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Journal of General Virology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086075/cellular-microrna-mir-10a-5p-inhibits-replication-of-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-by-targeting-the-host-factor-signal-recognition-particle-14
#1
Guangwei Zhao, Jianye Hou, Gaoxiao Xu, Aoqi Xiang, Yanmei Kang, Yunhuan Yan, Xiaobin Zhang, Gongshe Yang, Shuqi Xiao, Shiduo Sun
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is one of the most economically important viruses affecting the swine industry worldwide. MicroRNAs (miRNA) have recently been demonstrated to play vital roles in virus-host interactions. Our previous research of small RNA deep sequencing showed that the expression level of miR-10a increased during the viral lifecycle. The present study sought to determine the function of miR-10a and its molecular mechanism during PRRSV infection. In the current study, the result of PRRSV infection inducing miR-10a expression was validated by quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR (qRT-PCR)...
January 12, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086071/155r-is-a-novel-structural-protein-of-bovine-adenovirus-type-3-but-it-is-not-essential-for-virus-replication
#2
Ahmed O Hassan, Sai V Vemula, Anurag Sharma, Dinesh S Bangari, Krishna K Mishra, Suresh K Mittal
Bovine adenovirus (AdV) type 3 (BAdV-3) E1 region shares functional homology with E1 of human AdV type C5 (HAdV-C5). Sequence analysis of the BAdV-3 E1 region revealed the presence of a novel 155R open-reading frame (ORF) that is not observed in other AdVs, on the lower strand antiparallel to a portion of the E1B region. The 155R gene products in BAdV-3-infected cells were identified by Northern blot, RT-PCR followed by sequencing, and Western blot analysis using the 155R-specific antibody. 155R seems to be a late protein and is present in purified BAdV-3 particles...
January 12, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073404/isolation-and-characterization-of-hiv-1-envelope-glycoprotein-specific-b-cell-from-immortalized-human-na%C3%A3-ve-b-cell-library
#3
Zehua Sun, Shiqiang Lu, Zheng Yang, Jingjing Li, Meiyun Zhang
With the recent development of single B cell cloning techniques, an increasing number of HIV-1-specific broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) have been isolated since 2009. However, knowledge regarding HIV-1-specific B cells in vivo is limited. In this study, an HIV-1-specific B cell line has been established using healthy PBMC donors by the highly efficient EBV transformation method to generate immortalized human naïve B cell libraries. The enrichment of HIV-1 envelope-specific B cells was observed after four rounds of cell panning with the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein...
January 10, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073402/deep-sequencing-analysis-of-tick-borne-encephalitis-virus-from-questing-ticks-at-natural-foci-reveals-similarities-between-quasispecies-pools-of-the-virus
#4
Naveed Asghar, John H-O Pettersson, Patrik Dinnetz, Åshild Andreassen, Magnus Johansson
Every year, tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) causes severe central nervous system infection in 10,000 to 15,000 people in Europe and Asia. TBEV is maintained in the environment by an enzootic cycle that requires a tick vector and a vertebrate host, and the adaptation of TBEV to vertebrate and invertebrate environments is essential for TBEV persistence in nature. This adaptation is facilitated by the error-prone nature of the virus' RNA-dependent RNA polymerase that generates genetically distinct virus variants called quasispecies...
January 10, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073399/enterovirus-71-induces-apoptosis-by-directly-modulating-the-conformational-activation-of-pro-apoptotic-protein-bax
#5
Xiaodong Han, Haolong Cong
Enterovirus 71 (EVA71), a virus of the genus enterovirus in the picornaviridae family, is one of the main causative agents of foot, hand and mouth disease in infected infants and young children. In this study, we report that cells with EVA71 infection exhibit increased levels of cytochrome c release and Caspase-3 activation. EVA71 infection induces the conformational activation of pro-apoptotic protein Bax, and the subsequent formation of oligomers of Bax in mitochondria. Inhibitors that block Caspase-8 activation cannot inhibit apoptosis induced by EVA71 infection...
January 10, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056224/recombinant-fowlpox-virus-vector-based-vaccines-expression-kinetics-dissemination-and-safety-profile-following-intranasal-delivery
#6
David G Townsend, Shubhanshi Trivedi, Ronald J Jackson, Charani Ranasinghe
We have previously established that mucosal uptake of recombinant fowlpox virus (rFPV) vaccines is far superior to other vector-based vaccines. Specifically, intranasal (i.n.) priming with rFPV vaccines can recruit unique antigen presenting cells (APC), which induce excellent mucosal and systemic HIV-specific CD8+ T cell immunity. In this study, we have for the first time investigated the in-vivo dissemination, safety and expression kinetics of rFPV post i.n. delivery using recombinant viruses expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) or mCherry...
