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Journal of General Virology

Muhammad Munir, Muhammad Zubair Shabbir, Sameera Akhtar, Yi Tang, Tahir Yaqub, Arfan Ahmad, Ghulam Mustafa, Muhammad Azhar Alam, Diwakar Santhakumar, Venugopal Nair
Newcastle disease virus (NDV), a prototype avian paramyxovirus type 1 (APMV-1), causes economically devastating disease in avian species around the world. ND is enzootic in Pakistan and recurrent outbreaks are frequent in multiple avian species even after continuous and extensive use of vaccines. A number of APMV-1 and pigeon paramyxovirus serotype 1 (PPMV-1) strains have been isolated and genetically characterized in recent years. However, the impact of recently characterized wild bird-origin APMVs in domestic poultry, and the potency of routinely used vaccines against these novel and genetically diverse viruses remain unknown...
September 29, 2016: Journal of General Virology
Jiratchaya Puenpa, Sompong Vongpunsawad, Riikka Osterback, Matti Waris, Eva Eriksson, Jan Albert, Sofie Midgley, Thea K Fischer, Anna M Eis-Hübinger, María Cabrerizo, Eleanor Gaunt, Peter Simmonds, Yong Poovorawan
Coxsackievirus A6 (CV-A6) infection is a major etiologic agent for hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in recent years. HFMD outbreaks associated with CV-A6 results from the evolutionary dynamics of CV-A6 and the appearance of novel recombinant forms (RFs). To examine this, 151 variants collected between 2013 and 2014 from Germany, Spain, Sweden, Denmark, and Thailand were genotyped for the VP1 capsid and 3Dpol genes. Analysis of the VP1 gene showed an increasing likelihood between CV-A6 genome recombination and sequence divergence (estimated substitution rate of 8...
September 29, 2016: Journal of General Virology
Esther Schnettler, Vatipally B Sreenu, Timothy Mottram, Melanie McFarlane
Mosquito-borne viruses are known to cause disease in humans and livestock and are often difficult to control due the lack of specific antivirals and vaccines. The Wolbachia endosymbiont has been widely studied for its ability to restrict positive strand RNA virus infection in mosquitoes, although little is known about the precise antiviral mechanism. In recent years, a variety of insect-specific viruses have been discovered in mosquitoes and an interaction with mosquito-borne viruses have been reported for some of them; however nothing is known about the effect of Wolbachia on insect specific virus infection in mosquitoes...
September 28, 2016: Journal of General Virology
Donald B Smith, Paul Becher, Jens Bukh, Ernest A Gould, Gregor Meyers, Thomas Monath, A Scott Muerhoff, Alexander Pletnev, Rebecca Rico-Hesse, Jack T Stapleton, Peter Simmonds
Proposals are described for the assignment of recently reported viruses, infecting rodents, bats and other mammalian species, to new species within the Hepacivirus and Pegivirus genera (Family Flaviviridae). Assignments into 14 Hepacivirus species (Hepacivirus A to N) and 11 Pegivirus species (Pegivirus A to K) are based on phylogenetic relationships and sequence distances between conserved regions extracted from complete coding sequences of each proposed taxon. We propose that the species hepatitis C virus is renamed Hepacivirus C in order to acknowledge its unique historical position and so as to minimise confusion...
September 28, 2016: Journal of General Virology
Nadia Martinez-Martin, Abel Viejo-Borbolla, Antonio Alcami
Herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2, respectively) are among the most prevalent human pathogens, causing a variety of diseases. HSV modulation of the chemokine network remains poorly understood. We have previously identified secreted glycoprotein G (gG) as the first viral chemokine binding protein that enhances chemokine function as a novel viral immunomodulatory mechanism. However, gG is also present at the viral envelope and its role in the virus particle remains unknown. Here we have addressed the chemokine binding capacity of HSV particles and the functionality of such interaction in vitro...
September 27, 2016: Journal of General Virology
Rui Yang, Jianjia Zhang, Min Feng, Xiaofeng Wu
Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) orf 58a (bm58a) and its homologs are highly conserved in genomes of all sequenced Group I alphabaculoviruses and its function is still unknown. Transcriptional analysis revealed that bm58a is a very late gene initiated from a late transcriptional start motif TAAG. To examine its role in the virus, a bm58a knockout virus(vBmbm-58a-KO-PH-GFP) was generated through homologous recombination in Escherichia coli. Analysis of fluorescence microscopy, titration assays, and electron microscopy examination showed that the deletion of bm58a did not affect viral replication and occlusion bodies formation in vitro, indicating that bm58a is not required for viral propagation...
September 22, 2016: Journal of General Virology
Diane E Griffin, Victoria K Baxter
Infection of mice with Sindbis virus (SINV) produces encephalomyelitis and provides a model for examination of the central nervous system (CNS) immune response to alphavirus infection. Clearance of infectious virus is accomplished through a cooperative effort between SINV-specific antibody and interferon gamma (IFN-γ), but the regulatory interactions are poorly understood. To determine the effects of IFN-γ on clinical disease and the antiviral immune response, C57BL/6 mice lacking IFN-γ (Ifng-/-) or IFN-γ receptor (Ifngr1-/-) were studied in comparison to wild-type (WT) mice...
