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Journal of General Virology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911254/neutralizing-and-enhancing-antibody-responses-to-five-genotypes-of-dengue-virus-type-1-denv-1-in-denv-1-patients
#1
Atsushi Yamanaka, Meng Ling Moi, Tomohiko Takasaki, Ichiro Kurane, Eiji Konishi
Dengue virus has four distinct serotypes, DENV-1-4, with 4-6 genotypes in each serotype. The World Health Organization recommends tetravalent formulations including one genotype of each serotype as safe and effective dengue vaccines. Here, we investigated the impact of genotype on the neutralizing antibody responses to DENV-1 in humans. Convalescent sera collected from patients with primary infection of DENV-1 were examined for neutralizing antibody against single-round infectious particles of the five DENV-1 genotypes (GI-GV)...
December 2, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911252/chapparvoviruses-occur-in-at-least-three-vertebrate-classes-and-have-a-broad-biogeographic-distribution
#2
William Marciel de Souza, Marilia Farignoli Romeiro, Marcílio Jorge Fumagalli, Sejal Modha, Jansen de Araujo, Luzia Helena Queiroz, Edison Luiz Durigon, Luiz Tadeu Moraes Figueiredo, Pablo Ramiro Murcia, Robert Gifford
Chapparvoviruses are a highly divergent group of parvoviruses (family Parvoviridae) that have recently been identified via metagenomic sampling of animal faeces. Here we report the sequences of six novel chapparvoviruses identified through both metagenomic sampling of bat tissues and in silico screening of published vertebrate genome assemblies. The novel chapparvoviruses share several distinctive genomic features, and group together as a robustly supported monophyletic clade in phylogenetic trees. Our data indicate that chapparvoviruses have a broad host range in vertebrates, and a global distribution...
December 2, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911256/a-residue-located-at-the-junction-of-the-head-and-stalk-regions-of-measles-virus-fusion-protein-regulates-membrane-fusion-by-controlling-conformational-stability
#3
Yuto Satoh, Saeka Yonemori, Mitsuhiro Hirose, Hiroko Shogaki, Hiroshi Wakimoto, Yoshinori Kitagawa, Bin Gotoh, Tsuyoshi Shirai, Ken-Ichi Takahashi, Masae Itoh
The fusion (F) protein of measles virus (MV) performs refolding from the thermodynamically metastable prefusion form to the highly stable postfusion form via an activated unstable intermediate stage, to induce membrane fusion. Some amino acids involved in the fusion regulation cluster in the heptad repeat B (HR-B) domain of the stalk region, among which substitution of residue 465 by various amino acids revealed that fusion activity correlates well with its side chain length from the Cα (p<0.01) and van der Waals volume (p<0...
December 1, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902371/mapping-b-lymphocytes-as-major-reservoirs-of-naturally-occurring-latent-equine-herpesvirus-5-infection
#4
Zelalem Mekuria, Charles El Hage, Nino P Ficorilli, Elizabeth A Washington, James R Gilkerson, Carol Hartley
Equine herpesvirus 5 (EHV5) is a commonly detected gammaherpesvirus which, along with the closely related EHV2, constitute the only two known Percaviruses that infect horses. Apart from detection in horse populations worldwide and the recent publication of the whole genome, there is little known about the biology and pathogenesis of this virus, with many assumptions made by parallels with EHV2. The long-term survival of gammaherpesviruses within infected hosts involves the establishment and maintenance of latency in selected cell and tissues types, particularly lymphocytes...
November 30, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902351/protective-role-of-cx3cr1-signaling-in-resident-cells-of-the-central-nervous-system-during-experimental-herpes-simplex-virus-encephalitis
#5
Rafik Menasria, Coraline Canivet, Jocelyne Piret, Jean Gosselin, Guy Boivin
CX3CR1 is an important chemokine receptor expressed on the surface of microglia and blood leukocytes including monocytes. Signaling through this receptor influences the immune activity of microglia and monocytes trafficking into the central nervous system (CNS) in several neurological diseases. During experimental herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) encephalitis (HSE), CX3CR1 deficiency has been reported to exacerbate the outcome of the disease. However, the precise contribution of CX3CR1 expressed in resident cells of the CNS or peripheral monocytes in protection against HSE remains unclear...
