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Journal of General Virology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920852/experimental-transmission-to-a-calf-of-an-isolate-of-spanish-classical-scrapie
#1
Rosa Bolea, Carlos Hedman, Óscar López-Pérez, Belén Marín, Enríc Vidal, Martí Pumarola, Fabien Corbière, Antonio Romero, Bernardino Moreno, Inmaculada Martín-Burriel, Olivier Andréoletti, Juan José Badiola
Multiple theories exist regarding the origin of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). An early and prominent theory proposed that BSE was the result of the adaptation of sheep scrapie to cattle. The reports to date indicate that the distribution of the pathological prion protein (PrPSc) in experimental bovine scrapie is largely restricted to the central nervous system (CNS). Here, we describe pathological findings in a calf intracerebrally inoculated with a Spanish classical scrapie isolate. While clinical disease was observed 30 months after inoculation and PrPSc was detected in the CNS, the corresponding phenotype differed from that of BSE...
September 18, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906230/novel-insights-into-bat-influenza-a-viruses
#2
Kevin Ciminski, Thiprampai Thamamongood, Gert Zimmer, Martin Schwemmle
In 2012 and 2013, influenza virus genome sequences of two new influenza A virus (IAV) subtypes were discovered in bat specimens, but further characterization was largely impeded by the lack of infectious virus. With the identification of highly susceptible cell lines, reconstitution of infectious bat IAV by reverse genetics recently succeeded and allowed a first insight into the life cycle of these viruses. Although there is a certain degree of functional compatibility between bat and conventional influenza A virus proteins, there are striking differences, including receptor usage, polarity of infection and reassortment potential...
September 14, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901902/simian-varicella-virus-inhibits-the-interferon-gamma-signalling-pathway
#3
Werner J D Ouwendijk, Suzanne van Veen, Ravi Mahalingam, Georges M G M Verjans
The alphaherpesvirus simian varicella virus (SVV) causes varicella and zoster in nonhuman primates. Herpesviruses evolved elaborate mechanisms to escape host immunity, but the immune evasion strategies employed by SVV remain ill-defined. We analysed whether SVV impairs the cellular response to key antiviral cytokine interferon-γ (IFNγ). SVV infection inhibited the expression of IFNγ-induced genes like C-X-C motif chemokine 10 and interferon regulatory factor 1. Phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) was blocked in SVV-infected cells, which did not involve cellular and viral phosphatases...
September 13, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895517/assessment-of-molecular-and-genetic-evolution-antigenicity-and-virulence-properties-during-the-persistence-of-the-infectious-bronchitis-virus-in-broiler-breeders
#4
Filipe Santos Fernando, Thaiane Coelho Kasmanas, Priscila Diniz Lopes, Maria de Fátima da Silva Montassier, Marcos Antônio Zanella Mores, Viviane Casagrande Mariguela, Caren Pavani, Romeu Moreira Dos Santos, Mário Sérgio Assayag, Helio José Montassier
The infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) causes a highly contagious disease [infectious bronchitis (IB)] that results in substantial economic losses to the poultry industry worldwide. We conducted a molecular and phylogenetic analysis of the S1 gene of Brazilian (BR) IBV isolates from a routinely vaccinated commercial flock of broiler breeders, obtained from clinical IB episodes that occurred in 24-, 46- and 62-week-old chickens. We also characterized the antigenicity, pathogenesis, tissue tropism and spreading of three IBV isolates by experimental infection of specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens and contact sentinel birds...
September 12, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884667/influenza-virus-replication-in-macrophages-balancing-protection-and-pathogenesis
#5
Troy D Cline, Donald Beck, Elizabeth Bianchini
Macrophages are essential for protection against influenza A virus infection, but are also implicated in the morbidity and mortality associated with severe influenza disease, particularly during infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus. While influenza virus infection of macrophages was once thought to be abortive, it is now clear that certain virus strains can replicate productively in macrophages. This may have important consequences for the antiviral functions of macrophages, the course of disease and the outcome of infection for the host...
