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Journal of General Virology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30016225/evaluation-of-the-genomic-diversity-of-viruses-infecting-bacteria-archaea-and-eukaryotes-using-a-common-bioinformatic-platform-steps-towards-a-unified-taxonomy
#1
Pakorn Aiewsakun, Evelien M Adriaenssens, Rob Lavigne, Andrew M Kropinski, Peter Simmonds
Genome Relationship Applied to Virus Taxonomy (GRAViTy) is a genetics-based tool that computes sequence relatedness between viruses. Composite generalized Jaccard (CGJ) distances combine measures of homology between encoded viral genes and similarities in genome organizational features (gene orders and orientations). This scoring framework effectively recapitulates the current, largely morphology and phenotypic-based, family-level classification of eukaryotic viruses. Eukaryotic virus families typically formed monophyletic groups with consistent CGJ distance cut-off dividing between and within family divergence ranges...
July 17, 2018: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29975185/confirmation-of-zika-virus-infection-through-hospital-based-sentinel-surveillance-of-acute-febrile-illness-in-uganda-2014-2017
#2
John Timothy Kayiwa, Annet Martha Nankya, Irene Joyce Ataliba, Eric C Mossel, Mary B Crabtree, Julius Julian Lutwama
Zika virus (ZIKV), transmitted by Aedes species mosquitoes, was first isolated in Uganda in 1947. From February 2014 to October 2017, the Uganda Virus Research Institute, in collaboration with the US Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention, conducted arbovirus surveillance in acute febrile illness (AFI) patients at St Francis hospital in Nkonkonjeru. Three hundred and eighty-four serum samples were collected and tested for IgM antibodies to yellow fever virus (YFV), West Nile virus (WNV), dengue virus (DENV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and ZIKV...
July 5, 2018: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29975184/elevated-antibodies-against-epstein-barr-virus-among-individuals-predicted-to-carry-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-susceptibility-variants
#3
Anna E Coghill, Wan-Lun Hsu, Qi Yang, Cheng-Ping Wang, Pei-Jen Lou, Kelly J Yu, Guoqin Yu, Scott R Diehl, Chien-Jen Chen, Alisa M Goldstein, Allan Hildesheim
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an obligatory factor in the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), and anti-EBV IgA antibodies are elevated many years prior to the development of NPC. Nearly all adults are infected with EBV, but only a few develop cancer, suggesting that additional co-factors, including genetic susceptibility, must be required for the disease to manifest. Individuals were selected from the Taiwan Family Study, a cohort of 3389 individuals from NPC multiplex families. Primary analyses were conducted among 671 individuals from 69 pedigrees with the strongest family history of disease (>3 NPC-affected family members)...
July 5, 2018: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29947603/ictv-virus-taxonomy-profile-baculoviridae
#4
Robert L Harrison, Elisabeth A Herniou, Johannes A Jehle, David A Theilmann, John P Burand, James J Becnel, Peter J Krell, Monique M van Oers, Joseph D Mowery, Gary R Bauchan, Ictv Report Consortium
The family Baculoviridae comprises large viruses with circular dsDNA genomes ranging from 80 to 180 kbp. The virions consist of enveloped, rod-shaped nucleocapsids and are embedded in distinctive occlusion bodies measuring 0.15-5 µm. The occlusion bodies consist of a matrix composed of a single viral protein expressed at high levels during infection. Members of this family infect exclusively larvae of the insect orders Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera and Diptera. This is a summary of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Report on the taxonomy of the Baculoviridae, which is available at www...
June 27, 2018: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29944110/characterization-of-neutralizing-epitopes-in-antigenic-site-b-of-recently-circulating-influenza-a-h3n2-viruses
#5
Kerstin Beer, Mian Dai, Steven Howell, Pramila Rijal, Alain R Townsend, Yipu Lin, Stephen A Wharton, Rodney S Daniels, John W McCauley
Influenza A(H3N2) viruses are associated with outbreaks worldwide and can cause disease with severe complications. The impact can be reduced by vaccination, which induces neutralizing antibodies that mainly target the haemagglutinin glycoprotein (HA). In this study we generated neutralizing mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against A/Victoria/361/2011 and identified their epitopes by generating and sequencing escape viruses. The epitopes are located in antigenic site B, which is near the receptor-binding site and is immunodominant in humans...
