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Journal of General Virology

Lars Schröder, Sandro Klafack, Sven M Bergmann, Dieter Fichtner, Yeonhwa Jin, Pei-Yu Lee, Dirk Höper, Thomas C Mettenleiter, Walter Fuchs
Koi herpesvirus (KHV, Cyprinidherpesvirus 3) causes a fatal disease of koi and common carp. To obtain safe and efficacious live vaccines, we generated deletion mutants of KHV lacking the nonessential genes encoding two enzymes of nucleotide metabolism, thymidine kinase (TK, ORF55) and deoxyuridine-triphosphatase (DUT, ORF123). Since single-deletion mutants based on a KHV isolate from Israel (KHV-I) only exhibited partial attenuation (Fuchs W, Fichtner D, Bergmann SM, Mettenleiter TC. Arch Virol 2011;156 : 1059-1063), a corresponding double mutant was generated and tested in vivo, and shown to be almost avirulent but still protective...
September 19, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Helen E Farrell, Kimberley Bruce, Jiawei Ma, Nicholas Davis-Poynter, Philip G Stevenson
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) colonizes blood-borne dendritic cells (DCs). They express US28, a viral G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). In vitro functions have been described for US28, but how it contributes to host colonization has been unclear. The murine CMV (MCMV) M33 GPCR promotes DC recirculation. We show that US28 shares this function. Thus, DC recirculation is also available to HCMV via US28, and inhibiting US28 G protein-dependent signalling has the potential to reduce systemic infection. We show that M33 also promotes systemic infection through infected DC extravasation...
September 18, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Veronika Wetzel, Véronique Brault, Mark Varrelmann
Beet chlorosis virus (genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae), which is persistently transmitted by the aphid Myzus persicae, is part of virus yellows in sugar beet and causes interveinal yellowing as well as significant yield loss in Beta vulgaris. To allow reverse genetic studies and replace vector transmission, an infectious cDNA clone under cauliflower mosaic virus 35S control in a binary vector for agrobacterium-mediated infection was constructed using Gibson assembly. Following agroinoculation, the BChV full-length clone was able to induce a systemic infection of the cultivated B...
September 14, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Tianhao Zhang, Xing Zhao, Liangliang Jiang, Xue Yang, Ying Chen, Xijiao Song, Yuwen Lu, Jiejun Peng, Hongying Zheng, Yuanhua Wu, Stuart MacFarlane, Jianping Chen, Fei Yan
Garlic virus X (GarVX) encodes a 15 kDa cysteine-rich protein (CRP). To investigate the function(s) of p15, its subcellular localization, role as a symptom determinant and capacity to act as a viral suppressor of RNA silencing (VSR) were analysed. Results showed that GFP-tagged p15 was distributed in the cytoplasm, nucleus and nucleolus. Expression of p15 from PVX caused additional systemic foliar malformation and led to increased accumulation of PVX, showing that p15 is a virulence factor for reconstructed PVX-p15...
September 12, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Toufic Elbeaino, Michele Digiaro, Nicole Mielke-Ehret, Hans-Peter Muehlbach, Giovanni P Martelli, Ictv Report Consortium
Members of the family Fimoviridae, order Bunyavirales are plant viruses with segmented, linear, single-stranded, negative-sense RNA genomes. They are distantly related to orthotospoviruses and orthobunyaviruses of the families Tospoviridae and Peribunyaviridae, respectively. The family Fimoviridae includes the genus Emaravirus, which comprises several species with European mountain ash ringspot-associated emaravirus as the type species. Fimoviruses are transmitted to plants by eriophyid mite vectors and induce similar characteristic cytopathologies in their host plants, including the presence of double membrane-bound bodies in the cytoplasm of the virus-infected cells...
September 11, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Jessica L Lawler, Donald M Coen
Herpesviruses, including herpes simplex virus-1, encode and express a DNA polymerase that is required for replication of their dsDNA genomes. The catalytic subunit of this enzyme contains a 3'-5' exonuclease that is involved in proofreading during replication. Although certain mutations that severely impair exonuclease activity are not lethal to the virus, it was reported that virus containing the substitution of alanine for aspartate 368 (D368A), which ablates exonuclease activity, could not be recovered, raising the possibility that this activity is essential for viral replication...
