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Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807326/the-end-of-the-line-antagonistic-attentional-weightings-in-unilateral-neglect
#1
Robert D McIntosh
The line bisection task is widely used in the study of neglect. Some years ago, McIntosh, Schindler, Birchall, & Milner (2005) proposed a radical reframing of this ubiquitous task. Rather than using the traditional measure of directional bisection error, they quantified the sensitivities of the response to the changing locations of the left and right endpoints of the line, expressing these as 'endpoint weightings'. A novel prediction generated from their analysis was that manipulations increasing attention to the left end of the line should cause an increase in the left endpoint weighting and a corresponding reduction in the right endpoint weighting...
July 25, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806707/deviant-functional-activation-and-connectivity-of-the-right-insula-are-associated-with-lack-of-awareness-of-episodic-memory-impairment-in-nonamnesic-alcoholism
#2
Anne-Pascale Le Berre, Eva M Müller-Oehring, Tilman Schulte, Matthew R Serventi, Adolf Pfefferbaum, Edith V Sullivan
A disorder of metamemory, expressed as unawareness of mnemonic ability, is typically associated with the profound amnesia of Korsakoff's Syndrome (KS). A similar but less severe type of limited awareness can also occur in non-KS alcoholism and is observed as an impairment in generating Feeling-of-Knowing (FOK) predictions about future recognition performance. We previously found that FOK accuracy was selectively related to volumes of the insula in alcoholics involved in the present study. Unknown, however, are the neural substrates of unawareness of memory impairment in alcoholism...
July 25, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802589/ventral-lateral-parietal-cortex-and-episodic-memory-retrieval
#3
REVIEW
Michael D Rugg, Danielle R King
With the advent of functional neuroimaging it quickly became apparent that successful episodic memory retrieval was consistently associated with enhanced activity in ventral lateral parietal cortex (VLPC), especially the left angular gyrus. Here, we selectively review recent neuropsychological and functional neuroimaging evidence relevant to the question of the functional significance of this activity. We argue that the balance of the evidence suggests that the angular gyrus supports the representation of retrieved episodic information, and that this likely reflects a more general role for the region in representing multi-modal and multi-domain information...
July 25, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797696/definition-source-monitoring
#4
Karen J Mitchell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 22, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28784568/bored-but-not-depleted-protective-inhibition-of-self-regulation-and-motivation-prism
#5
Mattie Tops
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 21, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806706/auditory-cortex-lesions-impair-contralateral-tone-pattern-detection-under-informational-masking
#6
Lisa Prilop, Alexander Gutschalk
Impaired hearing contralateral to unilateral auditory-cortex lesions is typically only observed under conditions of perceptual competition, such as dichotic presentation or speech in noise. It remains unclear, however, if the source of this effect is direct competition in frequency-specific neurons, or if enhanced processing load in more distant frequencies can also impair auditory detection. To evaluate this question, we studied a group of patients with unilateral auditory-cortex lesions (N = 14, six left-hemispheric (LH), eight right-hemispheric (RH); four females; age range 26-72 years) and a control group (N = 25; 15 females; age range 18-76 years) with a target-detection task in presence of a multi-tone masker, which can produce informational masking...
July 19, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801065/multimodal-mental-imagery
#7
REVIEW
Bence Nanay
When I am looking at my coffee machine that makes funny noises, this is an instance of multisensory perception - I perceive this event by means of both vision and audition. But very often we only receive sensory stimulation from a multisensory event by means of one sense modality, for example, when I hear the noisy coffee machine in the next room, that is, without seeing it. The aim of this paper is to bring together empirical findings about multimodal perception and empirical findings about (visual, auditory, tactile) mental imagery and argue that on occasions like this, we have multimodal mental imagery: perceptual processing in one sense modality (here: vision) that is triggered by sensory stimulation in another sense modality (here: audition)...