June 26, 2018: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29939128/viruses-of-invasive-argentine-ants-from-the-european-main-supercolony-characterization-interactions-and-evolution
#6
Lumi Viljakainen, Ida Holmberg, Sílvia Abril, Jaana Jurvansuu
The Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) is a highly invasive pest, yet very little is known about its viruses. We analysed individual RNA-sequencing data from 48 Argentine ant queens to identify and characterisze their viruses. We discovered eight complete RNA virus genomes - all from different virus families - and one putative partial entomopoxvirus genome. Seven of the nine virus sequences were found from ant samples spanning 7 years, suggesting that these viruses may cause long-term infections within the super-colony...
June 25, 2018: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29939125/how-myeloid-cells-contribute-to-the-pathogenesis-of-prominent-emerging-zoonotic-diseases
#7
Aroon Supramaniam, Hayman Lui, Bernadette M Bellette, Penny A Rudd, Lara J Herrero
Up to 75 % of emerging human diseases are zoonoses, spread from animals to humans. Although bacteria, fungi and parasites can be causative agents, the majority of zoonotic infections are caused by viral pathogens. During the past 20 years many factors have converged to cause a dramatic resurgence or emergence of zoonotic diseases. Some of these factors include demographics, social changes, urban sprawl, changes in agricultural practices and global climate changes. In the period between 2014-2017 zoonotic viruses including ebola virus (EBOV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV), dengue virus (DENV) and zika virus (ZIKV), caused prominent outbreaks resulting in significant public health and economic burdens, especially in developing areas where these diseases are most prevalent...
June 25, 2018: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29939123/identification-and-characterization-of-novel-mosquito-borne-kammavanpettai-virus-and-tick-borne-wad-medani-reoviruses-isolated-in-india
#8
Pragya D Yadav, Anita M Shete, Dimpal A Nyayanit, Cesar G Albarino, Shilpi Jain, Lisa W Guerrero, Sandeep Kumar, Deepak Y Patil, Stuart T Nichol, Devendra T Mourya
In 1954, a virus named Wad Medani virus (WMV) was isolated from Hyalomma marginatum ticks from Maharashtra State, India. In 1963, another virus was isolated from Sturnia pagodarum birds in Tamil Nadu, India, and named Kammavanpettai virus (KVPTV) based on the site of its isolation. Originally these virus isolates could not be identified with conventional methods. Here we describe next-generation sequencing studies leading to the determination of their complete genome sequences, and identification of both virus isolates as orbiviruses (family Reoviridae)...
June 25, 2018: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29932395/molecular-characterization-of-hepatitis-b-virus-hbv-in-african-children-living-in-australia-identifies-genotypes-and-variants-associated-with-poor-clinical-outcome
#9
Elizabeth G Bannister, Lilly Yuen, Margaret Littlejohn, Rosalind Edwards, Vitina Sozzi, Danni Colledge, Xin Li, Stephen Locarnini, Winita Hardikar, Peter A Revill
Migration from sub-Saharan Africa is contributing to the rising incidence of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection and its complications in Australia. African CHB is associated with unique genotypes, such as E and A1, which are associated with reduced vaccine efficacy and early-onset hepatocellular carcinoma, respectively, although the prevalence of these genotypes outside Africa is poorly described. Treatment-naïve children of African origin with CHB were recruited at the Royal Children's Hospital Melbourne...
June 22, 2018: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29932386/the-importance-of-cross-disciplinary-research-to-combat-antimicrobial-resistance-introducing-a-new-pop-up-journal-x-amr
#10
Gwen Knight, Helen Lambert, Edward Feil, Mark Holmes, Jodi Lindsay
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 22, 2018: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927371/ribavirin-induced-mutagenesis-across-the-complete-open-reading-frame-of-hepatitis-c-virus-genotypes-1a-and-3a
#11
Niels Mejer, Ulrik Fahnøe, Andrea Galli, Santseharay Ramirez, Thomas Benfield, Jens Bukh
Ribavirin (RBV) has been used for the last 20 years to treat patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. This pluripotent drug is believed to induce mutagenesis in HCV RNA. However, for cell-cultured HCV (HCVcc) this phenomenon has only been investigated in genotype 2a recombinants. Here we studied the mutations that developed in HCVcc of genotypes 1a and 3a treated with RBV or ribavirin triphosphate (RBV-TP) compared to non-treated controls. Analysis was performed on the amplified full-length open reading frame (ORF) of recovered viruses following next-generation sequencing and clonal analyses...
