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Cardiovascular Research

Alain Tedgui
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 14, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
Shasha Zhang, Zongpei Song, Lin An, Xiaoyun Liu, Xiao-Wen Hu, Amber Naz, Rujiang Zhou, Xizhi Guo, Lin He, Hongxin Zhu
Aims: WD40 repeat and FYVE domain containing 3 (WDFY3) is an adaptor protein involved in selective degradation of protein aggregates by autophagy. Recent studies have revealed that Wdfy3 is critical in the regulation of brain development and osteoclastogenesis in vivo. However, the function of Wdfy3 in cardiac development remains completely unknown. In this study, we explore the role of Wdfy3 in cardiac morphogenesis using Wdfy3-deficient mice. Methods and results: Wdfy3 was expressed in the developing heart in mice and peaked at embryonic day 12...
November 14, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
Franziska Schneider-Warme, Ursula Ravens
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 14, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
Derek J Hausenloy, William Chilian, Filippo Crea, Sean M Davidson, Peter Ferdinandy, David Garcia-Dorado, Niels van Royen, Rainer Schulz, Gerd Heusch
The coronary circulation is both culprit and victim of acute myocardial infarction. The rupture of an epicardial atherosclerotic plaque with superimposed thrombosis causes coronary occlusion, and this occlusion must be removed to induce reperfusion. However, ischaemia and reperfusion cause damage not only in cardiomyocytes but also in the coronary circulation, including microembolisation of debris and release of soluble factors from the culprit lesion, impairment of endothelial integrity with subsequently increased permeability and oedema formation, platelet activation and leukocyte adherence, erythrocyte stasis, a shift from vasodilation to vasoconstriction, and ultimately structural damage to the capillaries with eventual no-reflow, microvascular obstruction and intramyocardial haemorrhage...
November 14, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
Zhibo Liu, Matthew Fitzgerald, Trevor Meisinger, Rishi Batra, Melissa Suh, Harrison Greene, Alexander J Penrice, Lijun Sun, B Timothy Baxter, Wanfen Xiong
Aims: Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is one of a number of diseases associated with a prominent inflammatory cell infiltration, matrix protein degradation, and smooth muscle cell apoptosis. CD95 is an inflammatory mediator and an apoptosis inducer. Previous studies have shown elevated expression of CD95 or CD95L in the aortic tissue of AAA patients. However, how the CD95L/CD95 contributes to aneurysm degeneration and whether blocking its signaling would be beneficial to disease progression remains largely unknown...
November 13, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
Yukimitsu Kuwabara, Mariko Tanaka-Ishikawa, Kohtaro Abe, Mayumi Hirano, Yoshitaka Hirooka, Hiroyuki Tsutsui, Kenji Sunagawa, Katsuya Hirano
Aims: Pulmonary hypertension is characterized by progressive increases in pulmonary vascular resistance. Thrombotic lesions are common pathological findings. The pulmonary artery has a unique property regarding the vasoconstrictive response to thrombin, which is mediated by proteinase-activated receptor 1 (PAR1). We aim to elucidate the role of PAR1 in the development and progression of pulmonary hypertension. Methods and Results: A rat model of monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension and a mouse model of hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension were used to investigate the effects of atopaxar (a PAR1 antagonist) and PAR1 knockout on hemodynamic parameters, right ventricular hypertrophy, vascular remodeling and survival...
November 13, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
Wuqiang Zhu, Sean Reuter, Loren J Field
Background: Doxorubicin (DOX) is a widely used and effective anti-cancer therapeutic. DOX treatment is associated with both acute and late onset cardiotoxicity, limiting its overall efficacy. Here, the impact of cardiomyocyte cell cycle activation was examined in a juvenile model featuring aspects of acute and late onset DOX cardiotoxicity. Methods and Results: Two-week old MHC-cycD2 transgenic mice (which express cyclin D2 in postnatal cardiomyocytes and exhibit sustained cardiomyocyte cell cycle activity; D2 mice) and their wild type (WT) littermates received weekly DOX injections for 5 weeks (25 mg/kg cumulative dose)...
