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Journal of General Virology

Qingchuan Yu, Yan Liu, Jialiang Du, Yueyue Liu, Lili Zhang, Tai Guo
In 2010, Rotarix was found to be contaminated with infectious porcine circovirus type 1 (PCV1). In China, the Lanzhou lamb rotavirus (LLR) vaccine is the only vaccine used to prevent rotavirus disease. From 2006 to September 2014, more than 54 million doses of LLR vaccines have been lot released. It is a safety issue whether PCV1 is present in the LLR vaccine. Although the cell substrate of LLR, bovine kidney (BK), is different from that of Rotarix, we have investigated the cell's permissivity for PCV1 by both infectivity and full-length PCR analysis...
November 22, 2017: Journal of General Virology
Narmadha Subramanian, Zeguang Wu, Frank Reister, Kerstin Laib Sampaio, Giada Frascaroli, Luka Cicin-Sain, Thomas Mertens
Apart from classical antigen-presenting cells (APCs) like dendritic cells and macrophages, there are semiprofessional APCs such as endothelial cells (ECs) and Langerhans' cells. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infects a wide range of cell types including the ECs which are involved in the trafficking and homing of T cells. By investigating the interaction of naïve T cells obtained from HCMV-seronegative umbilical cord blood with autologous HCMV-infected human umbilical vein ECs (HUVECs), we could show that the activation of naïve T cells occurred after 1 day of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) exposure to HCMV-infected HUVECs...
November 21, 2017: Journal of General Virology
Meng Ling Moi, Yasushi Ami, Nor Azila Muhammad Azami, Kenji Shirai, Sutee Yoksan, Yuriko Suzaki, Kazutaka Kitaura, Chang-Kweng Lim, Masayuki Saijo, Ryuji Suzuki, Tomohiko Takasaki, Ichiro Kurane
Dengue virus (DENV) is one of the major infectious diseases in tropical regions and approximately half of the world population is at risk of infection. Vaccines would offer an effective control measure against this disease. We previously reported on the utility of marmosets as an animal model for studying primary and secondary dengue infections. Infected marmosets consistently develop viraemia and antibody kinetics that reflect those of patients with dengue. Thus, it is important to determine the utility of marmosets as an animal model for demonstrating vaccine efficacy...
November 21, 2017: Journal of General Virology
Katherine L Dulwich, Efstathios S Giotis, Alice Gray, Venugopal Nair, Michael A Skinner, Andrew J Broadbent
Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) belongs to the family Birnaviridae and is economically important to the poultry industry worldwide. IBDV infects B cells in the bursa of Fabricius (BF), causing immunosuppression and morbidity in young chickens. In addition to strains that cause classical Gumboro disease, the so-called 'very virulent' (vv) strain, also in circulation, causes more severe disease and increased mortality. IBDV has traditionally been controlled through the use of live attenuated vaccines, with attenuation resulting from serial passage in non-lymphoid cells...
November 20, 2017: Journal of General Virology
Margaret R Duffy, Julio Alonso-Padilla, Lijo John, Naresh Chandra, Selina Khan, Monika Z Ballmann, Agnieszka Lipiec, Evert Heemskerk, Jerome Custers, Niklas Arnberg, Menzo Havenga, Andrew H Baker, Angelique Lemckert
The vectorization of rare human adenovirus (HAdV) types will widen our knowledge of this family and their interaction with cells, tissues and organs. In this study we focus on HAdV-56, a member of human Ad species D, and create ease-of-use cloning systems to generate recombinant HAdV-56 vectors carrying foreign genes. We present in vitro transduction profiles for HAdV-56 in direct comparison to the most commonly used HAdV-5-based vector. In vivo characterizations demonstrate that when it is delivered intravenously (i...
November 20, 2017: Journal of General Virology
Sébastien A Felt, Valery Z Grdzelishvili
Oncolytic virus (OV) therapy is an anti-cancer approach that uses viruses that preferentially infect, replicate in and kill cancer cells. Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV, a rhabdovirus) is an OV that is currently being tested in the USA in several phase I clinical trials against different malignancies. Several factors make VSV a promising OV: lack of pre-existing human immunity against VSV, a small and easy to manipulate genome, cytoplasmic replication without risk of host cell transformation, independence of cell cycle and rapid growth to high titres in a broad range of cell lines facilitating large-scale virus production...
November 16, 2017: Journal of General Virology
Niluka Goonawardane, Douglas Ross-Thriepland, Mark Harris
The hepatitis C virus non-structural 5A (NS5A) protein is highly phosphorylated and plays roles in both virus genome replication and assembly of infectious virus particles. NS5A comprises three domains separated by low complexity sequences (LCS). Mass spectrometry analysis of NS5A revealed the existence of a singly phosphorylated tryptic peptide corresponding to the end of LCS I and the beginning of domain II that contained a number of potential phosphorylatable residues (serines and threonines). Here we use a mutagenic approach to investigate the potential role of three of these threonine residues...
