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Pediatric Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28234891/detection-and-assessment-of-brain-injury-in-the-growth-restricted-fetus-and-neonate
#1
REVIEW
Atul Malhotra, Michael Ditchfield, Michael C Fahey, Margie Castillo-Melendez, Beth J Allison, Graeme R Polglase, Euan M Wallace, Ryan Hodges, Graham Jenkin, Suzanne L Miller
Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is a common complication of pregnancy and, in severe cases, is associated with elevated rates of perinatal mortality, neonatal morbidity, and poor neurodevelopmental outcomes. The leading cause of FGR is placental insufficiency, with the placenta failing to adequately meet the increasing oxygen and nutritional needs of the growing fetus with advancing gestation. The resultant chronic fetal hypoxia induces a decrease in fetal growth, and a redistribution of blood flow preferentially to the brain...
February 24, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170389/pediatric-collateral-damage-from-recreational-marijuana-use
#2
Scott A Rivkees
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 7, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170388/lung-liquid-clearance-in-preterm-lambs-assessed-by-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#3
Ali Houeijeh, Pierre Tourneux, Sébastien Mur, Estelle Aubry, Romain Viard, Dyuti Sharma, Laurent Storme
BACKGROUND: Postnatal adaptation requires liquid clearance and lung aeration. However, their relative contribution to the expansion of functional residual capacity (FRC) has not been fully investigated. We studied evolution of lung liquid removal and lung aeration after birth in preterm lambs. METHODS: Lung liquid content and lung volume were assessed at birth and every 30 minutes over 2 hours using MRI in 3 groups of lambs delivered by cesarean: preterm, late preterm, and late preterm with antenatal steroids...
February 7, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170387/early-growth-faltering-in-post-institutionalized-youth-and-later-anthropometric-and-pubertal-development
#4
Brie M Reid, Bradley S Miller, Lorah D Dorn, Christopher Desjardins, Bonny Donzella, Megan Gunnar
BACKGROUND: Early life adversity that increases the risk of growth stunting is hypothesized to increase the risk of obesity and, in girls, early onset puberty. This hypothesis was tested in children adopted from orphanages. METHODS: Post-institutionalized (PI) youth were compared with youth reared in comparable families (non-adopted; NA) on height, weight, pubertal stage, and fat mass (127 PI, 80 female; 156 NA, 85 female, aged 7-14 years). Anthropometrics at adoption were obtained from first US clinic visits...
February 7, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170386/peripubertal-dietary-flavonol-and-lignan-intake-and-age-at-menarche-in-a-longitudinal-cohort-of-girls
#5
Nancy A Mervish, Susan L Teitelbaum, Ashley Pajak, Gayle C Windham, Susan M Pinney, Lawrence H Kushi, Frank M Biro, Mary S Wolff
BACKGROUND: Dietary phytoestrogens may alter hormonal activity in childhood. Flavonols and lignans are the most prevalent phytoestrogens in the Western diet.We examined whether higher intake of flavonols and lignans were associated with later age at menarche in a prospective study of young girls. METHODS: 1044 girls ages 6-8 years (mean 7.3 yr) with 2-4 24 hour dietary recalls during their baseline year were followed for 11 years until attainment of menarche in the Breast Cancer and Environment Research Project (BCERP)...
February 7, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157839/establishment-of-a-method-for-evaluating-endothelial-cell-injury-by-tnf-%C3%AE-in-vitro-for-clarifying-the-pathophysiology-of-virus-associated-acute-encephalopathy
#6
Kyohei Miyazaki, Koichi Hashimoto, Masatoki Sato, Masahiro Watanabe, Naoki Tomikawa, Shuto Kanno, Yukihiko Kawasaki, Nobuo Momoi, Mitsuaki Hosoya
BACKGROUND: Virus-associated acute encephalopathy (VAE) is a severe central nervous system complication caused by common viral infections in children. The pathophysiology of VAE is thought to be endothelial injury. This study was designed to establish an in vitro VAE model for evaluating endothelial injury caused by the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α. METHODS: Transwell-grown human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) monolayers were incubated with serially diluted TNF-α...
