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Pediatric Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140314/self-perceived-fatigue-in-adolescents-in-relation-to-body-composition-and-physical-outcomes
#1
Stijn Vantieghem, Ivan Bautmans, Jonathan Tresignie, Steven Provyn
BackgroundIncreased self-perceived fatigue (SpF) has already been identified in chronic conditions such as obesity, but it is also a growing problem in school-attending adolescents (±25%). This study tried to link body composition to SpF and physical activity/performance. Additionally, indicators for fatigue were determined.MethodsA total of 452 adolescents were recruited. Body composition was measured and physical activity, physical performance, and SpF were assessed. Based on the total SpF (Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory) outcomes, three groups were created: low fatigue (LF) medium fatigue (MF) and high fatigue (HF)...
November 15, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053704/hypoxic-renal-injury-in-newborns-with-abdominal-compartment-syndrome-clinical-and-experimental-study
#2
Dmitry Morozov, Olga Morozova, Dmitri Pervouchine, Lubov Severgina, Alexei Tsyplakov, Natalya Zakharova, Nikita Sushentsev, Larisa Maltseva, Ivan Budnik
BackgroundSurgical treatment for gastroschisis and congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) commonly leads to abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) associated with hypoxic renal injury. We hypothesized that measurement of urinary and serum concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), π-glutathione S-transferase (π-GST), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) may serve for noninvasive detection of hypoxic renal injury in such patients.MethodsIntra-abdominal pressure (IAP), renal excretory function, and the biomarker levels were analyzed before, 4, and 10 days after surgery...
November 15, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149103/human-hepatocyte-transplantation-for-liver-disease-current-status-and-future-perspectives
#3
REVIEW
Valeria Iansante, Ragai R Mitry, Céline Filippi, Emer Fitzpatrick, Anil Dhawan
Liver transplantation is the accepted treatment for patients with acute liver failure and liver-based metabolic disorders. However, donor organ shortage and lifelong need for immunosuppression are the main limitations to liver transplantation. In addition, loss of the native liver as target organ for future gene therapy for metabolic disorders limits the futuristic treatment options, resulting in the need for alternative therapeutic strategies. A potential alternative to liver transplantation is allogeneic hepatocyte transplantation...
November 14, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116239/validation-of-the-feverkidstool-and-procalcitonin-for-detecting-serious-bacterial-infections-in-febrile-children
#4
Ruud G Nijman, Yvonne Vergouwe, Henriëtte A Moll, Frank J Smit, Floor Weerkamp, Ewout W Steyerberg, Johan van der Lei, Yolanda B de Rijke, Rianne Oostenbrink
BackgroundTo validate the Feverkidstool, a prediction model consisting of clinical signs and symptoms and C-reactive protein (CRP) to identify serious bacterial infections (SBIs) in febrile children, and to determine the incremental diagnostic value of procalcitonin.MethodsThis prospective observational study that was carried out at two Dutch emergency departments included children with fever, aged 1 month to 16 years. The prediction models were developed with polytomous logistic regression differentiating "pneumonia" and "other SBIs" from "non-SBIs" using standardized, routinely collected data on clinical signs and symptoms, CRP, and procalcitonin...
November 8, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028220/pediatric-brain-repair-from-endogenous-neural-stem-cells-of-the-subventricular-zone
#5
REVIEW
Yusuke Niimi, Steven W Levison
There is great interest in the regenerative potential of the neural stem cells and progenitors that populate the germinal zones of the immature brain. Studies using animal models of pediatric brain injuries have provided a clearer understanding of the responses of these progenitors to injury. In this review, we have compared and contrasted the responses of the endogenous neural stem cells and progenitors of the subventricular zone in animal models of neonatal cerebral hypoxia-ischemia, neonatal stroke, congenital cardiac disease, and pediatric traumatic brain injury...
November 8, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091603/early-career-investigator-highlight-february
#6
Raissa Nobrega
Pediatric Research accepted article preview online, 01 November 2017. doi:10.1038/pr.2017.283.
