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Pediatric Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922350/stem-cells-and-cell-based-therapies-for-cerebral-palsy-a-call-for-rigor
#1
REVIEW
Lauren L Jantzie, Joseph Scafidi, Shenandoah Robinson
Cell-based therapies hold significant promise for infants at risk for cerebral palsy (CP) from perinatal brain injury (PBI). PBI leading to CP results from multi-faceted damage to neural cells. Complex developing neural networks are injured by neural cell damage plus unique perturbations in cell signaling. Given that cell-based therapies can simultaneously repair multiple injured neural components during critical neurodevelopmental windows, these interventions potentially offer efficacy for patients with CP...
September 18, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922349/cytochrome-p450-and-flavin-containing-monooxygenase-families-age-dependent-differences-in-expression-and-functional-activity
#2
Nicole R Zane, Yao Chen, Michael Zhuo Wang, Dhiren R Thakker
BACKGROUND: Age-dependent differences in pharmacokinetics exist for metabolically cleared medications. Differential contributions in the cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A), CYP2C, and flavin-containing monooxygenases (FMO) families play an important role in the metabolic clearance of a large number of drugs administered to children. METHODS: Unlike previous semi-quantitative characterization of age-dependent changes in the expression of genes and proteins (Western Analysis), this study quantifies both gene and absolute protein expression in the same fetal, pediatric and adult hepatic tissue...
September 18, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922348/stem-cell-biology-and-regenerative-medicine-for-neonatal-lung-diseases
#3
REVIEW
Martin Kang, Bernard Thébaud
Lung diseases remain one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in neonates. Cell therapy and regenerative medicine have the potential to revolutionize the management of life-threatening and debilitating lung diseases that currently lack effective treatments. Over the past decade, the repair capabilities of stem/progenitor cells has been harnessed to prevent/rescue lung damage in experimental neonatal lung diseases. Mesenchymal stromal cells and amnion epithelial cells exert pleiotropic effects and represent ideal therapeutic cells for bronchopulmonary dysplasia, a multifactorial disease...
September 18, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915235/transamniotic-stem-cell-therapy-trascet-a-novel-strategy-for-the-prenatal-management-of-congenital-anomalies
#4
REVIEW
Dario O Fauza
Transamniotic Stem Cell Therapy, or TRASCET, is an emerging therapeutic concept for the management of congenital anomalies based on the augmentation of the biological role of select populations of stem cells that already occur in the amniotic fluid, for targeted therapeutic benefit. Amniotic fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cells (afMSCs) play a central role in the enhanced ability of the fetus to repair tissue damage. This germane recent finding constitutes the biological foundation for the use of afMSCs in TRASCET...
September 15, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915234/tissue-regeneration-using-endothelial-colony-forming-cells-promising-cells-for-vascular-repair
#5
REVIEW
Kimihiko Banno, Mervin C Yoder
To repair and rebuild damaged tissue in diseased human subjects remains a daunting challenge for clinical medicine. Proper vascular formation that serves to deliver blood-borne nutrients and adequate levels of oxygen and remove wastes is critical for successful tissue regeneration. Endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFC) represent a promising cell source for revascularization of damaged tissue. ECFC are identified by displaying a hierarchy of clonal proliferative potential and by pronounced postnatal vascularization ability in vivo...
September 15, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915233/the-utility-of-stem-cells-in-pediatric-urinary-bladder-regeneration
#6
REVIEW
Philip M Iannaccone, Vasil Galat, Matthew I Bury, Yongchao C Ma, Arun K Sharma
Pediatric patients with a neurogenic urinary bladder caused by developmental abnormalities including spina bifida exhibit chronic urological problems. Surgical management in the form of enterocystoplasty is used to enlarge the bladder but is associated with significant clinical complications. Thus, alternative methods to enterocystoplasty have been explored through the incorporation of stem cells with tissue engineering strategies. Within the context of this review, we will examine the use of bone marrow stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) as they relate to bladder regeneration at the anatomic and molecular levels...
