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Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30017090/the-eye-s-mind-visual-imagination-neuroscience-and-the-humanities
#1
EDITORIAL
Adam Zeman, Matthew MacKisack, John Onians
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 5, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30001921/visual-imagination-and-the-narrative-image-parallelisms-between-art-history-and-neuroscience
#2
REVIEW
Gyöngyvér Horváth
Understanding visually presented stories requires intense effort from our visual imagination. Artists and theoreticians from the Renaissance onwards suggested various ways to depict stories, either to enhance their understanding and enjoyment, or to help adjust the depictions to the aesthetic ideas of the era. Alberti's concept of istoria, Leonardo's practice of visual stimulation, Lessing's advice on how to choose the most fruitful moment of a story relied both on personal experience and the scientific knowledge of the era...
June 30, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30005371/dorsal-and-ventral-visual-stream-contributions-to-preserved-reading-ability-in-patients-with-central-alexia
#3
Oscar M Aguilar, Sheila J Kerry, Jennifer T Crinion, Martina F Callaghan, Zoe V J Woodhead, Alexander P Leff
We investigated the role of the left temporo-parietal regions in supporting reading abilities of 23 patients with central alexia (CA). For the behavioural data, we employed principal components analysis (PCA), which identified two components: 'reading aloud' and 'reading for meaning'. Voxel-based morphometry of the PCA results showed an association between reading aloud and grey matter density in the left supramarginal gyrus, part of the dorsal visual stream. By contrast, reading for meaning was associated with a large cluster in the left ventral visual stream, from the collateral sulcus to the anterior temporal pole...
June 23, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30015056/resting-state-connectivity-after-visuo-motor-skill-learning-is-inversely-associated-with-offline-consolidation-in-parkinson-s-disease-and-healthy-controls
#4
Aurélie L Manuel, Nicolas Nicastro, Armin Schnider, Adrian G Guggisberg
Procedural memory refers to skills acquired through practice and depends on cortico-striatal and cortico-cerebellar circuits. These circuits are typically affected in Parkinson's disease (PD), leading to impaired skill learning, including defective offline consolidation, early in the course of the disease. Evidence points to a role of slow oscillations (<4 Hz) during sleep for offline consolidation. However recent studies showed consolidation over the course of the day, suggesting that consolidation may arise during wakefulness, too...
June 21, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30007863/building-words-and-phrases-in-the-left-temporal-lobe
#5
Graham Flick, Yohei Oseki, Amanda R Kaczmarek, Meera Al Kaabi, Alec Marantz, Liina Pylkkänen
A central part of knowing a language is the ability to combine basic linguistic units to form complex representations. While our neurobiological understanding of how words combine into larger structures has significantly advanced in recent years, the combinatory operations that build words themselves remain unknown. Are complex words such as tombstone and starlet built with the same mechanisms that construct phrases from words, such as grey stone or bright star? Here we addressed this with two magnetoencephalography (MEG) experiments, which simultaneously varied demands associated with phrasal composition, and the processing of morphological complexity in compound and suffixed nouns...
June 21, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006000/attentional-capture-by-incongruent-object-background-scenes-in-patients-with-alzheimer-disease
#6
Quentin Lenoble, Xavier Corveleyn, Sébastien Szaffarczyk, Florence Pasquier, Muriel Boucart
AIM: Object/background association is critical to understand the context of visual scenes but also in daily life tasks like object search. Patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) exhibit impairment in scene processing at different levels: perception, recognition, memory and spatial navigation. We explored whether patients with AD make use of contextual information in congruent and incongruent target/background conditions in three different saccadic choice tasks. EXPERIMENT: We recruited 36 participants (12 young, 12 patients with AD at a moderate stage and 12 age-matched controls)...
June 20, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30005370/diminished-facial-emg-responses-to-disgusting-scenes-and-happy-and-fearful-faces-in-huntington-s-disease
#7
Catarina C Kordsachia, Izelle Labuschagne, Sophie C Andrews, Julie C Stout
(Huntington's disease HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with impaired facial emotion recognition and altered subjective experience of emotion. These impairments likely result from the effects of the disease on underlying neurobiological mechanisms. Studies using self-report to examine emotional experiences have been ambiguous regarding whether experiences are diminished or exaggerated, possibly due to cognitive impairment and lack of insight in HD. To infer affective states more objectively and overcome the limitations of self-report, we used facial EMG to measure muscle responses to emotionally-evocative scenes...