January 5, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056217/zinc-binding-site-of-hiv-2-vpx-prevents-instability-and-dysfunction-of-the-protein
#7
Minami Yamamoto, Ryoko Koga, Haruna Fujino, Kazunori Shimagaki, Halil Ibrahim Ciftci, Masahiro Kamo, Hiroshi Tateishi, Masami Otsuka, Mikako Fujita
HIV-2 Vpx coordinates zinc through residues H39, H82, C87 and C89. We reported previously that H39, H82 and C87 mutants maintain Vpx activity to facilitate the degradation of SAMHD1. Herein, the expression of Vpx mutants in cells was examined in detail. We demonstrated that the zinc-binding site stabilizes the protein to keep its function in virus growth when low levels of Vpx are expressed. At higher levels of expression, Vpx aggregation can occur, and zinc binding would suppress such aggregation. Among the amino acids involved in zinc coordination, H39 plays the most critical role...
January 5, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056216/nuclear-localization-and-secretion-competence-is-conserved-amongst-henipavirus-matrix-proteins
#8
Elisabeth C McLinton, Kylie M Wagstaff, Alexander Lee, Gregory W Moseley, Glenn A Marsh, Lin-Fa Wang, David A Jans, Kim G Lieu, Hans Netter
Viruses of the genus Henipavirus of the family Paramyxoviridae are zoonotic pathogens, which have emerged in South East Asia, Australia and Africa. Nipah virus (NiV) and Hendra virus (HeV) are highly virulent pathogens transmitted from bats to animals and humans, whilst the henipavirus Cedar virus (CedV) seems to be non-pathogenic in infection studies. The full replication cycle of the Paramyxoviridae occurs in the host cell's cytoplasm where viral assembly is orchestrated by the matrix (M) protein. Unexpectedly, the NiV-M protein traffics through the nucleus as an essential step to engage the plasma membrane in preparation for viral budding/release...
January 5, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036249/a-novel-alphaherpesvirus-associated-with-fatal-diseases-in-banded-penguins
#9
Florian Pfaff, Christoph Schulze, Patricia König, Kati Franzke, Sabine Bock, Andreas Hlinak, Jens Kämmerling, Andreas Ochs, André Schüle, Thomas C Mettenleiter, Dirk Höper, Martin Beer
A novel avian alphaherpesvirus, preliminarily designated as sphenicid alphaherpesvirus 1 (SpAHV-1) has been independently isolated from juvenile Humboldt and African penguins (Spheniscus humboldti and S. demersus) kept in German zoos suffering from diphtheroid oropharyngitis / laryngotracheitis and necrotizing enteritis (collectively designated as penguin-diphtheria-like disease). High-throughput sequencing was used to determine the complete genome sequences of the first two SpAHV-1 isolates. SpAHV-1 comprises a class D genome with a length of about 164 kbp, a G+C content of 45...
December 30, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036247/intracellular-degradation-and-localization-of-ns1-of-tbev-affects-its-protective-properties
#10
Yulia Kuzmenko, Elizaveta Starodubova, Anastasia Shevtsova, Lubov Chernokhaeva, Anastasia Latanova, Olga Preobrazhenskaia, Andrey Timofeev, Galina Karganova, Vadim Karpov
Currently many DNA vaccines against infectious diseases are in clinical trials however their efficacy is needed to be improved. Potency of DNA immunogen can be optimized by targeting technologies. In a current study to increase the efficacy of NS1encoded by plasmid the proteasome targeting was applied. NS1 variants with or without translocation sequence and with signal of proteasomal degradation of ornithine decarboxylase were tested for expression, localization, protein turnover, proteasomal degradation and protection properties...
December 30, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036243/comparative-analysis-of-22-epstein-barr-virus-genomes-from-diseased-and-healthy-individuals
#11
Lu Zhou, Jian-Ning Chen, Xin-Min Qiu, Yu-Hang Pan, Zhi-Gang Zhang, Chun-Kui Shao
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infects most of the world's population and is causally associated with several human cancers, but little is known about how EBV genetic variations ¬might influence EBV-associated diseases and their geographical patterns. In the present study, 22 EBV whole-genome sequences from diseased and healthy individuals were analysed to explore EBV sequence variations at the whole-genome level. We found that the 22 EBV genomes were generally highly similar to each other at the genome level. However, varying degrees of genetic diversity were detected across the entire genome, especially in the latent genes...