June 21, 2018: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927370/ictv-virus-taxonomy-profile-papillomaviridae
#12
Koenraad Van Doorslaer, Zigui Chen, Hans-Ulrich Bernard, Paul K S Chan, Rob DeSalle, Joakim Dillner, Ola Forslund, Takeshi Haga, Alison A McBride, Luisa L Villa, Robert D Burk, Ictv Report Consortium
The Papillomaviridae is a family of small, non-enveloped viruses with double-stranded DNA genomes of 5 748 to 8 607 bp. Their classification is based on pairwise nucleotide sequence identity across the L1 open reading frame. Members of the Papillomaviridae primarily infect mucosal and keratinised epithelia, and have been isolated from fish, reptiles, birds and mammals. Despite a long co-evolutionary history with their hosts, some papillomaviruses are pathogens of their natural host species. This is a summary of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Report on the taxonomy of the Papillomaviridae, which is available at http://www...
June 21, 2018: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923822/investigation-of-the-role-of-gbf1-in-the-replication-of-positive-sense-single-stranded-rna-viruses
#13
Juliette Ferlin, Rayan Farhat, Sandrine Belouzard, Laurence Cocquerel, Antoine Bertin, Didier Hober, Jean Dubuisson, Yves Rouillé
GBF1 has emerged as a host factor required for the replication of positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses of different families, but its mechanism of action is still unknown. GBF1 is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Arf family members. Recently, we identified Arf4 and Arf5 (class II Arfs) as host factors required for the replication of hepatitis C virus (HCV), a GBF1-dependent virus. To assess whether a GBF1/class II Arf pathway is conserved among positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses, we investigated yellow fever virus (YFV), Sindbis virus (SINV), coxsackievirus B4 (CVB4) and human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E)...
June 20, 2018: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923821/evaluation-of-antiviral-efficacy-of-chinese-traditional-medicine-babao-dan-in-rabbits-infected-with-hepatitis-e-virus
#14
Wanyun Gong, Lin Liu, Manyu Li, Lin Wang, Mingyu Zhang, Zhengxin Luo, Siddharth Sridhar, Patrick C Y Woo, Ling Wang
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a major cause of acute viral hepatitis. Patients with chronic hepatitis B superinfected with HEV may progress to liver failure. Babao Dan (BD) is a traditional Chinese medicine widely used as an auxiliary option for the treatment of chronic hepatitis and liver cancer in China. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of BD on the management of HEV infection in a rabbit model. Sixty-two specific-pathogen-free (SPF) rabbits were divided randomly into five groups and treated with BD or placebo for 2 weeks...
June 20, 2018: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923817/long-term-stability-of-antibody-responses-elicited-by-dengue-virus-envelope-diii-based-dna-vaccines
#15
J L Slon Campos, M Poggianella, O R Burrone
Dengue virus (DENV) is one the most important viral pathogens worldwide. Currently there is an imperative need for a reliable vaccine capable of inducing durable protection against all four serotypes. We have previously reported strongly neutralizing and highly specific antibody responses from all four serotypes to a DNA vaccine based on an engineered version of DENV E protein's domain III (DIII). Here, we show that monovalent and tetravalent immunizations with the DIII-based DNA vaccines are also capable of inducing highly stable antibody responses that remain strongly neutralizing over long periods of time...
June 20, 2018: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916804/transcriptome-profiling-of-alphaherpesvirus-infected-cells-treated-with-the-hiv-integrase-inhibitor-raltegravir-reveals-profound-and-specific-alterations-in-host-transcription
#16
Matthew R Pennington, Jennifer K Grenier, Gerlinde R Van de Walle
Anti-microbial compounds typically exert their action by directly interfering with one or more stages of the pathogen's life cycle. However, some compounds also have secondary effects on the host that aid in pathogen clearance. Raltegravir is a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-integrase inhibitor that has been shown to alter the host immune response to HIV in addition to its direct antiviral effect. Interestingly, raltegravir can also directly inhibit the replication of various herpesviruses. However, the host-targeted effects of this drug in the context of a herpesvirus infection have not been explored...