June 7, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30005368/waiting-and-working-for-rewards-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-is-associated-with-steeper-delay-discounting-linked-to-amygdala-activation-but-not-with-steeper-effort-discounting
#8
Gabry W Mies, Ili Ma, Erik de Water, Jan K Buitelaar, Anouk Scheres
OBJECTIVE: Children and adolescents with ADHD have a relatively strong preference for smaller immediate rewards over larger delayed rewards (steep delay discounting). It is unknown whether such steep discounting of rewards is specific for delayed rewards, i.e., supporting the delay aversion account of ADHD, or whether it is also present for effortful rewards, i.e., representing general reward insensitivity. Therefore, this study examined behavioral and BOLD responses during delay discounting (DD) and effort discounting (ED) in ADHD...
June 7, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30001920/visual-and-linguistic-components-of-short-term-memory-generalized-neural-model-gnm-for-spoken-and-sign-languages
#9
REVIEW
Evie Malaia, Ronnie B Wilbur
The question of apparent discrepancies in short-term memory capacity for sign language and speech has long presented difficulties for the models of verbal working memory. While short-term memory (STM) capacity for spoken language spans up to 7 ± 2 items, the verbal working memory capacity for sign languages appears to be lower at 5 ± 2. The assumption that both auditory and visual communication (sign language) rely on the same memory buffers led to the claims of impairment of STM buffers in sign language users...
June 7, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29961540/white-matter-neuro-plasticity-in-mental-arithmetic-changes-in-hippocampal-connectivity-following-arithmetic-drill-training
#10
Elise Klein, Klaus Willmes, Silke M Bieck, Johannes Bloechle, Korbinian Moeller
Verbally-mediated arithmetic fact retrieval has been suggested to be subserved by a left-lateralized network including angular gyrus and hippocampus. However, the contribution of these areas to retrieval of arithmetic facts has been under debate lately, challenging the prominent role of the angular gyrus in arithmetic fact retrieval. In the present study, we evaluated changes in structural connectivity of left hippocampus and left angular gyrus in 32 participants following a short extensive drill training of complex multiplication...
June 7, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30005369/reaffirming-the-link-between-chronic-phantom-limb-pain-and-maintained-missing-hand-representation
#11
Sanne Kikkert, Heidi Johansen-Berg, Irene Tracey, Tamar R Makin
Phantom limb pain (PLP) is commonly considered to be a result of maladaptive brain plasticity. This model proposes that PLP is mainly caused by reorganisation in the primary somatosensory cortex, presumably characterised by functional degradation of the missing hand representation and remapping of other body part representations. In the current study, we replicate our previous results by showing that chronic PLP correlates with maintained representation of the missing hand in the primary sensorimotor missing hand cortex...
May 31, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929930/lexico-syntactic-features-are-activated-but-not-selected-in-bare-noun-production-electrophysiological-evidence-from-overt-picture-naming
#12
Man Wang, Yiya Chen, Niels O Schiller
To produce a word, speakers need to retrieve the lexico-syntactic representation of the word and encode the phonological form for articulation. It is not precisely known yet if a word's syntactic features (e.g., number, gender, etc.) are automatically activated and selected in bare noun production. Cubelli, Lotto, Paolieri, Girelli, and Job (2005) proposed that only in languages that have a complex morphological structure (e.g., Italian), the selection of grammatical gender is required. In languages with a relatively simpler morphological structure, the selection of grammatical gender is by-passed...
May 31, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29941299/the-phonological-loop-as-a-buffer-store-an-update
#13
REVIEW
Alan D Baddeley, Graham J Hitch
We regard our multicomponent model of working memory as reflecting a hierarchy of buffer stores with buffer storage providing an effective way of combining information from two or more streams that may differ in either the speed of input or in the features coded. We illustrate this through the case of the phonological loop component of the model. We discuss its gradual development through a combination of evidence from mainstream cognition and neuropsychology with the need for more detailed modelling of issues such as the representation of serial order...
