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Journal of General Virology

Jermilia Charles, Chandra S Tangudu, Stefanie L Hurt, Charlotte Tumescheit, Andrew E Firth, Julian E Garcia-Rejon, Carlos Machain-Williams, Bradley J Blitvich
A metagenomics approach was used to detect novel and recognized RNA viruses in mosquitoes from the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico. A total of 1359 mosquitoes of 7 species and 5 genera (Aedes, Anopheles, Culex, Mansonia and Psorophora) were sorted into 37 pools, homogenized and inoculated onto monolayers of Aedes albopictus (C6/36) cells. A second blind passage was performed and then total RNA was extracted and analysed by RNA-seq. Two novel viruses, designated Uxmal virus and Mayapan virus, were identified. Uxmal virus was isolated from three pools of Aedes (Ochlerotatus) taeniorhynchus and phylogenetic data indicate that it should be classified within the recently proposed taxon Negevirus...
November 9, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Aboud Kourieh, Jean-Damien Combes, Massimo Tommasino, Véronique Dalstein, Gary M Clifford, Jean Lacau St Guily, Christine Clavel, Silvia Franceschi, Tarik Gheit, For The Split Study Group
The prevalence of 13 polyomaviruses (PyVs) in the tonsil brushings and gargles of immunocompetent children and adults was assessed. Patients undergoing tonsillectomy for benign indications were recruited in 19 centres in France. After resection, the entire outer surface of the right and left halves of the tonsils was brushed extensively. Gargles were also collected prior to surgery in selected adults. A species-specific multiplex assay was used to detect the DNA of 13 PyVs. In tonsil brushings (n=689), human PyV 6 (HPyV6) and Merkel cell PyV (MCPyV) were the most prevalent (≈15 %), followed by trichodysplasia spinulosa-associated PyV (TSPyV), BKPyV, Washington University PyV (WUPyV) and human PyV 9 (HPyV9) (1 to 5 %), and human PyV 7 (HPyV7), John Cunningham PyV (JCPyV) and Simian virus 40 (SV40) (<1 %), while no Karolinska Institute PyV (KIPyV), Malawi PyV (MWPyV), human PyV 12 (HPyV12) or Lyon IARC PyV (LIPyV) were detected...
November 8, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Bukowska-Ośko Iwona, Perlejewski Karol, Caraballo Cortés Kamila, Agnieszka Pollak, Berak Hanna, Pawełczyk Agnieszka, Horban Andrzej, Joanna Kosińska, Rafał Płoski, Laskus Tomasz, Radkowski Marek
Coinfection with more than one hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype is common, but its dynamics, particularly during antiviral treatment, remain largely unknown. We employed next-generation sequencing (NGS) to analyse sequential serum and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples in seven patients with transient presence or permanent genotype change during antiviral treatment with interferon and ribavirin. Specimens were collected right before the therapy initiation and at 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 20, 24, 36, 44 and 48 weeks during treatment and 6 months after treatment ceased...
November 5, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Carolina Q Sacramento, Natalia Fintelman-Rodrigues, Milene Miranda, Marilda M Siqueira, Thiago Moreno L Souza
Influenza A and B virions are packaged with their polymerases to catalyse RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity. Since there is no evidence to rule in or out the permissiveness of influenza virions to triphosphate ribonucleotides, we functionally evaluated this. We found the means to stimulate influenza A and B RNA polymerase activity inside the virion, called natural endogenous RNA polymerase (NERP) activity. Stimulation of NERP activity increased up to 3 log10 viral RNA content, allowing the detection of influenza virus in otherwise undetectable clinical samples...
November 5, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Alexander Koehler, Sebastian Pfeiffer, Larissa Kolesnikova, Stephan Becker
The Marburg virus (MARV) matrix protein, VP40, is a multifunctional protein that is essential for the assembly and release of viral particles, inhibition of the interferon response and viral transcription/replication. VP40 is assumed to be present as soluble monomers and membrane-bound higher-order oligomers. To investigate the functional relevance of oligomerization and lipid binding of VP40 we constructed mutants with impaired VP40-VP40 or VP40-lipid interactions and tested their capacity to bind the plasma membrane, to form virus-like particles (VLPs) and to inhibit viral RNA synthesis...
November 5, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Kati Franzke, Mayke Leggewie, Vattipally B Sreenu, Stephanie Jansen, Anna Heitmann, Stephen R Welch, Benjamin Brennan, Richard M Elliott, Egbert Tannich, Stefanie C Becker, Esther Schnettler
Many insect cell lines are persistently infected with insect-specific viruses (ISV) often unrecognized by the scientific community. Considering recent findings showing the possibility of interference between arbovirus and ISV infections, it is important to pay attention to ISV-infected cell lines. One example is the Entomobirnavirus, Culex Y virus (CYV). Here we describe the detection of CYV using a combination of small RNA sequencing, electron microscopy and PCR in mosquito cell lines Aag2, U4.4 and C7-10...
