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Pediatric Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549059/elimination-diet-and-the-development-of-multiple-tree-nut-allergies
#1
Arnon Elizur, Jennifer B Bollyky, Whitney M Block
BACKGROUNDDespite its high prevalence, relatively little is known about the characteristics of patients with multiple tree-nuts allergies.METHODSPatients (n=60, aged 4-15 years), recruited for a multiple food (tree-nuts, peanut, milk, egg, soy, sesame and wheat) oral immunotherapy (OIT) study, filled a questionnaire on their initial allergy evaluation. Medical records were reviewed. At OIT enrollment (median interval, 7.5 years), patients underwent oral food challenges (OFC) to foods still eliminated.RESULTSThere was significantly less evidence for eliminating tree-nuts compared to other foods, as reflected by lower rate of acute reaction to the offending food, either as the trigger for initial allergy evaluation (5...
May 26, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549058/histone-deacetylase-adaptation-in-single-ventricle-heart-disease-and-a-young-animal-model-of-right-ventricular-hypertrophy
#2
Weston W Blakeslee, Kimberly M Demos-Davies, Douglas D Lemon, Katharina M Lutter, Maria A Cavasin, Sam Payne, Karin Nunley, Carlin S Long, Timothy A McKinsey, Shelley D Miyamoto
BACKGROUNDHistone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are promising therapeutics for various forms of cardiac disease. The purpose of this study was to assess cardiac HDAC catalytic activity and expression in children with single ventricle heart disease of right ventricular morphology (SV), as well as in a rodent model of right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH).METHODSHomogenates of RV explants from non-failing controls and SV children were assayed for HDAC catalytic activity and HDAC isoform expression. Postnatal 1-day old rat pups were placed in hypoxic conditions and echocardiographic analysis, gene expression, HDAC catalytic activity and isoform expression studies of the RV were performed...
May 26, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549057/both-antenatal-and-postnatal-inflammation-contribute-information-about-the-risk-of-brain-damage-in-extremely-preterm-newborns
#3
Diana Yanni, Steven Korzeniewski, Elizabeth N Allred, Raina N Fichorova, T Michael O'Shea, Karl Kuban, Olaf Dammann, Alan Leviton
BACKGROUNDPreterm newborns exposed to intrauterine inflammation are at increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders. We hypothesized that adverse outcomes are more strongly associated with a combination of antenatal and postnatal inflammation than with either of them alone.METHODSWe defined antenatal inflammation as histologic inflammation in the placenta. We measured the concentrations of seven inflammation-related proteins in blood obtained on postnatal days 1, 7, and 14 from 763 infants born before 28 weeks of gestation...
May 26, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399119/caffeine-ameliorates-hyperoxia-induced-lung-injury-by-protecting-gch1-function-in-neonatal-rat-pups
#4
Xigang Jing, Yi-Wen Huang, Jason Jarzembowski, Yang Shi, Girija G Konduri, Ru-Jeng Teng
BackgroundBronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a major morbidity in premature infants, and impaired angiogenesis is considered a major contributor to BPD. Early caffeine treatment decreases the incidence of BPD; the mechanism remains incompletely understood.MethodsSprague-Dawley rat pups exposed to normoxia or hyperoxia since birth were treated daily with either 20 mg/kg caffeine or normal saline by an intraperitoneal injection from day 2 of life. The lungs were obtained for studies at days 10 and 21.ResultsHyperoxia impaired somatic growth and lung growth in the rat pups...
May 24, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493861/maternal-pre-pregnancy-obesity-and-neuropsychological-development-in-pre-school-children-a-prospective-cohort-study
#5
Maribel Casas, Joan Forns, David Martínez, Mònica Guxens, Ana Fernandez-Somoano, Jesus Ibarluzea, Nerea Lertxundi, Mario Murcia, Marisa Rebagliato, Adonina Tardon, Jordi Sunyer, Martine Vrijheid
BACKGROUND: Maternal pre-pregnancy obesity may impair infant neuropsychological development, but it is unclear if intrauterine or confounding factors drive this association. METHODS: We assessed whether maternal pre-pregnancy obesity was associated with neuropsychological development in 1,827 Spanish children. At 5 years, cognitive and psychomotor development was assessed using McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms using the Criteria of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, and autism spectrum disorder symptoms using the Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test...