September 15, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915232/effects-of-early-nutrition-and-growth-on-brain-volumes-white-matter-microstructure-and-neurodevelopmental-outcome-in-preterm-newborns
#7
Caterina Coviello, Kristin Keunen, Karina J Kersbergen, Floris Groenendaal, Alexander Leemans, Barbara Peels, Ivana Isgum, Max A Viergever, Linda S de Vries, Giuseppe Buonocore, Virgilio P Carnielli, Manon J N L Benders
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the effect of nutrition and growth during the first 4 weeks after birth on cerebral volumes and white matter maturation at term equivalent age(TEA) and on neurodevelopmental outcome at 2 years corrected age(CA), in preterm infants. METHODS: 131 infants born at a gestational age(GA)<31weeks with MRI at TEA were studied. Cortical gray matter volumes(CGM), basal ganglia and thalami(BGT) volumes, cerebellar volumes and total brain volume(TBV) were computed...
September 15, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915231/postnatal-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-associated-with-larger-preterm-brain-tissue-volumes-and-better-outcomes
#8
Daphne Kamino, Colin Studholme, Mengyuan Liu, Vann Chau, Steven P Miller, Anne Synnes, Elizabeth E Rogers, A James Barkovich, Donna M Ferriero, Rollin Brant, Emily W Y Tam
BACKGROUND: Human studies investigating the link between postnatal polyunsaturated fatty acids and preterm brain growth are limited, despite emerging evidence of potential effects on outcomes. METHODS: Sixty preterm neonates <32 weeks gestational age with MRI scanning at near-birth and near-term age were assessed for brain tissue volumes including cortical grey matter, white matter, deep grey matter, cerebellum, brainstem and ventricular cerebrospinal fluid. Red blood cell fatty acid content was evaluated within 1 week of each MRI scan...
September 15, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910276/igf2-stimulates-fetal-growth-in-a-sex-and-organ-dependent-manner
#9
Veronica White, Alicia Jawerbaum, Maria Belen Mazzucco, Martin Gauster, Gernot Desoye, Ursula Hiden
BACKGROUND: IGF2 is a key determinant of fetal growth, and altered expression of IGF2 is implicated in fetal growth disorders and maternal metabolic derangements including gestational diabetes. Here we studied how increased levels of IGF2 in late pregnancy affect fetal growth. METHODS: We employed a rat model of repeated intra-fetal IGF2 administration in late pregnancy, i.e. during GD19-GD21, and measured the consequences on fetal organ weight and expression of insulin/IGF-axis components...
September 14, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902187/-pressure-to-feed-the-preterm-newborn-associated-with-positive-outcomes
#10
Sudarshan R Jadcherla, Vineet Bhandari
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 13, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902186/early-career-investigator-highlight-november
#11
A F El-Khuffash
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 13, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902185/influences-of-medications-on-the-developing-fetus-toward-deciphering-the-unknowns
#12
Scott A Rivkees, Scott Denne
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 13, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902184/the-relationship-between-infancy-growth-rate-and-the-onset-of-puberty-in-both-genders
#13
Banu Kucukemre Aydin, Esra Devecioglu, Alev Kadioglu, Ayca Erkin Cakmak, Sezin Kisabacak, Gulbin Gokcay, Firdevs Bas, Sukran Poyrazoglu, Ruveyde Bundak, Feyza Darendeliler
BackgroundIn this study, we examined the hypothesis that weight gain and linear growth during the first years of life influence the onset of puberty both in girls and in boys.MethodsA cohort of 157 healthy children, aged 6-9 years, was evaluated and their growth patterns were analyzed retrospectively. Repeated measures mixed model was used to examine the longitudinal anthropometric data.ResultsGirls with pubertal signs were heavier than their peers starting at 9 months of age (P=0.02), and the difference became more evident over time (P<0...