November 5, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Fang Liu, Honglei Wang, Li Du, Zeyu Wei, Qiong Zhang, Wen-Hai Feng
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is one of the most important diseases in pigs. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as an important regulator of virus-host cell interactions and miR-30c has been found to facilitate PRRSV replication. Here, we found that the interferon-alpha/beta receptor beta chain (IFNAR2) was down-regulated, while miR-30c was up-regulated during HV (a highly pathogenic type 2 PRRSV strain) and CH-1a (a classic type 2 PRRSV strain) infection. Subsequently, using bioinformatics analysis, we predicted that the IFNAR2 was targeted by miR-30c...
November 1, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Margus Varjak, Mayke Leggewie, Esther Schnettler
There are several RNA interference (RNAi) pathways in insects. The small interfering RNA pathway is considered to be the main antiviral mechanism of the innate immune system; however, virus-specific P-element-induced Wimpy testis gene (PIWI)-interacting RNAs (vpiRNAs) have also been described, especially in mosquitoes. Understanding the antiviral potential of the RNAi pathways is important, given that many human and animal pathogens are transmitted by mosquitoes, such as Zika virus, dengue virus and chikungunya virus...
October 29, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Jinping Li, Guangyu Hou, Yan Wang, Suchun Wang, Shanju Cheng, Cheng Peng, Wenming Jiang
The H5 subtype of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses pose a serious challenge to public health and the poultry industry in China. In this study, we generated a chimeric QH/KJ recombinant virus expressing the entire haemagglutinin (HA)-1 region of the HPAI virus A/chicken/China/QH/2017(H5N6) (clade and the HA2 region of the HPAI virus A/chicken/China/KJ/2017(H5N1) (clade The resulting chimeric PR8-QH/KJ virus exhibited similar in vitro growth kinetics as the parental PR8-QH and PR8-KJ viruses...
October 25, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Kristina Ulrich, Stefanie Wehner, Michaël Bekaert, Nicholas Di Paola, Meik Dilcher, Katherine Fiona Muir, John B Taggart, Iveta Matejusova, Manfred Weidmann
In order to obtain an insight into genomic changes and associated evolution and adaptation of Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus (IPNV), the complete coding genomes of 57 IPNV isolates collected from Scottish aquafarms from 1982 to 2014 were sequenced and analysed. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequenced IPNV strains showed separate clustering of genogroups I, II, III and V. IPNV isolates with genetic reassortment of segment A/B of genogroup III/II were determined. About 59 % of the IPNV isolates belonged to the persistent type and 32 % to the low-virulent type, and only one highly pathogenic strain (1...
October 25, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Erica Bickerton, Giulia Dowgier, Paul Britton
The spike glycoprotein (S) of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) comprises two subunits, S1 and S2. We have previously demonstrated that the S2 subunit of the avirulent Beau-R strain is responsible for its extended cellular tropism for Vero cells. Two recombinant infectious bronchitis viruses (rIBVs) have been generated; the immunogenic S1 subunit is derived from the IBV vaccine strain, H120, or the virulent field strain, QX, within the genetic background of Beau-R. The rIBVs BeauR-H120(S1) and BeauR-QX(S1) are capable of replicating in primary chicken kidney cell cultures and in Vero cells...
October 24, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Bert Vanmechelen, Roger K Maes, Dodd G Sledge, Samantha L Lockwood, Stephanne L Schwartz, Piet Maes
We report here the complete sequence and genome organization of a new papillomavirus, Erethizon dorsatum papillomavirus 2 (EdPV2), which was isolated from cutaneous lesions observed on the muzzle of a North American porcupine. The complete genome is 8809 nucleotides long and encodes five early (E6-E7-E1-E2-E4) and two late proteins (L2-L1). In addition to the upstream regulatory region, the EdPV2 genome contains an exceptionally large secondary non-coding region with no apparent functional relevance. EdPV2 is strongly divergent from the previously described porcupine papillomavirus EdPV1 and phylogenetic analysis shows EdPV2 clustering near members of the genus Pipapillomavirus, a group of rodent papillomaviruses...
October 24, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Sneha Singh, M G Anupriya, Ayan Modak, Easwaran Sreekumar
A transient increase in trans-endothelial cell permeability in dengue patients leads to vascular leakage and shock syndrome. Here, we analysed the molecular mechanisms that cause permeability changes in human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) using a direct dengue virus (DENV) infection model or treatment with NS1, a secreted DENV non-structural protein. In HMEC-1 cells, both treatments increase permeability with a concordant increase in the secretion of angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2). There is phosphorylation and loss of the junction protein VE-Cadherin from the inter-endothelial cell junctions and phosphorylation of RhoA...
October 24, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Tohru Suzuki, Daisuke Inoue
Rotavirus species H (RVH) has been detected in pigs, humans and bats. Moreover, porcine RVHs have often been identified in several swine-producing countries in recent years. Despite their zoonotic impact, genome information for RVHs is still limited. This study aimed to establish a tentative complete genome-based genotyping system for RVH by appending genomic sequences from 12 porcine RVHs identified in Japan between 2013 and 2015 to those from human and other porcine RVHs reported in previous studies. Phylogenetic analysis of 11 RNA segments indicated that porcine RVHs could be classified into multiple genotypes...
