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Journal of General Virology

Ariane Bonnin, Adeline Danneels, Jean Dubuisson, Anne Goffard, Sandrine Belouzard
Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) is responsible for common colds. Like other coronaviruses, HCoV-229E exploits cellular proteases to activate fusion mediated by the spike protein. We analysed the proteolytic processing of the HCoV-229E spike protein by trypsin-like serine proteases leading to activation of the fusion process. Unlike in other coronaviruses, HCoV-229E fusion activation appears to be a one-step process. Indeed, cleavage of the S1/S2 interface does not seem to be a prerequisite, and the fusion activation is highly reliant on the S2' region, with arginine residue 683 acting as the recognition site...
May 22, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Irna Sufiawati, Sharof M Tugizov
We have shown that cell-free HIV-1 and viral proteins tat and gp120 activate mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in tonsil epithelial cells, disrupting their tight and adherens junctions. This causes liberation of the HSV-1 receptor nectin-1 from assembled adherens junctions, leading to promotion of HSV-1 infection and spread. In the present study, we show that HIV-associated activation of MAPK leads to upregulation of transcription factor NF-κB and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). This induces the disruption of tight and adherens junctions, increasing HSV-1 cell-to-cell spread...
May 18, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Edson Delatorre, Milene Miranda, Diogo A Tschoeke, Patrícia Carvalho de Sequeira, Simone Alves Sampaio, Giselle Barbosa-Lima, Yasmine Rangel Vieira, Luciana Leomil, Fernando A Bozza, José Cerbino-Neto, Patricia T Bozza, Rita Maria Ribeiro Nogueira, Patrícia Brasil, Fabiano L Thompson, Ana M B de Filippis, Thiago Moreno L Souza
Descriptive clinical data help to reveal factors that may provoke Zika virus (ZIKV) neuropathology. The case of a 24-year-old female with a ZIKV-associated severe acute neurological disorder was studied. The levels of ZIKV in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were 50 times higher than the levels in other compartments. An acute anti-flavivirus IgG, together with enhanced TNF-alpha levels, may have contributed to ZIKV invasion in the CSF, whereas the unbiased genome sequencing [obtained by next-generation sequencing (NGS)] of the CSF revealed that no virus mutations were associated with the anatomic compartments (CSF, serum, saliva and urine)...
May 17, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Nik M Faiz, Aneg L Cortes, James S Guy, Sanjay M Reddy, Isabel M Gimeno
Marek's disease virus (MDV) is a herpesvirus that induces lymphoma and a variety of non-neoplastic syndromes in chickens. Furthermore, very virulent plus (vv+) MDVs induce a form of immunosuppression (late-MDV-IS) that might involve both neoplastic and non-neoplastic mechanisms. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the attenuation of MDV-induced tumours and late-MDV-IS occurs simultaneously or can be dissociated. The immunosuppressive ability of three viruses derived from vv+ MDV strain 686 (wild-type 686, the somewhat attenuated molecular clone 686-BAC, and the nononcogenic molecular clone lacking the two copies of the oncogene meq 686-BACΔMEQ) was evaluated...
May 16, 2018: Journal of General Virology
John M K Roberts, Denis L Anderson, Peter A Durr
The viral landscape of the honey bee (Apismellifera) has changed as a consequence of the global spread of the parasitic mite Varroa destructor and accompanying virulent strains of the iflavirus deformed wing virus (DWV), which the mite vectors. The presence of DWV in honey bee populations is known to influence the occurrence of other viruses, suggesting that the current known virome of A. mellifera may be undercharacterized. Here we tested this hypothesis by examining the honey bee virome in Australia, which is uniquely free of parasitic mites or DWV...
May 11, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Ashley C Banyard, David Selden, Guanghui Wu, Leigh Thorne, Daisy Jennings, Denise Marston, Stefan Finke, Conrad M Freuling, Thomas Müller, Juan E Echevarría, Anthony R Fooks
The lyssaviruses are an important group of viruses that cause a fatal encephalitis termed rabies. The prototypic lyssavirus, rabies virus, is predicted to cause more than 60 000 human fatalities annually. The burden of disease for the other lyssaviruses is undefined. The original reports for the recently described highly divergent Lleida bat lyssavirus were based on the detection of virus sequence alone. The successful isolation of live Lleida bat lyssavirus from the carcass of the original bat and in vitro characterization of this novel lyssavirus are described here...