November 1, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084196/multi-modality-neuromonitoring-in-severe-pediatric-traumatic-brain-injury-monitoring-pediatric-tbi
#7
REVIEW
Adam M H Young, Mathew R Guilfoyle, Joseph Donnelly, Peter Smielewski, Shruti Agarwal, Marek Czosnyka, Peter J Hutchinson
Each year, the annual hospitalization rates of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children in the US are 57.7 per 100 K less than 5 years of age and 23.1 per 100 K in the 5-14 year age group. Despite this, little is known about the pathophysiology of TBI in children and how to manage it most effectively. Historically, TBI management has been guided by clinical examination. This has been assisted progressively by clinical imaging, intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring and finally software that can calculate optimal brain physiology...
October 30, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072866/maternal-educational-status-at-birth-maternal-educational-advancement-and-neurocognitive-outcomes-at-age-10-years-among-children-born-extremely-preterm
#8
Robert M Joseph, Thomas M O'Shea, Elizabeth N Allred, Tim Heeren, Karl K Kuban
OBJECTIVE: To determine if a key marker of socioeconomic status (SES), maternal education, is associated with later neurocognitive and academic outcomes among children born extremely preterm (EP). METHOD: 873 children born at 23 to 27 weeks of gestation were assessed for cognitive and academic ability at age 10 years. With adjustments for gestational age (GA) and potential confounders, outcomes of children whose mothers had fewer years of education at the time of delivery and children whose mother advanced in education between birth and 10 years were examined...
October 26, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069075/research-in-the-sciences-of-improvement-implementation-and-pediatric-patient-safety
#9
Peter I Lachman
Pediatric Research accepted article preview online, 25 October 2017. doi:10.1038/pr.2017.282.
October 25, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069074/non-invasive-monitoring-of-brain-edema-after-hypoxia-in-newborn-piglets
#10
Shadi N Malaeb, Meltem Izzetoglu, Jane McGowan, Maria Delivoria-Papadopoulos
BACKGROUND: Development of cerebral edema after brain injury carries a high risk for brain damage and death. The present study tests the ability of a non-invasive cerebral edema monitoring system that uses near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) with water as the chromophore of interest to detect brain edema following hypoxia. METHODS: Ventilated piglets were exposed to hypoxia for 1 h, and then returned to normal oxygen levels for 4 h. A NIRS sensor was placed on the animal's head at baseline, and changes in light attenuation were converted to changes in H2O...
October 25, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068435/dimethyloxalylglycine-preserves-the-intestinal-microvasculature-and-protects-against-intestinal-injury-in-a-neonatal-mouse-nec-model-role-of-vegf-signaling
#11
Rakhee M Bowker, Xiaocai Yan, Elizabeth Managlia, Shirley X L Liu, Catherine Marek, Xiao-Di Tan, Isabelle G De Plaen
BackgroundNecrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating neonatal disease characterized by intestinal necrosis. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) has a critical role in cellular oxygen homeostasis. Here, we hypothesized that prolyl hydroxylase (PHD) inhibition, which stabilizes HIF-1α, protects against NEC by promoting intestinal endothelial cell proliferation and improving intestinal microvascular integrity via vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling.MethodsTo assess the role of PHD inhibition in a neonatal mouse NEC model, we administered dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG) or vehicle to pups before or during the NEC protocol, and determined mortality and incidence of severe intestinal injury...
October 25, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068434/prothrombotic-state-in-young-females-with-severe-early-onset-obesity
#12
Petra Loid, Satu Långström, Heli Viljakainen, Anne Mäkipernaa, Markku Heikinheimo, Outi Mäkitie
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 25, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068433/diet-and-exercise-interventions-for-pediatric-cancer-patients-during-therapy-tipping-the-scales-for-better-outcomes
#13
REVIEW
Keri L Schadler, Eugenie S Kleinerman, Joya Chandra
Obesity at diagnosis is a negative prognostic indicator for several pediatric cancers including acute leukemia and bone tumors. Incidence of obesity in children has increased three-fold over the past 2 decades, and causes for this include poor diet, excessive caloric intake, and lack of physical activity, which are collectively referred to as energy balance-related behaviors. Few energy balance interventions have been implemented in pediatric cancer patients during treatment, and here we will probe the rationale for pursuing such studies...
October 25, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949953/effects-of-probiotics-on-experimental-necrotizing-enterocolitis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
REVIEW
Gayatri Athalye-Jape, Shripada Rao, Sanjay Patole
BackgroundMeta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) suggest that probiotics decrease the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm infants. Many animal RCTs have evaluated probiotics for preventing NEC. We systematically reviewed the literature on this topic.MethodsThe protocol for systematic review of animal intervention studies (SYRCLE) was followed. Medline, Embase, ISI Web of Science, e-abstracts from the Pediatric Academic Society meetings, and other neonatal conferences were searched in December 2015 and August 2016...