September 3, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Jingyu Lin, Rongjian Ye, Thanuja Thekke-Veetil, Margaret E Staton, Prakash R Arelli, Ernest C Bernard, Tarek Hewezi, Leslie L Domier, M R Hajimorad
Analysis of transcriptome sequence data from eggs and second-stage juveniles (J2s) of sugar beet cyst nematode (SBCN, Heterodera schachtii) identified the full-length genome of a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus, provisionally named sugar beet cyst nematode virus 1 (SBCNV1). The SBCNV1 sequence was detected in both eggs and J2s, indicating its possible vertical transmission. The 9503-nucleotide genome sequence contains a single long open reading frame, which was predicted to encode a polyprotein with conserved domains for picornaviral structural proteins proximal to its amino terminus and RNA helicase, cysteine proteinase and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) conserved domains proximal to its carboxyl terminus, hallmarks of viruses belonging to the order Picornavirales...
August 29, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Kirsten Bentley, David J Evans
Genetic recombination in positive-strand RNA viruses is a significant evolutionary mechanism that drives the creation of viral diversity by the formation of novel chimaeric genomes. The process and its consequences, for example the generation of viruses with novel phenotypes, has historically been studied by analysis of the end products. More recently, with an appreciation that there are both replicative and non-replicative mechanisms at work, and with new approaches and techniques to analyse intermediate products, the viral and cellular factors that influence the process are becoming understood...
August 29, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Supratik Das, Manish Bansal, Jayanta Bhattacharya
Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) diversity is a significant challenge in developing a vaccine against the virus. B/C recombinants have been found in India and other places but are the predominant clade prevalent in China. HIV-1 envelopes (Envs) are the target of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) which develop spontaneously in some HIV-1 infected patients. It has been previously reported with efficiently cleaved clade A, B and C Envs that preferential binding of Envs to bNAbs as opposed to non-NAbs, a desirable property for immunogens, is correlated with efficient cleavage of the Env precursor polypeptide into constituent subunits...
August 21, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Takuya Miura, Reina Makino, Kouhei Yamada, Miku Matsuura, Misaki Okumura, Souichi Yamada, Shinji Watanabe, Naoki Inoue
As congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is the major cause of developmental abnormalities in children, the development of effective vaccines is critical to public health. Recent studies have demonstrated that the pentameric complex (Pentamer) of glycoproteins, which is required for human CMV infection of endothelial and epithelial cells, could be a potent vaccine antigen. As guinea pig CMV (GPCMV) infects congenitally and encodes homologues of all Pentamer components, GPCMV models are considered to be useful for the development of vaccine strategies...
August 16, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Pratik Hemant Khedkar, Nikolaus Osterrieder, Dusan Kunec
Codon pair bias deoptimization (CPBD) has been successfully used to attenuate several RNA viruses. CPBD involves recoding a viral protein-coding sequence to maximize the number of codon pairs that are statistically underrepresented in the host, which presumably slows protein translation and, hence, causes virus attenuation. However, since recoding preserves the amino acid composition and codon bias, attenuated and parental viruses are antigenically identical. To determine if Marek's disease virus (MDV), a highly oncogenic herpesvirus of the chicken with a large double-stranded DNA genome, can be attenuated by CPBD of its major oncogene meq, we recoded the gene to minimize (meq-D), maximize (meq-O), or preserve (meq-R) the level of codon pairs that are overrepresented in the chicken protein-coding sequences...
August 16, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Pucharee Songprakhon, Thawornchai Limjindaporn, Guey Chuen Perng, Chunya Puttikhunt, Thanawat Thaingtamtanha, Thanyaporn Dechtawewat, Sawanan Saitornuang, Chairat Uthaipibull, Sissades Thongsima, Pa-Thai Yenchitsomanus, Prida Malasit, Sansanee Noisakran
Virus-host interactions play important roles in virus infection and host cellular response. Several viruses, including dengue virus (DENV), usurp host chaperones to support their amplification and survival in the host cell. We investigated the interaction of nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) of DENV with three endoplasmic reticulum-resident chaperones (i.e. GRP78, calnexin and calreticulin) to delineate their functional roles and potential binding sites for protein complex formation. GRP78 protein showed prominent association with DENV NS1 in virus-infected Huh7 cells as evidenced by co-localization and co-immunoprecipitation assays...
August 10, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Zhaoxia Dong, Shaozhen Xing, Jin Liu, Xizhe Tang, Lifang Ruan, Ming Sun, Yigang Tong, Donghai Peng
Bacterial leaf blight (BLB) caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is a serious bacterial disease in rice-growing regions worldwide. Phage therapy has been proposed as a potential measure to treat bacterial infections. In this study, a novel phage, Xoo-sp2, which infects Xoo was isolated from soil. The characteristics of Xoo-sp2, including the morphology, one-step growth curve and host range, were analysed. The genome of phage Xoo-sp2 was sequenced and annotated. The results demonstrated that Xoo-sp2 is a siphovirus and has a broad lytic spectrum, infecting 9 out of 10 representative Xoo strains...