September 8, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884666/ictv-virus-taxonomy-profile-picornaviridae
#6
R Zell, E Delwart, A E Gorbalenya, T Hovi, A M Q King, N J Knowles, A M Lindberg, M A Pallansch, A C Palmenberg, G Reuter, P Simmonds, T Skern, G Stanway, T Yamashita, Ictv Report Consortium
The family Picornaviridae comprises small non-enveloped viruses with RNA genomes of 6.7 to 10.1 kb, and contains >30 genera and >75 species. Most of the known picornaviruses infect mammals and birds, but some have also been detected in reptiles, amphibians and fish. Many picornaviruses are important human and veterinary pathogens and may cause diseases of the central nervous system, heart, liver, skin, gastrointestinal tract or upper respiratory tract. Most picornaviruses are transmitted by the faecal-oral or respiratory routes...
September 8, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884664/early-nasopharyngeal-microbial-signature-associated-with-severe-influenza-in-children-a-retrospective-pilot-study
#7
Stanley Langevin, Maxime Pichon, Elise Smith, Juliet Morrison, Zachary Bent, Richard Green, Kristi Baker, Owen Solberg, Yves Gillet, Etienne Javouhey, Bruno Lina, Michael G Katze, Laurence Josset
A few studies have highlighted the importance of the respiratory microbiome in modulating the frequency and outcome of viral respiratory infections. However, there are insufficient data on the use of microbial signatures as prognostic biomarkers to predict respiratory disease outcomes. In this study, we aimed to evaluate whether specific bacterial community compositions in the nasopharynx of children at the time of hospitalization are associated with different influenza clinical outcomes. We utilized retrospective nasopharyngeal (NP) samples (n=36) collected at the time of hospital arrival from children who were infected with influenza virus and had been symptomatic for less than 2 days...
September 8, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884679/the-integration-of-a-macrophage-adapted-live-vaccine-strain-of-equine-infectious-anaemia-virus-eiav-in-the-horse-genome
#8
Qiang Liu, Xue-Feng Wang, Cheng Du, Yue-Zhi Lin, Jian Ma, Yu-Hong Wang, Jian-Hua Zhou, Xiaojun Wang
Integration is an important feature of retroviruses and retrovirus-based therapeutic transfection vectors. The non-primate lentivirus equine infectious anaemia virus (EIAV) primarily targets macrophages/monocytes in vivo. Investigation of the integration features of EIAVDLV121 strains, which are adapted to donkey monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs), is of great interest. In this study, we analysed the integration features of EIAVDLV121 in equine MDMs during in vitro infection. Our previously published integration sites (IS) for EIAVFDDV13 in fetal equine dermal (FED) cells were also analysed in parallel as references...
September 7, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874234/retention-and-topology-of-the-bovine-viral-diarrhea-virus-glycoprotein-e2
#9
Christina Radtke, Birke Andrea Tews
Pestiviruses are enveloped viruses that bud intracellularly. They have three envelope glycoproteins, Erns, E1, and E2. E2 is the receptor binding protein and the main target for neutralizing antibodies. Both Erns and E2 are retained intracellularly. Here, E2 of the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strain CP7 was used to study the membrane topology and intracellular localization of the protein. E2 is localized in the ER and there was no difference between E2 expressed alone or in the context of the viral polyprotein...
September 6, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874231/genomic-characterization-of-a-novel-iridovirus-from-redclaw-crayfish-cherax-quadricarinatus-evidence-for-a-new-genus-within-the-family-iridoviridae
#10
Fang Li, Limei Xu, Feng Yang
A novel iridovirus, Cherax quadricarinatus iridovirus (CQIV), was identified from diseased C. quadricarinatus in 2014. This virus is considered as a new threat to crustacean aquaculture because it is lethal to both peneaid shrimp and crayfish. Here, we determined the complete genome sequence of CQIV. The double-stranded DNA genome is 165 695 bp in length with a G+C content of 34.6 %. A total of 178 open reading frames (ORFs) have been predicted, encoding hypothetical proteins ranging from 50 to 1327 amino acids...
