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Journal of General Virology

Covadonga Alonso, Manuel Borca, Linda Dixon, Yolanda Revilla, Fernando Rodriguez, Jose M Escribano, Ictv Report Consortium
The family Asfarviridae includes the single species African swine fever virus, isolates of which have linear dsDNA genomes of 170-194 kbp. Virions have an internal core, an internal lipid membrane, an icosahedral capsid and an outer lipid envelope. Infection of domestic pigs and wild boar results in an acute haemorrhagic fever with transmission by contact or ingestion, or by ticks of the genus Ornithodoros. Indigenous pigs act as reservoirs in Africa, where infection is endemic, and from where introductions occur periodically to Europe...
March 22, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Na-Na Tao, Rui Gong, Xiang Chen, Lin He, Fang Ren, Hai-Bo Yu, Juan Chen, Ji-Hua Ren
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major health problem worldwide. Interleukin-35 (IL-35) is a definite immunosuppressive cytokine belonging to the IL-12 family. Nevertheless, the role of IL-35 in HBV replication remains elusive. In this study, we found that the level of HBV DNA replicative intermediates detected by qPCR and Southern blotting analysis was significantly increased by rhIL-35 in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, HBV 3.5 kb mRNA levels were up-regulated by rhIL-35. The HBV core protein level as well as the HBsAg and HBeAg secretion levels were also increased by rhIL-35...
March 21, 2018: Journal of General Virology
A M Vaira, H S Lim, G Bauchan, C J Gulbronson, L Miozzi, N Vinals, A Natilla, J Hammond
The Lolium latent virus (LoLV) major coat protein sequence contains a typical chloroplast transit peptide (cTP) domain. In infected Nicotiana benthamiana leaf tissue, LoLV coat proteins can be detected at the chloroplast. In transient expression, several N-terminal deletions of the CP sequence, increasing in length, result in disruption of the domain functionality, markedly affecting intracellular localization. A yeast two-hybrid-based study using LoLV CP as bait identified several potentially interacting Arabidopsis host proteins, most of them with chloroplast-linked pathways...
March 20, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Jeanne M Sisk, Matthew B Frieman, Carolyn E Machamer
Enveloped viruses gain entry into host cells by fusing with cellular membranes, a step that is required for virus replication. Coronaviruses, including the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), fuse at the plasma membrane or use receptor-mediated endocytosis and fuse with endosomes, depending on the cell or tissue type. The virus spike (S) protein mediates fusion with the host cell membrane. We have shown previously that an Abelson (Abl) kinase inhibitor, imatinib, significantly reduces SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV viral titres and prevents endosomal entry by HIV SARS S and MERS S pseudotyped virions...
March 20, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Natalie A Prow, Marcus G Mah, Joshua M Deerain, David Warrilow, Agathe M G Colmant, Caitlin A O'Brien, Jessica J Harrison, Breeanna J McLean, Elise K Hewlett, Thisun B H Piyasena, Sonja Hall-Mendelin, Andrew F van den Hurk, Daniel Watterson, Bixing Huang, Benjamin L Schulz, Cameron E Webb, Cheryl A Johansen, Weng K Chow, Jody Hobson-Peters, Chris Cazier, Lark L Coffey, Helen M Faddy, Andreas Suhrbier, Helle Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Roy A Hall
Liao ning virus (LNV) was first isolated in 1996 from mosquitoes in China, and has been shown to replicate in selected mammalian cell lines and to cause lethal haemorrhagic disease in experimentally infected mice. The first detection of LNV in Australia was by deep sequencing of mosquito homogenates. We subsequently isolated LNV from mosquitoes of four genera (Culex, Anopheles, Mansonia and Aedes) in New South Wales, Northern Territory, Queensland and Western Australia; the earliest of these Australian isolates were obtained from mosquitoes collected in 1988, predating the first Chinese isolates...
March 13, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Koenraad Van Doorslaer, Simona Kraberger, Charlotte Austin, Kata Farkas, Melissa Bergeman, Emma Paunil, William Davison, Arvind Varsani
The Polyomaviridae is a diverse family of circular double-stranded DNA viruses. Polyomaviruses have been isolated from a wide array of animal hosts. An understanding of the evolutionary and ecological dynamics of these viruses is essential to understanding the pathogenicity of polyomaviruses. Using a high throughput sequencing approach, we identified a novel polyomavirus in an emerald notothen (Trematomus bernacchii) sampled in the Ross sea (Antarctica), expanding the known number of fish-associated polyomaviruses...
March 8, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Eiko Arai, Kazuo Ishii, Hiroki Ishii, Shiori Sagawa, Nao Makiyama, Tetsuya Mizutani, Tsutomu Omatsu, Yukie Katayama, Yasuhisa Kunimi, Maki N Inoue, Madoka Nakai
The family Ascoviridae is a recently described virus family whose members are transmitted by parasitoids and cause chronic and lethal infections in lepidopteran insects. