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Pediatric Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099429/vitamin-d-insufficiency-in-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy
#1
Danielle W Lowe, Bruce W Hollis, Carol L Wagner, Thomas Bass, David A Kaufman, Michael J Horgan, Laurence M Givelichian, Koravangatta Sankaran, Jerome Y Yager, Lakshmi D Katikaneni, Don Wiest, Dorothea Jenkins
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D has neuroprotective and immunomodulatory properties, and deficiency is associated with worse stroke outcomes. Little is known about effects of hypoxia-ischemia or hypothermia treatment on vitamin D status in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). We hypothesized vitamin D metabolism would be dysregulated in neonatal HIE altering specific cytokines involved in Th17 activation, which might be mitigated by hypothermia. METHODS: We analyzed short term relationships between 25(OH) and 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D, vitamin D binding protein, and cytokines related to Th17 function in serum samples from a multicenter randomized controlled trial of hypothermia 33(0)C for 48h after HIE birth versus normothermia in 50 infants with moderate to severe HIE...
January 18, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099428/biomarkers-of-adiposity-are-elevated-in-preterm-very-low-birth-weight-infants-at-1-2-and-3-years-of-age
#2
Andrea F Duncan, Joshua A Frankfurt, Roy J Heyne, Charles R Rosenfeld
BACKGROUND: Preterm, very-low-birth-weight (PT-VLBW) neonates are at-risk for metabolic syndrome later in life. At 1-3yrs, they exhibit excessive weight-for-length z-scores (Wt-LZ) and elevated systolic blood pressures (SBP). Serum adipokines are biomarkers of adiposity, but expression in PT-VLBW infants is unclear. We examined the correlation between serum adipokine levels, anthropometric measures and SBP in PT-VLBW neonates at follow-up. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional cohort study of PT-VLBW infants at 1, 2 and 3yrs of age (40/cohort)...
January 18, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099427/exposure-to-bisphenols-and-phthalates-and-association-with-oxidant-stress-insulinn-resistance-and-endothelial-dysfunction-in-children
#3
Anglina Kataria, Dov Levine, Sara Wertenteil, Suzanne Vento, Jingchuan Xue, Karthikraj Rajendiran, Kurunthachalam Kannan, Joshua M Thurman, Debra Morrison, Rachel Brody, Elaine Urbina, Teresa Attina, Leonardo Trasande, Howard Trachtman
BACKGROUND: The health effects of bisphenol A (BPA) and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) have been studied extensively in children. The impact of other chemicals in these two classes has not been investigated as fully. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional pilot study of 10-13 year old healthy children. We assessed descriptive, univariable and multivariable associations of urinary metabolites of bisphenols and phthalates with oxidant stress, insulin resistance, body mass, and endothelial dysfunction...
January 18, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099426/fetal-origins-of-adult-cardiac-disease-a-novel-approach-to-prevent-fetal-growth-restriction-induced-cardiac-dysfunction-using-insulin-like-growth-factor
#4
Tarek Alsaied, Khaled Omar, Jeanne F James, Robert B Hinton, Timothy M Crombleholme, Mounira Habli
BACKGROUND: Fetal growth restriction is a risk factor for adult cardiovascular disease. Intra-placental gene transfer of human insulin-like growth factor-1 corrects birth weight in our mouse model of fetal growth restriction. This study addresses long term effects of fetal growth restriction on cardiac function and the potential preventive effect of insulin-like growth factor-1. STUDY DESIGN: Laparotomy was performed on pregnant C57BL/6J mice at embryonic day 18 and pups were divided into 3 groups: Sham operated; fetal growth restriction (induced by mesenteric uterine artery ligation); treatment (intra-placental injection of insulin-like growth factor-1 after uterine artery ligation)...
January 18, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099425/genetic-ablation-of-bach1-gene-enhances-recovery-from-hyperoxic-lung-injury-in-newborn-mice-via-transient-upregulation-of-inflammatory-genes
#5
Masato Ito, Nobuhiko Nagano, Yukio Arai, Ryo Ogawa, Shingo Kobayashi, Yukiko Motojima, Hayato Go, Masanori Tamura, Kazuhiko Igarashi, Phyllis A Dennery, Fumihiko Namba
BACKGROUND: BTB and CNC homology 1 (Bach1) is a transcriptional repressor of heme oxygenase (HO)-1. The effects of Bach1 disruption on hyperoxic lung injury in newborn mice have not been determined. We aimed to investigate the role of Bach1 in the newborns exposed to hyperoxia. METHODS: Bach1(-/-) and WT newborn mice were exposed to 21% or 95% oxygen for 4 days and were then allowed to recover in room air. Lung histology was assessed and lung Bach1, HO-1, IL-6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 mRNA levels were evaluated using RT-PCR...