September 6, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874230/therapeutic-effect-of-autologous-compact-bone-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cell-transplantation-on-prion-disease
#11
Zhifu Shan, Yuji Hirai, Momoko Nakayama, Ryo Hayashi, Takeshi Yamasaki, Rie Hasebe, Chang-Hyun Song, Motohiro Horiuchi
Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative disorders of humans and animals and no effective treatments are currently available. Allogenic transplantation of immortalized human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can prolong the survival of mice infected with prions. However, autologous transplantation is an appropriate model for evaluating the effects of MSCs on prion diseases. Therefore, we isolated and purified MSCs from the femur and tibia of mice as compact bone-derived MSCs (CB-MSCs). Flow cytometric analysis showed that CB-MSCs were negative for myeloid stem cell-derived cell markers CD11b and CD45, but positive for molecules such as Sca-1, CD105 and CD90...
September 6, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874229/molecular-evolution-and-phylogeography-of-infectious-hematopoietic-necrosis-virus-with-a-focus-on-its-presence-in-france-over-the-last-30-years
#12
Laure Bellec, Lénaïg Louboutin, Joëlle Cabon, Jeanne Castric, Joëlle Cozien, Richard Thiéry, Thierry Morin
Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is among the most important pathogens affecting the salmonid industry. Here, we investigated the molecular evolution and circulation of isolates from 11 countries or regions all over the world, with a special focus on the epidemiological situation in France. The phylogeography, time to the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) and nucleotide substitution rate were studied using 118 full-length glycoprotein gene sequences isolated from 9 countries (5 genogroups) over a period of 47 years...
September 6, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874227/the-impact-of-virus-population-diversity-on-the-dynamics-of-cytomegalovirus-dnaemia-in-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplant-recipients
#13
Víctor Vinuesa, María Alma Bracho, Eliseo Albert, Carlos Solano, Manuela Torres-Puente, Estela Giménez, Fernando González-Candelas, David Navarro
Mixed cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections are associated with delayed viral clearance in solid organ transplant recipients. We investigated whether this could be extrapolated to allogeneic stem cell transplant (allo-SCT) recipients. A total of 48 plasma specimens, obtained during 29 episodes of active CMV infection in 25 non-consecutive allo-SCT patients, were analysed. Baseline blood specimens, drawn shortly prior to the inception of pre-emptive antiviral therapy (pre-treatment specimen; n=29), as well as follow-up samples obtained either after the initiation of antiviral therapy (post-treatment specimen; n=15) or during recurrent episodes (n=4) were analysed...
September 6, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874226/an-updated-review-of-avian-origin-tembusu-virus-a-newly-emerging-avian-flavivirus
#14
Wei Zhang, Shun Chen, Suresh Mahalingam, Mingshu Wang, Anchun Cheng
Tembusu virus (TMUV, genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae) was first isolated in 1955 from Culex tritaeniorhynchus mosquitoes in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. In April 2010, duck TMUV was first identified as the causative agent of egg-drop syndrome, characterized by a substantial decrease in egg laying and depression, growth retardation and neurological signs or death in infected egg-laying and breeder ducks, in the People's Republic of China. Since 2010, duck TMUV has spread to most of the duck-producing regions in China, including many of the coastal provinces, neighbouring regions and certain Southeast Asia areas (i...
September 6, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721858/detection-of-african-swine-fever-virus-in-the-tissues-of-asymptomatic-pigs-in-smallholder-farming-systems-along-the-kenya-uganda-border-implications-for-transmission-in-endemic-areas-and-asf-surveillance-in-east-africa
#15
Edward Okoth Abworo, Cynthia Onzere, Joshua Oluoch Amimo, Victor Riitho, Waithaka Mwangi, Jocelyn Davies, Sandra Blome, Richard Peter Bishop
The persistence of African swine fever virus (ASFV) in endemic areas, with small-scale but regular outbreaks in domestic pigs, is not well understood. ASFV has not been detected using conventional diagnosis in these pigs or adjacent populations of resistant African wild pigs, that could act as potential carriers during the outbreaks. However, such data are crucial for the design of evidence-based control strategies. We conducted cross-sectional (1107 pigs) and longitudinal (100 pigs) monitoring of ASFV prevalence in local pigs in Kenya and Uganda...
