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Pediatric Research

Priya S Verghese
Successful renal transplantation is the optimal treatment for chronic kidney failure, but this was not always so for children. Beginning with the first kidney transplants in the 1950s, children experienced poorer patient and graft survival rates than adult patients. But over the last 6 decades, an improved understanding of the immune system which has steered pediatric multi-center clinical / pharmacokinetic and mechanistic studies that have sculpted our immunosuppression with markedly better patient and graft survivals...
October 12, 2016: Pediatric Research
Perrine Janiaud, Catherine Cornu, Audrey Lajoinie, Amina Djemli, Michel Cucherat, Behrouz Kassai
BACKGROUND: A potential larger perceived placebo effect in children compared with adults could influence the detection of the treatment effect and the extrapolation of the treatment benefit from adults to children. This study aims to explore this potential difference, using a meta-epidemiological approach. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was done to identify trials included in meta-analyses evaluating a drug intervention with separate data for adults and children...
October 12, 2016: Pediatric Research
Mohd Fareed, Mir Kaisar Ahmad, Malik Azeem Anwar, Mohammad Afzal
BACKGROUND: The aim of our study was to understand the relationship between consanguineous marriages and reproductive outcomes. METHODS: A total of 999 families were recruited from five Muslim populations of Jammu region. Family pedigrees were drawn to access the family history and inbreeding status in terms of coefficient of inbreeding (F). Fertility, mortality, secondary sex ratio, selection intensity, and lethal equivalents were measured using standard methods...
October 12, 2016: Pediatric Research
Mandar S Joshi, Kelsey A Montgomery, Peter J Giannone, John A Bauer, Mina H Hanna
Preterm birth is associated with increased risks of morbidity and mortality along with increased healthcare costs. Advances in medicine have enhanced survival for preterm infants but the overall incidences of major morbidities have changed very little. Abnormal renal development is an important consequence of premature birth. Acute kidney injury (AKI) in the neonatal period is multifactorial and may increase lifetime risk of chronic kidney disease.Traditional biomarkers in newborns suffer from considerable confounders, limiting their use for early identification of AKI...
October 10, 2016: Pediatric Research
Sutapa Khatua, Abby M Geltemeyer, Anand Gourishankar
Robert Heinrich Herman Koch, a German physician and microbiologist, received Nobel Prize in 1905 for identifying the specific causative agent of Tuberculosis. During his time it was believed that TB was an inherited disease. However he was convinced that the disease was caused by a bacterium and was infectious, tested his postulates using guinea pigs, and found the causative agent to be slow growing Mycobacterium Tuberculosis.TB is the second most common cause of death from infectious diseases after HIV/AIDS...
October 10, 2016: Pediatric Research
Smeeta Sardesai, Manoj Biniwale, Fiona Wertheimer, Arlene Garingo, Rangasamy Ramanathan
Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) due to surfactant deficiency is the most common cause of respiratory failure in preterm infants. Tremendous progress has been made since the original description that surfactant deficiency is the major cause of RDS. Surfactant therapy has been extensively studied in preterm infants and has been shown to significantly decrease air leaks and neonatal and infant mortality. Synthetic and animal-derived surfactants from bovine as well as porcine origin have been evaluated in randomized controlled trials...
October 5, 2016: Pediatric Research
Emily Riehm Meier, Angeli Rampersad
Once a fatal disease of childhood, more than 95% of patients born today with sickle cell disease (SCD) in developed countries are expected to survive into adulthood, largely because of improvements in supportive and preventive care (newborn screening, penicillin prophylaxis, transcranial Doppler (TCD) screening). Hydroxyurea (HU) therapy, the only oral medication currently available to prevent SCD complications, has become more widespread over the past 20 years. The NHLBI recommends that HU be offered to all patients with HbSS beginning at nine months of age, and the recently published Abnormal TCD with Transfusions Changing to HU (TWiTCH) trial has shown HU as an acceptable alternative to transfusion therapy for patients at high risk of stroke...
October 5, 2016: Pediatric Research
Barbara J Stoll
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 5, 2016: Pediatric Research
Lucky Jain
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 5, 2016: Pediatric Research
Andrew M South, Patricia A Nixon, Mark C Chappell, Debra I Diz, Gregory B Russell, Beverly M Snively, Hossam A Shaltout, James C Rose, T Michael O'Shea, Lisa K Washburn
BACKGROUND: Antenatal corticosteroid (ANCS) treatment hastens fetal lung maturity and improves survival of premature infants, but the long-term effects of ANCS are not well-described. Animal models suggest that ANCS increases the risk of cardiovascular disease through programmed changes in the renin-angiotensin (Ang)-aldosterone system (RAAS). We hypothesized that ANCS exposure alters the RAAS in adolescents born prematurely. METHODS: A cohort of 173 adolescents born prematurely was evaluated, of whom 92 were exposed to ANCS...
October 5, 2016: Pediatric Research
Luca Braccioli, Cobi J Heijnen, Paul J Coffer, Cora H Nijboer
BACKGROUND: Hypoxic-ischemic (HI) encephalopathy causes mortality and severe morbidity in neonates. Treatments with a therapeutic window >6 h are currently not available. Here, we explored whether delayed transplantation of allogenic neural stem cells (NSCs) at 10 d after HI could be a tool to repair HI brain injury and improve behavioral impairments. METHODS: HI was induced in 9-d-old mice. Animals received NSCs or vehicle intracranially in the hippocampus at 10 d post-HI...