November 13, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
Oliver J Müller, Markus B Heckmann, Lin Ding, Kleopatra Rapti, Ashraf Y Rangrez, Thomas Gerken, Nicole Christiansen, Ulrike E E Rennefahrt, Henning Witt, Sandra González Maldonado, Philipp Ternes, Dominic M Schwab, Theresa Ruf, Susanne Hille, Anca Remes, Andreas Jungmann, Tanja M Weis, Julia Kreußer, Hermann-Josef Gröne, Johannes Backs, Philipp Schatz, Hugo A Katus, Norbert Frey
Aims: Heart failure is characterized by structural and metabolic cardiac remodelling. The aim of the present study is to expand our understanding of the complex metabolic alterations in the transition from pathological hypertrophy to heart failure and exploit the results from a translational perspective. Methods and results: Mice were subjected to transverse aortic constriction (TAC) or sham surgery and sacrificed 2, 4, or 6 weeks after the procedure. Samples from plasma, liver, skeletal muscle, and heart were collected and analysed using metabolomics...
November 9, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
Zhen-Guo Ma, Yu-Pei Yuan, Xin Zhang, Si-Chi Xu, Chun-Yan Kong, Peng Song, Ning Li, Qi-Zhu Tang
Aims: C1q-tumor necrosis factor-related protein-3 (CTRP3) is an adipokine and a paralog of adiponectin. Our previous study showed that CTRP3 attenuated diabetes-related cardiomyopathy. However, the precise role of CTRP3 in cardiac hypertrophy remains unclear. This study was aimed to clarify the role of CTRP3 involved in cardiac hypertrophy. Methods and results: Cardiomyocyte-specific CTRP3 overexpression was achieved using an adeno-associated virus system, and cardiac CTRP3 expression was knocked down using gene delivery of specific short hairpin RNAs in vivo...
November 8, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
Nuria Garcia-Fernandez, Javier Beaumont, María U Moreno, Gorka San José, Arantxa González, Javier Díez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 8, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
Kathryn J Schunke, Chad B Walton, David R Veal, Chrisy T Mafnas, Cynthia D Anderson, Allison L Williams, Ralph V Shohet
Aims: Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) is a key transcription factor responsible for the induction of genes that facilitate adaptation to hypoxia. To study HIF-1 signaling in the heart, we developed a mouse model in which an oxygen-stable form of HIF-1α can be inducibly expressed in cardiac myocytes, under the regulation of tetracycline. Methods & Results: Remarkably, expression of the transgene in mice generated two distinct phenotypes. One was the expected expression of HIF-regulated transcripts and associated changes in cardiac angiogenesis and contractility...
November 5, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
G A Figtree, D T M Ngo, K Bubb
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 5, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
Lei Huang, Xin Chen, Chiranjib Dasgupta, Wanqiu Chen, Rui Song, Charles Wang, Lubo Zhang
Aims: Antenatal hypoxia negatively impacts fetal heart development, and increases the risk of heart disease later in life. The molecular mechanisms remain largely elusive. Here, we conducted a genome-wide analysis to study the impact of antenatal hypoxia on DNA methylome and transcriptome profiling in fetal and adult offspring hearts. Methods and Results: Pregnant rats were treated with normoxia or hypoxia (10.5% O2) from day 15 to 21 of gestation. Hearts were isolated from near-term fetuses and 5-month-old male and female offsprings, and DNA methylome and RNA-seq were performed...
November 5, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
Jing Ye, Bin Que, Ying Huang, Yingzhong Lin, Jiangbin Chen, Ling Liu, Ying Shi, Yuan Wang, Menglong Wang, Tao Zeng, Zhen Wang, Haiying Hu, Yao Xu, Lei Shi, Di Ye, Jianfang Liu, Huimin Jiang, Jun Wan, Qingwei Ji
Aims: Numerous studies have demonstrated that inflammation is involved in the progression of hypertension. Inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-35 belong to the IL-12 cytokine family and share the same IL-12p35 subunit. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that IL-12p35 knockout (IL-12p35 KO) leads to cardiovascular disease by regulating the inflammatory response. This study aimed to investigate whether IL-12p35 KO elevates blood pressure in a hypertension mouse model. Methods and Results: Mice with angiotensin (Ang) II infusion showed marked aortic IL-12p35 expression; thus, aortic macrophages may be the main source of IL-12p35...
