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Cardiovascular Research

Andrea Caporali, Magnus Bäck, Mat J Daemen, Imo E Hoefer, Elizabeth A Jones, Esther Lutgens, Christian M Matter, Marie-Luce Bochaton-Piallat, Arndt F Siekmann, Judith C Sluimer, Sabine Steffens, José Tuñón, Cecile Vindis, Jolanda J Wentzel, Seppo Ylä-Herttuala, Paul C Evans
Modulation of vessel growth holds great promise for treatment of cardiovascular disease. Strategies to promote vascularization can potentially restore function in ischaemic tissues. On the other hand, plaque neovascularization has been shown to associate with vulnerable plaque phenotypes and adverse events. The current lack of clinical success in regulating vascularization illustrates the complexity of the vascularization process, which involves a delicate balance between pro- and anti-angiogenic regulators and effectors...
July 17, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
Elke Dworatzek, Shokoufeh Mahmoodzadeh, Cindy Schriever, Kana Kusumoto, Lisa Kramer, Gabriela Santos, Daniela Fliegner, Yuet-Kin Leung, Shuk-Mei Ho, Wolfram-Hubertus Zimmermann, Susanne Lutz, Vera Regitz-Zagrosek
Aims: Sex differences in cardiac fibrosis point to the regulatory role of 17β-Estradiol (E2) in cardiac fibroblasts (CF). We therefore asked whether male and female CF in rodent and human models are differentially susceptible to E2, and whether this is related to sex-specific activation of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and beta (ERβ). Methods and Results: In female rat CF (rCF), 24 h E2-treatment (10-8 M) led to a significant down-regulation of collagen I and III expression, whereas both collagens were up-regulated in male rCF...
July 17, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
Sirirat Surinkaew, Mona Aflaki, Abhijit Takawale, Yu Chen, Xiao-Yan Qi, Marc-Antoine Gillis, Yan-Fen Shi, Jean-Claude Tardif, Nipon Chattipakorn, Stanley Nattel
Aims: Heart failure (HF) produces left atrial (LA)-selective fibrosis and promotes atrial fibrillation. HF also causes adrenergic activation, which contributes to remodeling via a variety of signaling molecules, including the exchange protein activated by cAMP (Epac). Here, we evaluate the effects of Epac1-signaling on LA-fibroblast (FB) function and its potential role in HF-related atrial remodeling. Methods and Results: HF was induced in adult male mongrel dogs by ventricular tachypacing (VTP)...
July 17, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
Bishoy Deif, Brennan Ballantyne, Fahad Almehmadi, Michael Mikhail, William F McIntyre, Jaimie Manlucu, Raymond Yee, John L Sapp, Jason D Roberts, Jeff S Healey, Peter Leong-Sit, Anthony S Tang
Aims: Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (CRT) has been shown to reduce mortality and heart failure (HF) hospitalization but its effects on the rate of ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) appears to be neutral. We hypothesize that CRT with LV epicardial stimulation is inherently pro-arrhythmic and increases VA rates in the absence of reverse ventricular remodelling while conferring an anti-arrhythmic effect in mechanical responders. Methods and Results: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we considered retrospective cohort, prospective cohort and randomized controlled trials comparing VA rates between cardiac resynchronization therapy-defibrillator (CRT-D) non-responders, CRT-D responders and those with implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) only...
July 14, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
Mona Panahi, Angelos Papanikolaou, Azam Torabi, Ji-Gang Zhang, Habib Khan, Ali Vazir, Muneer Hasham, John G F Cleland, Nadia Rosenthal, Sian E Harding, Susanne Sattler
Following a myocardial infarction (MI), the immune system helps to repair ischaemic damage and restore tissue integrity, but excessive inflammation has been implicated in adverse cardiac remodelling and development towards heart failure. Pre-clinical studies suggest that timely resolution of inflammation may help prevent heart failure development and progression.Therapeutic attempts to prevent excessive post-MI inflammation in patients have included pharmacological interventions ranging from broad immunosuppression to immunomodulatory approaches targeting specific cell types or factors with the aim to maintain beneficial aspects of the early post-MI immune response...