January 18, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099424/the-establishment-of-cow-s-milk-protein-allergy-in-infants-is-related-with-a-deficit-of-regulatory-t-cells-treg-and-vitamin-d
#6
Laura Perezabad García, Jacobo López-Abente Muñoz, Elena Alonso-Lebrero, Elena Seoane Reula, Marjorie Pion, Rafael Correa-Rocha
BACKGROUND: Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is the most common food allergy in infants. However, little is known about which specific immune mechanisms are related with the CMPA onset. The objective was to investigate which immune alterations constitute differential factors between allergy and tolerance, and hence could be implicated in the CMPA establishment in infants. METHODS: An extensive analysis of immune subsets, including Treg and cytokine-secreting cells was performed in blood samples from 28 infants younger than 9 months obtained 1-4 days after the first adverse reaction to milk...
January 18, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099423/high-dose-erythropoietin-population-pharmacokinetics-in-neonates-with-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy-receiving-hypothermia
#7
Adam Frymoyer, Sandra E Juul, An N Massaro, Theo K Bammler, Yvonne W Wu
BACKGROUND: High-dose erythropoietin (Epo) is a promising neuroprotective treatment in neonates with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) receiving hypothermia. We evaluated the pharmacokinetics and dose-exposure relationships of high-dose Epo in this population to inform future dosing strategies. METHODS: We performed a population pharmacokinetic analysis of 47 neonates with HIE treated with hypothermia who received up to 6 doses of Epo in two previous clinical trials...
January 18, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099422/relationship-between-perfusion-index-and-patent-ductus-arteriosus-in-preterm-infants
#8
Enrique Gomez-Pomar, Majd Makhoul, Philip M Westgate, Katrina T Ibonia, Abhijit Patwardhan, Peter J Giannone, Henrietta Bada, Elie G Abu Jawdeh
BACKGROUND: Perfusion index (PI) is a noninvasive measure of perfusion. ΔPI (difference between pre and post-ductal PI) may identify hemodynamically significant PDA. However, studies are limited to brief and intermittent ΔPI sampling. Our objective is to assess the value of continuous high resolution ΔPI monitoring in the diagnosis of PDA. METHODS: Continuous ΔPI monitoring in preterm infants was prospectively performed using two high resolution pulse oximeters...
January 18, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099421/estimation-of-adult-and-neonatal-rbc-lifespans-in-anemic-neonates-using-rbcs-labeled-at-several-discrete-biotin-densities
#9
Denison J Kuruvilla, John A Widness, Demet Nalbant, Robert L Schmidt, Donald M Mock, Guohua An, Peter Veng-Pedersen
BACKGROUND: Prior conclusions that autologous neonatal red blood cells (RBC) have substantially shorter lifespans than allogeneic adult RBCs were not based on direct comparison of autologous neonatal vs. allogeneic adult RBCs performed concurrently in the same infant. Biotin labeling of autologous neonatal RBCs and allogeneic adult donor RBCs permits concurrent direct comparison of autologous vs. allogeneic RBC lifespan. METHODS: RBCs from 15 allogeneic adult donors and from 15 very low birth weight (VLBW) neonates were labeled at separate biotin densities and transfused simultaneously into the 15 neonates...
January 18, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997530/utility-of-cytokines-to-predict-neonatal-sepsis
#10
Qing Ye, Li-Zhong Du, Wen-Xia Shao, Shi-Qiang Shang
BACKGROUND: Sepsis is an important cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Diagnosis and treatment of neonatal sepsis relies on clinical judgment and interpretation of nonspecific laboratory tests. In a prospective cohort, we measured inflammatory cytokines as a potential biomarker for neonatal sepsis. METHODS: Serum inflammatory cytokine levels were evaluated in the early stage of neonatal sepsis and after antimicrobial treatment. Receiver operating characteristic curves assessed the diagnostic value of cytokines...