July 17, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764852/parkinson-s-disease-compromises-the-appraisal-of-action-meanings-evoked-by-naturalistic-texts
#8
Adolfo M García, Yamile Bocanegra, Elena Herrera, Leonardo Moreno, Jairo Carmona, Ana Baena, Francisco Lopera, David Pineda, Margherita Melloni, Agustina Legaz, Edinson Muñoz, Lucas Sedeño, Sandra Baez, Agustín Ibáñez
The linguistic profile of Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by difficulties in processing units which denote bodily movements. However, the available evidence has low ecological validity, as it stems from atomistic tasks which are never encountered in real life. Here, we assessed whether such deficits also occur for meanings evoked by context-rich narratives, considering patients with and without mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI and PD-nMCI, respectively) and matched controls for each group. Participants read two naturalistic stories (an action text and a neutral text) and responded to questions tapping the appraisal of verb-related and circumstantial information...
July 17, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801064/can-different-mechanisms-underpin-the-geschwind-syndrome-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-and-in-temporal-lobe-variant-of-frontotemporal-degeneration
#9
Guido Gainotti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 14, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779873/spatially-defined-motor-deficits-in-people-with-unilateral-complex-regional-pain-syndrome
#10
Emily J Reid, Felicity A Braithwaite, Sarah B Wallwork, Daniel Harvie, K Jane Chalmers, Charles Spence, Alberto Gallace, G Lorimer Moseley
OBJECTIVE: Spatially-defined disruption of autonomic and sensory function has been identified in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS). This study aimed to determine whether motor performance is also disrupted in a spatially-defined manner in people with CRPS. METHODS: Thirteen people with CRPS type 1 of the upper limb participated in two motor experiments. In Experiment 1 participants performed a circle drawing task that primarily tested motor accuracy. In Experiment 2 participants performed a button pressing task that tested motor co-ordination...
July 14, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779872/embodied-cognition-and-the-cerebellum-perspectives-from-the-dysmetria-of-thought-and-the-universal-cerebellar-transform-theories
#11
Xavier Guell, John D E Gabrieli, Jeremy D Schmahmann
In this report, we analyze the relationship between embodied cognition and current theories of the cerebellum, particularly the Dysmetria of Thought theory and the concept of the Universal Cerebellar Transform (UCT). First, we describe the UCT and the Dysmetria of Thought theories, highlight evidence supporting these hypotheses and discuss their mechanisms, functions and relevance. We then propose the following relationships. (i) The UCT strengthens embodied cognition because it provides an example of embodiment where the nature and intensity of the dependence between cognitive, affective and sensorimotor processes are defined...
July 14, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778012/polarity-specific-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-effects-on-object-selective-neural-responses-in-the-inferior-parietal-lobe
#12
Jorge Almeida, Ana R Martins, Fredrik Bergström, Lénia Amaral, Andreia Freixo, Ana Ganho-Ávila, Stephanie Kristensen, Dongha Lee, Joana Nogueira, Michaela Ruttorf
Neuromodulation techniques such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) are routinely used for treating neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders, and for enhancement of cognitive abilities. Recently, their effectiveness in modulating behavioral and neural responses has been questioned. Here we use excitatory and inhibitory tDCS prior to a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment to show that neural responses for an area's preferred stimuli depend on the polarity of stimulation. This is an important, yet overlooked, data point in demonstrating the effectiveness of these stimulation techniques...
July 13, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768183/learning-and-using-knowledge-about-what-other-people-do-and-don-t-know-despite-amnesia
#13
Si On Yoon, Melissa C Duff, Sarah Brown-Schmidt
Successful communication requires keeping track of what other people do and do not know, and how this differs from our own knowledge. Here we ask how knowledge of what others know is stored in memory. We take a neuropsychological approach, comparing healthy adults to patients with severe declarative memory impairment (amnesia). We evaluate whether this memory impairment disrupts the ability to successfully acquire and use knowledge about what other people know when communicating with them. We tested participants in a referential communication task in which the participants described a series of abstract "tangram" images for a partner...
July 13, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759804/multidimensional-apathy-and-executive-dysfunction-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#14
Ratko Radakovic, Laura Stephenson, Judith Newton, Christopher Crockford, Robert Swingler, Siddharthan Chandran, Sharon Abrahams
Apathy and cognitive dysfunction are prominent symptoms of Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). More specifically ALS patients show increased Initiation apathy-a lack of motivation for self-generation of thoughts as assessed by the Dimensional Apathy Scale. This study aimed to investigate the cognitive underpinnings of apathy subtypes in ALS. We hypothesized that increased Initiation apathy would be associated deficits on tests of intrinsic response generation, such as verbal fluency. We also explored the relationship of other apathy subtypes to cognitive processes, in particular emotional apathy with emotional and social cognition deficits and executive apathy with planning and goal management deficits...
