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Pediatric Research

Kathleen M Ennis, Laura V Dahl, Raghavendra B Rao, Michael K Georgieff
BACKGROUND: Fetal and neonatal brain iron content is compromised at the time of anemia, suggesting that screening for iron deficiency by measuring hemoglobin is inadequate to protect the brain. Reticulocyte hemoglobin (Ret-He) reflects iron-deficient (ID) erythropoiesis prior to anemia. METHODS: At postnatal day (P), 10 and 20 iron-sufficient rat pups were fostered to ID dams to produce a postnatal ID (PNID) group, which was compared to 20 iron-sufficient (IS) pups fostered by IS dams...
September 13, 2018: Pediatric Research
Richard P Wennberg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 12, 2018: Pediatric Research
Gemma B Scholes, Diana Zannino, Joshua Y Kausman, Michael M H Cheung
BACKGROUND: It is known that the heart is not the only organ affected in congenital heart disease (CHD); there is growth restriction of both the brain and the whole body. The protective mechanism of "the brain-sparing phenomenon" re-directs blood flow toward the growing brain in fetuses with CHD. We hypothesized that these changes would result in impaired fetal kidney growth. METHODS: The preoperative ultrasound measurements of kidney length were obtained retrospectively from 452 neonates requiring surgery for CHD...
September 11, 2018: Pediatric Research
Liesbeth Thewissen, Alexander Caicedo, Anneleen Dereymaeker, Sabine Van Huffel, Gunnar Naulaers, Karel Allegaert, Anne Smits
BACKGROUND: Despite increasing use of propofol in neonates, observations on cerebral effects are limited. AIM: To investigate cerebral autoregulation (CAR) and activity after propofol for endotracheal intubation in preterm neonates. METHODS: Twenty-two neonates received propofol before intubation as part of a published dose-finding study. Mean arterial blood pressure (MABP), near-infrared spectroscopy-derived cerebral oxygenation (rScO2 ), and amplitude-integrated electroencephalography (aEEG) were analyzed until 180 min after propofol...
September 10, 2018: Pediatric Research
Christopher J Rhee, Cristine Sortica da Costa, Topun Austin, Ken M Brady, Marek Czosnyka, Jennifer K Lee
Cerebrovascular pressure autoregulation is the physiologic mechanism that holds cerebral blood flow (CBF) relatively constant across changes in cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP). Cerebral vasoreactivity refers to the vasoconstriction and vasodilation that occur during fluctuations in arterial blood pressure (ABP) to maintain autoregulation. These are vital protective mechanisms of the brain. Impairments in pressure autoregulation increase the risk of brain injury and persistent neurologic disability. Autoregulation may be impaired during various neonatal disease states including prematurity, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), intraventricular hemorrhage, congenital cardiac disease, and infants requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)...
September 8, 2018: Pediatric Research
Eleanor J Molloy, Cynthia Beaer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 7, 2018: Pediatric Research
Ana Díez-Izquierdo, Pia Cassanello, Aurea Cartanyà, Núria Matilla-Santander, Albert Balaguer Santamaria, Jose M Martinez-Sanchez
INTRODUCTION: The knowledge and beliefs about what is thirdhand smoke (THS) are limited. Our objective is to characterize the knowledge and beliefs about THS in parents of children under 3 years old in Spain. METHODS: A cross-sectional study (n = 1406 parents) was conducted online in 2017. We collected information about the knowledge of THS given later, written information with the definition of THS, and asking about beliefs of the effects of THS on children's health...
September 7, 2018: Pediatric Research
Asami Takasaki, Keiichi Hirono, Yukiko Hata, Ce Wang, Masafumi Takeda, Jun K Yamashita, Bo Chang, Hideyuki Nakaoka, Mako Okabe, Nariaki Miyao, Kazuyoshi Saito, Keijiro Ibuki, Sayaka Ozawa, Michikazu Sekine, Naoki Yoshimura, Naoki Nishida, Neil E Bowles, Fukiko Ichida
BACKGROUND: Left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC) is a primary cardiomyopathy with heterogeneous genetic origins. The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of sarcomere gene variants in the pathogenesis and prognosis of LVNC. METHODS AND RESULTS: We screened 82 Japanese patients (0-35 years old), with a diagnosis of LVNC, for mutations in seven genes encoding sarcomere proteins, by direct DNA sequencing. We identified variants in a significant proportion of cases (27%), which were associated with poor prognosis (p = 0...
September 6, 2018: Pediatric Research
Scott A Rivkees, Valerie Opipari, Scott Denne
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 5, 2018: Pediatric Research
Joyce R Javier, Vivek Balasubramaniam
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 5, 2018: Pediatric Research
Sunni L Mumford, Edwina H Yeung
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 4, 2018: Pediatric Research
John Ibrahim, Vineet Bhandari
The definition of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) continues to be a challenging one. The evolution of the disease as well as its definition are discussed. Limitations of the current as well as newer suggested definitions of BPD are summarized. Recognition of the variability of the pulmonary phenotype is a critical aspect of the disease that needs to identified, utilizing biomarkers that will potentially better inform the next iteration of the definition of BPD.
