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Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324696/online-neural-monitoring-of-statistical-learning
#1
Laura J Batterink, Ken A Paller
The extraction of patterns in the environment plays a critical role in many types of human learning, from motor skills to language acquisition. This process is known as statistical learning. Here we propose that statistical learning has two dissociable components: (1) perceptual binding of individual stimulus units into integrated composites and (2) storing those integrated representations for later use. Statistical learning is typically assessed using post-learning tasks, such that the two components are conflated...
February 24, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324695/imagining-the-future-the-core-episodic-simulation-network-dissociates-as-a-function-of-timecourse-and-the-amount-of-simulated-information
#2
Preston P Thakral, Roland G Benoit, Daniel L Schacter
Neuroimaging data indicate that episodic memory (i.e., remembering specific past experiences) and episodic simulation (i.e., imagining specific future experiences) are associated with enhanced activity in a common set of neural regions, often referred to as the core network. This network comprises the hippocampus, parahippocampal cortex, lateral and medial parietal cortex, lateral temporal cortex, and medial prefrontal cortex. Evidence for a core network has been taken as support for the idea that episodic memory and episodic simulation are supported by common processes...
February 24, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318498/false-memory-for-context-and-true-memory-for-context-similarly-activate-the-parahippocampal-cortex
#3
Jessica M Karanian, Scott D Slotnick
The role of the parahippocampal cortex is currently a topic of debate. One view posits that the parahippocampal cortex specifically processes spatial layouts and sensory details (i.e., the visual-spatial processing view). In contrast, the other view posits that the parahippocampal cortex more generally processes spatial and non-spatial contexts (i.e., the general contextual processing view). A large number of studies have found that true memories activate the parahippocampal cortex to a greater degree than false memories, which would appear to support the visual-spatial processing view as true memories are typically associated with greater visual-spatial detail than false memories...
February 24, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292462/source-monitoring-in-korsakoff-s-syndrome-did-i-touch-the-toothbrush-or-did-i-imagine-doing-so
#4
Mohamad El Haj, Jean Louis Nandrino, Yann Coello, Ralph Miller, Pascal Antoine
There is a body of research suggesting compromised ability to distinguish between different external sources of information (i.e., external monitoring) in Korsakoff's syndrome. Here we replicate and extend this literature by assessing the ability of patients with Korsakoff's syndrome to distinguish between different external sources of information (i.e., external monitoring), between internal and external sources of information (i.e., reality monitoring), and between different internal sources of information (i...
February 24, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325499/the-dorsal-language-pathways-in-stuttering-response-to-commentary
#5
Vered Kronfeld-Duenias, Ofer Amir, Ruth Ezrati-Vinacour, Oren Civier, Michal Ben-Shachar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 20, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292705/prefrontal-and-parietal-correlates-of-cognitive-control-related-to-the-adult-outcome-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-diagnosed-in-childhood
#6
Kurt P Schulz, Xiaobo Li, Suzanne M Clerkin, Jin Fan, Olga G Berwid, Jeffrey H Newcorn, Jeffrey M Halperin
The protracted and highly variable development of prefrontal cortex regions that support cognitive control has been purported to shape the adult outcome of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This neurodevelopmental model was tested in a prospectively followed sample of 27 adult probands who were diagnosed with ADHD in childhood and 28 carefully matched comparison subjects aged 21-28 years. Probands were classified with persistent ADHD or remitted ADHD. Behavioral and neural responses to the Stimulus and Response Conflict Task (SRCT) performed during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) were compared in probands and comparison subjects and in probands with persistent and remitted ADHD...
February 20, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285718/does-early-blindness-significantly-enhance-arithmetic-yes-it-does-a-reply-to-fischer-s-commentary
#7
Valérie Dormal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 20, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282570/paradoxical-vocal-changes-in-a-trained-singer-by-focally-cooling-the-right-superior-temporal-gyrus
#8
Kalman A Katlowitz, Hiroyuki Oya, Matthew A Howard, Jeremy D W Greenlee, Michael A Long
The production and perception of music is preferentially mediated by cortical areas within the right hemisphere, but little is known about how these brain regions individually contribute to this process. In an experienced singer undergoing awake craniotomy, we demonstrated that direct electrical stimulation to a portion of the right posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG) selectively interrupted singing but not speaking. We then focally cooled this region to modulate its activity during vocalization. In contrast to similar manipulations in left hemisphere speech production regions, pSTG cooling did not elicit any changes in vocal timing or quality...
February 20, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236435/corrigendum-to-an-in-depth-cognitive-examination-of-individuals-with-superior-face-recognition-skills-cortex-82-2016-48-62
#9
Anna K Bobak, Rachel J Bennetts, Benjamin A Parris, Ashok Jansari, Sarah Bate
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 20, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284489/roll-up-roll-up
#10
EDITORIAL
Sergio Della Sala
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 17, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242496/multimodal-representations-of-person-identity-individuated-with-fmri
#11
Stefano Anzellotti, Alfonso Caramazza
Recognizing the identity of a person is fundamental to guide social interactions. We can recognize the identity of a person looking at her face, but also listening to her voice. An important question concerns how visual and auditory information come together, enabling us to recognize identity independently of the modality of the stimulus. This study reports converging evidence across univariate contrasts and multivariate classification showing that the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), previously known to encode polymodal visual and auditory representations, encodes information about person identity with invariance within and across modality...
