-word-recognition-through-motor-activation-during-sentence-comprehension
#17
Nicola Molinaro, Irene F Monsalve
Despite the growing literature on anticipatory language processing, the brain dynamics of this high-level predictive process are still unclear. In the present MEG study, we analyzed pre- and post-stimulus oscillatory activity time-locked to the reading of a target word. We experimentally contrasted the processing of the same target word following two highly constraining sentence contexts, in which the constraint was driven either by the semantic content or by the lexical association between words. Previous research suggests the presence of sensory facilitation for expected words in the latter condition but not in the former...
July 29, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30172096/shared-processes-resolve-competition-within-and-between-episodic-and-semantic-memory-evidence-from-patients-with-lifg-lesions
#18
Sara Stampacchia, Hannah E Thompson, Emily Ball, Upasana Nathaniel, Glyn Hallam, Jonathan Smallwood, Matthew A Lambon Ralph, Elizabeth Jefferies
Semantic cognition is supported by two interactive components: semantic representations and mechanisms that regulate retrieval (cf. 'semantic control'). Neuropsychological studies have revealed a clear dissociation between semantic and episodic memory. This study explores if the same dissociation holds for control processes that act on episodic and semantic memory, or whether both types of long-term memory are supported by the same executive mechanisms. We addressed this question in a case-series of semantic aphasic patients who had difficulty retrieving both verbal and non-verbal conceptual information in an appropriate fashion following infarcts to left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG)...
July 27, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30119895/tribute-to-glyn-w-humphreys-1954-2016
#19
EDITORIAL
Martin Edwards, Monika Harvey, Julie Snowden
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 26, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30121000/adaptive-coding-in-the-human-brain-distinct-object-features-are-encoded-by-overlapping-voxels-in-frontoparietal-cortex
#20
Jade B Jackson, Alexandra Woolgar
Our ability to flexibly switch between different tasks is a key component of cognitive control. Non-human primate (NHP) studies (e.g., Freedman, Riesenhuber, Poggio, & Miller, 2001) have shown that prefrontal neurons are re-used across tasks, re-configuring their responses to code currently relevant information. In a similar vein, in the human brain, the "multiple demand" (MD) system is suggested to exert control by adjusting its responses, selectively processing information in line with our current goals (Duncan, 2010)...
July 25, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
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