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Pediatric Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790869/the-effect-of-caffeine-on-the-ventilatory-response-to-hypercarbia-in-preterm-infants
#1
Thomas Rossor, Ravindra Bhat, Kamal Ali, Janet Peacock, Gerrard F Rafferty, Anne Greenough
BackgroundWe tested the hypotheses that caffeine therapy would increase the ventilatory response to hypercarbia in infants above the effect of maturation and those with a weaker ventilatory response to hypercarbia would be more likely to subsequently develop apnea that required treatment.MethodsInfants born at less than 34 weeks of gestation underwent a steady-state hypercarbic challenge using 0, 2, and 4% carbon dioxide soon after birth that was repeated at weekly intervals. The results of the initial study were compared between infants who did or did not subsequently develop apnea requiring treatment with caffeine...
May 23, 2018: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768399/social-and-environmental-exposures-the-bidirectional-learning-between-health-policy-and-practice
#2
Shale L Wong, Jean L Raphael
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 16, 2018: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768398/urinary-metabolites-of-volatile-organic-compounds-of-infants-in-the-neonatal-intensive-care-unit
#3
Dina El-Metwally, Krista Chain, Matthew P Stefanak, Udeni Alwis, Benjamin C Blount, Judy S LaKind, Cynthia F Bearer
BackgroundPreterm infants (PTI) in the NICU are often placed in incubators that may increase their exposure to volatile organic chemicals (VOCs). To determine whether PTI in incubators have higher urinary concentrations of VOC metabolites compared with infants in cribs.MethodsUrine from 40 PTI in incubators and 40 infants in cribs was collected and analyzed for 28 urinary VOC biomarkers. Differences in metabolite concentrations between the two groups were compared.ResultsTwenty two of the VOC metabolites were detected in at least one urine sample...
May 16, 2018: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538360/role-of-caregiver-reported-outcomes-in-identification-of-children-with-prenatal-alcohol-exposure-during-the-first-year-of-life
#4
Ludmila N Bakhireva, Jean Lowe, Laura M Garrison, Sandra Cano, Yuridia Leyva, Fares Qeadan, Julia M Stephen
BackgroundEarlier identification of children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) remains a challenge. The objective of this study was to identify neurobehavioral (NB) outcomes associated with PAE in infants.MethodsThis manuscript evaluates NB outcomes at 6.33±1.12 months of age in 93 infants (39 PAE and 54 No-PAE) recruited prospectively into the ENRICH cohort. PAE was assessed by prospective repeated TLFB interviews and a panel of ethanol biomarkers. NB outcomes were evaluated by the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID-III), Parenting Stress Index (PSI), Infant Behavior Questionnaire (IBQ-R), and Infant Sensory Profile (ISP)...
May 16, 2018: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741516/the-influence-of-anesthetics-on-substantia-nigra-tyrosine-hydroxylase-expression-and-tau-phosphorylation-in-the-hypoxic-ischemic-near-term-lamb
#5
Melinda Barkhuizen, Fleur J P van Dijck, Reint K Jellema, Ruth Gussenhoven, Imke Engelbertink, Ralph van Mechelen, Jack P M Cleutjens, Matthias Seehase, Harry W M Steinbusch, Luc J Zimmermann, A W Danilo Gavilanes, Boris W Kramer
BackgroundGeneral anesthetics could protect key neurotransmitter systems, such as the dopaminergic system, from hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) by limiting excessive glutamatergic neurotransmission. However, anesthetics may adversely affect inflammation and tau phosphorylation.MethodsA near-term sheep model of HIE by umbilical cord occlusion (UCO) under anesthesia was used. The effect of propofol and isoflurane on the dopaminergic neurotransmitter phenotype in the substantia nigra (SN) was studied using tyrosine hydroxylase immunohistochemistry...