July 14, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
Fanny Canesi, Véronique Mateo, Dominique Couchie, Sonia Karabina, Anne Nègre-Salvayre, Mustapha Rouis, Khadija El Hadri
Aims: Oxidative stress and inflammation play a pathogenic role in atherosclerosis. Thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1) is an anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory protein with atheroprotective effects. However, in vivo cleavage of Trx-1 generates a truncated pro-inflammatory protein, Trx-80, which compromises the therapeutic use of Trx-1. Here we analyzed whether the thioredoxin-mimetic peptide (TxMP), CB3 might exert anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and atheroprotective effects in ApoE2.Ki mice. Methods and Results: We synthesized a small TxMP, Ac-Cys-Pro-Cys-amide, CB3 and characterized its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects on cultured peritoneal murine macrophages...
July 13, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
Tadao Aikawa, Masanao Naya, Masahiko Obara, Osamu Manabe, Keiichi Magota, Kazuhiro Koyanagawa, Naoya Asakawa, Yoichi M Ito, Tohru Shiga, Chietsugu Katoh, Toshihisa Anzai, Hiroyuki Tsutsui, Venkatesh L Murthy, Nagara Tamaki
Aims: Coronary flow reserve (CFR) is an integrated measure of the entire coronary vasculature and is a powerful prognostic marker in coronary artery disease (CAD). The extent to which coronary revascularisation can improve CFR is unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) on CFR in patients with stable CAD. Methods and Results: In a prospective, multicentre observational study, CFR was measured by 15O-water positron emission tomography as the ratio of stress to rest myocardial blood flow at baseline and 6 months after optimal medical therapy (OMT) alone, PCI, or CABG...
July 10, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
Clément Cochain, Hafid Ait-Oufella, Alma Zernecke
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 10, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
Johann Bauersachs, Stephane Heymans
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 9, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
Hai-Yun Li, Xiao-Ling Liu, Yu-Tong Liu, Zhe-Kun Jia, János G Filep, Lawrence A Potempa, Shang-Rong Ji, Yi Wu
Aims: Circulating proteins larger than 3 nm can be transported across continuous endothelial barrier of blood vessels via transcytosis. However, excessive accumulation of serum proteins within the vessel walls is uncommon even for those abundant in the circulation. The aim of this study was to investigate how transcytosis regulates tissue accumulation of the prototypical acute-phase reactant C-reactive protein (CRP) and other serum proteins. Methods and Results: Transcytosis of CRP as well as of transferrin and low-density lipoprotein across aortic endothelial cells is bidirectional with directional preference from the apical (blood) to basolateral (tissue) direction both in vitro and in vivo...
July 9, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
Emma Yu, Kirsty Foote, Martin Bennett
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 6, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
Hayfa Medfai, Alia Khalil, Alexandre Rousseau, Vincent Nuyens, Martina Paumann-Page, Benjamin Sevcnikar, Paul G Furtmüller, Christian Obinger, Nicole Moguilevsky, Olivier Peulen, Michael Herfs, Vincent Castronovo, Mohamed Amri, Pierre Van Antwerpen, Luc Vanhamme, Karim Zouaoui Boudjeltia
Aims: The term angiogenesis refers to sprouting of new blood vessels from pre-existing ones. The angiogenic process involves cell migration and tubulogenesis requiring interaction between endothelial cells and the extracellular matrix. Human peroxidasin 1 (hsPxd01) is a multidomain heme peroxidase found embedded in the basement membranes. As it promotes the stabilization of extracellular matrix, we investigated its possible role in angiogenesis both in vitro and in vivo. Methods and Results: We analyzed the effects of peroxidasin 1 gene silencing and supplementation by recombinant hsPxd01 in TeloHAEC endothelial cells on cell migration, tubulogenesis in matrigel and intracellular signal transduction as assessed by kinase phosphorylation and expression of pro-angiogenic genes as measured by qRT-PCR...
July 4, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
XiaoLing Luo, Di Yang, WeiJun Wu, Fen Long, ChenXi Xiao, Ming Qin, Betty YuenKwan Law, Rinkiko Suguro, Xin Xu, LeFeng Qu, XinHua Liu, Yi Zhun Zhu
Aims: Jumonji domain-containing protein 3 (JMJD3), also called lysine specific demethylase 6B (KDM6b), is an inducible histone demethylase which plays an important role in many biological processes, however, its function in vascular remodeling remains unknown. We aim to demonstrate that JMJD3 mediates vascular neointimal hyperplasia following carotid injury, and proliferation and migration in platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB)-induced vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Methods and results: By using both genetic and pharmacological approaches, our study provides the first evidence that JMJD3 controls PDGF-BB-induced VSMCs proliferation and migration...