January 18, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935901/sodium-supply-influences-plasma-sodium-concentration-and-the-risks-of-hyper-and-hyponatremia-in-extremely-preterm-infants
#11
Cornelia Späth, Elisabeth Stoltz Sjöström, Fredrik Ahlsson, Johan Ågren, Magnus Domellöf
BACKGROUND: Hyper- and hyponatremia occur frequently in extremely preterm infants. Our purpose was to investigate plasma sodium (P-Na) concentrations, the incidence of hyper- and hyponatremia, and the impact of possible predisposing factors in extremely preterm infants. METHODS: In this observational study, we analyzed data from the EXtremely PREterm (< 27 wk.) infants in Sweden Study (EXPRESS, n = 707). Detailed nutritional, laboratory, and weight data were collected retrospectively from patient records...
January 18, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911435/detecting-biomarkers-of-secondhand-marijuana-smoke-in-young-children
#12
Karen M Wilson, Michelle R Torok, Binnian Wei, Lanqing Wang, Michelle Robinson, Connie S Sosnoff, Benjamin C Blount
BACKGROUND: The impact of secondhand marijuana smoke exposure on children is unknown. New methods allow detection of secondhand marijuana smoke in children. METHODS: We studied children ages 1 mo to 2 y hospitalized with bronchiolitis in Colorado from 2013 to 2015. Parents completed a survey, and urine samples were analyzed for cotinine using LC/MS/MS (limits of detection 0.03 ng/ml) and marijuana metabolites including COOH-THC (limits of detection 0.015 ng/ml)...
January 18, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893721/biomarkers-associated-with-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-mortality-in-premature-infants
#13
Jessica Balena-Borneman, Namasivayam Ambalavanan, Hemant K Tiwari, Russell L Griffin, Brian Halloran, David Askenazi
BACKGROUND: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) portends lifelong organ impairment and death. Our ability to predict BPD in first days of life is limited, but could be enhanced using novel biomarkers. METHODS: Using an available clinical and urine biomarker database obtained from a prospective 113 infant cohort (birth weight ≤1,200 g and/or gestational age ≤31 wk), we evaluated the independent association of 14 urine biomarkers with BPD/mortality. RESULTS: Two of the 14 urine biomarkers were independently associated with BPD/mortality after controlling for gestational age (GA), small for gestational age (SGA), and intubation status...
January 18, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893720/a-functional-atg16l1-t300a-variant-is-associated-with-necrotizing-enterocolitis-in-premature-infants
#14
Venkatesh Sampath, Vineet Bhandari, Jessica Berger, Daniel Merchant, Liyun Zhang, Mihoko Ladd, Heather Menden, Jeffery Garland, Namasivayam Ambalavanan, Neil Mulrooney, Michael Quasney, John Dagle, Pascal M Lavoie, Pippa Simpson, Mary Dahmer
BACKGROUND: The genetic basis of dysfunctional immune responses in necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) remains unknown. We hypothesized that variants in nucleotide binding and oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs) and autophagy (ATG) genes modulate vulnerability to NEC. METHODS: We genotyped a multi-center cohort of premature infants with and without NEC for NOD1, NOD2, ATG16L1, CARD8, and NLRP3 variants. Chi-square tests and logistic regression were used for statistical analysis...
January 18, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855152/heart-rate-variability-in-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy-during-therapeutic-hypothermia
#15
Robert M Goulding, Nathan J Stevenson, Deirdre M Murray, Vicki Livingstone, Peter M Filan, Geraldine B Boylan
BACKGROUND: Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) aims to ameliorate further injury in infants with moderate and severe hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). We aim to assess the effect of TH on heart rate variability (HRV) in infants with HIE. METHODS: Multichannel video-electroencephalography (EEG) and electrocardiography were assessed at 6-72 h after birth in full-term infants with HIE, recruited prior to (pre-TH group) and following (TH group) the introduction of TH in our neonatal unit...