September 4, 2018: Pediatric Research
Luciana Rigoli, Placido Bramanti, Chiara Di Bella, Filippo De Luca
The original version of this Article erroneously cropped part of the abstract. The abstract has now been corrected to read 'Wolfram syndrome 1 (WS1) is a rare autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disease characterized by diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, deafness, and other abnormalities. WS1 usually results in death before the age of 50 years. The pathogenesis of WS1 is ascribed to mutations of human WFS1 gene on chromosome 4p encoding a transmembrane protein called wolframin, which has physiological functions in membrane trafficking, secretion, processing, and/or regulation of ER calcium homeostasis...
August 31, 2018: Pediatric Research
Sarah B Mulkey, Adre J du Plessis
The central autonomic nervous system (ANS) is essential for maintaining cardiovascular and respiratory homeostasis in the newborn and has a critical role in supporting higher cortical functions. At birth, the central ANS is maturing and is vulnerable to adverse environmental and physiologic influences. Critical connections are formed early in development between the ANS and limbic system to integrate psychological and body responses. The Polyvagal Theory, developed by Stephen Porges, describes how modulation of the autonomic vagal impulse controls social responses and that a broad range of neuropsychiatric disorders may be due to impaired vagal balance, with either deficient vagal tone or excessive vagal reactivity...
August 30, 2018: Pediatric Research
Dandan Hu, Yilei Mao, Gang Xu, Wenjun Liao, Jinjun Ren, Huayu Yang, Jun Yang, Lejia Sun, Hongyu Chen, Wenda Wang, Yanan Wang, Xinting Sang, Xin Lu, Hongbing Zhang, Shouxian Zhong
BACKGROUND: Time-restricted feeding regimen (TRF), that is, no food consumption for 14-16 h during the light phase per day, attenuates the fattening traits and metabolic disorders in adults. This study aims to further investigate whether TRF would be protective against similar nutritional challenges in juvenile mice. METHODS: Mice in the experimental group were treated with TRF during the first 4 weeks (considered to be the childhood phase of mice) before switching to ad libitum (AD) feeding pattern as adults; the control group with all subjects sticks to AD mode...
August 28, 2018: Pediatric Research
Praveen Chandrasekharan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 24, 2018: Pediatric Research
Andre Felipe Fajardo, Curtis Sobchak, Yulia Shifrin, Jingyi Pan, Tanja Gonska, Jaques Belik
BACKGROUND: When compared with infant formula, human milk enhances gastric emptying in preterm infants. Hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) is present in large quantities in human milk that has an antimicrobial role for the mother and infant. In vitro adult rat studies suggest that H2 O2 facilitates gastric motor contraction. Hypothesizing that H2 O2 enhances gastric motility, we investigated its effects on the newborn rat stomach tissue. METHODS: Rat newborn and adult gastric fundic segments, or their smooth muscle cells, were used to evaluate the muscle response to H2 O2 exposure...
August 24, 2018: Pediatric Research
Youjin Li, Limin Zhu, Jie Chen, Ma Therese G Singson, Xiaoqing Rui, Niu Li, Lin Zhou, Jinfen Liu
BACKGROUND: Although cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) has been previously studied as risking infection and inflammatory responses, few studies evaluate the relationship of preoperative high total immunoglobulin E (tIgE) to outcomes in pediatric patients predisposed to atopy undergoing cardiac surgery with CPB. METHODS: Serum tIgE, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-10 (IL-10), IL-4, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), and T-helper type 1/2 (Th1/Th2) ratio were quantified in 104 pediatric patients who underwent surgical repair with CPB...
August 24, 2018: Pediatric Research
Anders Löfving, Magnus Domellöf, Lena Hellström-Westas, Ola Andersson
OBJECTIVES: Iron deficiency anemia in childhood is a serious public health problem worldwide. Reticulocyte hemoglobin content (Ret-He) is a novel biomarker of iron deficiency adopted for adults but there is a lack of reference intervals for Ret-He in infants. The aim of this study was to provide data from healthy infants. METHODS: Swedish infants (n = 456), born at term after normal pregnancies were included. Ret-He was measured at birth (umbilical cord sample), 48-72 h, 4 months, and 12 months...
August 23, 2018: Pediatric Research
Hannes Hudalla, Katinka Karenberg, Ruben-Jeremias Kuon, Johannes Pöschl, Raphaela Tschada, David Frommhold
BACKGROUND: A pro-inflammatory intrauterine milieu accounts for increased perinatal morbidity and mortality. We asked how maternal inflammation as seen in endotoxemia affects fetal leukocyte recruitment in vivo during late gestation. METHODS: Inflammation was induced in pregnant LysEGFP-mice by intraperitoneal LPS injection between gestational day 14 and 18 (E14-E18). After 20 h, intravital fluorescence microscopy was performed on fetal yolk sac venules to examine leukocyte rolling (number of rolling cells/min) and adhesion (>30 s)...
August 22, 2018: Pediatric Research
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