May 11, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486441/bone-mineral-density-in-patients-with-inherited-bone-marrow-failure-syndromes
#6
Roopa Kanakatti Shankar, Neelam Giri, Maya B Lodish, Ninet Sinaii, James C Reynolds, Sharon A Savage, Constantine A Stratakis, Blanche P Alter
BACKGROUNDPatients with inherited bone marrow failure syndromes (IBMFS) may have several risk factors for low bone mineral density (BMD). We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of low BMD in IBMFS and determine associated risk factors.METHODSPatients with IBMFS with at least one Dual Energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan were evaluated. Diagnosis of each IBMFS, Fanconi anemia (FA), dyskeratosis congenita, Diamond-Blackfan anemia, and Shwachman-Diamond syndrome, was confirmed by syndrome-specific tests. Data were gathered on age, height and clinical history...
May 9, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486440/electronic-health-record-based-predictive-models-for-acute-kidney-injury-screening-in-pediatric-inpatients
#7
Li Wang, Tracy L McGregor, Deborah P Jones, Brian C Bridges, Geoffrey M Fleming, Jana Shirey-Rice, Michael F McLemore, Lixin Chen, Asli Weitkamp, Daniel W Byrne, Sara L Van Driest
BACKGROUNDAcute kidney injury (AKI) is common in pediatric inpatients and associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and length of stay. Early identification can reduce severity.METHODSTo create and validate an electronic health record (EHR)-based AKI screening tool, we generated temporally distinct development and validation cohorts using retrospective data from our tertiary care children's hospital, including children 28 days through 21 years old with sufficient serum creatinine measurements to determine AKI status...
May 9, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486439/branched-chain-and-aromatic-amino-acids-in-relation-to-behavioral-problems-among-young-inuit-from-nunavik-canada-a-cohort-study
#8
Audray St-Jean, Salma Meziou, Cynthia Roy, Pierre Ayotte, Gina Muckle, Michel Lucas
BACKGROUNDObesity and insulin resistance are linked with mood disorders, and elevated concentrations of branched-chain (BCAAs) and aromatic amino acids (AAAs). Our study aimed to prospectively assess the relationship between childhood plasma BCAAs and AAAs and behavioral problems in young Inuit from Nunavik.METHODSWe analyzed data on 181 children (mean age 11.4 years at baseline) involved in the Nunavik Child Development Study. Plasma BCAA and AAA concentrations were measured in childhood (2005-2010). BCAA/AAA tertiles - the ratio of total BCAAs to AAAs-were considered as a surrogate categorical independent variable...
May 9, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467405/do-bone-mineral-content-and-density-determine-fracture-in-children-a-possible-threshold-for-physical-activity
#9
Ana Martins, Teresa Monjardino, Luísa Nogueira, Helena Canhão, Raquel Lucas
BACKGROUND: Relations between bone parameters, physical exertion and childhood fractures are complex. We aimed to estimate the associations between fracture history and bone mineral content (BMC) and areal density (aBMD) at 7 years of age, by levels of physical activity, as a proxy for trauma frequency. METHODS: We used data collected from 2261 children of the Generation XXI birth cohort, assembled in 2005/6 in Porto, Portugal. At age seven (2012/4), fracture history, time spent per week in active play and sports practice were reported by parents...
May 3, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467404/utility-of-sun-reactive-skin-typing-and-melanin-index-for-discerning-vitamin-d-deficiency
#10
Arshad T Khalid, Charity G Moore, Christopher Hall, Flora Olabopo, Nigel L Rozario, Michael F Holick, Susan L Greenspan, Kumaravel Rajakumar
BACKGROUND: Skin color, a vitamin D status determinant, can be assessed subjectively by Fitzpatrick sun-reactive skin typing (FST) and objectively by melanin index (MI). FST was validated against MI for discerning vitamin D deficiency [serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) <20 ng/ml] in children. METHODS: We measured FST, MI, and serum 25(OH)D in healthy, 8- to 18-year-old children from one of two vitamin D trials. MI from forehead, hand, and upper arm split at the median of the more racially-balanced study cohort and FST (I-III vs...