January 18, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28085793/25-hydroxyvitamin-d-correlates-with-inflammatory-markers-in-cord-blood-of-healthy-newborns
#16
Jenni Rosendahl, Elisa Holmlund-Suila, Otto Helve, Heli Viljakainen, Helena Hauta-Alus, Saara Valkama, Maria Enlund-Cerullo, Timo Hytinantti, Taina Tervahartiala, Timo Sorsa, Outi Mäkitie, Sture Andersson
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D is a potent immunomodulator and may play a role in the development of the fetal innate immune functions. The aim of our study was to evaluate inflammatory markers in cord blood of healthy newborns in relation to vitamin D status at birth. METHODS: We studied the concentrations of inflammatory markers, matrix metalloproteinase 8 (MMP-8) and high sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP), and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) in cord blood of 939 healthy term infants born to mothers of Caucasian origin...
January 13, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28085792/neonatal-mice-with-necrotizing-enterocolitis-like-injury-develop-thrombocytopenia-despite-increased-megakaryopoiesis
#17
Kopperuncholan Namachivayam, Krishnan MohanKumar, Lalit Garg, Benjamin A Torres, Akhil Maheshwari
BACKGROUND: Thrombocytopenia is frequently encountered in infants with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). To develop a preclinical model of NEC-related thrombocytopenia, we measured serial platelet counts in 10-day-old (P10) mouse pups with trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced NEC-like injury. We also measured platelet volume indices, immature platelet fraction (IPF), and megakaryocyte number/ploidy in these animals. METHODS: Platelet counts, platelet volume indices, and IPF were measured in control (N=65) and TNBS-treated pups (N=104) using an automated hematology analyzer...
January 13, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28085791/relevance-of-c5b9-immunostaining-in-the-diagnosis-of-neonatal-hemochromatosis
#18
Estelle Dubruc, Béatrice Nadaud, Eduardo Ruchelli, Sophie Heissat, Julien Baruteau, Pierre Broué, Dominique Debray, Marie-Pierre Cordier, Pierre Miossec, Pierre Russo, Sophie Collardeau-Frachon
BACKGROUND: neonatal hemochromatosis caused by a gestational alloimmune mechanism or GALD (Gestational Alloimmune Liver Disease) is a rare perinatal disorder characterized by intra and extrahepatic iron overload. It is believed to result from complement mediated liver injury, in which the classical complement pathway is activated by maternal antibody/fetal antigen complexes, leading to hepatocyte lysis by the membrane attack complex C5b9. According to some authors, C5b9 expression in more than 75% of liver parenchyma is specific for GALD...
January 13, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861467/antenatal-dexamethasone-vs-betamethasone-dosing-for-lung-maturation-in-fetal-sheep
#19
Augusto F Schmidt, Matthew W Kemp, Paranthaman S Kannan, Boris W Kramer, John P Newnham, Suhas G Kallapur, Alan H Jobe
BACKGROUND: Dexamethasone-phosphate (Dex-PO4) and the combination betamethasone-phosphate (Beta-PO4) + betamethasone-acetate (Beta-Ac) are the most used antenatal corticosteroids to promote fetal lung maturation. We compared fetal lung maturation induced by Beta-Ac+Beta-PO4, Dex-PO4, or Beta-PO4 alone. METHODS: Pregnant ewes received two intramuscular doses 24 h apart of 0.25 mg/kg/dose of Beta-Ac+Beta-PO4, Dex-PO4 or Beta-PO4; or 2 doses of 0.125 mg/kg/dose of Beta-PO4 at 6, 12, or 24 h intervals...
January 11, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072760/pentoxifylline-inhibits-tlr-and-inflammasome-mediated-in-vitro-inflammatory-cytokine-production-in-human-blood-with-greater-efficacy-and-potency-in-newborns
#20
Esther M Speer, David J Dowling, Lukasz S Ozog, Jianjin Xu, Jie Yang, Geetika Kennady, Ofer Levy
BACKGROUND: Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated inflammation may contribute to neonatal sepsis, for which pentoxifylline (PTX), a phosphodiesterase inhibitor that raises intracellular cAMP, is a candidate adjunctive therapy. We characterized the anti-inflammatory effects of PTX towards TLR-mediated production of inflammatory (TNF, IL-1ß) and pro-resolution (IL-6, IL- 10) cytokines in human newborn and adult blood. METHODS: Newborn cord and adult blood were treated with PTX (50 - 400 μM) before, during or after stimulation with LPS (TLR4 agonist), R848 (TLR7/8 agonist) or LPS/ATP (inflammasome activation)...
January 10, 2017: Pediatric Research
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