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Pediatric Research

Scott A Rivkees
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 18, 2018: Pediatric Research
A David Smith
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 17, 2018: Pediatric Research
Jonathan M Snowden, Mark A Klebanoff
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 17, 2018: Pediatric Research
Abraham M Rudolph
BACKGROUND: Circulatory changes during gestational development of the human fetus have been considered to be similar to those noted in studies of the lamb fetus. METHODS: Blood flow measurements derived by Doppler ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging techniques in human fetuses at various stages of gestation have been compared with those in the lamb. RESULTS: Combined ventricular output relative to fetal body weight does not change significantly with growth in the lamb or human...
July 16, 2018: Pediatric Research
Lauren E Kelly
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 13, 2018: Pediatric Research
Olaya de Dios, Teresa Gavela-Pérez, Pablo Aguado-Roncero, Gloria Pérez-Tejerizo, Marta Ricote, Nieves González, Carmen Garcés, Leandro Soriano-Guillén
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to gain insights into the role of visceral adipose tissue as a source of C-reactive protein (CRP) in acute inflammation and to explore the potential relationship of CRP expression with the severity of appendicitis. METHODS: A total of 20 pediatric patients undergoing appendectomy were included in the study. Patients were divided into two groups according to appendicitis severity (uncomplicated and complicated). CRP levels were measured in visceral fat samples by western blotting, as well as in serum by biochemical testing...
July 10, 2018: Pediatric Research
Nicole R Dobson, Carl E Hunt
Apnea of prematurity (AOP) is a common and pervasive problem in very low birth weight infants. Methylxanthines were reported >40 years ago to be an effective therapy and, by the early 2000s, caffeine had become the preferred methylxanthine because of its wide therapeutic index, excellent bioavailability, and longer half-life. A clinical trial to address unresolved questions and toxicity concerns, completed in 2004, confirmed significant benefits of caffeine therapy, including shorter duration of intubation and respiratory support, reduced incidence of chronic lung disease, decreased need for treatment of patent ductus arteriosus, reduced severity of retinopathy of prematurity, and improved motor and visual function...
July 9, 2018: Pediatric Research
Joseph J Smolich, Jonathan P Mynard
BACKGROUND: The glucocorticosteroid betamethasone is routinely administered prior to anticipated preterm birth to enhance lung maturation. While betamethasone also increases fetal pulmonary blood flow and reduces pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), we investigated whether alterations in right ventricular (RV) function and ductal characteristic impedance (Zc ) additionally contributed to rises in pulmonary flow. METHODS: Anesthetized preterm fetal lambs with (n = 10) or without (n = 8) betamethasone pretreatment were instrumented with a pulmonary trunk micromanometer and ductus arteriosus and left pulmonary artery (PA) flow probes to calculate Zc , and obtain RV output and hydraulic power...
July 9, 2018: Pediatric Research
Scott C Denne, Jonathan M Davis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 9, 2018: Pediatric Research
Divya Bhatia, Aditi Sinha, Pankaj Hari, Shailaja Sopory, Savita Saini, Mamta Puraswani, Himanshi Saini, Dipendra K Mitra, Arvind Bagga
BACKGROUND: Rituximab, a monoclonal antibody targeting B lymphocytes, effectively sustains remission in steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome (SDNS). We studied its effects on lymphocyte subsets and urinary CD80 excretion (uCD80) in patients with SDNS. METHODS: Blood and urine samples were collected from 18 SDNS patients before rituximab, and after 1 month and 1 year or at first relapse. T and B lymphocytes and uCD80 were determined by flow cytometry and ELISA, respectively...
July 9, 2018: Pediatric Research
Sudarshan R Jadcherla, Varsha Prabhakar, Kathryn A Hasenstab, Saira Nawaz, Jayajit Das, Mark Kern, Gokulakrishnan Balasubramanian, Reza Shaker
BACKGROUND: Pharyngeal contractility is critical for safe bolus propulsion. Pharyngeal contractile vigor can be measured by Pharyngeal Contractile Integral (PhCI): product of mean pharyngeal contractile amplitude, length, and duration. We characterized PhCI in neonates and examined the hypothesis that PhCI differs with mode of stimulation. METHODS: Nineteen neonates born at 38.6 (34-41) weeks gestation were evaluated at 42.9 (40.4-44.0) weeks postmenstrual age using high-resolution manometry (HRM)...
July 6, 2018: Pediatric Research
Abolfazl Mahyar, Parviz Ayazi, Arshnoos Sarkhosh Afshar, Taghi Naserpour Farivar, Mehdi Sahmani, Sonia Oveisi, Robabeh Shabani, Shiva Esmaeili
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the genetic background of urinary tract infection (UTI) in children. METHODS: In this study, vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms were compared between 60 children with UTI (case group) and 60 healthy children (control group). DNA extraction, polymerase chain reaction, and the restriction fragment length polymorphism methods were used to perform the genetic analysis. RESULTS: There was a significant difference between the case and control groups for VDR gene, ApaI and Bsml, polymorphisms (P < 0...