September 22, 2016: Journal of General Virology
Helena Faust, Erika Eldenhed Alwan, Alexander Roslin, Johan Wennerberg, Ola Forslund
Incidence of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) positive head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is rising in several countries. Intriguingly, large variations of HPV16 viral load and different proportions of the physical viral status among HNSCC have been reported. We analysed fresh biopsies of 275 HNSCC patients from the South Swedish Health Care Region for HPV types with MGP-PCR and Luminex. Seventy-eight HPV16-positive HNSCC cases were further investigated for viral DNA load and physical status using quantitative PCR for HPV E2-, E7- genes...
September 21, 2016: Journal of General Virology
Manfred Weidmann, Tatjana Avsic-Zupanc, Silvia Bino, Michelle Bouloy, Felicity Burt, Sadegh Chinikar, Iva Christova, Isuf Dedushaj, Ahmed El-Sanousi, Nazif Elaldi, Roger Hewson, Frank T Hufert, Isme Humolli, Petrus Jansen van Vuren, Zeliha Koçak Tufan, Gülay Korukluoglu, Pieter Lyssen, Ali Mirazimi, Johan Neyts, Matthias Niedrig, Aykut Ozkul, Anna Papa, Janusz Paweska, Amadou A Sall, Connie S Schmaljohn, Robert Swanepoel, Yavuz Uyar, Friedemann Weber, Herve Zeller
In countries from which Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is absent, the causative virus CCHF virus (CCHFV) is classified as a hazard group 4 agent and handled in containment level 4. In contrast, most endemic countries out of necessity have had to perform diagnostic tests under biosafety level (BSL) -2 or -3 conditions. In particular, Turkey and several of the Balkan countries have safely processed more than 100000 samples over many years in BSL-2 laboratories. It is therefore advocated that biosafety requirements for CCHF diagnostic procedures should be revised, to allow the required tests to be performed under enhanced BSL-2 conditions with appropriate biosafety laboratory equipment and personal protective equipment used according to standardized protocols in the affected countries...
September 21, 2016: Journal of General Virology
Lisa Wasilewski, Stuart Ray, Justin Richard Bailey
A better understanding of natural variation in neutralization resistance and fitness of diverse hepatitis C virus (HCV) envelope (E1E2) variants will be critical to guide rational development of an HCV vaccine. This work has been hindered by inadequate genetic diversity in viral panels and by a lack of standardization of HCV entry assays. Neutralization assays generally use lentiviral pseudoparticles expressing HCV envelope proteins (HCVpp) or chimeric full-length viruses that are replication competent in cell culture (HCVcc)...
September 21, 2016: Journal of General Virology
Caroline Lebaron, Aurélie Rosado, Christopher Sauvage, Camille Gauffier, Sylvie German-Retana, Benoît Moury, Jean-Luc Gallois
Allele mining on susceptibility factors offers opportunities to find new sources of resistance among crop wild relatives for breeding purposes. As a proof of concept, we used available RNAseq data to investigate polymorphisms among the four tomato genes encoding translation initiation factors (eIF4E1 and eIF4E2, eIFiso4E and the related gene New Cap-binding Protein -nCBP) to look for new potential resistance alleles to potyviruses. By analyzing polymorphism among RNAseq data obtained for 20 tomato accessions, ten belonging to the cultivated type Solanum lycopersicum and 10 belonging to the closest related wild species Solanum pimpinellifolium, we isolated one new eIF4E1 allele, in the Solanum pimpinellifolium LA0411 accession, which encodes a potential new resistance allele, mainly due to a polymorphism associated with an amino acid change within eIF4E1 region II...
September 19, 2016: Journal of General Virology
Asuka Nanbo, Kunihiro Kachi, Hironori Yoshiyama, Yusuke Ohba
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) establishes a life-long latent infection in B lymphocytes and often is found in epithelial cells. Several lines of evidence indicate that viral transmission mediated by cell-to-cell contact is the dominant mode of infection by EBV for epithelial cells. However, its detailed molecular mechanism has not been fully elucidated. We investigated the role of host membrane trafficking machinery in this process. We have found that adhesion molecules critical for this process are expressed in EBV-positive, -negative Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) cells and multiple epithelial cell lines...
September 19, 2016: Journal of General Virology
Xiaoting Du, Tingting Pan, Jun Xu, Yang Zhang, Wuhui Song, Zhigang Yi, Zhenghong Yuan
The cytoplasmic RNA sensors RIG-I and MDA5 play crucial roles in innate sensing of Hepatitis C virus (HCV). However, the exact identity of the interferon (IFN) inducer generated during HCV infection is poorly understood. To identify the IFN inducer, we extracted the RNAs from HCV replicating cells and introduced the RNAs into IFN signaling competent cells to examine the IFN production. RNAs isolated from HCV replicating cells triggered robust IFN-β and IFN-λ production in Huh7 cells in a viral replication-dependent manner, preferentially through the MDA5 but not through the RIG-I-mediated pathway...
