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Pediatric Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723888/association-between-supraclavicular-brown-adipose-tissue-composition-at-birth-and-adiposity-gain-from-birth-to-6-months-age
#1
Sonja Entringer, Jerod Rasmussen, Dan M Cooper, Satoru Ikenoue, Feizal Waffarn, Steven G Potkin, Pathik D Wadhwa, Claudia Buss
BACKGROUND: Brown Adipose Tissue (BAT) is associated with higher energy expenditure and lower adiposity in adults. However, the relationship between BAT composition and adiposity in early life is unknown. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that brown fat composition at birth is prospectively associated with adiposity gain during the first six months of postnatal life. METHODS: N=35 healthy infants were followed prospectively from intrauterine life and birth through 6 months age...
July 19, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723887/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-characterization-of-poractant-alfa-supplemented-with-budesonide-for-safe-and-effective-intratracheal-administration
#2
Francesca Ricci, Chiara Catozzi, Francesca Ravanetti, Xabier Murgia, Francesco D'Aló, Natalia Macchidani, Elisa Sgarbi, Valentina Di Lallo, Federica Saccani, Marisa Pertile, Antonio Cacchioli, Silvia Catinella, Gino Villetti, Maurizio Civelli, Francesco Amadei, Franco Stellari Fabio, Barbara Pioselli, Fabrizio Salomone
BACKGROUND: The intratracheal (IT) administration of budesonide using surfactant as a vehicle has been shown to reduce the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in preterm infants. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the in vitro characteristics and in vivo safety and efficacy of the extemporaneous combination of budesonide and poractant alfa. METHODS: The stability, minimum surface tension, and viscosity of the preparation were evaluated by means of HPLC, Wilhelmy balance, and Rheometer, respectively...
July 19, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723886/prolonged-viral-replication-and-longitudinal-viral-dynamic-differences-among-respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-infected-infants
#3
Monica E Brint, Joshua M Hughes, Aditya Shah, Chelsea R Miller, Lisa G Harrison, Elizabeth A Meals, Jacqueline Blanch, Charlotte R Thompson, Stephania A Cormier, John P DeVincenzo
BACKGROUND: Longitudinal RSV dynamics have not been well-studied despite existence of factors favoring prolonged RSV replication including: high mutation rates allowing rapid evolution and potential escape from immune control. We therefore measured viral load in previously RSV-naïve infants over prolonged time-spans. METHODS: During 2014-2015, quantitative nasal aspirates were collected from 51 RSV-PCR+ infants. Multiple parallel assessments of viral loads were quantified at each collected time point using a well-validated real-time qRT-PCR assay...
July 19, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723885/term-versus-preterm-cord-blood-cells-for-the-prevention-of-preterm-brain-injury
#4
Jingang Li, Tamara Yawno, Amy Sutherland, Jan Loose, Ilias Nitsos, Beth J Allison, Robert Bischof, Courtney A McDonald, Graham Jenkin, Suzanne L Miller
BACKGROUND: White matter brain injury in preterm infants can induce neurodevelopmental deficits. Umbilical cord blood (UCB) cells demonstrate neuroprotective properties, but it is unknown whether cells obtained from preterm versus term cord blood have similar efficacy. This study compared the ability of term cord blood (TCB) versus preterm cord blood (PCB) cells to reduce white matter injury in preterm fetal sheep. METHODS: Hypoxia-ischemia (HI) was induced in fetal sheep (0...
July 19, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708821/early-career-investigator-highlight-october
#5
Veerajalandhar Allareddy
Pediatric Research accepted article preview online, 14 July 2017. doi:10.1038/pr.2017.169.
July 14, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700570/environmental-health-reform-in-a-synthetic-world
#6
Shetal Shah, Shale Wong, Cynthia Bearer, Heather Brumberg
Pediatric Research accepted article preview online, 12 July 2017. doi:10.1038/pr.2017.168.
July 12, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700569/pediatric-use-of-tetracyclines-focus-on-neurodevelopmental-effects
#7
Ioana Inta, Georg F Hoffmann, Markus Bettendorf
Pediatric Research accepted article preview online, 12 July 2017. doi:10.1038/pr.2017.167.
July 12, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700568/neonatal-basal-ganglia-and-thalamic-volumes-very-preterm-birth-and-7-year-neurodevelopmental-outcomes
#8
Wai Yen Loh, Peter J Anderson, Jeanie L Y Cheong, Alicia J Spittle, Jian Chen, Katherine J Lee, Charlotte Molesworth, Terrie E Inder, A Connelly, Lex W Doyle, Deanne K Thompson
BACKGROUND: This study aims to (1) compare volumes of individual basal ganglia nuclei (caudate nucleus, pallidum, putamen) and the thalamus between very preterm (VP) and term-born infants at term-equivalent age; (2) explore neonatal basal ganglia and thalamic volume relationships with 7-year neurodevelopmental outcomes, and whether these relationships differed between VP and term-born children. METHODS: 210 VP (<30 weeks' gestational age) and 39 term-born (≥37 weeks' gestational age) infants underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging at term-equivalent age, and deep grey matter volumes of interest were automatically generated...