July 6, 2018: Pediatric Research
Anna Grandone, Pierluigi Marzuillo, Caterina Luongo, Roberto Toraldo, Michela Mariani, Emanuele Miraglia Del Giudice, Laura Perrone
BACKGROUND: Basal levels of androgens, in particular 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17OHP), are widely debated as predictors of non-classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NCCAH) among patients with precocious pubarche (PP). Many authors have recommended the use of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation test in children with PP. The aim of our study was to identify clinical and biochemical predictors of NCCAH in children with PP. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study of 92 patients with PP undergoing an ACTH stimulation test...
July 6, 2018: Pediatric Research
Thomas Rossor, Kamal Ali, Ravindra Bhat, Rebecca Trenear, Gerrard Rafferty, Anne Greenough
BACKGROUND: Maternal smoking, substance misuse in pregnancy and prone sleeping increase the risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). We examined the effect of maternal smoking, substance misuse and sleeping position on the newborn response to hypoxia. METHODS: Infants born between 36 and 42 weeks of gestational age underwent respiratory monitoring in the prone and supine sleeping position before and during a hypoxic challenge. Minute ventilation (MV) and end-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2 ) levels were assessed...
July 6, 2018: Pediatric Research
Shayenthiran Sreetharan, Ciorsti J MacIntyre, Meena Fatah, Andrew E Warren, Gregory J Wilson, Robert M Hamilton
BACKGROUND: Histomorphometry of endomyocardial biopsies is one component of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) diagnosis, although there is a need for stricter diagnostic criteria for this disease in pediatrics. The clinical utility of biopsy analysis as a component of ARVC diagnosis was evaluated in pediatric patients. METHODS: Histomorphometric analysis of fibrofatty infiltrate was completed on pediatric right ventricular endomyocardial biopsy samples...
July 6, 2018: Pediatric Research
Elaine L Shelton, Nahid Waleh, Erin J Plosa, John T Benjamin, Ginger L Milne, Christopher W Hooper, Noah J Ehinger, Stanley Poole, Naoko Brown, Steven Seidner, Donald McCurnin, Jeff Reese, Ronald I Clyman
BACKGROUND: Although studies involving preterm infants ≤34 weeks gestation report a decreased incidence of patent ductus arteriosus after antenatal betamethasone, studies involving younger gestation infants report conflicting results. METHODS: We used preterm baboons, mice, and humans (≤276/7 weeks gestation) to examine betamethasone's effects on ductus gene expression and constriction both in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS: In mice, betamethasone increased the sensitivity of the premature ductus to the contractile effects of oxygen without altering the effects of other contractile or vasodilatory stimuli...
July 6, 2018: Pediatric Research
Nadine Brew, Shinji Nakamura, Nadia Hale, Aminath Azhan, Grace I Davies, Ilias Nitsos, Suzanne L Miller, David W Walker, Flora Y Wong
BACKGROUND: Impaired cerebral autoregulation in preterm infants makes circulatory management important to avoid cerebral hypoxic-ischemic injury. Dobutamine is frequently used as inotropic treatment in preterm neonates, but its effects on the brain exposed to cerebral hypoxia are unknown. We hypothesized that dobutamine would protect the immature brain from cerebral hypoxic injury. METHODS: In preterm (0.6 gestation) fetal sheep, dobutamine (Dob, 10 μg/kg/min) or saline (Sal) was infused intravenously for 74 h...
July 6, 2018: Pediatric Research
Daniel P Gitterman, W Scott Langford, William W Hay
BACKGROUND: The amount of federal dollars allocated to improving the health of our pediatric population can serve as an indicator of the priority placed on child well-being. Although Congress has established novel mechanisms that marginally increase pediatric research funding, the pediatric research portfolio is facing an increasingly uncertain fate. METHODS: This work examines pediatric, perinatal and pediatric research initiative (PRI) spending using data collected by the NIH that uses the novel research, condition and disease categorization system...
July 6, 2018: Pediatric Research
Luis E Simental-Mendía, Martha Rodríguez-Morán, Celia Aradillas-García, Fernando Guerrero-Romero
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that elevated triglyceride levels may precede the appearance of glucose metabolic disturbances in adults; nonetheless, this hypothesis has not been tested in children. Hence, we evaluated whether hypertriglyceridemia is associated with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) in normal-weight children. METHODS: Normal-weight healthy children aged 7-15 years were enrolled in a population-based cross-sectional population study and allocated into groups with and without hypertriglyceridemia...
July 3, 2018: Pediatric Research
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