November 30, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902345/advances-in-canine-distemper-virus-cdv-pathogenesis-research-a-wildlife-perspective
#6
Angelika Katrin Loots, Emily Mitchell, Desiré Lee Dalton, Antoinette Kotzé, Estelle H Venter
Canine distemper virus (CDV) has emerged as a significant disease of wildlife, is highly contagious and readily transmitted between susceptible hosts. Initially described as an infectious disease of domestic dogs, it is now recognised as a global multi-host pathogen, infecting and causing mass mortalities in a wide range of carnivore species. The last decade has seen the effect of numerous CDV outbreaks in various wildlife populations. Prevention of CDV requires a clear understanding of the potential hosts in danger of infection as well as the dynamic pathways CDV uses to gain entry to its host cells and its ability to initiate viral shedding and disease transmission...
November 28, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902420/interleukin-1-receptor-antagonist-il-1ra-an-early-immunomodulatory-cytokine-induced-by-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-prrsv
#7
Teerawut Nedumpun, Piya Wongyanin, Chaitawat Sirisereewan, Patcharee Ritprajuk, Tanapat Palaga, Roongroje Thanawongnuwech, Sanipa Suradhat
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection poorly induces pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α) and type I IFN production during the early phase of infection. Our microarray analysis indicated strong upregulation of the IL1RA gene in type 2 PRRSV infected monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDC). Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) is an early inhibitory cytokine, which suppresses pro-inflammatory cytokines and T lymphocyte responses. To investigate the induction of IL-1Ra by PRRSV, MoDC were cultured with type 2 PRRSV or other swine viruses...
November 23, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902373/feline-coronavirus-replication-is-affected-by-both-cyclophilin-a-and-cyclophilin-b
#8
Yoshikazu Tanaka, Yuka Sato, Takashi Sasaki
Feline coronavirus (FCoV) causes the fatal disease feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), which is currently incurable by drug treatment, and no effective vaccines are available. Cyclosporin A (CsA), a cyclophilin (Cyp) inhibitor, inhibits the replication of FCoV in vitro and in vivo as well as the replication of human and animal coronaviruses (CoVs). However, the mechanism underlying the regulation of CoV replication by CsA is unknown. In this study, we analyzed the role of Cyps in FCoV replication using knockdown (KD) and knockout (KO) cells specific to Cyps...
November 21, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902360/high-genetic-diversity-of-species-a-rotaviruses-detected-in-swine-farms-in-chile
#9
Hernan Canon Jones, Hernan Cortes, Aldo Gaggero, Jorge Levican, Mario Castillo-Ruiz, Trinidad Schlotterbeck, Ricardo San Martin
Rotavirus A is one of the main causative agents of diarrhea in lactating and weaned pigs worldwide. Its impact in the swine industry is well documented. However, in Chile the current epidemiological status of rotavirus in porcine farms is unknown. This study evaluated the current epidemiologic status of rotavirus A infection in Chile using on-farm detection technique, electrophoretic confirmation, genotyping and phylogenetic clustering by analysis of partial sequences of VP4 and VP7 genes. Rotavirus A was detected in 4 out of 5 farms with an overall prevalence of 17,7% in diarrheic pigs...
November 18, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902359/determinants-of-the-vp1-2a-junction-cleavage-by-the-3c-protease-in-foot-and-mouth-disease-virus-infected-cells
#10
Thea Kristensen, Preben Normann, Maria Gullberg, Ulrik Fahnøe, Charlotta Polacek, Thomas Bruun Rasmussen, Graham J Belsham
The foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) capsid precursor, P1-2A, is cleaved by FMDV 3C protease to yield VP0, VP3, VP1 and 2A. Cleavage of the VP1/2A junction is the slowest. Serotype O FMDVs with uncleaved VP1-2A (having a K210E substitution in VP1; at position P2 in cleavage site) have been described previously and acquired a second site substitution (VP1 E83K) during virus rescue. Furthermore, introduction of the VP1 E83K substitution alone generated a second site change at the VP1/2A junction (2A L2P, position P2' in cleavage site)...