November 5, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
Hanna J Sanyour, Na Li, Alex P Rickel, Josh D Childs, Courtney N Kinser, Zhongkui Hong
Aims: Cholesterol not only deposits in foam cells at the atherosclerotic plaque, but also plays an important role as a regulator of cell migration in atherogenesis. In addition, the progression of atherosclerosis leads to arterial wall stiffening, and thus altering the micromechanical environment of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in vivo. Our studies aim to test the hypothesis that membrane cholesterol and substrate stiffness coordinate to regulate VSMCs biomechanics, and thus potentially regulate VSMCs migration and atherosclerotic plaque formation...
November 5, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
Yoshimasa Takafuji, Mika Hori, Toshihide Mizuno, Mariko Harada-Shiba
Aims: Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the vasculature. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exert immunomodulatory and immunosuppressive effects by secreting humoral factors; however, the intravascular MSC administration presents a risk of vascular occlusion. Here, we investigated both the effect of conditioned medium from cultured MSCs (MSC-CM) on atherosclerosis and the underlying mechanism. Methods and Results: Low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (Ldlr-/-) mice were fed a high-fat diet and received intravenous injections of either MSC-CM from adipose tissue-derived MSCs or control medium 2×/week for 13 weeks...
November 2, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
Ahsan A Khan, Gregory Y H Lip
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the commonest sustained cardiac arrhythmia, and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. There is plenty of evidence available to support the presence of a prothrombotic or hypercoagulable state in AF, but the contributory factors are multifactorial and cannot simply be explained by blood stasis.Abnormal changes in atrial wall (anatomical and structural, as 'vessel wall abnormalities'), the presence of spontaneous echo contrast to signify abnormal changes in flow and stasis ('flow abnormalities") and abnormal changes in coagulation, platelet and other pathophysiologic pathways ('abnormalities of blood constituents') are well documented in AF...
November 2, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
Rimpy Dhingra, Brooke Lieberman, Lorrie A Kirshenbaum
Calcium homeostasis is critical for the cell fate, physiological calcium levels are important for cellular metabolism; however calcium overload in mitochondrial matrix can trigger mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening and necrotic cell death. A new study conducted in mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) knock out mice identifies phosphorylation of Cyclophillin D (CypD) at serine 42 to be critical for regulating MCU- mitochondrial calcium retention capacity and mPTP-pore opening.
October 31, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
Willian S Korim, Khalid Elsaafien, Jeremy R Basser, Anthony Setiadi, Clive N May, Song T Yao
Aims: Neuroinflammation is a common feature in renovascular, obesity-related, and angiotensin II mediated hypertension. There is evidence that increased release of the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) contributes to the development of the hypertension, but the underlying neural mechanisms are unclear. Here we investigated whether TNF-α stimulates neurons in the area postrema, a circumventricular organ, to elicit sympathetic excitation and increases in blood pressure...
October 25, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
Yuichi J Shimada, Koichiro Gibo, Yusuke Tsugawa, Tadahiro Goto, Elaine W Yu, Hiroyasu Iso, David F M Brown, Kohei Hasegawa
Aims: Studies have suggested relationships between obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity. However, little is known about whether substantial weight reduction affects the risk of CVD-related acute care use in obese patients with CVD. The objective of this study was to determine whether bariatric surgery is associated with decreased risk of CVD-related acute care use. Methods and Results: We performed a self-controlled case series study of obese adults with CVD who underwent bariatric surgery, using population-based emergency department (ED) and inpatient samples in California, Florida, and Nebraska from 2005 to 2011...
October 24, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
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