July 13, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759803/no-evidential-value-in-samples-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-tdcs-studies-of-cognition-and-working-memory-in-healthy-populations
#15
Jared Medina, Samuel Cason
A substantial number of studies have been published over the last decade, claiming that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can influence performance on cognitive tasks. However, there is some skepticism regarding the efficacy of tDCS, and evidence from meta-analyses are mixed. One major weakness of these meta-analyses is that they only examine outcomes in published studies. Given biases towards publishing positive results in the scientific literature, there may be a substantial "file-drawer" of unpublished negative results in the tDCS literature...
July 13, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759802/color-vision-predicts-processing-modes-of-goal-activation-during-action-cascading
#16
Bryant J Jongkees, Laura Steenbergen, Lorenza S Colzato
One of the most important functions of cognitive control is action cascading: the ability to cope with multiple response options when confronted with various task goals. A recent study implicates a key role for dopamine (DA) in this process, suggesting higher D1 efficiency shifts the action cascading strategy toward a more serial processing mode, whereas higher D2 efficiency promotes a shift in the opposite direction by inducing a more parallel processing mode (Stock, Arning, Epplen, & Beste, 2014). Given that DA is found in high concentration in the retina and modulation of retinal DA release displays characteristics of D2-receptors (Peters, Schweibold, Przuntek, & Müller, 2000), color vision discrimination might serve as an index of D2 efficiency...
July 13, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757149/motivation-and-short-term-memory-in-visual-search-attention-s-accelerator-revisited
#17
Daniel Schneider, Claudia Bonmassar, Clayton Hickey
A cue indicating the possibility of cash reward will cause participants to perform memory-based visual search more efficiently. A recent study has suggested that this performance benefit might reflect the use of multiple memory systems: when needed, participants may maintain the to-be-remembered object in both long-term and short-term visual memory, with this redundancy benefitting target identification during search (Reinhart, McClenahan & Woodman, 2016). Here we test this compelling hypothesis. We had participants complete a memory-based visual search task involving a reward cue that either preceded presentation of the to-be-remembered target (pre-cue) or followed it (retro-cue)...
July 13, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754271/afferent-cardiac-signals-modulate-attentional-engagement-to-low-spatial-frequency-fearful-faces
#18
Ruben T Azevedo, Deborah Badoud, Manos Tsakiris
Despite the growing consensus that the continuous dynamic cortical representations of internal bodily states shape the subjective experience of emotions, physiological arousal is typically considered only a consequence and rarely a determinant of the emotional experience. Recent experimental approaches study how afferent autonomic signals from the heart modulate the processing of sensory information by focussing on the phasic properties of arterial baroreceptor firing that is active during cardiac systole and quiescent during cardiac diastole...
July 4, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734549/habitual-versus-goal-driven-attention
#19
REVIEW
Yuhong V Jiang
Recent research has expanded the list of factors that control spatial attention. Beside current goals and perceptual salience, statistical learning, reward, motivation and emotion also affect attention. But do these various factors influence spatial attention in the same manner, as suggested by the integrated framework of attention, or do they target different aspects of spatial attention? Here I present evidence that the control of attention may be implemented in two ways. Whereas current goals typically modulate where in space attention is prioritized, search habits affect how one moves attention in space...
July 4, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759805/common-and-distinct-neural-mechanisms-associated-with-the-conscious-experience-of-vicarious-pain
#20
Thomas Grice-Jackson, Hugo D Critchley, Michael J Banissy, Jamie Ward
Vicarious pain perception has been an influential paradigm for investigating the social neuroscience of empathy. This research has highlighted the importance of both shared representations (i.e., involved in both experiencing first-hand physical pain and observing pain) and mechanisms that discriminate between self and other. The majority of this research has been conducted in healthy younger adults using a group-average approach. There are, however, known inter-individual differences that can contribute to vicarious experience...
July 3, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
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