November 15, 2017: Journal of General Virology
Marie Nykvist, Anna Gillman, Hanna Söderström Lindström, Chaojun Tang, Ganna Fedorova, Åke Lundkvist, Neus Latorre-Margalef, Michelle Wille, Josef D Järhult
Neuraminidase inhibitors are a cornerstone of influenza pandemic preparedness before vaccines can be mass-produced and thus a neuraminidase inhibitor-resistant pandemic is a serious threat to public health. Earlier work has demonstrated the potential for development and persistence of oseltamivir resistance in influenza A viruses exposed to environmentally relevant water concentrations of the drug when infecting mallards, the natural influenza reservoir that serves as the genetic base for human pandemics. As zanamivir is the major second-line neuraminidase inhibitor treatment, this study aimed to assess the potential for development and persistence of zanamivir resistance in an in vivo mallard model; especially important as zanamivir will probably be increasingly used...
November 15, 2017: Journal of General Virology
Jaime Jiménez, Craig G Webster, Aránzazu Moreno, Rodrigo P P Almeida, Stéphane Blanc, Alberto Fereres, Marilyne Uzest
A fasting period prior to non-circulative virus acquisition has been shown to increase the rate of transmission by aphids. However, this effect has only been studied for a few virus-vector combinations, and there are contradictory results in the literature as to the role of fasting on virus acquisition. We analysed the influence of fasting on the transmission of three non-circulative viruses, Cucumber mosaic virus, Zucchini yellow mosaic virus and Cauliflower mosaic virus, by two aphid vector species: Myzus persicae Sulzer (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae)...
November 14, 2017: Journal of General Virology
Bob Boogaard, Jan W M van Lent, David A Theilmann, Martin A Erlandson, Monique M van Oers
Baculoviruses orally infect caterpillars in the form of occlusion-derived viruses (ODVs). The ODV-envelope contains a number of proteins which are essential for oral infectivity, called per os infectivity factors (PIFs). Most of these PIFs are involved in the formation of an ODV-entry complex that consists of a stable core, formed by PIF1, PIF2, PIF3 and PIF4, and the more loosely associated PIFs P74 (PIF0) and P95 (PIF8). PIF1, PIF2 and PIF3 are essential for formation of the stable core, whereas deletion of the pif4 gene results in the formation of a smaller complex...
November 14, 2017: Journal of General Virology
Dennis H Bamford, Maija K Pietilä, Elina Roine, Nina S Atanasova, Ana Dienstbier, Hanna M Oksanen, Ictv Report Consortium
Members of the family Pleolipoviridae (termed pleolipoviruses) are pseudo-spherical and pleomorphic archaeal viruses. The enveloped virion is a simple membrane vesicle, which encloses different types of DNA genomes of approximately 7-16 kbp (or kilonucleotides). Typically, virions contain a single type of transmembrane (spike) protein at the envelope and a single type of membrane protein, which is embedded in the envelope and located in the internal side of the membrane. All viruses infect extremely halophilic archaea in the class Halobacteria (phylum Euryarchaeota)...
November 10, 2017: Journal of General Virology
Zhangmei Chang, Yan Wang, Liang Bian, Qingqing Liu, Jian-Er Long
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) has caused major outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease. EV71 infections increase the production of many host cytokines and pro-inflammatory factors, including interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10 and COX-2. Some of these molecules could stimulate the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), which plays a key role in regulating host immune responses and several viral diseases. However, the role of STAT3 in EV71 infection remains unknown. This study found that the phosphorylation levels of STAT3 (p(Y705)-STAT3) are closely related to EV71 infection...
November 9, 2017: Journal of General Virology
Ralf G Dietzgen, Elodie Ghedin, Dàohóng Jiāng, Jens H Kuhn, Timothy Song, Nikos Vasilakis, David Wang, Ictv Report Consortium
The Nyamiviridae is a family of viruses with unsegmented, negative-sense RNA genomes of 11.3-12.2 kb that produce enveloped, spherical virions. Viruses of the genus Nyavirus are tick-borne and some also infect birds. Other nyamiviruses infecting parasitoid wasps and plant parasitic nematodes have been classified into the genera Peropuvirus and Socyvirus, respectively. This is a summary of the current International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Report on the taxonomy of Nyamiviridae, which is available at www...
November 9, 2017: Journal of General Virology
Erin E Schirtzinger, Dane C Jasperson, Eileen N Ostlund, Donna J Johnson, William C Wilson
Since 1999, 11 serotypes of bluetongue virus (BTV) similar to Central American or Caribbean strains have been isolated in the southeastern United States, predominantly in Florida. The majority of the incursive serotypes have remained restricted to the southeastern US. In recent years, BTV serotype 3 (BTV-3) has been isolated in areas increasingly distant from Florida. The current study uses whole genome sequencing of recent and historical BTV-3 isolates from the US, Central America and the Caribbean with additional sequences from GenBank to conduct phylogenetic analyses...