October 25, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945702/mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-the-pathogenesis-and-treatment-of-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-a-clinical-review
#15
REVIEW
Ann A Simones, Daniel J Beisang, Angela Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Kari D Roberts
Advances in neonatal medicine have led to increased survival of infants born at the limits of viability, resulting in an increased incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). BPD is a chronic lung disease of premature infants characterized by the arrest of alveolarization, fibroblast activation, and inflammation. BPD leads to significant morbidity and mortality in the neonatal period and is one of the leading causes of chronic lung disease in children. The past decade has brought a surge of trials investigating cellular therapies for the treatment of pulmonary diseases...
October 25, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053705/vagus-nerve-stimulation-in-pregnant-rats-and-effects-on-inflammatory-markers-in-the-brainstem-of-neonates
#16
Allison Judkins, Rhaya L Johnson, Samuel T Murray, Steven Yellon, Christopher G Wilson
BackgroundVagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS) is an FDA-approved method delivering electrical impulses for treatment of depression and epilepsy in adults. The vagus nerve innervates the majority of visceral organs and cervix, but potential impacts of VNS on the progress of pregnancy and the fetus are not well studied.MethodsWe tested the hypothesis that VNS in pregnant dams does not induce inflammatory changes in the cardiorespiratory control regions of the pups' brainstem, potentially impacting the morbidity and mortality of offspring...
October 20, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053703/development-of-severe-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-is-associated-with-alterations-in-fecal-volatile-organic-compounds
#17
Daniel J C Berkhout, Hendrik J Niemarkt, Marc A Benninga, Andries E Budding, Anton H van Kaam, Boris W Kramer, Charlene M Pantophlet, Mirjam M van Weissenbruch, Nanne K H de Boer, Tim G J de Meij
BackgroundAim of this study was to evaluate the potential of fecal volatile organic compounds (VOC), obtained by means of an electronic nose device (Cyranose 320®), as early non-invasive biomarker for BPD.MethodsIn this nested case-control study performed at three Neonatal Intensive Care Units, fecal samples obtained at postnatal age of 7, 14, 21 and 28 days, from preterm infants with severe BPD, were compared with fecal VOC profiles from matched controls. Microbiota analysis was performed by means of IS-pro technique on fecal samples collected at 28 days postnatally...
October 20, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053702/the-effects-of-adding-prophylactic-phenobarbital-to-therapeutic-hypothermia-in-the-term-equivalent-hypoxic-ischemic-rat
#18
Sushma Krishna, Alexandra Hutton, Eric Aronowitz, Holly Moore, Susan J Vannucci
BackgroundHypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is the only available intervention, but neuroprotection is incomplete and variable. Seizures are common in infants with HIE undergoing TH and may worsen outcome. Phenobarbital is sometimes added, although use of prophylactic phenobarbital is controversial in the neonate. We hypothesize that prophylactic phenobarbital (PB) will not reduce, and may enhance, the neuroprotective effects of TH on brain injury and motor outcomes in the postnatal-day 10 (P10) hypoxic-ischemic (HI) rat...
October 20, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053701/marshall-klaus-the-impact-of-a-pioneer-in-neonatology
#19
Avroy A Fanaroff, Richard J Martin
Pediatric Research accepted article preview online, 20 October 2017. doi:10.1038/pr.2017.269.
October 20, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044227/accuracy-of-weight-estimation-by-the-broselow-tape-is-substantially-improved-by-including-a-visual-assessment-of-body-habitus
#20
Mike Wells, Lara Goldstein, Alison Bentley
BackgroundThe Broselow tape (BT) has been shown to estimate weight poorly primarily because of variations in body habitus. The manufacturers have suggested that a visual assessment of habitus may be used to increase its performance. This study evaluated the ability of habitus-modified models to improve the accuracy thereof.MethodsA post hoc analysis of prospectively collected data from four hospitals in Johannesburg, South Africa, on a population of 1,085 children. Sixteen a priori models generated a modified weight estimation or drug dose based on the BT weight and a gestalt assessment of habitus...
October 18, 2017: Pediatric Research
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