May 9, 2018: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538357/pulmonary-and-diaphragmatic-pathology-in-collagen-type-i-%C3%AE-1-mutant-mice-with-osteogenesis-imperfecta
#6
Carolyn J Baglole, Feng Liang, Hussein Traboulsi, Angela Rico de Souza, Christian Giordano, Josephine T Tauer, Frank Rauch, Basil J Petrof
BackgroundOsteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is most often caused by mutations in type I collagen genes. Respiratory complications have been largely attributed to spine and ribcage deformities. We hypothesized that direct involvement of the pulmonary parenchyma and/or diaphragm by the disease may occur.MethodsIn Col1a1Jrt/+ mice, a model of severe dominant OI, mean linear intercept length (Lm) was used to assess the distal airspace size. Cross-sectional area (CSA) and myosin heavy chain (MyHC) phenotype of the diaphragm muscle fibers, as well as contractile properties, were determined...
May 9, 2018: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718007/upregulation-of-cholesterol-24-hydroxylase-following-hypoxia-ischemia-in-neonatal-mouse-brain
#7
Fuxin Lu, Jun Zhu, Selena Guo, Brandon J Wong, Farid F Chehab, Donna M Ferriero, Xiangning Jiang
BackgroundMaintenance of cholesterol homeostasis is crucial for brain development. Brain cholesterol relies on de novo synthesis and is cleared primarily by conversion to 24S-hydroxycholesterol (24S-HC) with brain-specific cholesterol 24-hydroxylase (CYP46A1). We aimed to investigate the impact of hypoxia-ischemia (HI) on brain cholesterol metabolism in the neonatal mice.MethodsPostnatal day 9 C57BL/6 pups were subjected to HI using the Vannucci model. CYP46A1 expression was assessed with western blotting and its cellular localization was determined using immunofluorescence staining...
May 2, 2018: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718006/where-do-we-stand-in-the-field-of-neonatal-jaundice-commentary-on-the-2017-j-donald-ostrow-trieste-yellow-retreat
#8
Sean M Riordan, Silvia Gazzin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2, 2018: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554081/duration-of-high-dose-aspirin-therapy-does-not-affect-long-term-coronary-artery-outcomes-in-kawasaki-disease
#9
Karl Migally, Elizabeth A Braunlin, Lei Zhang, Bryce A Binstadt
BackgroundHigh-dose aspirin (HDA) is used with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) in Kawasaki disease (KD). Practice regarding HDA varies, and it is unclear whether HDA duration affects the long-term course.MethodsWe retrospectively studied KD patients at our hospital for over 10 years. Patients were categorized as having received HDA for 0, 1-7, or >7 days. Primary outcome was the maximum coronary Z-score at diagnosis and follow-up; secondary outcomes included inflammatory markers.ResultsOne hundred and three patients had HDA duration documented, of which 35 patients had coronary artery abnormalities (CAAs) at diagnosis...
May 2, 2018: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538368/bifidobacterium-longum-subsp-infantis-cect7210-supplemented-formula-reduces-diarrhea-in-healthy-infants-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Joaquin Escribano, Natalia Ferré, Mariona Gispert-Llaurado, Veronica Luque, Carmen Rubio-Torrents, Marta Zaragoza-Jordana, Isabel Polanco, Francisco M Codoñer, Empar Chenoll, Mireia Morera, Jose Antonio Moreno-Muñoz, Montserrat Rivero, Ricardo Closa-Monasterolo
BackgroundIntestinal microbiota of breast-fed infants is plenty of beneficial bifidobacteria. We aimed to determine whether an infant formula supplemented with probiotic Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis CECT7210 (B. infantis IM1) is effective at reducing diarrhea incidence in healthy term infants.MethodsDouble-blinded, randomized, multicenter, controlled clinical trial, where formula-fed infants (<3 months) received an infant formula supplemented (Probiotic) or not (Control) with 107  cfu/g of B...
May 2, 2018: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538361/lower-cognitive-test-scores-at-age-7-in-children-born-with-marginally-low-birth-weight
#11
Josefine Starnberg, Mikael Norman, Björn Westrup, Magnus Domellöf, Staffan K Berglund
BackgroundBeing born with very low birth weight (<1500 g) is associated with poorer neurocognition later in life. The aim of this study was to explore neurodevelopmental functions in those born with marginally LBW (2000-2500 g).MethodsThis was originally a randomized controlled trial investigating the effects of early iron supplementation in 285 marginally LBW children. Herein, we explored the combined marginally LBW group and compared their results to 95 normal birth weight (NBW; 2501-4500 g) controls in an observational design...