May 3, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399120/sotos-syndrome-associated-with-hirschsprung-s-disease-a-new-case-and-exome-sequencing-analysis
#11
Cherry Ann Sio, Kyuwhan Jung, Jeong-Hyun Kim, Hyun Sub Cheong, Eun Shin, Hyejin Jang, Miok Yoon, Huijeong Jang, Hyoung Doo Shin
BackgroundSotos syndrome (SoS) is an overgrowth disorder with various congenital anomalies and is usually accompanied by other clinical problems. However, anorectal malformations have not been documented as part of the SoS entity. Our objective is to report on a case of SoS associated with Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR) and subsequent genetic analysis.MethodsA 2-year-old boy with SoS experienced constipation since infancy and ultimately showed an aganglionic segment in the histopathologic examination, which was followed by exome-sequencing analysis...
May 3, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388601/early-postnatal-exposure-to-intermittent-hypoxia-in-rodents-is-proinflammatory-impairs-white-matter-integrity-and-alters-brain-metabolism
#12
Robert A Darnall, Xi Chen, Krishnamurthy V Nemani, Chrystelle M Sirieix, Barjor Gimi, Susan Knoblach, Betty L McEntire, Carl E Hunt
BackgroundPreterm infants are frequently exposed to intermittent hypoxia (IH) associated with apnea and periodic breathing that may result in inflammation and brain injury that later manifests as cognitive and executive function deficits. We used a rodent model to determine whether early postnatal exposure to IH would result in inflammation and brain injury.MethodsRat pups were exposed to IH from P2 to P12. Control animals were exposed to room air. Cytokines were analyzed in plasma and brain tissue at P13 and P18...
May 3, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388598/cannabidiol-reduces-lung-injury-induced-by-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-damage-in-newborn-piglets
#13
Luis Arruza, Maria Ruth Pazos, Nagat Mohammed, Natalia Escribano, Hector Lafuente, Martín Santos, Francisco J Alvarez-Díaz, William Hind, Jose Martínez-Orgado
BackgroundBrain hypoxic-ischemic (HI) damage induces distant inflammatory lung damage in newborn pigs. We aimed to investigate the effects of cannabidiol (CBD) on lung damage in this scenario.MethodsNewborn piglets received intravenous vehicle, CBD, or CBD+WAY100635 (5-HT1A receptor antagonist) after HI brain damage (carotid flow interruption and FiO2 0.10 for 30 min). Total lung compliance (TLC), oxygenation index (OI), and extravascular lung water content (EVLW) were monitored for 6 h. Histological damage, interleukin (IL)-1β concentration, and oxidative stress were assessed in brain and lung tissue...
May 3, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388597/fetal-growth-restricted-preterm-infants-display-compromised-autonomic-cardiovascular-control-on-the-first-postnatal-day-but-not-during-infancy
#14
Emily Cohen, Flora Y Wong, Euan M Wallace, Joanne C Mockler, Alexsandria Odoi, Samantha Hollis, Rosemary S C Horne, Stephanie R Yiallourou
BackgroundFetal growth restriction (FGR) is associated with increased perinatal mortality and long-term cardiovascular and neurodevelopmental sequelae. We hypothesized that FGR impacts on the development of autonomic heart rate and blood pressure control, contributing to unfavorable short- and long-term outcomes following FGR.MethodsWe studied 25 preterm FGR and 22 preterm and 19 term appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants. Preterm neonates were studied on postnatal day 1, and all infants were studied at 1 and 6 months post-term age...