July 12, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700567/recombinant-ccn1-prevents-hyperoxia-induced-lung-injury-in-neonatal-rats
#9
Ruben Vaidya, Ronald Zambrano, Julia K Hummler, Shihua Luo, Matthew R Duncan, Karen Young, Lester F Lau, Shu Wu
BACKGROUND: Cystein rich protein 61 (Cyr61/CCN1) is a member of the CCN family of matricellular proteins that plays an improtant role in tissue development and remodeling. However, the role of CCN1 in in the pathogensis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is unknown. Accordingly, we have investigated the effects of CCN1 on a hyperoxia-induced lung injury model in neonatal rats. METHODS: In experiment 1: newborn rats were randomized to room air (RA) or 85% oxygen (O2) for 7 or 14 days and we assessed the expression of CCN1...
July 12, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700566/enhancing-pediatric-clinical-trial-feasibility-through-the-use-of-bayesian-statistics
#10
Robin A Huff, Jeff D Maca, Mala Puri, Earl W Seltzer
BACKGROUND: Pediatric clinical trials commonly experience recruitment challenges, including limited numbers of patients and investigators, inclusion/exclusion criteria that further reduce the patient pool, and a competitive research landscape created by pediatric regulatory commitments. To overcome these challenges, innovative approaches are needed. METHODS: This article explores the use of Bayesian statistics to improve pediatric trial feasibility, using pediatric type 2 diabetes as an example...
July 12, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700565/nasal-continuous-positive-airway-pressure-influences-bottle-feeding-in-preterm-lambs
#11
Nathalie Samson, Audrey Michaud, Rahmeh Othman, Charlène Nadeau, Stéphanie Nault, Danny Cantin, Michaël Sage, Céline Catelin, Jean-Paul Praud
BACKGROUND: In preterm infants, the time from initiation to full oral feeding can take weeks, which represents a very worrisome problem in neonatal medicine. Although current knowledge suggests that oral feeding should be introduced early, this is often delayed due to the need for prolonged nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP). Indeed, most caregivers fear that nCPAP could disrupt sucking-swallowing-breathing coordination and induce tracheal aspiration. The goal of the present study was to assess the impact of nCPAP delivered by the Infant Flow System on the physiology of sucking-swallowing-breathing coordination during bottle-feeding in preterm lambs over 24 h...
July 12, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700564/long-term-effects-of-adenotonsillectomy-on-serum-specific-immunoglobulin-e
#12
Lijuan Song, Jinfei Guo, Wenjing Liao, Peichang Ye, Li Liu, Tao Chen, Pingchang Yang, Nanshan Zhong, Baoqing Sun, Xiaowen Zhang
BACKGROUND: The biased immune reactions of the adenotonsillar tissues are not always reflected by the serum IgE; thus, we hypothesize that the systemic atopic status may not be changed after the adenotonsillectomy (AT) in children. METHODS: Twenty-five with AT and 23 age-matched healthy childrenwere enrolled into this study, followed-up approximately 4 years. Nasal Symptoms Scores (NSS), Quality of Life Scores (QOLS), specific IgE (sIgE), cytokines, and inflammatory cell were documented in all the subjects before and after study...
July 12, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700563/the-relationship-between-serum-levels-of-prolactin-and-growth-hormone-in-the-early-postnatal-period
#13
Jonathan Daliot, Tami Laron-Kenet, Mohammad Wattad, Anat Ben-Dor, Pearl Lilos, Zvi Laron
BACKGROUND: In the neonatal period, pituitary hormones including prolactin (PRL) and growth hormone (hGH) are secreted in high amounts due to immature feedback mechanisms. As both hormones are secreted in part by the same somatomammotrophic cells, we investigated their relationship in newborns in relation to sex, gestational week, method of delivery and anthropometric data. METHODS: Serum levels of PRL and hGH were measured in blood from 225 newborns. Newborn data were extracted from medical records...
July 12, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678772/poem-entitled-my-mother
#14
Saher Lalani
Pediatric Research accepted article preview online, 05 July 2017. doi:10.1038/pr.2017.158.