May 2, 2018: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538356/abdominal-near-infrared-spectroscopy-in-a-piglet-model-of-gastrointestinal-hypoxia-produced-by-graded-hypoxia-or-superior-mesenteric-artery-ligation
#12
May W Chen, Michael Reyes, Ewa Kulikowicz, Laura Martin, David J Hackam, Raymond C Koehler, Jennifer K Lee
BackgroundAbdominal near-infrared spectroscopy (aNIRS) may detect gastrointestinal hypoxia before necrotizing enterocolitis develops. We sought to validate aNIRS during splanchnic hypoxia and hypoperfusion in neonatal piglets.MethodsAnesthetized piglets underwent systemic hypoxia or 3 h superior mesenteric artery (SMA) ligation with aNIRS monitoring.ResultsDuring progressive hypoxia, gastrointestinal tissue oxyhemoglobin saturation measured by aNIRS decreased linearly with oxyhemoglobin saturation measured directly in the portal vein...
May 2, 2018: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538354/maternal-influence-on-the-fetal-microbiome-in-a-population-based-study-of-the-first-pass-meconium
#13
Terhi Tapiainen, Niko Paalanne, Mysore V Tejesvi, Pirjo Koivusaari, Katja Korpela, Tytti Pokka, Jarmo Salo, Tuula Kaukola, Anna Maria Pirttilä, Matti Uhari, Marjo Renko
BackgroundMeconium is formed before birth and may reflect the microbiome of the fetus. To test our hypothesis, we investigated whether maternal factors during pregnancy, such as biodiversity of the living environment, influence the microbiome of the first stool more than immediate perinatal factors.MethodsWe recruited 218 consecutive newborn infants from one hospital. Regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene were sequenced to characterize the microbiomes of the first-pass meconium samples (N=212). We used a multivariate model to determine both the prenatal and perinatal factors affecting the microbiome...
May 2, 2018: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667952/useful-pharmacodynamic-endpoints-in-children-selection-measurement-and-next-steps
#14
REVIEW
Lauren E Kelly, Yashwant Sinha, Charlotte I S Barker, Joseph F Standing, Martin Offringa
Pharmacodynamic (PD) endpoints are essential for establishing the benefit-to-risk ratio for therapeutic interventions in children and neonates. This article discusses the selection of an appropriate measure of response, the PD endpoint, which is a critical methodological step in designing pediatric efficacy and safety studies. We provide an overview of existing guidance on the choice of PD endpoints in pediatric clinical research. We identified several considerations relevant to the selection and measurement of PD endpoints in pediatric clinical trials, including the use of biomarkers, modeling, compliance, scoring systems, and validated measurement tools...
April 18, 2018: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538366/prenatal-perinatal-and-neonatal-risk-factors-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#15
Elizabeth Hisle-Gorman, Apryl Susi, Theophil Stokes, Gregory Gorman, Christine Erdie-Lalena, Cade M Nylund
BackgroundWe explored the association of 29 previously reported neonatal, perinatal, and prenatal conditions, and exposures with later diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in a large sample of children followed over multiple years.MethodsA retrospective case-cohort study was formed using the Military Health System database. Cases were identified by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes for ASD between 2000 and 2013, and were matched 3:1 with controls on sex, date of birth, and enrollment time frame...
April 18, 2018: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538363/elevated-arterial-blood-pressure-after-superior-cavo-pulmonary-anastomosis-is-associated-with-elevated-pulmonary-artery-pressure-and-cerebrovascular-dysautoregulation
#16
Antonio G Cabrera, Kathleen K Kibler, R Blaine Easley, Michelle Goldsworthy, Lara S Shekerdemian, Dean B Andropoulos, Jeffrey Heinle, Erin A Gottlieb, Eric Vu, Ken M Brady
BackgroundElevated arterial blood pressure (ABP) is common after superior bidirectional cavopulmonary anastomosis (BCPA). The effects of elevated ABP after BCPA on cerebrovascular hemodynamics are unknown. We sought to determine the relationship between elevated ABP and cerebrovascular autoregulation after BCPA.MethodsProspective, observational study on infants with single-ventricle physiology after BCPA surgery. Continuous recordings of mean ABP, mean cavopulmonary artery pressure (PAP), near-infrared spectroscopy measures of cerebral oximetry (regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO2 )), and relative cerebral blood volume index were obtained from admission to extubation...