May 3, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388596/early-career-investigator-highlight
#15
Theresia Handayani Mina
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 3, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376079/pattern-of-brain-injury-and-depressed-heart-rate-variability-in-newborns-with-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy
#16
Marina Metzler, Rathinaswamy Govindan, Tareq Al-Shargabi, Gilbert Vezina, Nickie Andescavage, Yunfei Wang, Adre du Plessis, An N Massaro
BackgroundDecreased heart rate variability (HRV) is a measure of autonomic dysfunction and brain injury in newborns with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). This study aimed to characterize the relationship between HRV and brain injury pattern using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in newborns with HIE undergoing therapeutic hypothermia.MethodsHRV metrics were quantified in the time domain (αS, αL, and root mean square at short (RMSS) and long (RMSL) timescales) and frequency domain (relative low-(LF) and high-frequency (HF) power) over 24-27 h of life...
May 3, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376078/the-expression-of-renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-axis-components-in-infantile-hemangioma-tissue-and-the-impact-of-propranolol-treatment
#17
James R Dornhoffer, Ting Wei, Haihong Zhang, Emily Miller, Mario A Cleves, Gresham T Richter
BackgroundPropranolol's mechanism of action for controlling infantile hemangioma (IH) remains unclear. We hypothesize that this nonselective beta antagonist downregulates renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAA) axis components, preventing angiogenic substrate induction of IH.MethodsIH tissue and serum were collected from children with propranolol-treated or -untreated IH during surgery. Normal skin and serum from demographically matched children were used as controls. Real-time PCR and western blot quantified RAA components in proliferative (n=10), involuting (n=10), propranolol-treated (n=12) IH, and normal specimens (n=11)...
May 3, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355206/hepatic-mdr3-expression-impacts-lipid-homeostasis-and-susceptibility-to-inflammatory-bile-duct-obstruction-in-neonates
#18
Alexandra N Carey, Wujuan Zhang, Kenneth D R Setchell, Julia R Simmons, Tiffany Shi, Celine S Lages, Mary Mullen, Kaitlin Carroll, Rebekah Karns, Kazuhiko Bessho, Rachel Sheridan, Xueheng Zhao, Susanne N Weber, Alexander G Miethke
BackgroundHeterozygous mutations in the gene ABCB4, encoding the phospholipid floppase MDR3 (Mdr2 in mice), are associated with various chronic liver diseases. Here we hypothesize that reduced ABCB4 expression predisposes to extrahepatic biliary atresia (EHBA).MethodsLivers from neonatal wild-type (wt) and heterozygous Mdr2-deficient mice were subjected to mass spectrometry-based lipidomics and RNA sequencing studies. Following postnatal infection with rhesus rotavirus (RRV), liver immune responses and EHBA phenotype were assessed...
May 3, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170388/lung-liquid-clearance-in-preterm-lambs-assessed-by-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#19
Ali Houeijeh, Pierre Tourneux, Sébastien Mur, Estelle Aubry, Romain Viard, Dyuti Sharma, Laurent Storme
BACKGROUND: Postnatal adaptation requires liquid clearance and lung aeration. However, their relative contribution to the expansion of functional residual capacity (FRC) has not been fully investigated. We studied evolution of lung liquid removal and lung aeration after birth in preterm lambs. METHODS: Lung liquid content and lung volume were assessed at birth and every 30 min over 2 h using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in three groups of lambs delivered by cesarean: preterm, late preterm, and late preterm with antenatal steroids...
May 3, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157837/a-novel-surfactant-protein-c-mutation-resulting-in-aberrant-protein-processing-and-altered-subcellular-localization-causes-infantile-interstitial-lung-disease
#20
Da Hong, Yuanyuan Qi, Jing Liu, Huijun Wang, Libo Wang, Liling Qian
BACKGROUND: Mutations in the surfactant protein C gene (SFTPC) result in interstitial lung disease (ILD). Our objective was to report a novel SFTPC mutation and evaluate the effect of this mutant on protein synthesis and processing. METHODS: Genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood of a Chinese infant with ILD and candidate genes associated with ILD were sequenced by next-generation sequencing. Subclones of wild-type and mutant SFTPC were transiently transfected into A549 cells...
May 3, 2017: Pediatric Research
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