May 30, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29940399/representing-the-location-of-manipulable-objects-in-shape-selective-occipitotemporal-cortex-beyond-retinotopic-reference-frames
#14
Regine Zopf, Marina Butko, Alexandra Woolgar, Mark A Williams, Anina N Rich
When interacting with objects, we have to represent their location relative to our bodies. To facilitate bodily reactions, location may be encoded in the brain not just with respect to the retina (retinotopic reference frame), but also in relation to the head, trunk or arm (collectively spatiotopic reference frames). While spatiotopic reference frames for location encoding can be found in brain areas for action planning, such as parietal areas, there is debate about the existence of spatiotopic reference frames in higher-level occipitotemporal visual areas...
May 25, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921421/hemispheric-asymmetries-in-the-human-cerebellum
#15
Dennis J L G Schutter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 25, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29886221/anticipating-actions-and-corticospinal-excitability-a-preregistered-motor-tms-experiment
#16
Oliver Genschow, Lara Bardi, Marcel Brass
Past research on action observation and imitation suggests that observing a movement activates a corresponding motor representation in the observer. However, recent research suggests that individuals may not only reflexively simulate the observed behavior but also simulate and engage in anticipated action without another person actually engaging in it. For example, it has been demonstrated that observing a triggering event (i.e., nose wrinkling) that potentially leads to the anticipation of an action (i.e., nose scratching) increases the likelihood that the observer will perform that action...
May 25, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30001919/separate-mechanisms-for-number-reading-and-word-reading-evidence-from-selective-impairments
#17
Dror Dotan, Naama Friedmann
Do number reading and word reading use the same cognitive mechanisms? We examined this question through the looking glass of dissociations between impairments in number and word reading. We report two women with selective deficits in number reading, who read words normally. An examination of their impairment pattern indicated that the specific locus of their number reading deficits is in processes that handle the number's structure: both were impaired in parsing a digit string into triplets, and one of them was also impaired in generating the number's verbal structure...
May 23, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29961539/the-left-cradling-bias-an-evolutionary-facilitator-of-social-cognition
#18
Gillian S Forrester, Rachael Davis, Denis Mareschal, Gianluca Malatesta, Brenda K Todd
A robust left side cradling bias (LCB) in humans is argued to reflect an evolutionarily old left visual field bias and right hemisphere dominance for processing social stimuli. A left visual field bias for face processing, invoked via the LCB, is known to reflect a human population-level right cerebral hemisphere specialization for processing social stimuli. We explored the relationship between cradling side biases, hand dominance and socio-communicative abilities. Four and five year old typically-developing children (N = 98) participated in a battery of manual motor tasks interspersed by cradling trials comprising a(n): infant human doll, infant primate doll, proto-face pillow and no-face pillow...
May 21, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929061/hypervigilance-during-anxiety-and-selective-attention-during-fear-using-steady-state-visual-evoked-potentials-ssveps-to-disentangle-attention-mechanisms-during-predictable-and-unpredictable-threat
#19
Anna K Kastner-Dorn, Marta Andreatta, Paul Pauli, Matthias J Wieser
Anxiety is induced by unpredictable threat, and presumably characterized by enhanced vigilance. In contrast, fear is elicited by imminent threat, and leads to phasic responses with selective attention. In order to investigate attention mechanisms and defensive responding during fear and anxiety, we employed an adaptation of the NPU-threat test and measured cortical (steady-state visual evoked potentials, ssVEPs), physiological (heart rate, HR), and subjective responses (ratings) to predictable (fear-related) and unpredictable (anxiety-related) threat in 42 healthy participants...
May 21, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29803292/corrigendum-to-left-hemisphere-specialization-for-word-reading-potentially-causes-rather-than-results-from-a-left-lateralized-bias-for-high-spatial-frequency-visual-information-cortex-72-2015-27-39
#20
Alexandra Ossowski, Marlene Behrmann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 19, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
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