February 7, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259055/hypothalamic-tumors-impact-gray-and-white-matter-volumes-in-fronto-limbic-brain-areas
#12
Jale Özyurt, Hermann L Müller, Monika Warmuth-Metz, Christiane M Thiel
Patients with hypothalamic involvement of a sellar/parasellar tumor often suffer from cognitive and social-emotional deficits that a lesion in the hypothalamus cannot fully explain. It is conceivable that these deficits are partly due to distal changes in hypothalamic networks, evolving secondary to a focal lesion. Focusing on childhood-onset craniopharyngioma patients, we aimed at investigating the impact of hypothalamic lesions on gray and white matter areas densely connected to the hypothalamus, and to relate structural changes to neuropsychological deficits frequently observed in patients...
February 3, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258716/functional-interactions-between-the-macaque-dorsal-and-ventral-visual-pathways-during-three-dimensional-object-vision
#13
REVIEW
Peter Janssen, Bram-Ernst Verhoef, Elsie Premereur
The division of labor between the dorsal and the ventral visual stream in the primate brain has inspired numerous studies on the visual system in humans and in nonhuman primates. However, how and under which circumstances the two visual streams interact is still poorly understood. Here we review evidence from anatomy, modelling, electrophysiology, electrical microstimulation (EM), reversible inactivation and functional imaging in the macaque monkey aimed at clarifying at which levels in the hierarchy of visual areas the two streams interact, and what type of information might be exchanged between the two streams during three-dimensional (3D) object viewing...
February 3, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256199/cross-cultural-differences-in-the-neural-correlates-of-specific-and-general-recognition
#14
Laura E Paige, John C Ksander, Hunter A Johndro, Angela H Gutchess
Research suggests that culture influences how people perceive the world, which extends to memory specificity, or how much perceptual detail is remembered. The present study investigated cross-cultural differences (Americans vs East Asians) at the time of encoding in the neural correlates of specific versus general memory formation. Participants encoded photos of everyday items in the scanner and 48 h later completed a surprise recognition test. The recognition test consisted of same (i.e., previously seen in scanner), similar (i...
February 3, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245935/the-use-of-metacognitive-strategies-to-decrease-false-memories-in-source-monitoring-in-patients-with-mild-cognitive-impairment
#15
Rebecca G Deason, Neil A Nadkarni, Michelle J Tat, Sean Flannery, Bruno Frustace, Brandon A Ally, Andrew E Budson
Patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) often demonstrate high rates of false memories, leading to stressful and frustrating situations for both patients and caregivers in everyday life. Sometimes these false memories are due to failures in monitoring the source of the information. In the current study, we examined interventions aimed to enhance the use of the metacognitive "recall-to-reject" memory strategy. Such interventions could improve source memory and decrease false memory in patients with MCI...
February 3, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237888/cognitive-fatigue-a-time-based-resource-sharing-account
#16
Guillermo Borragán, Hichem Slama, Mario Bartolomei, Philippe Peigneux
Cognitive Fatigue (CF) is an important confound impacting cognitive performance. How CF is triggered and what are the features that make a cognitive effort perceived as exhausting remain unclear. In the theoretical framework of the Time-based Resource-sharing (TBRS) model (Barrouillet et al., 2004), we hypothesized that CF is an outcome of increased cognitive load due to constrained time to process ongoing cognitive demands. We tested this cognitive load-related CF hypothesis across 2 experiments manipulating both task complexity and cognitive load induced by the processing time interval...
February 3, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237686/age-related-changes-in-neural-oscillations-supporting-context-memory-retrieval
#17
Jonathan Strunk, Taylor James, Jason Arndt, Audrey Duarte
Recent evidence suggests that directing attention toward single item-context associations during encoding improves young and older adults' context memory performance and reduces demands on executive functions during retrieval. In everyday situations, there are many event features competing for our attention, and our ability to successfully recover those details may depend on our ability to ignore others. Failures of selective attention may contribute to older adults' context memory impairments. In the current electroencephalogram (EEG) study, we assessed the effects of age on processes supporting successful context memory retrieval of selectively attended features as indexed by neural oscillations...
February 3, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284488/agnosic-vision-is-like-peripheral-vision-which-is-limited-by-crowding
#18
Francesca Strappini, Denis G Pelli, Enrico Di Pace, Marialuisa Martelli
Visual agnosia is a neuropsychological impairment of visual object recognition despite near-normal acuity and visual fields. A century of research has provided only a rudimentary account of the functional damage underlying this deficit. We find that the object-recognition ability of agnosic patients viewing an object directly is like that of normally-sighted observers viewing it indirectly, with peripheral vision. Thus, agnosic vision is like peripheral vision. We obtained 14 visual-object-recognition tests that are commonly used for diagnosis of visual agnosia...
February 1, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236751/perirhinal-cortex-tracks-degree-of-recent-as-well-as-cumulative-lifetime-experience-with-object-concepts
#19
Devin Duke, Chris B Martin, Ben Bowles, Ken McRae, Stefan Köhler
Evidence from numerous sources indicates that recognition of the prior occurrence of objects requires computations of perirhinal cortex (PrC) in the medial temporal lobe. Extant research has primarily probed recognition memory based on item exposure in a recent experimental study episode. Outside the laboratory, however, familiarity for objects typically accrues gradually with learning across many different episodic contexts, which can be distributed over a lifetime of experience. It is currently unknown whether PrC also tracks this cumulative lifetime experience with object concepts...
January 31, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226255/action-perception-as-hypothesis-testing
#20
Francesco Donnarumma, Marcello Costantini, Ettore Ambrosini, Karl Friston, Giovanni Pezzulo
We present a novel computational model that describes action perception as an active inferential process that combines motor prediction (the reuse of our own motor system to predict perceived movements) and hypothesis testing (the use of eye movements to disambiguate amongst hypotheses). The system uses a generative model of how (arm and hand) actions are performed to generate hypothesis-specific visual predictions, and directs saccades to the most informative places of the visual scene to test these predictions - and underlying hypotheses...
January 31, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
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