September 16, 2016: Journal of General Virology
Thomas Figueroa, Imane Boumart, Damien Coupeau, Denis Rasschaert
Marek's disease virus or Gallid Herpes Virus-2 (GaHV-2) is an avian alphaherpesvirus that induces T-cell lymphoma in chickens. During transcriptomic studies of the RL region of the genome, we characterized the 7493-nt ERL lncRNA (edited repeat-long long non-coding RNA), which may act as a natural antisense transcript (NAT) of the major GaHV-2 oncogene meq and of two of the three miRNA clusters. During infections in vivo and in vitro, we detected hyperediting of the ERL lncRNA that appeared to be directly correlated with ADAR1 expression levels...
September 16, 2016: Journal of General Virology
Anne Sadewasser, Sandra Saenger, Katharina Paki, Torsten Schwecke, Thorsten Wolff
The influenza virus non-structural protein 1 (NS1) is a multifunctional virulence factor that plays a crucial role during infection by blocking the innate antiviral immune response of infected cells. In contrast to the well-studied NS1 protein of influenza A virus, knowledge about structure and functions of the influenza B virus homologue B/NS1, which shares less than 25% sequence identity, is still limited. Here, we report on a reverse genetic analysis to study the role of a highly conserved class II SH3 binding motif (SH3-BM) matching the consensus P-x-x-P-x-(K/R) that we identified at positions 122-127 of the B/NS1 protein...
September 16, 2016: Journal of General Virology
Pranay Dogra, Mindy Miller-Kittrell, Elisabeth Pitt, Joseph W Jackson, Tom Masi, Courtney Copeland, Shuen Wu, William Miller, Tim Sparer
Cytomegaloviruses (CMVs) produce chemokines (vCXCLs) that have both sequence and functional homology to host chemokines. Assessment of vCXCL-1's role in CMV infection is limited to in vitro and in silico analysis due to CMV's species specificity. In this study, we used the murine CMV (MCMV) mouse model to evaluate the function of vCXCL-1 in vivo. Recombinant MCMVs expressing chimpanzee CMV vCXCL-1 (vCXCL-1CCMV) or host chemokine, mCXCL1, under went primary dissemination to the popliteal lymph node, spleen, and lung similar to the parental MCMV...
September 13, 2016: Journal of General Virology
Chih-Ling Zao, Lisa Tomanek, Anthony Cooke, Ron Berger, Lingyan Yang, Chen Xie, Si Chen, Changjun Shi, Rong Rong
A new simian retrovirus (SRV) subtype was discovered in China and the U.S. from Cambodian-origin cynomolgus monkeys. Histopathological examination from necropsied animals showed multifocal lymphoplasmacystic and histocytic inflammation. The complete genome sequences demonstrated that the U.S. virus isolates were nearly identical (99.91%-99.93%) and differed only slightly (99.13%-99.16% identical) from the China isolate. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the new virus isolates formed a distinct branch of SRV-1 through -7 and, therefore, were named this subtype SRV-8...
September 8, 2016: Journal of General Virology
Yang Li, Shuai Cui, Zhizhong Cui, Shuang Chang, Peng Zhao
Specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens were inoculated with the virus seed of an infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) attenuated vaccine, and positive reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) antibody levels were subsequently detected in the chicken sera indicating potential REV contamination of the vaccine. After neutralization with IBDV-positive blood serum, the vaccine was inoculated into DF-1 cells for REV isolation and identification. An REV strain, designated IBD-C1605, was identified using an IFA test. Three pairs of primers were employed for the amplification, cloning and sequencing of three overlapping fragments of the IBD-C1605 genome, and the whole-genome sequence of this isolate was obtained after gene assembly...
September 8, 2016: Journal of General Virology
Zhixin Fang, Chunyan Li, Wenbi Wu, Meijin Yuan, Kai Yang
A recent study found that the Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) Ac132 is a nucleocapsid-associated protein and required for budded virion (BV) production. We therefore initiated experiments aimed at understanding how Ac132 is involved in AcMNPV infection. An 80-bp region of ac132 was replaced with a chloramphenicol resistance gene to construct vAc132KO. Transfection of vAc132KO into Sf9 cells resulted in a single-cell infection phenotype, consistent with findings reported in the previous study...
September 8, 2016: Journal of General Virology
Michela Chiumenti, Massimiliano Morelli, Angelo De Stradis, Toufic Elbeaino, Livia Stavolone, Angelantonio Minafra
Mulberry badnavirus-1 (MBV-1) has been characterized as the aetiological agent of a disease observed on a mulberry tree in Lebanon (accession L34). A smallRNA NGS library was prepared and analyzed from L34 extract, and these data together with genome walking experiments have been used to obtain the full-length virus sequence. Uniquely among badnaviruses, the MBV-1 sequence encodes a single ORF containing all the conserved pararetrovirus motifs. Two genome sizes (6kb and 7kb) were found to be encapsidated in infected plants, the shortest of which shares 98...
September 7, 2016: Journal of General Virology
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