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Pediatric Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288151/pentoxifylline-modulates-lps-induced-hyperinflammation-in-monocytes-of-preterm-infants-in-vitro
#1
Simone S Schüller, Lukas Wisgrill, Elisabeth Herndl, Andreas Spittler, Elisabeth Förster-Waldl, Kambis Sadeghi, Boris W Kramer, Angelika Berger
BACKGROUND: Pentoxifylline (PTX), a methylxanthine derivate with immunomodulating properties, has been used as adjunctive treatment in severe neonatal sepsis. The aim of the study was to investigate PTX's anti-inflammatory effects on LPS stimulated monocytes of preterm neonates in vitro compared to monocytes from term infants and adult controls. METHODS: Whole cord blood and control adult blood samples were incubated with LPS and PTX. The expression of surface markers, phagocytosis, cytokine secretion and Toll-like-receptor (TLR)4 signaling of monocytes were assessed by flow cytometry...
March 13, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288150/-unknown-title
#2
Janneke Dekker, Stuart B Hooper, Jeroen J van Vonderen, Ruben Sgm Witlox, Enrico Lopriore, Arjan B Te Pas
BACKGROUND: Caffeine promotes spontaneous breathing by antagonizing adenosine. We assessed the direct effect of caffeine on respiratory effort in preterm infants at birth. METHODS: Thirty infants of 24-30 weeks of gestation were randomized for receiving caffeine directly after birth in the delivery room (caffeine DR-group) or later in the neonatal intensive care unit (control-group). Primary outcome was respiratory effort, expressed as minute volume, tidal volumes, respiratory rate, rate of rise to maximum tidal volume and recruitment breaths at 7-9 minutes after birth...
March 13, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288149/prenatal-exposure-to-maternal-very-severe-obesity-is-associated-with-impaired-neurodevelopment-and-executive-functioning-in-children
#3
Theresia H Mina, Marius Lahti, Amanda J Drake, Fiona C Denison, Katri Räikkönen, Jane E Norman, Rebecca M Reynolds
BACKGROUND: Prenatal maternal obesity has been associated with an increased risk of neurocognitive problems in childhood, but there are fewer studies on executive functioning. METHODS: Tests and questionnaires to assess neurodevelopment, executive functioning and the ability to delay gratification were administered to 113 children (mean (SD)=4.24 (0.63) years of age) born to very severely obese mothers (SO, BMI≥ 40 Kg/m(2), n=51) or to lean mothers (BMI≤ 25 Kg/m(2), n=62)...
March 13, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288148/natriuretic-peptide-c-receptor-in-the-developing-sheep-lung-role-in-perinatal-transition
#4
Bobby Mathew, Christopher A D'Angelis, Satyan Lakshminrusimha, Peter A Nickerson, June J Sokolowski, Vasantha H S Kumar, Huamei Wang, Karen A Wynn, Bruce A Holm, Rita M Ryan
BACKGROUND: At birth, the release of surfactant from Alveolar Type II (ATII) cells is stimulated by increased activity of the beta-adrenergic/adenylyl cyclase/cAMP- signaling cascade. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) stimulates surfactant secretion through Natriuretic peptide receptor A (NPR-A). ANP inhibits adenylyl cyclase activity through its binding to NPR-C. We wished to further understand the role of the NPR-C in perinatal transition. METHODS: We studied fetal and newborn sheep ATII expression of NPR-C and surfactant secretion in isolated ATIIs by measuring (3)[H] choline release into the media...
March 13, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288147/gestational-hyperglycemia-reprograms-cardiac-gene-expression-in-rat-offspring
#5
Lara Lehtoranta, Anna Koskinen, Olli Vuolteenaho, Jukka Laine, Ville Kytö, Hanna Soukka, Eeva Ekholm, Juha Räsänen
BACKGROUND: Rat fetuses with maternal pregestational hyperglycemia develop cardiac dysfunction and their cardiac gene expression differs from healthy control fetuses near term. HYPOTHESIS: Cardiac gene expression and morphologic abnormalities of rat fetuses with maternal pregestational hyperglycemia become normal after birth. METHODS: Nine rats were preconceptually injected with streptozotocin to induce maternal hyperglycemia and 9 rats served as controls...
March 13, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288146/timing-of-developmental-reduction-in-epithelial-glutathione-redox-potential-is-associated-with-increased-epithelial-proliferation-in-the-immature-murine-intestine
#6
Graham K Reid, Andrew J Berardinelli, Laurie Ray, Arena R Jackson, Andrew S Neish, Jason M Hansen, Patricia W Denning
BACKGROUND: The intracellular redox potential of the glutathione (GSH)/ glutathione disulfide (GSSG) couple regulates cellular processes. In vitro studies indicate that a reduced GSH/GSSG redox potential favors proliferation, while a more oxidized redox potential favors differentiation. Intestinal growth depends upon an appropriate balance between the two. However, how the ontogeny of intestinal epithelial cellular (IEC) GSH/GSSG redox regulates these processes in the developing intestine has not been fully characterized in vivo...