February 3, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157838/purification-and-characterization-of-micrornas-within-middle-ear-fluid-exosomes-implication-in-otitis-media-pathophysiology
#7
Stéphanie Val, Stephanie Jeong, Marian Poley, Anna Krueger, Gustavo Nino, Kristy Brown, Diego Preciado
BACKGROUND: Otitis Media (OM) is characterized by acute infection progressing to chronic middle ear effusion (MEE). Extracellular secretion of microRNAs (miRNAs) in exosomes is a newly discovered mechanism for cells exerting distant cell genetic regulation. Whether MEE contains exosomes with specific miRNAs is unknown. This study aimed to purify and characterize the exosomal and miRNA content of MEE. METHOD: MEEs were subjected to Exoquick exosomal purification and EXOCET exosomal quantification...
February 3, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157837/a-novel-surfactant-protein-c-mutation-resulting-in-aberrant-protein-processing-and-altered-subcellular-localization-causes-infantile-interstitial-lung-disease
#8
Da Hong, Yuanyuan Qi, Jing Liu, Huijun Wang, Libo Wang, Liling Qian
BACKGROUND: Mutations in the surfactant protein C gene (SFTPC) result in interstitial lung disease (ILD). Our objective was to report a novel SFTPC mutation and evaluate the effect of this mutant on protein synthesis and processing. METHODS: Genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood of a Chinese infant with ILD and candidate genes associated with ILD were sequenced by next-generation sequencing. Subclones of wild-type and mutant SFTPC were transiently transfected into A549 cells...
February 3, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157836/continuous-capnography-monitoring-during-resuscitation-in-a-transitional-large-mammalian-model-of-asphyxial-cardiac-arrest
#9
Praveen Chandrasekharan, Payam Vali, Munmun Rawat, Bobby Mathew, Sylvia F Gugino, Carmon Koenigschnekt, Justin Helman, Jayasree Nair, Sara Berkelhamer, Satyan Lakshminrusimha
BACKGROUND: In neonates requiring chest compression (CC) during resuscitation, neonatal resuscitation program (NRP) recommends against relying on a single feedback device such as end-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) or SpO2 to determine return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) until more evidence becomes available. METHODS: We evaluated the role of monitoring ETCO2 during resuscitation in a lamb model of cardiac arrest induced by umbilical cord occlusion (n=21). Lambs were resuscitated as per NRP guidelines...
February 3, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157835/bacillus-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-vaccination-thymic-size-and-thymic-output-in-healthy-newborns
#10
Nina Marie Birk, Thomas Nørrelykke Nissen, Vera Zingmark, Jesper Kjærgaard, Lisbeth Marianne Thøstesen, Poul-Erik Kofoed, Lone Graff Stensballe, Andreas Andersen, Susanne Dam Nielsen, Christine Stabell Benn, Ole Pryds, Dorthe Lisbeth Jeppesen
BACKGROUND: The Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine (BCG) has been associated with beneficial nonspecific effects on infant health. We aimed to examine the effect of BCG at birth on thymic size and the associations between thymic output, circulating lymphocytes, risk of infection, and thymic size. METHODS: In infants randomized to BCG or no BCG, thymic index (TI), and thymic/weight index (TWI) were measured by ultrasound at birth and at the age of 3 months. T cell subpopulations including CD4(+) T cells, CD8(+) T cells, and recent thymic emigrants (RTEs) were assessed by flow cytometry...