November 18, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902361/qualitative-proteomic-analysis-of-tipula-oleracea-nudivirus-tonv-occlusion-bodies
#11
Anne Bézier, Grégoire Harichaux, Karine Musset, Valérie Labas, Elisabeth A Herniou
Nudiviruses are arthropod-specific large double-stranded circular DNA viruses, related to baculoviruses, which replicate in the nucleus of the cells they infect. Up to date six fully sequenced nudiviral genomes are available in databases and protein profile from nudivirus particles were mainly characterized by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. However, only few direct matches were completed between genomic and proteomic data to the exception of the major occlusion body protein from Penaeus monodon nudivirus (PmNV) and four nucleocapsid proteins from Helicoverpa zea nudivirus 2 (HzNV-2)...
November 16, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902324/ebi2-expression-in-b-lymphocytes-is-controlled-by-the-epstein-barr-virus-transcription-factor-brrf1-na-during-viral-infection
#12
Caleb Cornaby, Jilian L Jafek, Cameron Birrell, Vera Mayhew, Lauren Syndergaard, Jeffrey Mella, Wesley Cheney, Brian D Poole
EBI2 is an important chemotactic receptor that is involved in proper B-cell T-cell interactions. Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) has been shown to upregulate this gene upon infection of cell lines, but the timing and mechanism of this upregulation, as well as its importance to EBV infection, remain unknown. This work investigated EBV's manipulation of EBI2 expression of primary naïve B cells. EBV infection induces EBI2 expression resulting in elevated levels of EBI2 after 24 hours until 7 days post-infection, followed by a dramatic decline (p = 0...
November 16, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902397/vesivirus-2117-capsids-more-closely-resemble-sapovirus-and-lagovirus-particles-than-other-known-vesivirus-structures
#13
Michaela Conley, Edward Emmott, Richard Orton, David Taylor, Daniel Carneiro, Kazuyoshi Murata, Ian Goodfellow, Grant Hansman, David Bhella
Vesivirus 2117 is an adventitious agent that in 2009, was identified as a contaminant of CHO cells propagated in bioreactors at a pharmaceutical manufacturing plant belonging to Genzyme. The consequent interruption in supply of Fabrazyme and Cerezyme (drugs used to treat Fabry and Gaucher disease respectively), caused significant economic losses. Vesivirus 2117 is a member of the Caliciviridae; a family of small icosahedral viruses encoding a positive sense RNA genome. We have used cryo-electron microscopy and three dimensional image reconstruction to calculate a structure of vesivirus 2117 virus like particles as well as feline calicivirus and a chimeric sapovirus...
November 14, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902354/humoral-immune-system-targets-clonotypic-antibody-associated-hepatitis-c-virus
#14
Amruta S Naik, Brendan A Palmer, Orla Crossbie, Elizabeth Kenny-Walsh, Liam J Fanning
Hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) is one of the potential neutralisation domains in the E2 glycoprotein of Hepatitis C virus (HCV). Point mutations of the HVR1 can lead to humoral immune escape in HCV infected patients. In this study we segregated the chronically infected viraemic sera from HCV infected patients into populations of antibody free virus (AFV) and antibody associated virus (AAV) and mapped potential epitopes within the E1E2 gene junction of AAV sequences (residues 364-430). Furthermore, we generated pseudotyped HCV particles (HCVpp) derived from AAV sequence to assess their infectivity...
November 14, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902399/truncation-of-the-enzootic-nasal-tumor-virus-envelope-protein-cytoplasmic-tail-increases-env-mediated-fusion-and-infectivity
#15
Scott R Walsh, Jondavid G de Jong, Jacob P van Vloten, María Carla Rosales Gerpe, Lisa A Santry, Sarah K Wootton
Enzootic nasal tumor virus (ENTV) and Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) are highly related ovine betaretroviruses that induce nasal and lung tumors in small ruminants, respectively. While the ENTV and JSRV envelope (Env) glycoproteins mediate virus entry using the same cellular receptor, the GPI-linked protein hyaluronoglucosaminidase, ENTV Env pseudovirions mediate entry into cells from a much more restricted range of species than do JSRV Env pseudovirions. Unlike JSRV Env, ENTV Env does not induce cell fusion at pH 5...