May 10, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Rubing Chen, Suchetana Mukhopadhyay, Andres Merits, Bethany Bolling, Farooq Nasar, Lark L Coffey, Ann Powers, Scott C Weaver, Ictv Report Consortium
The Togaviridae is a family of small, enveloped viruses with single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genomes of 10-12 kb. Within the family, the genus Alphavirus includes a large number of diverse species, while the genus Rubivirus includes the single species Rubella virus. Most alphaviruses are mosquito-borne and are pathogenic in their vertebrate hosts. Many are important human and veterinary pathogens (e.g. chikungunya virus and eastern equine encephalitis virus). Rubella virus is transmitted by respiratory routes among humans...
May 10, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Francesca Di Giallonardo, Michelle D Audsley, Mang Shi, Paul R Young, Elizabeth A McGraw, Edward C Holmes
A novel negative-sense RNA virus, Aedes aegypti anphevirus, was recently identified in wild Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. We show that this virus is also present in the Aag2 Aedes aegypti cell line and characterize its complete genome and evolutionary history. The Aedes aegypti anphevirus genome is estimated to be 12 916 nucleotides in length, contains four genes and has a genome structure similar to that of other anpheviruses. Phylogenetically, Aedes aegypti anphevirus falls within an unclassified group of insect-specific viruses in the order Mononegavirales that form a sister-group to the chuviruses...
May 9, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Jade L L Teng, Paolo Martelli, Wan-Mui Chan, Hwei Huih Lee, Suk-Wai Hui, Candy C Y Lau, Herman Tse, Kwok-Yung Yuen, Patrick C Y Woo, Susanna K P Lau
In this study, two novel noroviruses (NoVs) were discovered from faecal samples from California sea lions from an oceanarium in Hong Kong, and named California sea lion NoV 1 (Csl/NoV1) and California sea lion NoV 2 (Csl/NoV2). Whole-genome sequencing showed that the genome organization and amino acid motifs of both Csl/NoV1 and Csl/NoV2 were typical of those of other NoVs in their open reading frames (ORFs). Csl/NoV1 possessed only 52.6-52.8 % amino acid identity in VP1 to the closest matches in genogroup GII...
May 3, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Emine Ozsahin, Monique M van Oers, Remziye Nalcacioglu, Zihni Demirbag
Chilo iridescent virus (CIV), officially named invertebrate iridescent virus 6 (IIV6), is a nucleocytoplasmic virus with a ~212-kb linear dsDNA genome that encodes 215 putative open reading frames (ORFs). Proteomic analysis has revealed that the CIV virion consists of 54 virally encoded proteins. In this study, we identified the interactions between the structural proteins using the yeast two-hybrid system. We cloned 47 structural genes into both bait and prey vectors, and then analysed the interactions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain AH109...
April 30, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Sarah Emmett, Samuel Boros, David C Whiteman, Sandro V Porceddu, Benedict J Panizza, Annika Antonsson
A significant proportion of mucosal squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck (HNSCC; particularly of the oropharynx) are directly attributable to the human papillomavirus (HPV). The increase in the incidence of HPV-related tumours has been postulated to be due to changing sexual practices in the community. We analysed 136 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded squamous cell carcinomas from the oral cavity (n=40) and oropharynx (n=96) recruited from the Princess Alexandra Hospital (Brisbane, Australia). Samples were analysed for the presence of HPV DNA using a combination of mucosal HPV general primer GP+ PCR and sequencing; p16INK4a expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry...
April 30, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Lucy Thorne, Jia Lu, Yasmin Chaudhry, Dalan Bailey, Ian Goodfellow
Until recently, our understanding of the cellular tropism of human norovirus (HuNoV), a major cause of viral gastroenteritis, has been limited. Immune cells and intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) have been proposed as targets of HuNoV replication in vivo, although the contribution of each to pathogenesis and transmission is unknown. Murine norovirus (MNV) is widely used as a surrogate model for HuNoV, as it replicates in cultured immune cells. The importance of the complete MNV immune cell tropism in vivo has not been determined...
April 23, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Samantha McQuaid, Sinead Loughran, Patrick Power, Paula Maguire, Dermot Walls, Maria Grazia Cusi, Claes Orvell, Patricia Johnson
HPIV3 is a respiratory virus causing airway diseases, including pneumonia, croup, and bronchiolitis, during infancy and childhood. Currently there is no effective vaccine or anti-viral therapy for this virus. Studies have suggested that poor T cell proliferation following HPIV3 infection is responsible for impaired immunological memory associated with this virus. We have previously demonstrated that NK cells mediate regulation of T cell proliferation during HPIV3 infection. Here we add to these studies by demonstrating that the regulation of T cell proliferation during HPIV3 infection is mediated via NK receptors NKp44 and NKp46 and involves the surface glycoprotein haemagglutinin-neuraminidase but not the fusion protein of the virus...