February 3, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157834/reduced-cortical-volume-and-thickness-and-their-relationship-to-medical-and-operative-features-in-post-fontan-children-and-adolescents
#11
Christopher G Watson, Christian Stopp, David Wypij, Jane W Newburger, Michael J Rivkin
BACKGROUND: We compared brain cortical and subcortical gray matter volumes and cortical thickness between post-Fontan patients and healthy controls, and examined brain anatomical associations with operative and medical history characteristics. METHODS: Post-Fontan (n = 128 volumes; n = 115 thickness) and control subjects (n = 48 volumes; n = 45 thickness) underwent brain MRI at ages 10-19 years. Subcortical and cortical volumes and cortical thicknesses were measured for intergroup comparison...
February 3, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024144/lack-of-broad-functional-differences-in-immunity-in-fully-vaccinated-vs-unvaccinated-children
#12
Ashley M Sherrid, Candice E Ruck, Darren Sutherland, Bing Cai, Tobias R Kollmann
BACKGROUND: Concerns have been raised that with an increase in the number of vaccines administered early in life, immune development could be altered, leading to either increased or decreased immune reactivity. METHODS: We investigated the impact of vaccination on immune status, contrasting the immune response to general, nonantigen-specific stimuli in a cohort of entirely unvaccinated vs. fully vaccinated children at 3-5 y of age. Innate immunity was assessed by quantifying bulk and cell-type-specific cytokine production in response to stimulation with pathogen associated microbial patterns...
February 1, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002391/starter-formula-enriched-in-prebiotics-and-probiotics-ensures-normal-growth-of-infants-and-promotes-gut-health-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#13
Michael Radke, Jean-Charles Picaud, Andrea Loui, Gilles Cambonie, Dirk Faas, Harry N Lafeber, Nanda de Groot, Sophie S Pecquet, Philippe G Steenhout, Jean-Michel Hascoet
BACKGROUND: Prebiotics and probiotics exert beneficial effects by modulating gut microbiota and immune system. This study evaluates efficacy and safety of an infant formula containing bovine milk-derived oligosaccharides and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp lactis (B. lactis) (CNCM I-3446) on incidence of diarrhea and febrile infections during the first year of life (primary outcome). METHODS: Full-term infants receiving Test or Control (without bovine milk-derived oligosaccharide and B...
February 1, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002390/therapeutic-hypothermia-modulates-complement-factor-c3a-and-c5a-levels-in-a-rat-model-of-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy
#14
Tushar A Shah, Jasmine E Nejad, Haree K Pallera, Frank A Lattanzio, Rawad Farhat, Parvathi S Kumar, Pamela S Hair, W Thomas Bass, Neel K Krishna
BACKGROUND: Therapeutic hypothermia (HT) is the only intervention that improves outcomes in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). However, the multifactorial mechanisms by which HT impacts HIE are incompletely understood. The complement system plays a major role in the pathogenesis of ischemia-reperfusion injuries such as HIE. We have previously demonstrated that HT modulates complement activity in vitro. METHODS: Term equivalent rat pups were subjected to unilateral carotid ligation followed by hypoxia (8% O2) for 45 min to simulate HIE...
February 1, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997529/renal-dysfunction-in-early-adulthood-following-birth-asphyxia-in-male-spiny-mice-and-its-amelioration-by-maternal-creatine-supplementation-during-pregnancy
#15
Stacey J Ellery, Domenic A LaRosa, Luise A Cullen-McEwen, Russell D Brown, Rod J Snow, David W Walker, Michelle M Kett, Hayley Dickinson
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury affects ~70% of asphyxiated newborns, and increases their risk of developing chronic kidney disease later in life. Acute kidney injury is driven by renal oxygen deprivation during asphyxia, thus we hypothesized that creatine administered antenatally would protect the kidney from the long-term effects of birth asphyxia. METHODS: Pregnant spiny mice were fed standard chow or chow supplemented with 5% creatine from 20-d gestation (midgestation)...