August 10, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Ba Vuong Lê, Martine Jandrot-Perrus, Christian Couture, Liva Checkmahomed, Marie-Christine Venable, Marie-Ève Hamelin, Guy Boivin
Thrombin has been demonstrated to be involved in several viral diseases including human metapneumovirus (hMPV) infections. We previously showed that immediate administration of thrombin inhibitor argatroban post-infection protected mice against hMPV disease. This current work aims at determining whether warfarin and heparin, two other anticoagulants inhibiting thrombin formation and activities, may also be used for treatment against hMPV in vivo. We found that immediate injections of argatroban, warfarin or heparin after virus challenge protected mice against hMPV infection, as evidenced by decreased or no mortality, less weight loss, reduced viral load and attenuated inflammation...
August 10, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Peng Zhang, Matthew W Turnbull
Certain parasitoid wasps are associated with Polydnaviruses, symbiotic viruses that encode virulence factors which are essential to successful parasitization by the wasp of a caterpillar host. Members of one group of Polydnaviruses, the Ichnoviruses, encode a multi-gene family known as Vinnexins. Vinnexins are homologues of insect gap junction genes, and form functional gap junctions that may affect host cell physiology. However, the role of Vinnexins in host pathology and the mechanism by which these affect their caterpillar host are largely unknown...
August 9, 2018: Journal of General Virology
David Prangishvili, Mart Krupovic, Ictv Report Consortium
The family Globuloviridae comprises enveloped viruses with linear, double-stranded DNA genomes of about 21-28 kbp. The virions are spherical with a diameter of 70-100 nm. No information is available about genome replication. Globuloviruses infect hyperthermophilic archaea belonging to the genera Pyrobaculum and Thermoproteus, which thrive in extreme geothermal environments. Infection does not cause lysis of host cells and is noncytocidal. The viral genome does not integrate into the host chromosome. This is a summary of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Report on the taxonomy of the Globuloviridae, which is available at www...
August 9, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Andrea Laconi, Steven J van Beurden, Alinda J Berends, Annika Krämer-Kühl, Christine A Jansen, Dieuwertje Spekreijse, Gilles Chénard, Hans-Christian Philipp, Egbert Mundt, Peter J M Rottier, M Hélène Verheije
Avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) infects domestic fowl, resulting in respiratory disease and causing serious losses in unprotected birds. Its control is mainly achieved by using live attenuated vaccines. Here we explored the possibilities for rationally attenuating IBV to improve our knowledge regarding the function of IBV accessory proteins and for the development of next-generation vaccines with the recently established reverse genetic system for IBV H52 based on targeted RNA recombination and selection of recombinant viruses in embryonated eggs...
August 1, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Rebecca L Brocato, Victoria Wahl, Christopher D Hammerbeck, Matthew D Josleyn, Anita K McElroy, Jeffrey M Smith, Jay W Hooper
Sin Nombre virus (SNV) and Andes virus (ANDV) cause hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in humans. Both SNV and ANDV infect Syrian hamsters, but only ANDV causes lethal disease. A co-infection study was performed to determine which virus, SNV or ANDV, would dominate the survival outcome in hamsters. Infection of hamsters with SNV 1 day before ANDV challenge did not result in disease characteristic of the latter virus, and all animals survived challenge. Control animals infected solely with ANDV all succumbed by day 14...
August 1, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Marlene Laufer, Hamza Mohammad, Daniela S Christ, Dietmar Riedel, Edgar Maiss, Mark Varrelmann, Sebastian Liebe
Infectious full-length clones of Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) and Beet soil-borne mosaic virus (BSBMV), both genus Benyvirus, were used for fluorescent labelling with the objective to study their interaction in coinfection and superinfection experiments. Fluorescent labelling was achieved by replacing a part of the RNA2 encoded coat protein read-through domain with either GFP or mRFP fluorescent marker proteins. This resulted in a translational fusion comprising the coat and the fluorescent protein...
July 30, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Yoshitaka Shirasago, Hidesuke Fukazawa, Hideki Aizaki, Tetsuro Suzuki, Takeru Suzuki, Kazuo Sugiyama, Takaji Wakita, Kentaro Hanada, Ryo Abe, Masayoshi Fukasawa
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and propagation in cultured cells have mainly been investigated using the infectious clinical clone JFH1. However, its infectivity is not high enough for infection to be detected easily. In this study, we attempted to isolate HCV-JFH1 variants adapted to human hepatoma Huh7.5.1 cells. By performing serial passages of the wild-type HCV-JFH1 in Huh7.5.1 cells, we obtained a variant that was capable of inducing severe cytopathic effects and showed approximately 700-fold higher infectivity than the wild-type HCV-JFH1...
July 25, 2018: Journal of General Virology
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