Read by QxMD icon Read

Journal of General Virology

Kai Hu, Siyi He, Juhua Xiao, Mei Li, Sukun Luo, Mudan Zhang, Qinxue Hu
Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) increases human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) acquisition and transmission via unclear mechanisms. Herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM), an HSV-2 entry receptor, is highly expressed on HIV-1 target cells (CD4+ T cells) and may be incorporated into HIV-1 virions, while HSV-2 glycoproteins can be present on the infected cell surface. Since HVEM-gD interaction together with gB/gH/gL is essential for HSV-2 entry, HVEM-bearing HIV-1 (HIV-1/HVEM) may enter HSV-2-infected cells through such interactions...
August 15, 2017: Journal of General Virology
Myrna M Miller, Todd E Cornish, Terry E Creekmore, Karen Fox, Will Laegreid, Jennifer McKenna, Marce Vasquez, Leslie W Woods
We present the first complete genome sequence of Odocoileus hemionus deer adenovirus 1 (OdAdV-1). This virus can cause sporadic haemorrhagic disease in cervids, although epizootics with high mortality have occurred in California. OdAdV-1 has been placed in the genus Atadenovirus, based on partial hexon, pVIII and fibre genes. Ten field isolates recovered from naturally infected mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginiana) and moose (Alces alces) from Wyoming, black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) from California, and Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) from Colorado and Washington state were sequenced...
August 15, 2017: Journal of General Virology
Giuseppe Gerna, Maria Grazia Revello, Fausto Baldanti, Elena Percivalle, Daniele Lilleri
Between the 1980s and 1990s, three assays were developed for diagnosis of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections: leuko (L)-antigenemia, l-viremia and l-DNAemia, detecting viral protein pp65, infectious virus and viral DNA, respectively, in circulating leukocytes Repeated initial attempts to reproduce the three assays in vitro using laboratory-adapted strains and infected cell cultures were consistently unsuccessful. Results were totally reversed when wild-type HCMV strains were used to infect either fibroblasts or endothelial cells...
August 15, 2017: Journal of General Virology
Christine E Engeland, Sascha Bossow, Andrew W Hudacek, Birgit Hoyler, Judith Förster, Rūta Veinalde, Dirk Jäger, Roberto Cattaneo, Guy Ungerechts, Christoph Springfeld
Viruses from the diverse family of Paramyxoviridae include important pathogens and are applied in gene therapy and for cancer treatment. The Tupaia paramyxovirus (TPMV), isolated from the kidney of a tree shrew, does not infect human cells and neutralizing antibodies against other Paramyxoviridae do not cross-react with TPMV. Here, we present a vector system for de novo generation of infectious TPMV that allows for insertion of additional genes as well as targeting using antibody single-chain variable fragments...
August 15, 2017: Journal of General Virology
Constantine James Konstantoulas, Benedikt Hagen, Stanislav Indik
Infectivity of the mouse mammary tumour virus (MMTV) is inhibited by mouse APOBEC3 (mA3) which is efficiently packaged into virions. As the inhibition is only partial, the virus can replicate in tissues expressing mA3 and complete its replication cycle. Here, we have examined the sensitivity of MMTV to inhibition by a human orthologue of mA3, A3G. We report that the virus containing A3G is only moderately susceptible to inhibition by the human factor. Whereas the vif-deficient HIV-1 vector produced in human epithelial cells expressing endogenous levels of A3G was efficiently inhibited, an MMTV vector remained fully infectious...
August 15, 2017: Journal of General Virology
Ema Flores-Díaz, Karen A Sereday, Silvaneide Ferreira, Bradley Sirak, João Simão Sobrinho, Maria Luiza Baggio, Lenice Galan, Roberto C Silva, Eduardo Lazcano-Ponce, Anna R Giuliano, Luisa L Villa, Laura Sichero, The Him Study Group
HPV-11 and HPV-6 are the etiological agents of about 90 % of genital warts (GWs). The intra-typic variability of HPV-11 and its association with infection persistence and GW development remains undetermined. Here, HPV infection in men (HIM) participants who had an HPV-11 genital swab and/or GW, preceded or not by a normal skin genital swab were analysed. Genomic variants were characterized by PCR-sequencing and classified within lineages (A, B) and sublineages (A1, A2, A3, A4). HPV-11 A2 variants were the most frequently detected in the genital swab samples from controls and in both genital swabs and GW samples from cases...
August 15, 2017: Journal of General Virology
Ria Goswami, Kathy Ho Yen Shair, Edward Gershburg
The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous pathogen that infects over 90 % of adults. EBV is the primary etiological agent of infectious mononucleosis and is closely associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma, gastric carcinoma, Hodgkin lymphoma and Burkitt lymphoma. Clinical serological assays for EBV diagnosis only survey a small portion of the viral proteome, which does not represent the total antigenic breadth presented to the immune system during viral infection. In this study, we have generated an expression library containing the majority of EBV ORFs, and have systematically evaluated IgG responses to those EBV proteins in sera from EBV carriers...