June 19, 2018: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916802/evolutionary-dynamics-of-non-gii-genotype-4-gii-4-noroviruses-reveal-limited-and-independent-diversification-of-variants
#17
Kentaro Tohma, Cara J Lepore, Lauren A Ford-Siltz, Gabriel I Parra
Noroviruses are extremely diverse, with ≥30 genotypes infecting humans. GII genotype 4 (GII.4) noroviruses, the most prevalent genotype, present a constant accumulation of mutations on the major capsid protein (VP1), resulting in the chronological emergence of new variants every 2-8 years. On the other hand, non-GII.4 noroviruses present a limited number of changes on the capsid protein over time. Despite limited diversification, non-GII.4 viruses can also be associated with large outbreaks. To gain insights into the evolutionary dynamics of non-GII...
June 19, 2018: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916799/limitations-of-daclatasvir-asunaprevir-plus-beclabuvir-treatment-in-cases-of-ns5a-inhibitor-treatment-failure
#18
Yuji Teraoka, Takuro Uchida, Michio Imamura, Nobuhiko Hiraga, Mitsutaka Osawa, Hiromi Kan, Yuhei Saito, Masataka Tsuge, Hiromi Abe-Chayama, C Nelson Hayes, Grace Naswa Makokha, Hiroshi Aikata, Daiki Miki, Hidenori Ochi, Yuji Ishida, Chise Tateno, Kazuaki Chayama
Combined daclatasvir (DCV)/asunaprevir (ASV) plus beclabuvir (BCV) treatment shows a high virological response for genotype 1b chronic hepatitis C patients. However, its efficacy for patients for whom previous direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy failed is not known. We analysed the efficacy of DCV/ASV/BCV treatment for HCV-infected mice and chronic hepatitis patients. Human hepatocyte chimaeric mice were injected with serum samples obtained from either a DAA-naïve patient or a DCV/ASV treatment failure and were then treated with DCV/ASV alone or in combination with BCV for 4 weeks...
June 19, 2018: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916798/a-single-amino-acid-substitution-in-the-ns4b-protein-of-dengue-virus-confers-enhanced-virus-growth-and-fitness-in-human-cells-in-vitro-through-ifn-dependent-host-response
#19
Thuy Thu Bui, Meng Ling Moi, Takeshi Nabeshima, Taichiro Takemura, Trang Thu Nguyen, Linh Ngoc Nguyen, Hang Thi Thu Pham, Thi Thu Thuy Nguyen, Dao Huy Manh, Shyam Prakash Dumre, Shusaku Mizukami, Kenji Hirayama, Shigeru Tajima, Mai Thi Quynh Le, Kiyoshi Aoyagi, Futoshi Hasebe, Kouichi Morita
Dengue virus (DENV) replication between mosquito and human hosts is hypothesized to be associated with viral determinants that interact in a differential manner between hosts. However, the understanding of inter-host viral determinants that drive DENV replication and growth between hosts is limited. Through the use of clinical isolates, we identified an amino acid variation of Ala, Met and Val at position 116 of DENV-1 NS4B. While the proportion of virus with the NS4B-116V variant remained constantly high in serial passages in a mosquito cell line, populations of the NS4B-116M and NS4B-116A variants became dominant after serial passages in mammalian cell lines...
June 19, 2018: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906257/norovirus-recombinants-recurrent-in-the-field-recalcitrant-in-the-lab-a-scoping-review-of-recombination-and-recombinant-types-of-noroviruses
#20
Louisa F Ludwig-Begall, Axel Mauroy, Etienne Thiry
Noroviruses are recognized as the major global cause of sporadic and epidemic non-bacterial gastroenteritis in humans. Molecular mechanisms driving norovirus evolution are the accumulation of point mutations and recombination. Intragenotypic recombination has long been postulated to be a driving force of GII.4 noroviruses, the predominant genotype circulating in humans for over two decades. Increasingly, emergence and re-emergence of different intragenotype recombinants have been reported. The number and types of norovirus recombinants remained undefined until the 2007 Journal of General Virology research article 'Norovirus recombination' reported an assembly of 20 hitherto unclassified intergenotypic norovirus recombinant types...
June 15, 2018: Journal of General Virology
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