July 18, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721853/us10-a-novel-npro-interacting-protein-inhibits-classical-swine-fever-virus-replication
#16
Huifang Lv, Wang Dong, Gui Qian, Jie Wang, Xiaomeng Li, Zhi Cao, Qizhuang Lv, Chengbao Wang, Kangkang Guo, Yanming Zhang
Classical swine fever (CSF) is a severe, febrile and highly contagious disease caused by classical swine fever virus (CSFV) that has resulted in huge economic losses in the pig industry worldwide. CSFV Npro has been actively studied but remains incompletely understood. Few studies have investigated the cellular proteins that interact with Npro and their participation in viral replication. Here, the yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) system was employed to screen Npro-interacting proteins from a porcine alveolar macrophage (PAM) cDNA library, and a blast search of the NCBI database revealed that 15 cellular proteins interact with Npro...
July 18, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721841/genetic-characterization-of-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-a-h5n8-viruses-isolated-from-wild-birds-in-egypt
#17
Ahmed Kandeil, Ahmed Kayed, Yassmin Moatasim, Richard J Webby, Pamela P McKenzie, Ghazi Kayali, Mohamed A Ali
A newly emerged H5N8 influenza virus was isolated from green-winged teal in Egypt during December 2016. In this study, we provide a detailed characterization of full genomes of Egyptian H5N8 viruses and some virological features. Genetic analysis demonstrated that the Egyptian H5N8 viruses are highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the genome of the Egyptian H5N8 viruses was related to recently characterized reassortant H5N8 viruses of clade 2.3.4.4 isolated from different Eurasian countries...
July 18, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708047/temporal-patterns-of-chronic-wasting-disease-prion-excretion-in-three-cervid-species
#18
Ian H Plummer, Scott D Wright, Chad J Johnson, Joel A Pedersen, Michael D Samuel
Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is the only naturally occurring transmissible spongiform encephalopathy affecting free-ranging wildlife populations. Transmission of CWD occurs by direct contact or through contaminated environments; however, little is known about the temporal patterns of CWD prion excretion and shedding in wild cervids. We tested the urine and faeces of three species of captive cervids (elk, mule and white-tailed deer) at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months after oral inoculation to evaluate the temporal, species- and genotype-specific factors affecting the excretion of CWD prions...
July 15, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699875/the-middle-half-genome-of-interferon-inducing-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-strain-a2mc2-is-essential-for-interferon-induction
#19
Zexu Ma, Ying Yu, Yueqiang Xiao, Tanja Opriessnig, Rong Wang, Liping Yang, Yuchen Nan, Siba K Samal, Patrick G Halbur, Yan-Jin Zhang
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is known to antagonize the innate immune response. An atypical PRRSV strain A2MC2 is capable of inducing synthesis of type I interferons (IFNs) in cultured cells. Here, we show that the middle half of the A2MC2 genome is needed for triggering the IFN synthesis. First, a cDNA infectious clone of this atypical strain was constructed as a DNA-launched version. Virus recovery was achieved from the infectious clone and the recovered virus, rA2MC2, was characterized...
July 13, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699870/microrna-mir-214-inhibits-snakehead-vesiculovirus-replication-by-targeting-the-coding-regions-of-viral-n-and-p
#20
Chi Zhang, Lizhu Yi, Shuangshuang Feng, Xueqin Liu, Jianguo Su, Li Lin, Jiagang Tu
Snakeheadvesiculovirus (SHVV), a new member of the family Rhabdoviridae, has caused enormous economic losses in snakehead fish culture during the past years in China; however, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of its pathogenicity. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that play important roles in virus infection. In this study, we identified that SHVV infection downregulated miR-214 in striped snakehead (SSN-1) cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Notably, transfecting SSN-1 cells with miR-214 mimic significantly inhibitedSHVV replication, whereas miR-214 inhibitor promoted it, suggesting that miR-214 acted as a negative regulator of SHVV replication...
July 12, 2017: Journal of General Virology
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