December 30, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008822/autophagy-activated-by-duck-enteritis-virus-infection-positively-affects-its-replication
#12
Lili Zhao, Hai-Chang Yin, Si-Qi Li, Yin-Jie Niu, Xin-Jie Jiang, Li-Jing Xu, Tao-Feng Lu, Ling-Xia Han, Sheng-Wang Liu, Hong-Yan Chen
Duck enteritis virus (DEV) is an acute, septic, sexually transmitted disease that occurs in ducks, geese, and other poultry. Autophagy is an evolutionarily ancient pathway that is important in many viral infections. Despite extensive study, the interplay between DEV and autophagy of host cells is not clearly understood. In this study, we found that DEV infection triggers autophagy in duck embryo fibroblast (DEF) cells, as demonstrated by the appearance of autophagosome-like double or single-membrane vesicles in the cytoplasm of host cells and the numbers of GFP-LC3 dots...
December 23, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008821/cooperative-enhancement-of-translation-by-two-adjacent-microrna-122-argonaute-2-complexes-binding-to-the-5%C3%A2-untranslated-region-of-hepatitis-c-virus-rna
#13
Anika Nieder-Röhrmann, Nadia Dünnes, Gesche K Gerresheim, Lyudmila A Shalamova, Andreas Herchenröther, Michael Niepmann
The liver-specific microRNA-122 (miR-122) binds to two conserved binding sites in the 5´-untranslated region (5´UTR) of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) RNA. This binding was reported to enhance HCV RNA replication, translation and stability. We have analyzed binding of miR-122/Argonaute 2 (Ago2) complexes to these sites using anti-Ago2-co-immunoprecipitation of radioactively labeled HCV RNAs along with ectopic miR-122 in HeLa cells. Our results show that the miR-122 target sites can be addressed separately. When both target sites were addressed simultaneously, we observed a synergistic binding of both miR/Ago2 complexes...
December 23, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008819/effects-of-pb1-f2-on-the-pathogenicity-of-h1n1-swine-influenza-virus-in-mice-and-pigs
#14
Jinhwa Lee, Jamie Henningson, Jingjiao Ma, Michael Duff, Yuekun Lang, Yonghi Li, Yuhao Li, Abdou Nagy, Sunyoung Sunwoo, Bhupinder Bawa, Jianmei Yang, Dingping Bai, Juergen A Richt, Wenjun Ma
Although several studies have exploited effects of PB1-F2 in swine influenza viruses, its contribution to the pathogenicity of swine influenza viruses remains unclear. Herein, we investigated effects of PB1-F2 on the pathogenicity of influenza virus using a virulent H1N1 A/swine/Kansas/77778/2007 (KS07) virus, which expresses a full-length PB1-F2, in mice and pigs. Using reverse genetics, we generated the wild type KS07 (KS07_WT), a PB1-F2 knockout mutant (KS07_K/O) and its N66S variant (KS07_N66S). KS07_K/O showed similar pathogenicity in mice as the KS07_WT, whereas KS07_N66S displayed enhanced virulence when compared to the other two viruses...
December 23, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008817/midgut-based-resistance-to-oral-infection-by-a-nucleopolyhedrovirus-in-the-laboratory-selected-strain-of-the-smaller-tea-tortrix-adoxophyes-honmai-lepidoptera-tortricidae
#15
Kento Iwata, Eric Haas-Stapleton, Yasuhisa Kunimi, Maki N Inoue, Madoka Nakai
A strain of Adoxophyes honmai resistant to Adoxophyes honmai nucleopolyhedrovirus (AdhoNPV) was established from a field-collected colony by repeated selection. Fifth-instar larvae of this resistant strain (R-strain) had over 66,666-fold resistance in terms of 50% lethal concentration values to oral infection of AdhoNPV than non-selected strain larvae (Susceptible for AdhoNPV; S2-strain). In this study, the mechanism of resistance to AdhoNPV was determined in R-strain larvae. An assessment of viral genome replication in AdhoNPV-infected S2- and R-strain larvae by quantitative PCR showed no viral genome replication occurring in R-strain larvae...