March 13, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288145/rectal-temperature-in-the-first-five-hours-after-hypoxia-ischaemia-critically-affects-neuropathological-outcomes-in-neonatal-rats
#7
Thomas Wood, Catherine Hobbs, Mari Falck, Anne Charlotte Brun, Else Marit Løberg, Marianne Thoresen
BACKGROUND: Hyperthermia after hypoxia-ischaemia (HI) in newborn infants is associated with worse neurological outcomes. Loss of thermoregulation may also be associated with greater injury. METHODS: In the postnatal-day 7 (P7) rat, the effect of 5h of graded hyperthermia (38°C or 39°C) immediately after unilateral HI was compared to normothermia (NT, 37°C), and therapeutic hypothermia (TH, 32°C). Early (negative geotaxis) and late (staircase test) behavioural testing was performed, as well as neuropathology scoring in adulthood...
March 13, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288144/thyroid-stimulating-hormone-levels-in-newborns-and-early-life-exposure-to-endocrine-disrupting-chemicals-analysis-of-three-european-mother-child-cohorts
#8
Marijke de Cock, Michiel R de Boer, Eva Govarts, Nina Iszatt, Lubica Palkovicova, Marja H Lamoree, Greet Schoeters, Merete Eggesbø, Tomas Trnovec, Juliette Legler, Margot van de Bor
BACKGROUND: Various studies report interactions between thyroid hormones and early life chemical exposure. Our objective was to analyse associations between markers of endocrine disrupting chemical exposure and thyroid function in newborns, determined in heel prick blood spots. METHODS: Three European mother-child cohorts (FLEHSI - Belgium, HUMIS - Norway, and the PCB cohort - Slovakia. Total n=1784) were pooled for the purpose of this study. Data on Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) was obtained from national neonatal screening registries, and cord plasma and/or breast milk was collected to determine exposure to various chemicals...
March 13, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248319/safety-dosing-and-pharmaceutical-quality-for-studies-that-evaluate-medicinal-products-including-biological-products-in-neonates
#9
Robert M Ward, Daniel Benjamin, Jeffrey S Barrett, Karel Allegaert, Ronald Portman, Jonathan M Davis, Mark A Turner
The study of medications among pediatric patients has increased worldwide since 1997 in response to new legislation and regulations, but these studies have not yet adequately addressed the therapeutic needs of neonates. Additionally, extant guidance developed by regulatory agencies worldwide does not fully address the specificities of neonatal drug development, especially among extremely premature newborns who currently survive. Consequently, an international consortium from Canada, Europe, Japan, and the United States was organized by the Critical Path Institute to address the content of guidance...
March 1, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060794/postnatal-human-enteric-neuronal-progenitors-can-migrate-differentiate-and-proliferate-in-embryonic-and-postnatal-aganglionic-gut-environments
#10
Lily S Cheng, Ryo Hotta, Hannah K Graham, Jaime Belkind-Gerson, Nandor Nagy, Allan M Goldstein
BACKGROUND: Enteric neural stem/progenitor cells (ENSCs) offer an innovative approach to treating Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) and other enteric neuropathies. However, postnatal-derived human ENSCs have not been thoroughly characterized and their behavior in the embryonic and postnatal intestinal environment is unknown. METHODS: ENSCs were isolated from the intestines of 25 patients undergoing bowel resection, including 7 children with HSCR. Neuronal differentiation and proliferation of ENSCs from submucosal and myenteric plexuses from patients with and without HSCR were characterized...
March 1, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28234891/detection-and-assessment-of-brain-injury-in-the-growth-restricted-fetus-and-neonate
#11
REVIEW
Atul Malhotra, Michael Ditchfield, Michael C Fahey, Margie Castillo-Melendez, Beth J Allison, Graeme R Polglase, Euan M Wallace, Ryan Hodges, Graham Jenkin, Suzanne L Miller
Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is a common complication of pregnancy and, in severe cases, is associated with elevated rates of perinatal mortality, neonatal morbidity, and poor neurodevelopmental outcomes. The leading cause of FGR is placental insufficiency, with the placenta failing to adequately meet the increasing oxygen and nutritional needs of the growing fetus with advancing gestation. The resultant chronic fetal hypoxia induces a decrease in fetal growth, and a redistribution of blood flow preferentially to the brain...
February 24, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056013/ensuring-breastfeeding-supportive-legislation
#12
Shetal Shah, Boriana Parvez, Heather L Brumberg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170389/pediatric-collateral-damage-from-recreational-marijuana-use
#13
Scott A Rivkees
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 7, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170388/lung-liquid-clearance-in-preterm-lambs-assessed-by-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#14
Ali Houeijeh, Pierre Tourneux, Sébastien Mur, Estelle Aubry, Romain Viard, Dyuti Sharma, Laurent Storme
BACKGROUND: Postnatal adaptation requires liquid clearance and lung aeration. However, their relative contribution to the expansion of functional residual capacity (FRC) has not been fully investigated. We studied evolution of lung liquid removal and lung aeration after birth in preterm lambs. METHODS: Lung liquid content and lung volume were assessed at birth and every 30 minutes over 2 hours using MRI in 3 groups of lambs delivered by cesarean: preterm, late preterm, and late preterm with antenatal steroids...