September 13, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902183/patient-characteristics-affect-the-response-to-ketamine-and-opioids-during-the-treatment-of-vaso-occlusive-episode-related-pain-in-sickle-cell-disease
#14
Raissa Nobrega, Kathy A Sheehy, Caroline Lippold, Amy L Rice, Julia C Finkel, Zenaide M N Quezado
BackgroundN-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation has been implicated in the pathobiology of inflammatory, nociceptive and neuropathic pain, opioid tolerance, opioid-induced hyperalgesia, and central sensitization. Some of those mechanisms underlie sickle cell disease(SCD)-associated pain.MethodsWe conducted an exploratory cohort study of SCD patients who during vaso-occlusive episodes (VOEs) received subanesthetic doses of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, ketamine, as an adjunct to opioids. We sought to identify predictors of changes in pain scores and of the percentage of ketamine infusions associated with meaningful changes (≥20% reduction) in pain and opioid consumption...
September 13, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902182/gestational-age-dependent-relationship-between-cerebral-oxygen-extraction-and-blood-pressure
#15
Zachary A Vesoulis, Steve M Liao, Amit M Mathur
BackgroundPremature infants may lack mature cerebrovascular autoregulatory function and fail to adapt oxygen extraction to decreasing systemic perfusion.MethodsInfants ≤28 weeks of gestational age (GA) were recruited. Systemic oxygen saturation (SpO2), mean arterial blood pressure (MABP), and cerebral saturation (near-infrared spectroscopy, SctO2) were measured continuously over the first 72 h. Resulting data underwent error-processing. For each remaining 10 m window, the mean MABP and fractional tissue oxygen extraction (FTOE) were calculated...
September 13, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902181/platelet-derived-growth-factor-receptor-alpha-positive-cells-a-new-cell-type-in-the-human-ureteropelvic-junction
#16
Manuela Hunziker, Anne-Marie O'Donnell, Prem Puri
BACKGROUND: Ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) obstruction is the most common cause of congenital hydronephrosis. Normal ureteral motility requires coordinated interaction between neurons, smooth muscle cells (SMCs), and interstitial Cajal-like cells (IC-LCs). Recently, a new type of interstitial cell, platelet-derived growth factor receptor α-positive (PDGFRα(+)) cells, was discovered in the gastrointestinal tract and bladder.MethodsWe used immunohistochemistry to study PDGFRα protein distribution in normal human UPJ and congenital UPJ obstruction...
September 13, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880860/response-to-letter-to-the-editor-acute-kidney-injury-aki-occurs-only-rarely-in-patients-with-kawasaki-disease
#17
Gwo-Tsann Chuang, Luan-Yin Chang
Pediatric Research accepted article preview online, 07 September 2017. doi:10.1038/pr.2017.192.
September 7, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876330/epithelial-mesenchymal-transformation-and-apoptosis-in-rat-urethra-development
#18
Yue Zhou, Xing Liu, Fangyuan Huang, Yang Liu, Xining Cao, Lianju Shen, Chunlan Long, Dawei He, Tao Lin, Guanghui Wei
BackgroundTo examine the mechanism of urethral seam formation during embryonal development of rat urethra.MethodsTime-mated Sprague-Dawley rats were killed and the genital tubercles of male pups harvested on embryonic day (ED) 15, 16, 18, and 19. External morphology was observed under scanning electron microscope. Serial transverse sections were prepared to examine dynamic changes in the urethral seam morphology with hematoxylin-eosin staining, immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy, and double immunofluorescence...
September 6, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876329/at-the-intersection-of-systematic-and-seismic-examining-the-way-forward-for-pediatric-research
#19
Shari L Barkin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 6, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876328/the-impact-of-hemoglobin-on-the-efficacy-of-phototherapy-in-hyperbilirubinemic-infants
#20
Mette L Donneborg, Pernille K Vandborg, Bo M Hansen, Maria Rodrigo-Domingo, Finn Ebbesen
BackgroundPhototherapy is the routine treatment for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Absorption of light in the skin transforms the native Z,Z-bilirubin to photobilirubins. This study investigates whether the hemoglobin concentration has an impact on efficacy of phototherapy, expressed by the decline of total serum bilirubin concentration (TsB).MethodsA trial was conducted on 93 infants, gestational age ≥33 weeks, with uncomplicated hyperbilirubinemia. The infants were treated with conventional phototherapy using LED light for 24 h...
September 6, 2017: Pediatric Research
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