August 10, 2017: Journal of General Virology
Roger Ling, Andrew E Firth
Programmed -1 ribosomal frameshifting is a mechanism of gene expression whereby specific signals within messenger RNAs direct a proportion of ribosomes to shift -1 nt and continue translating in the new reading frame. Such frameshifting normally depends on an RNA structure stimulator 3'-adjacent to a 'slippery' heptanucleotide shift site sequence. Recently we identified an unusual frameshifting mechanism in encephalomyocarditis virus, where the stimulator involves a trans-acting virus protein. Thus, in contrast to other examples of -1 frameshifting, the efficiency of frameshifting in encephalomyocarditis virus is best studied in the context of virus infection...
August 8, 2017: Journal of General Virology
V E Gurtsevitch, N B Senyuta, A V Ignatova, M V Lomaya, V N Kondratova, A I Pavlovskaya, T E Dushenkina, D M Maximovich, K V Smirnova, A M Mudunov, A V Lichtenstein
The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) plays a key role in the development of undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (uNPC). In uNPC endemic regions EBV-specific antibodies and plasma EBV DNA load are used as markers for the early detection of uNPC and monitoring of the disease. In non-endemic regions, such studies were practically not conducted. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical significance of EBV serological markers and plasma EBV DNA levels for uNPC patients in a non-endemic region, Russia. The results obtained indicate that both viral capsid antigen/immunoglobulin A (VCA/IgA) antibodies and plasma EBV DNA copies can effectively be used for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) diagnosis...
August 8, 2017: Journal of General Virology
Donald B Smith, Gregor Meyers, Jens Bukh, Ernest A Gould, Thomas Monath, A Scott Muerhoff, Alexander Pletnev, Rebecca Rico-Hesse, Jack T Stapleton, Peter Simmonds, Paul Becher
We propose the creation of seven new species in the genus Pestivirus (family Flaviviridae) in addition to the four existing species, and naming species in a host-independent manner using the format Pestivirus X. Only the virus species names would change; virus isolates would still be referred to by their original names. The original species would be re-designated as Pestivirus A (original designation Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1), Pestivirus B (Bovine viral diarrhea virus 2), Pestivirus C (Classical swine fever virus) and Pestivirus D (Border disease virus)...
August 8, 2017: Journal of General Virology
Zhao-Yang Wang, Zai Wang, Zi-Da Zhen, Kai-Hao Feng, Jing Guo, Na Gao, Dong-Ying Fan, Dai-Shu Han, Pei-Gang Wang, Jing An
Recently, Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak has been associated with a sharp increase in cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome and severe fetal abnormalities. However, the mechanism underlying the interaction of ZIKV with host cells is not yet clear. Axl, a receptor tyrosine kinase, is postulated as a receptor for ZIKV entry; however, its in vivo role during ZIKV infection and its impact on the outcome of the disease have not been fully characterized and evaluated. Moreover, there are contradictory results on its involvement in ZIKV infection...
August 8, 2017: Journal of General Virology
Michael J Adams, Scott Adkins, Claude Bragard, David Gilmer, Dawei Li, Stuart A MacFarlane, Sek-Man Wong, Ulrich Melcher, Claudio Ratti, Ki Hyun Ryu, Ictv Report Consortium
The family Virgaviridae is a family of plant viruses with rod-shaped virions, a ssRNA genome with a 3'-terminal tRNA-like structure and a replication protein typical of alpha-like viruses. Differences in the number of genome components, genome organization and the mode of transmission provide the basis for genus demarcation. Tobacco mosaic virus (genus Tobamovirus) was the first virus to be discovered (in 1886); it is present in high concentrations in infected plants, is extremely stable and has been extensively studied...
August 8, 2017: Journal of General Virology
Martin Selinger, Gavin S Wilkie, Lily Tong, Quan Gu, Esther Schnettler, Libor Grubhoffer, Alain Kohl
Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is a member of the genus Flavivirus. It can cause serious infections in humans that may result in encephalitis/meningoencephalitis. Although several studies have described the involvement of specific genes in the host response to TBEV infection in the central nervous system (CNS), the overall network remains poorly characterized. Therefore, we investigated the response of DAOY cells (human medulloblastoma cells derived from cerebellar neurons) to TBEV (Neudoerfl strain, Western subtype) infection to characterize differentially expressed genes by transcriptome analysis...
August 8, 2017: Journal of General Virology
Mya Breitbart, Eric Delwart, Karyna Rosario, Joaquim Segalés, Arvind Varsani, Ictv Report Consortium
The family Circoviridae comprises viruses with small, circular, single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) genomes, including the smallest known animal viruses. Members of this family are classified into two genera, Circovirus and Cyclovirus, which are distinguished by the position of the origin of replication relative to the coding regions and the length of the intergenic regions. Within each genus, the species demarcation threshold is 80 % genome-wide nucleotide sequence identity. This is a summary of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Report on the taxonomy of the Circoviridae, which is available at www...