February 7, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170387/early-growth-faltering-in-post-institutionalized-youth-and-later-anthropometric-and-pubertal-development
#15
Brie M Reid, Bradley S Miller, Lorah D Dorn, Christopher Desjardins, Bonny Donzella, Megan Gunnar
BACKGROUND: Early life adversity that increases the risk of growth stunting is hypothesized to increase the risk of obesity and, in girls, early onset puberty. This hypothesis was tested in children adopted from orphanages. METHODS: Post-institutionalized (PI) youth were compared with youth reared in comparable families (non-adopted; NA) on height, weight, pubertal stage, and fat mass (127 PI, 80 female; 156 NA, 85 female, aged 7-14 years). Anthropometrics at adoption were obtained from first US clinic visits...
February 7, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170386/peripubertal-dietary-flavonol-and-lignan-intake-and-age-at-menarche-in-a-longitudinal-cohort-of-girls
#16
Nancy A Mervish, Susan L Teitelbaum, Ashley Pajak, Gayle C Windham, Susan M Pinney, Lawrence H Kushi, Frank M Biro, Mary S Wolff
BACKGROUND: Dietary phytoestrogens may alter hormonal activity in childhood. Flavonols and lignans are the most prevalent phytoestrogens in the Western diet.We examined whether higher intake of flavonols and lignans were associated with later age at menarche in a prospective study of young girls. METHODS: 1044 girls ages 6-8 years (mean 7.3 yr) with 2-4 24 hour dietary recalls during their baseline year were followed for 11 years until attainment of menarche in the Breast Cancer and Environment Research Project (BCERP)...
February 7, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157839/establishment-of-a-method-for-evaluating-endothelial-cell-injury-by-tnf-%C3%AE-in-vitro-for-clarifying-the-pathophysiology-of-virus-associated-acute-encephalopathy
#17
Kyohei Miyazaki, Koichi Hashimoto, Masatoki Sato, Masahiro Watanabe, Naoki Tomikawa, Shuto Kanno, Yukihiko Kawasaki, Nobuo Momoi, Mitsuaki Hosoya
BACKGROUND: Virus-associated acute encephalopathy (VAE) is a severe central nervous system complication caused by common viral infections in children. The pathophysiology of VAE is thought to be endothelial injury. This study was designed to establish an in vitro VAE model for evaluating endothelial injury caused by the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α. METHODS: Transwell-grown human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) monolayers were incubated with serially diluted TNF-α...
February 3, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157838/purification-and-characterization-of-micrornas-within-middle-ear-fluid-exosomes-implication-in-otitis-media-pathophysiology
#18
Stéphanie Val, Stephanie Jeong, Marian Poley, Anna Krueger, Gustavo Nino, Kristy Brown, Diego Preciado
BACKGROUND: Otitis Media (OM) is characterized by acute infection progressing to chronic middle ear effusion (MEE). Extracellular secretion of microRNAs (miRNAs) in exosomes is a newly discovered mechanism for cells exerting distant cell genetic regulation. Whether MEE contains exosomes with specific miRNAs is unknown. This study aimed to purify and characterize the exosomal and miRNA content of MEE. METHOD: MEEs were subjected to Exoquick exosomal purification and EXOCET exosomal quantification...
February 3, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157837/a-novel-surfactant-protein-c-mutation-resulting-in-aberrant-protein-processing-and-altered-subcellular-localization-causes-infantile-interstitial-lung-disease
#19
Da Hong, Yuanyuan Qi, Jing Liu, Huijun Wang, Libo Wang, Liling Qian
BACKGROUND: Mutations in the surfactant protein C gene (SFTPC) result in interstitial lung disease (ILD). Our objective was to report a novel SFTPC mutation and evaluate the effect of this mutant on protein synthesis and processing. METHODS: Genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood of a Chinese infant with ILD and candidate genes associated with ILD were sequenced by next-generation sequencing. Subclones of wild-type and mutant SFTPC were transiently transfected into A549 cells...
February 3, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157836/continuous-capnography-monitoring-during-resuscitation-in-a-transitional-large-mammalian-model-of-asphyxial-cardiac-arrest
#20
Praveen Chandrasekharan, Payam Vali, Munmun Rawat, Bobby Mathew, Sylvia F Gugino, Carmon Koenigschnekt, Justin Helman, Jayasree Nair, Sara Berkelhamer, Satyan Lakshminrusimha
BACKGROUND: In neonates requiring chest compression (CC) during resuscitation, neonatal resuscitation program (NRP) recommends against relying on a single feedback device such as end-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) or SpO2 to determine return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) until more evidence becomes available. METHODS: We evaluated the role of monitoring ETCO2 during resuscitation in a lamb model of cardiac arrest induced by umbilical cord occlusion (n=21). Lambs were resuscitated as per NRP guidelines...
February 3, 2017: Pediatric Research
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