December 23, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005527/characterization-of-host-dependent-mutations-of-apple-fruit-crinkle-viroid-replicating-in-newly-identified-experimental-hosts-suggests-maintenance-of-stem-loop-structures-in-the-left-hand-half-of-the-molecule-is-important-for-replication
#16
Takahiro Suzuki, Misato Fujibayashi, Tatsuji Hataya, Akito Taneda, Ying-Hong He, Taro Tsushima, Ganesh Selvaraj Duraisamy, Kristyna Siglová, Jaroslav Matoušek, Teruo Sano
Apple fruit crinkle viroid (AFCVd) is a tentative member of the genus Apscaviroid, family Pospiviroidae. AFCVd has a narrow host range and is known to infect apple, hop, and persimmon as natural hosts. In this study, tomato, cucumber, and wild hop have been identified as new experimental herbaceous hosts Foliar symptoms were very mild or virtually undetectable, but fruits of infected tomato were small, cracked, and distorted. These symptoms resemble those observed on some AFCVd-sensitive apple cultivars. After transfer to tomato, cucumber, and wild hop, sequence changes were detected in a natural AFCVd isolate from hop, and major variants in tomato, cucumber, and wild hop differed in 10, 8, or 2 nucleotides respectively from the predominant one in the inoculum...
December 21, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005525/the-ccr6-ccl20-chemokine-axis-in-hiv-immunity-and-pathogenesis
#17
Adrian Yong Sing Lee, Heinrich Körner
Recent studies in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have garnered interest for the role of CC chemokine receptor 6 (CCR6) and its known ligands, CCL20 and human β-defensins, in viral entry, dissemination and anti-viral immunity. Several studies have suggested that CCR6 may also act as a weak co-receptor of HIV entry, in addition to the canonical CXCR4 and CCR5.However, the pathogenic significance has yet to be demonstrated as the observations for preferential infection of CD4+CCR6+ over CD4+CCR6¯ T cells appear to be independent of CCR6 expression...
December 21, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005523/discovery-of-a-novel-alphavirus-related-to-eilat-virus
#18
Kyra Hermanns, Florian Zirkel, Anne Kopp, Marco Marklewitz, Innocent Rwego, Alejandro Estrada, Thomas Robert Gillespie, Christian Drosten, Sandra Junglen
Most alphaviruses are transmitted by arthropods and infect vertebrate hosts. An exception is Eilat virus (EILV), the only described alphavirus with a host range restricted to insects. We established a new generic reverse transcription PCR assay for alphaviruses and tested 8,860 tropical mosquitoes. We detected a novel alphavirus, tentatively named Taï Forest alphavirus (TALV), in Culex decens mosquitoes collected in Côte d'Ivoire. The full genome was sequenced and closest similarity was found to EILV. Pairwise amino acid identities to EILV ranged between 67-88% for the corresponding proteins suggesting that TALV defines a proposed new alphavirus species...
December 21, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005515/possible-chromosomal-and-germline-integration-of-human-herpesvirus-7-hhv-7
#19
Bhupesh K Prusty, Nitish Gulve, Santa Rasa, Modra Murovska, Pilar Collado Hernandez, Dharam V Ablashi
Human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7) is a betaherpesvirus and is phylogenetically related to both HHV-6A and HHV-6B. The presence of telomeric repeat sequences at both end of its genome should make it equally likely to integrate into human telomere as HHV-6. However, numerous studies have failed to detect germline integration of HHV-7 suggesting an important difference between the HHV-6A/-6B and HHV-7 genomes. In search of possible germline integrated HHV-7, we developed a sensitive and quantitative real time PCR assay and discovered that primers designed against some parts of HHV-7 genome can frequently miss HHV-7 positive clinical samples even though they work efficiently in cell culture derived HHV-7 positive materials...
December 21, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995863/discovery-of-a-novel-accessory-protein-ns7a-encoded-by-porcine-deltacoronavirus
#20
Puxian Fang, Liurong Fang, Yingying Hong, Xiaorong Liu, Nan Dong, Panpan Ma, Jing Bi, Dang Wang, Shaobo Xiao
Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is an emerging swine enteric coronavirus. Bioinformatics predicts that PDCoV encodes two accessory proteins (NS6 and NS7), the genus-specific proteins for coronavirus. In this study, four monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the predicted NS7 were prepared by using purified recombinant NS7 protein. Indirect immunofluorescence assay demonstrated that all MAbs recognized cells transfected with an NS7 expression construct or infected with PDCoV. Western blot showed NS7-specific MAbs recognized an additional protein band of about 12 kDa from PDCoV-infected cell lysates but not cells with the ectopic expression of NS7...
December 20, 2016: Journal of General Virology
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