August 8, 2017: Journal of General Virology
Le Nguyen Minh Hoa, Nguyen Anh Tuan, Pham Ha My, Tran Thi Kieu Huong, Nguyen Thi Yen Chi, Trang Thi Hau Thu, Juan Carrique-Mas, Mai Thuy Duong, Nguyen Dang Tho, Nguyen Dang Hoang, To Long Thanh, Nguyen Thi Diep, Nguyen van Duong, Tran Khanh Toan, Trinh Son Tung, Le Quynh Mai, Munir Iqbal, Heiman Wertheim, H Rogier van Doorn, Juliet E Bryant, The Vizions Consortium
Rural farming communities in northern Vietnam do not routinely practice vaccination for influenza A viruses (IAV) for either humans or poultry, which enables us to study transmission intensity via seroepidemiology. Using samples from a longitudinal cohort of farming households, we determined the number of symptomatic and asymptomatic human infections for seasonal IAV and avian A/H9 over 2 years. As expected, we detected virologically confirmed acute cases of seasonal IAV in humans, as well as large numbers of subclinical seroconversions to A/H1pdm [55/265 (21 %)], A/H3 [95/265 (36 %)] and A/H9 [24/265 (9 %)]...
August 4, 2017: Journal of General Virology
Christine Pourcel, Cédric Midoux, Gilles Vergnaud, Libera Latino
ssRNA bacteriophages are very abundant but poorly studied, particularly in relation to their effect on bacterial evolution. We isolated a new Pseudomonas aeruginosa levivirus, vB_PaeL_PcyII-10_LeviOr01, from hospital waste water. Its genome comprises 3669 nucleotides and encodes four putative proteins. Following bacterial infection, a carrier state is established in a fraction of the cells, conferring superinfection immunity. Such cells also resist other phages that use type IV pili as a receptor. The carrier population is composed of a mixture of cells producing phage, and susceptible cells that are non-carriers...
August 4, 2017: Journal of General Virology
Veena Menon, Victor I Ayala, Sneha P Rangaswamy, Irene Kalisz, Stephen Whitney, Lindsey Galmin, Asma Ashraf, Celia LaBranche, David Montefiori, Nikolai Petrovsky, Vaniambadi S Kalyanaraman, Ranajit Pal
The partial success of the RV144 trial underscores the importance of envelope-specific antibody responses for an effective HIV-1 vaccine. Oligomeric HIV-1 envelope proteins delivered with a potent adjuvant are expected to elicit strong antibody responses with broad neutralization specificity. To test this hypothesis, two SIV envelope proteins were formulated with delta inulin-based adjuvant (Advax) and used to immunize nonhuman primates. Oligomeric gp140-gp145 from SIVmac251 and SIVsmE660 was purified to homogeneity...
July 31, 2017: Journal of General Virology
Shibo Gao, Tavis K Anderson, Rasna R Walia, Karin S Dorman, Alicia Janas-Martindale, Amy L Vincent
Transmission of influenza A virus (IAV) from humans to swine occurs with relative frequency and is a critical contributor to swine IAV diversity. Subsequent to the introduction of these human seasonal lineages, there is often reassortment with endemic viruses and antigenic drift. To address whether particular genome constellations contributed to viral persistence following the introduction of the 2009 H1N1 human pandemic virus to swine in the USA, we collated and analysed 616 whole genomes of swine H1 isolates...
July 31, 2017: Journal of General Virology
Yue Feng, Yue-Mei Feng, Caixia Lu, Yuanyuan Han, Li Liu, Xiaomei Sun, Jiejie Dai, Xueshan Xia
The tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis), a small animal widely distributed in Southeast Asia and southwest China, has the potential to be developed as an animal model for hepatitis C. To determine the susceptibility of the tree shrew to hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in vitro and in vivo, a well-established HCV, produced from the J6/JFH1-Huh7.5.1 culture system, was used to infect cultured primary tupaia hepatocytes (PTHs) and tree shrews. The in vitro results showed that HCV genomic RNA and HCV-specific nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A) could be detected in the PTH cell culture from days 3-15 post-infection, although the viral load was lower than that observed in Huh7...
July 31, 2017: Journal of General Virology
James A Carroll, Brent Race, Katie Phillips, James F Striebel, Bruce Chesebro
Neuroinflammation is a prominent component of several neurodegenerative diseases, including multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, tauopathies, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and prion diseases. In such conditions, the ability to decrease neuroinflammation by drug therapy may influence disease progression. Statins have been used to treat hyperlipidemia as well as reduce neuroinflammation and oxidative stress in various tissues. In previous studies, treatment of scrapie-infected mice with the type 1 statins, simvastatin or pravastatin, showed a small beneficial effect on survival time...
July 31, 2017: Journal of General Virology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"