November 11, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902350/novel-reassortant-h9n2-viruses-in-pigeons-and-evidence-for-antigenic-diversity-of-h9n2-viruses-isolated-from-quails-in-egypt
#16
Ahmed Kandeil, Rabeh El-Shesheny, Asmaa Maatouq, Yassmin Moatasim, Zhipeng Cai, Pamela McKenzie, Richard Webby, Ghazi Kayali, Mohamed Ahmed Ali
The endemicity of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) among Egyptian poultry represents a public health risk. Co-circulation of low pathogenic AIV H9N2 subtype with highly pathogenic AIV H5N1 subtype in Egyptian farms potentiates the possibility to generate novel reassortant viruses. Herein, the genetic characteristics of surface glycoproteins of 59 Egyptian H9N2 viruses, isolated between 2013 and 2015, were analyzed. To elucidate the potential of genetic reassortment, 10 H9N2 isolates were selected based on different avian hosts (chickens, ducks, pigeons and quails) and conducted for phylogenetic analyses of full genome sequences...
November 11, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902328/hepatitis-c-virus-core-activates-proteasomal-activator-28-gamma-expression-via-upregulation-of-p53-levels-to-control-virus-propagation
#17
Juri Kwak, Indira Tiwari, Kyung Lib Jang
The proteasomal activator PA28γ, frequently overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), is believed to play several important roles in hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication and viral pathogenesis. However, the underlying mechanism for PA28γ overexpression in HCC and its role during HCV replication are still unclear. In the present study, we found that HCV Core derived from either ectopic expression or HCV infection upregulates PA28γ levels in p53-positive human hepatocytes. For this effect, HCV Core sequentially activated ataxia telangiectasia mutated and checkpoint kinase 2 via phosphorylation at Ser-1981 and Thr-68 residues, respectively, resulting in stabilization of p53 via phosphorylation at Ser-15 and Ser-20 residues and subsequent transcriptional activation of PA28γ expression...
November 11, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902325/targeting-naturally-occurring-epitope-variants-of-hepatitis-c-virus-with-high-affinity-t-cell-receptors
#18
Huajun Zhang, Jianbing Zhang, Lei Chen, Zhiming Weng, Ye Tian, Haifeng Zhao, Youjia Li, Lin Chen, Zhaoduan Liang, Hongjun Zheng, Wenzhuo Zhao, Shi Zhong, Yi Li
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) readily establishes chronic infection, which is characterized by failure of virus-specific CD8+ T cells. HCV uses epitope mutation and T-cell exhaustion to escape from the host immune response. Previously, we engineered high-affinity T-cell receptors (HATs) targeting HIV escape mutants. In this study, the affinity of a T-cell receptor specific for the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A2-restricted HCV immunodominant epitope NS3 1406-1415 (KLVALGINAV) was improved from a KD of 6.6 µM to 40 pM...
November 11, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902378/neuronal-retrograde-transport-of-borna-disease-virus-occurs-in-signaling-endosomes
#19
Caroline M Charlier, Solène Debaisieux, Charlotte Foret, Anne Thouard, Giampetro Schiavo, Daniel Gonzalez-Dunia, Cécile Evelyne Malnou
Long-range axonal retrograde transport is a key mechanism for the cellular dissemination of neuro-invasive viruses, such as Borna Disease Virus (BDV), for which entry and egress sites are usually distant from the nucleus, where viral replication takes place. Although BDV is known to disseminate very efficiently in neurons, both in vivo and in primary cultures, the modalities of its axonal transport are still poorly characterized. In this work, we combined different methodological approaches, such as confocal microscopy and biochemical purification of endosomes, to study BDV retrograde transport...
November 8, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902358/wolbachia-suppresses-cell-fusing-agent-virus-in-mosquito-cells
#20
Guagmei Zhang, Kayvan Etebari, Sassan Asgari
The genus Flavivirus contains a large number of positive sense single-stranded RNA viruses. While some are transmitted by mosquitoes or other arthropods and are pathogenic to humans and animals (e.g. dengue and Zika viruses), some are insect-specific and do not replicate in vertebrate cells. These are known as insect-specific flaviviruses (ISFs). Cell fusing agent virus (CFAV) was the first described ISF, which was detected in an Aedes aegypti cell line, Aag2. Here, we investigated the effect of Wolbachia, a widespread endosymbiont of many insect species, that is known to block replication of several pathogenic flaviviruses, on CFAV...
November 8, 2016: Journal of General Virology
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