November 9, 2017: Journal of General Virology
Susanna K P Lau, Syed Shakeel Ahmed, Hoi-Wah Tsoi, Hazel C Yeung, Kenneth S M Li, Rachel Y Y Fan, Pyrear S H Zhao, Candy C C Lau, Carol S F Lam, Kelvin K F Choi, Ben C H Chan, Jian-Piao Cai, Samson S Y Wong, Honglin Chen, Hai-Lin Zhang, Libiao Zhang, Ming Wang, Patrick C Y Woo, Kwok-Yung Yuen
Compared to the enormous species diversity of bats, relatively few parvoviruses have been reported. We detected diverse and potentially novel parvoviruses from bats in Hong Kong and mainland China. Parvoviruses belonging to Amdoparvovirus, Bocaparvovirus and Dependoparvovirus were detected in alimentary, liver and spleen samples from 16 different chiropteran species of five families by PCR. Phylogenetic analysis of partial helicase sequences showed that they potentially belonged to 25 bocaparvovirus, three dependoparvovirus and one amdoparvovirus species...
November 6, 2017: Journal of General Virology
Alexander N Lukashev, Yulia A Vakulenko
Non-polio enteroviruses are a ubiquitous and divergent group of non-enveloped RNA viruses. Novel types are reported regularly in addition to over 100 known types; however, mechanisms of emergence of novel types remain obscure. Here, the 33 most common types represented by 35-629 non-redundant partial VP1 sequences in GenBank were studied in parallel using Bayesian coalescent molecular clock analysis to investigate common evolutionary trends among enterovirus types. Inferred substitution rates were in the range of 0...
November 2, 2017: Journal of General Virology
Elias Hage, Akshay Dhingra, Uwe G Liebert, Sandra Bergs, Tina Ganzenmueller, Albert Heim
Species D is the largest of the seven species of human mastadenoviruses (HAdV), but few of its multiple types are associated with asevere disease, e.g. epidemic keratoconjunctivitis. Many other types are hardly ever associated with significant diseases in immunocompetent patients, but have been isolated from the diarrhoeal faeces of terminal AIDS patients suggesting their role as opportunistic pathogens. Three novel HAdV-D strains were isolated from the faeces of three immunocompromised adult patients (clinical diagnoses: lymphoma, myelodysplastic syndrome and AIDS CDC3B, respectively)...
November 2, 2017: Journal of General Virology
Alma Gedvilaite, Morten Tryland, Rainer G Ulrich, Julia Schneider, Vaida Kurmauskaite, Ugo Moens, Hannah Preugschas, Sébastien Calvignac-Spencer, Bernhard Ehlers
Shrews (family Soricidae) have already been reported to host microorganisms pathogenic for humans. In an effort to search for additional infectious agents with zoonotic potential, we detected polyomaviruses (PyVs) in common shrew, crowned shrew, and pygmy shrew (Sorex araneus, S. coronatus and S. minutus). From these, 11 full circular genomes were determined. Phylogenetic analysis based on large T protein sequences showed that these novel PyVs form a separate clade within the genus Alphapolyomavirus. Within this clade, the phylogenetic relationships suggest host-virus co-divergence...
November 2, 2017: Journal of General Virology
Li Ren, Bingbui Wang, Kunmei Gong, Pan Liu, Shiyi Zhou, Li Zhang, Xueshan Xia, Kunhua Wang
The Yunnan province in China has a high incidence of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection. Zhaotong City is located in the Yunnan province, a neglected 'important region'. In this study, we evaluated the unique molecular epidemiological characteristics of HIV-1 infection in Zhaotong City. We collected 305 serum samples from HIV-infected patients in Zhaotong City between May 2015 and April 2016. A total of 122 samples were selected for HIV-1 gag-pol gene amplification, of which 88 were successfully amplified and sequenced for phylogenetic and phylogeographic analysis...
November 1, 2017: Journal of General Virology
Debin Tian, Harini Sooryanarain, Shannon R Matzinger, Phil C Gauger, Anbu K Karuppannan, Subbiah Elankumaran, Tanja Opriessnig, Xiang-Jin Meng
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and swine influenza virus (SIV) are three of the most economically important swine pathogens, causing immense economic losses to the global swine industry. Monovalent commercial vaccines against each of the three viruses are routinely used in pig farms worldwide. A trivalent vaccine against all three pathogens would greatly simplify the vaccination programme and reduce the financial burden to the swine industry. In this study, by using an attenuated strain of PRRSV (strain DS722) as a live virus vector, we generated a multi-component vaccine virus, DS722-SIV-PCV2, which expresses the protective antigens from SIV and PCV2...
November 1, 2017: Journal of General Virology
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