April 23, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Verna Monsanto-Hearne, Karyn N Johnson
The presence of Wolbachia confers virus protection to insects. The molecular mechanism underlying Wolbachia-mediated protection in this tripartite host-endosymbiont-virus interaction is not yet fully understood. In the bipartite association between Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila C virus (DCV), changes in the expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) influence the outcome of viral pathogenesis. Here we examined whether changes in miRNA expression are similarly involved in the Drosophila-Wolbachia-DCV association...
April 20, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Rutger David Luteijn, Ingo Drexler, Geoffrey L Smith, Robert Jan Lebbink, Emmanuel J H J Wiertz
Poxviruses comprise a group of large dsDNA viruses that include members relevant to human and animal health, such as variola virus, monkeypox virus, cowpox virus and vaccinia virus (VACV). Poxviruses are remarkable for their unique replication cycle, which is restricted to the cytoplasm of infected cells. The independence from the host nucleus requires poxviruses to encode most of the enzymes involved in DNA replication, transcription and processing. Here, we use the CRISPR/Cas9 genome engineering system to induce DNA damage to VACV (strain Western Reserve) genomes...
April 20, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Yunwang Shen, Min Feng, Xiaofeng Wu
ORF40 (bm40) of the Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) encodes a homologue of Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) AC51 and is a highly conserved gene in sequenced alphabaculoviruses. To investigate the role of bm40 in the baculovirus infection cycle, a bm40 knockout BmNPV bacmid was constructed via homologous recombination in Escherichia coli. Western blotting analysis revealed that bm40 is a late gene during virus infection. Compared with wild-type and repair viruses, the knockout virus exhibited a single-cell infection phenotype...
April 19, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Weiping Tang, Naling Zhu, Haiying Wang, Youwen Gao, Zhengwei Wan, Qundi Cai, Shouyi Yu, Shixing Tang
In 2013, two new viruses, equine pegivirus (EPgV) and Theiler's disease-associated virus (TDAV), both belonging to the genus Pegivirus within the family Flaviviridae, were identified. To investigate the geographical distribution and genetic diversity of these two viruses in China, we screened EPgV and TDAV infection in imported race horses and Chinese work horses by using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). EPgV was detected in 10.8 % (8/74) of the total horses tested, with a prevalence of 5...
April 16, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Yunwang Shen, Haiping Wang, Weifan Xu, Xiaofeng Wu
Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) orf133 (bm133) and orf134 (bm134), the orthologues of Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) ac4 and ac5, are two adjacent genes with opposite transcriptional orientations and are highly conserved in all sequenced group I nucleopolyhedroviruses (NPVs). A double bm133-bm134 knockout bacmid was generated to enable the functional study of each gene independently or together. Compared with wild-type and double-repair viruses, deletion of both bm133 and bm134 did not affect budded virus (BV) production or viral DNA replication in transfected BmN cells...
April 6, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Erin Isaacson Wechsler, Sharof Tugizov, Rossana Herrera, Maria Da Costa, Joel M Palefsky
We detected the first human papillomavirus (HPV)-16-immortalized anal epithelial cell line, known as AKC2 cells to establish an in vitro model of HPV-16-induced anal carcinogenesis. Consistent with detection of E6, E7 and E5 expression in anal cancer biopsies, AKC2 cells expressed high levels of all three HPV oncogenes. Also, similar to findings in anal cancer biopsies, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) was overexpressed in AKC2 cells. AKC2 cells exhibited a poorly differentiated and invasive phenotype in three-dimensional raft culture and inhibition of EGFR function abrogated AKC2 invasion...
April 6, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Tiffany A Russell, Thilaga Velusamy, Yeu-Yang Tseng, David C Tscharke
CD8+ T cells have a role in the control of acute herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection and may also be important in the maintenance of latency. In this study we have explored the consequences of boosting the efficacy of CD8+ T cells against HSV by increasing the amount of an MHC I-presented epitope on the surface of infected cells. To do this we used HSVs engineered to express an extra copy of the immunodominant CD8+ T cell epitope in C57Bl/6 mice, namely gB498 (SSIEFARL). Despite greater presentation of gB498 on infected cells, CD8+ T cell responses to these viruses in mice were similar to those elicited by a control virus...
April 5, 2018: Journal of General Virology
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