July 5, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678771/vitamin-d-status-is-associated-with-treatment-failure-and-duration-of-illness-in-nepalese-children-with-severe-pneumonia
#15
Johanne Haugen, Sudha Basnet, Ingrid M Hardang, Arun Sharma, Maria Mathisen, Prakash Shrestha, Palle Valentiner-Branth, Tor A Strand
BACKGROUND: There is no consensus on optimal Vitamin D status. The objective of this study was to estimate the extent to which vitamin D status predicts illness duration and treatment failure in children with severe pneumonia by using different cut-offs for vitamin D concentration. METHODS: We measured the plasma-concentration of 25(OH)D in 568 children hospitalized with WHO-defined severe pneumonia. The associations between vitamin D status, using the most frequently used cut-offs of vitamin D insufficiency (25(OH)D <50 and <75 nmol/l) and risk of treatment failure and time until recovery were analysed in multiple logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards models, respectively...
July 5, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678770/cardiometabolic-risk-factors-and-lactoferrin-polymorphisms-and-plasma-levels-in-french-canadian-children
#16
Valérie Marcil, Sylvain Mayeur, Benoît Lamarche, Jade England, Melanie Henderson, Edgard Delvin, Devendra Amre, Emile Levy
BACKGROUND: Lactoferrin (LTF) could play a beneficial role in insulin resistance and diabetes, but the association of its gene variants with cardio-metabolic disorders in children has not been investigated. This study aimed to examine the relationship between LTF variants, plasma LTF concentrations and cardio-metabolic risk factors in French Canadian children. METHODS: The study cohort comprised of 1,749 French Canadians aged 9, 13 and 16 years. The association of 13 LTF polymorphisms, metabolic parameters and plasma LTF levels was tested in this cross-sectional, province-wide school-based survey...
July 5, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678222/the-impact-of-intrauterine-and-extrauterine-weight-gain-in-premature-infants-on-later-body-composition
#17
Miguel Saenz de Pipaon, Izaskun Dorronsoro, Laura Álvarez-Cuervo, Nancy F Butte, Rosario Madero, Vicente Barrios, Juan Coya, Miriam Martínez-Biarge, Gabriel Á Martos-Moreno, Mary S Fewtrell, Jesús Argente, José Quero
BackgroundThe impact of intrauterine and extrauterine growth on later insulin resistance and fat mass (FM) in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants is not well established. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of intrauterine and early/late extrauterine growth on later insulin resistance and body composition in VLBW infants from 6 months' corrected age (CA) to 36 months.MethodsProspective measurements of body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and insulin resistance by homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) along with other fasting plasma biochemistries were made in 95 VLBW infants at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months' CA and 36 months' postnatal age...
July 5, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609430/polymorphisms-in-cyp2c9-are-associated-with-response-to-indomethacin-among-neonates-with-patent-ductus-arteriosus
#18
Caitlin J Smith, Kelli K Ryckman, Timothy M Bahr, John M Dagle
BackgroundPatent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a common complication seen in preterm infants. Indomethacin is routinely used to treat PDA. Evidence suggests that the response of indomethacin is highly heritable. This study investigated the association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CYP2C9 and the closure of PDA in response to indomethacin.MethodsSix SNPs in CYP2C9 were analyzed for association with indomethacin response. A case-control analysis was performed among neonates who responded to indomethacin (responders) and among those who required surgical ligation (non-responders)...
July 5, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665933/preventing-harmful-effects-of-epileptic-seizures-on-cerebrovascular-functions-in-newborn-pigs-does-sex-matter
#19
Jianxiong Liu, Massroor Pourcyrous, Alex L Fedinec, Charles W Leffler, Helena Parfenova
BACKGROUND: The potential contribution of sex-related variables to cerebrovascular functions in neonates remains elusive. Newborn piglets provide a translationally relevant model for studying the effects of seizures in the neonatal brain. The present study investigated whether sex differences contribute to cerebrovascular functions in healthy and epileptic newborn pigs. METHODS: Epileptic seizures were induced in female and male newborn pigs by bicuculline. An antioxidant drug, the carbon monoxide-releasing molecule CORM-A1, was administered enterally before or during seizures...
June 30, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665932/surfactant-phospholipid-composition-of-gastric-aspirate-samples-differs-between-male-and-female-very-preterm-infants
#20
Foula Sozo, Noreen Ishak, Risha Bhatia, Peter G Davis, Richard Harding
BACKGROUND: Among preterm infants, males have a greater incidence of respiratory distress and death than females born at the same gestational age, likely due to sex-related differences in lung maturation. Our aim was to determine whether surfactant phospholipid composition differs between male and female preterm infants. METHODS: Gastric aspirate samples from male and female infants born between 25 and 30 weeks of gestation at The Royal Women's Hospital, Melbourne, Australia, were collected within 1 h after birth...
June 30, 2017: Pediatric Research
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