April 18, 2018: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538359/gut-microbiota-in-adolescents-and-the-association-with-fatty-liver-the-epoch-study
#17
Maggie A Stanislawski, Catherine A Lozupone, Brandie D Wagner, Merete Eggesbø, Marci K Sontag, Nichole M Nusbacher, Mercedes Martinez, Dana Dabelea
BackgroundRecent evidence supports that the gut microbiota may be involved in the pathophysiology of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and may also offer avenues for treatment or prevention.MethodsWe investigated the associations among gut microbiota, diet, and hepatic fat fraction (HFF) in 107 adolescents. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to assess HFF, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing was performed on collected fecal samples. Dietary intake was assessed using Food Frequency Questionnaires. We examined the association between gut microbiota alpha diversity and HFF, and assessed the predictive accuracy for HFF of (1) taxonomic composition, (2) dietary intake, (3) demographic and comorbid conditions, and (4) the combination of these...
April 18, 2018: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29638229/influence-of-the-6-month-physical-activity-programs-on-renal-function-in-obese-boys
#18
Irina Lousa, Henrique Nascimento, Susana Rocha, Cristina Catarino, Flávio Reis, Carla Rêgo, Alice Santos-Silva, André Seabra, Sandra Ribeiro, Luís Belo
BackgroundWe intended to evaluate the effects of physical activity (PA) programs on renal function in obese boys.MethodsThirty-nine boys participated in one of the following three groups: soccer (SG, n=13), traditional PA (AG, n=13), and sedentary control (CG, n=13). SG and AG were involved in 6-month PA programs, involving three sessions/week for 60-90 min. Anthropometric measurements, body composition, creatinine and cystatin C plasmatic levels, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were evaluated...
April 11, 2018: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29638228/vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-accelerates-compensatory-lung-growth-by-increasing-the-alveolar-units
#19
Duy T Dao, Prathima Nandivada, Jacqueline T Vuong, Lorenzo Anez-Bustillos, Amy Pan, Hiroko Kishikawa, Paul D Mitchell, Meredith A Baker, Gillian L Fell, Thomas Martin, Mark Puder
BackgroundDeficiency of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is associated with hypoplastic lung diseases, such as congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Provision of VEGF has been demonstrated to be beneficial in hyperoxia-induced bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and hence could induce lung growth and improve the outcome in hypoplastic lung diseases. We aimed to determine the effects of exogenous VEGF in a rodent model of compensatory lung growth after left pneumonectomy.MethodsEight-to-ten-week-old C57Bl6 male mice underwent left pneumonectomy, followed by daily intra-peritoneal injections of saline or VEGF (0...
April 11, 2018: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538355/mutations-in-the-thyroid-transcription-factor-gene-nkx2-1-result-in-decreased-expression-of-sftpb-and-sftpc
#20
Stephanie J Attarian, Sandra L Leibel, Ping Yang, Danielle N Alfano, Brian P Hackett, F Sessions Cole, Aaron Hamvas
BackgroundMutations in the NK2 homeobox 1 (NKX2-1) gene are associated with lung disease in infants and children. We hypothesize that disruption of normal surfactant gene expression with these mutations contributes to the respiratory phenotypes observed.MethodsTo assess transactivational activity, cotransfection of luciferase reporter vectors containing surfactant protein B or C (SFTPB or SFTPC) promoters with NKX2-1 plasmids was performed and luciferase activity was measured. To assess the binding of mutated proteins to target DNA, electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) were performed using nuclear protein labeled with oligonucleotide probes representing NKX2-1 consensus binding sequences followed by gel electrophoresis...
April 11, 2018: Pediatric Research
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