July 4, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
Thomas Jansen, Swenja Kröller-Schön, Tanja Schönfelder, Marc Foretz, Benoit Viollet, Andreas Daiber, Matthias Oelze, Moritz Brandt, Sebastian Steven, Miroslava Kvandová, Sanela Kalinovic, Jeremy Lagrange, John F Keaney, Thomas Münzel, Philip Wenzel, Eberhard Schulz
Background: Immune cell function involves energy-dependent processes including growth, proliferation and cytokine production. Since the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a crucial regulator of intracellular energy homeostasis, its expression and activity may also affect innate and adaptive immune cell responses. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the consequences of α1AMPK deletion in myelomonocytic cells on vascular function, inflammation and hypertension during chronic angiotensin II (ATII) treatment...
July 4, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
Dobromir Dobrev, Anke C Fender, Xander H T Wehrens
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 3, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
Stephanie Than, Velandai Srikanth
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 3, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
Yana Wang, Jiali Liu, Qiuyue Kong, Hao Cheng, Fei Tu, Peng Yu, Ying Liu, Xiaojin Zhang, Chuanfu Li, Yuehua Li, Xinxu Min, Shuya Du, Zhengnian Ding, Li Liu
Aim: Inadequate healing after myocardial infarction (MI) leads to heart failure and fatal ventricular rupture, while optimal healing requires timely induction and resolution of inflammation. This study tested the hypothesis that heat shock protein B1 (HSPB1), which limits myocardial inflammation during endotoxemia, modulates wound healing after MI. Methods and results: To test this hypothesis, cardiomyocyte-specific HSPB1 knockout (Hspb1-/-) mice were generated using the Cre-LoxP recombination system...
July 2, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
Raffaele Altara, Rana Ghali, Ziad Mallat, Alessandro Cataliotti, George W Booz, Fouad A Zouein
Interleukin 33 (IL-33), which is expressed by several immune cell types, endothelial and epithelial cells, and fibroblasts, is a cytokine of the IL-1 family that acts both intra- and extracellularly to either enhance or resolve the inflammatory response. Intracellular IL-33 acts in the nucleus as a regulator of transcription. Once released from cells by mechanical stress, inflammatory cytokines, or necrosis, extracellular IL-33 is proteolytically processed to act in an autocrine/paracrine manner as an "alarmin" on neighboring or various immune cells expressing the ST2 receptor...
July 2, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
Xiaoyuan Yang, Jamie E Meegan, Melanie Jannaway, Danielle C Coleman, Sarah Y Yuan
Aims: Endothelial hyperpermeability exacerbates multiple organ damage during inflammation or infection. The endothelial glycocalyx, a protective matrix covering the luminal surface of endothelial cells (ECs), undergoes enzymatic shedding during inflammation, contributing to barrier hyperpermeability. A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 15 (ADAM15) is a sheddase capable of cleaving the ectodomains of membrane-bound molecules. Here, we tested whether and how ADAM15 is involved in glycocalyx shedding and vascular leakage during sepsis...
June 23, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
Hong-Xia Wang, Wen-Jun Li, Cui-Liu Hou, Song Lai, Yun-Long Zhang, Cui Tian, Hui Yang, Jie Du, Hui-Hua Li
Aims: Cd1d is a member of the cluster of differentiation 1 (CD1) family of glycoproteins expressed on the surface of various antigen-presenting cells, which is recognized by natural killer T (NKT) cells. CD1d-dependent NKT cells play an important role in immune-mediated diseases; but the role of these cells in regulating cardiac remodeling remains unknown. Methods and Results: Cardiac remodeling was induced by angiotensin (Ang) II infusion for 2 weeks. Ang II-induced increase in hypertension, cardiac performance, hypertrophy and fibrosis, inflammatory response and activation of the NF-kB and TGF-β1/Smad2/3 pathways was significantly aggravated in CD1d knockout (CD1dko) mice compared with wild type (WT) mice, but these effects were markedly abrogated in WT mice treated with α-galactosylceramide (αGC), a specific activator of NKT cells...
June 23, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
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