February 1, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870827/augmented-th17-type-immune-responses-in-preterm-neonates-exposed-to-histologic-chorioamnionitis
#16
Daniel C Rito, Luke T Viehl, Paula M Buchanan, Seema Haridas, Joyce M Koenig
BACKGROUND: Histologic chorioamnionitis (HCA) is a placental inflammatory disorder that frequently precedes preterm delivery. HCA increases risk for long-standing inflammatory injury and may influence immune programming, particularly in preterm (PT) neonates. We hypothesized that HCA exposure is associated with an increased circulating frequency of proinflammatory, Th17-type responses. METHODS: Placental cord blood was collected from HCA-exposed or control neonates (23-41 wk gestation)...
February 1, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855150/a-novel-missense-mutation-in-the-transcription-factor-foxf1-cosegregating-with-infantile-hypertrophic-pyloric-stenosis-in-the-extended-pedigree-linked-to-ihps5-on-chromosome-16q24
#17
Kate V Everett, Paris Ataliotis, Barry A Chioza, Charles Shaw-Smith, Eddie M K Chung
BACKGROUND: The aim was to identify susceptibility alleles for infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS) in a pedigree previously linked to IHPS5 on chromosome 16q24. METHODS: We screened the positional and functional candidate gene FOXF1 by Sanger sequencing in a single affected individual. All family members for whom DNA was available were genotyped to determine cosegregation status of the putative causal variant. Immunofluorescence studies were performed to compare the cellular localization of wildtype and mutant form of the protein...
February 1, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141793/sex-specific-associations-between-cerebrovascular-blood-pressure-autoregulation-and-cardiopulmonary-injury-in-neonatal-encephalopathy-and-therapeutic-hypothermia
#18
Raul Chavez-Valdez, Matthew O'Connor, Jamie Perin, Michael Reyes, Jillian Armstrong, Charlamaine Parkinson, Maureen Gilmore, Jacky Jennings, Frances J Northington, Jennifer K Lee
BACKGROUND: Cardiopulmonary injury is common in neonatal encephalopathy, but the link with cerebrovascular dysfunction is unknown. We hypothesized that cerebral autoregulation is associated with cardiopulmonary injury in neonates treated with therapeutic hypothermia (TH) for neonatal encephalopathy. METHODS: The cerebral hemoglobin volume index (HVx) from near-infrared spectroscopy was used to identify the mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) with optimal autoregulatory vasoreactivity (MAPOPT)...
January 31, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141792/preventing-permeability-transition-pore-opening-increases-mitochondrial-maturation-myocyte-differentiation-and-cardiac-function-in-the-neonatal-mouse-heart
#19
Jayson V Lingan, Ryan E Alanzalon, George A Porter
BACKGROUND: In embryonic myocytes, closure of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (PTP) drives mitochondrial maturation and cardiac myocyte differentiation. Since neonatal cardiac myocytes remain relatively immature, we hypothesized that inducing PTP closure at this age, by inhibiting the PTP regulator, cyclophilin D (CyPD), genetically or with Cyclosporin A (CsA) and NIM811, would increase cardiac function by increasing mitochondrial maturation and myocyte differentiation...
January 31, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141791/former-very-preterm-infants-show-alterations-in-plasma-amino-acid-profiles-at-a-preschool-age
#20
Anna Posod, Susanne Müller, Irena Odri Komazec, Daniel Dejaco, Ulrike Pupp Peglow, Elke Griesmaier, Sabine Scholl-Bürgi, Daniela Karall, Ursula Kiechl-Kohlendorfer
BACKGROUND: Amino acid analysis is a valuable tool for cardiovascular risk assessment. Preterm infants display plasma amino acid changes in the newborn period. Whether these changes persist is unknown to date. The aim of the present study was to assess whether former very preterm infants (VPI) show alterations in amino acid patterns indicative of an unfavorable cardiovascular risk profile at a preschool age. METHODS: Five- to seven-year-old children born at term or <32 weeks' gestation (VPI) were included in the study...
January 31, 2017: Pediatric Research
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