October 17, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Lindomar José Pena, Klarissa Miranda Guarines, Anna Jéssica Duarte Silva, Lígia Rosa Sales Leal, Daniele Mendes Félix, Adalúcia Silva, Sheilla Andrade de Oliveira, Constância Flávia Junqueira Ayres, Abelardo Silva Júnior, Antonio Carlos de Freitas
The emergence and rapid spread of Zika virus (ZIKV) in the Americas has prompted the development of in vitro and in vivo models to understand several aspects of ZIKV biology and boost the development of vaccines and antivirals. In vitro model studies include reverse genetics systems, two-dimensional (2D) cell models, such as primary cells and cell lines, and ex vivo three-dimensional (3D) models derived from skin, brain and placenta. While these models are cost-effective and allow rigorous control of experimental variables, they do not always recapitulate in vivo scenarios...
October 16, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Alessia Capone, Alessandra Lo Presti, Leonardo Sernicola, Stefania Farcomeni, Flavia Ferrantelli, Maria T Maggiorella, Edward T Mee, Nicola J Rose, Eleonora Cella, Massimo Ciccozzi, Barbara Ensoli, Alessandra Borsetti
Intra-host evolution of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) has been shown by viral RNA analysis in subjects who naturally suppress plasma viremia to low levels, known as controllers. However, little is known about the variability of proviral DNA and the inter-relationships among contained systemic viremia, rate of reservoir reseeding and specific major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genotypes, in controllers. Here, we analysed the proviral DNA quasispecies of the env V1-V2 region, in PBMCs and in anatomical compartments of 13 long-term controller monkeys after 3...
October 12, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Hiroyuki Mori, Takasuke Fukuhara, Chikako Ono, Tomokazu Tamura, Asuka Sato, Yuzy Fauzyah, Masami Wada, Toru Okamoto, Takeshi Noda, Tamotsu Yoshimori, Yoshiharu Matsuura
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is known to induce autophagy, but the mechanism of autophagy induced by HCV remains controversial. Here, we investigated the characteristics of autophagy induced by HCV infection. First, to examine the involvement of autophagy-related gene (ATG) proteins in HCV-induced LC3 lipidation, we established ATG5, ATG13 or ATG14 knockout (KO) Huh7.5.1 cell lines and confirmed that the accumulation of lipidated LC3 was induced in an ATG13- and ATG14-independent manner. On the other hand, HCV infectivity was not influenced by deficiencies in these genes...
October 12, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Lars Magnius, John Taylor, William S Mason, Camille Sureau, Paul Dény, Helene Norder, Ictv Report Consortium
Hepatitis delta virus, the only member of the only species in the genus Deltavirus, is a unique human pathogen. Its ~1.7 kb circular negative-sense RNA genome encodes a protein, hepatitis delta antigen, which occurs in two forms, small and large, both with unique functions. Hepatitis delta virus uses host RNA polymerase II to replicate via double rolling circle RNA synthesis. Newly synthesized linear RNAs are circularized after autocatalytic cleavage and ligation. Hepatitis delta virus requires the envelope of the helper virus, hepatitis B virus (family Hepadnaviridae), to produce infectious particles...
October 12, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Yue Feng, Jieyu Ran, Yue-Mei Feng, Jing Miao, Yue Zhao, Yuanyuan Jia, Zheng Li, Wei Yue, Xueshan Xia
Yunnan is considered to be a geographical hotspot for the introduction, mutation and recombination of several viruses in China. However, there are limited data regarding the genotypic profiles of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in this region. In this study, we characterized 206 HBV strains isolated from chronic hepatitis B patients in Yunnan, China. Initial genotyping based on 1.5 kb sequences revealed that genotype C was the most prevalent at 52.4 % (108/206), followed by genotype B at 30.6 % (63/206) and unclassified genotypes at 17...
September 25, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Lars Schröder, Sandro Klafack, Sven M Bergmann, Dieter Fichtner, Yeonhwa Jin, Pei-Yu Lee, Dirk Höper, Thomas C Mettenleiter, Walter Fuchs
Koi herpesvirus (KHV, Cyprinidherpesvirus 3) causes a fatal disease of koi and common carp. To obtain safe and efficacious live vaccines, we generated deletion mutants of KHV lacking the nonessential genes encoding two enzymes of nucleotide metabolism, thymidine kinase (TK, ORF55) and deoxyuridine-triphosphatase (DUT, ORF123). Since single-deletion mutants based on a KHV isolate from Israel (KHV-I) only exhibited partial attenuation (Fuchs W, Fichtner D, Bergmann SM, Mettenleiter TC. Arch Virol 2011;156 : 1059-1063), a corresponding double mutant was generated and tested in vivo, and shown to be almost avirulent but still protective...
September 19, 2018: Journal of General Virology
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