October 5, 2016: Pediatric Research
Binzhi Tang, Dejian Wang, Maojun Li, Qing Wu, Qian Yang, Wei Shi, Changhui Chen
BACKGROUND: Hypoxia/ischemia (HI) brain injury is a common central nervous system insult in newborns. Studies have demonstrated bioactivity of ginsenoside Rg1 in increasing neural viability and promoting angiogenesis. However, there are few reports on roles of Rg1 in brain repair of neonatal HI, and the mechanisms involved are unclear. METHODS: a neonatal HI model was established by a modified Rice-Vannucci model (RVM) and pups received ginsenoside Rg1 or monosialotetrahexosyl ganglioside (GM1) treatment...
October 5, 2016: Pediatric Research
Sara F Michaliszyn, Lindsey A Sjaarda, Christina Scifres, Hyagriv Simhan, Silva A Arslanian
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of gestational weight gain (GWG) and infant feeding practices on infant growth parameters in infants from 6 to 24 mo of age. METHODS: Forty mother-infant pairs were recruited after delivery and followed up to 24 mo postpartum. GWG was calculated as prepregnancy weight subtracted from weight at delivery. Infant weight velocity was calculated as the change in weight between consecutive visits divided by the intervening time...
October 5, 2016: Pediatric Research
Patricia A Nixon, Lisa K Washburn, Thomas Michael O'Shea, Hossam A Shaltout, Gregory B Russell, Beverly M Snively, James C Rose
BACKGROUND: Reduced heart rate variability (HRV) suggests autonomic imbalance in the control of heart rate and is associated with unfavorable cardiometabolic outcomes. We examined whether antenatal corticosteroid (ANCS) exposure had long-term programming effects on HRV in adolescents born with very low birth weight (VLBW). METHODS: Follow-up study of a cohort of VLBW 14-y olds born between 1992 and 1996 with 50% exposed to ANCS. HRV in both the time and frequency domains using Nevrokard Software was determined from a 5-min electrocardiogram tracing...
October 5, 2016: Pediatric Research
Amira Bouzidi, Hamida Mesbah-Amroun, Aziza Boukercha, Fadila Benhassine, Réda Belboueb, Karima Berkouk, Wassila Messadi, Chafia Touil-Boukoffa
BACKGROUND: The multi-drug resistance gene (MDR1) has raised increasing interest as a susceptibility gene for Crohn's disease (CD). The role of MDR1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the predisposition and behavior of CD in the pediatric population is still elusive. Here, we investigated whether SNPs in MDR1 are associated with CD in Algerian pediatric patients. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted enrolling 47 pediatric CD patients and 100 controls...
October 5, 2016: Pediatric Research
Judit Bassols, Matteo Serino, Gemma Carreras-Badosa, Rémy Burcelin, Vincent Blasco-Baque, Abel Lopez-Bermejo, José-Manuel Fernandez-Real
BACKGROUND: The human microbiota is a modulator of the immune system. Variations in the placental microbiota could be related with pregnancy disorders. We profiled the placental microbiota and microbiome in women with gestational diabetes (GDM) and studied its relation to maternal metabolism and placental expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines. METHODS: Placental microbiota and microbiome and expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL10, TIMP3, ITGAX, and MRC1MR) were analyzed in placentas from women with GDM and from control women...
October 5, 2016: Pediatric Research
Yifei Huang, Zimeng Wang, Chunfang Jin, Lei Wang, Xuemei Zhang, Wenchun Xu, Yun Xiang, Wei Wang, Xiujing He, Yibing Yin, Yujuan He
BACKGROUND: The natural course of otitis media (OM) in most children is acute and self-limiting; however, approximately 10-20% of children can experience persistent or recurrent OM. Determining the host factors that influence outcome of OM will help us design better therapies. This study focused on the role of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in a pneumococcal OM mouse model. METHODS: The middle ears (MEs) of wild-type (WT) and TLR2(-/-) mice were inoculated with Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) serotype 19F via transbullar injection...
October 5, 2016: Pediatric Research
Thomas G Blanchard, Steven J Czinn
Establishment of Helicobacter pylori infection as an etiologic agent of peptic ulcer disease and other gastric pathologies marked a revolution in gastroenterology which spurred an enormous interest in gastric physiology and immunology research. The association was soon also demonstrated in children as well. Application of antimicrobial therapies have proven remarkably efficacious in eradicating H. pylori and curing pediatric patients of duodenal ulcers as well as gastritis, negating a lifetime of ineffective therapy and life-threatening disease...
October 4, 2016: Pediatric Research
Mouhammad Yabrodi, Christopher W Mastropietro
The management of hypoplastic left heart syndrome has changed substantially over the past four decades. In the 1970's, children with hypoplastic left heart syndrome could only be provided with supportive care. As a result, most of these unfortunate children died within the neonatal period. The advent of the Norwood procedure in the early 1980's has changed the prognosis for these children, and the majority now undergoing a series of three surgical stages that can support survival beyond the neonatal period and into early adulthood...
October 4, 2016: Pediatric Research
Colby L Day, Rita M Ryan
Despite the many advances in neonatology, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) continues to be a frustrating disease of prematurity. BPD is a disease which is defined oddly by its treatment rather than its pathophysiology, leading to frequently changing nomenclature which has widespread implications on our ability to both understand and follow the progression of BPD. As various treatment modalities for BPD were developed and a larger number of extremely preterm infants survived, the 'old' BPD based on lung injury from oxygen therapy and mechanical ventilation transitioned into a 'new' BPD focused more on the interruption of normal development...
September 28, 2016: Pediatric Research
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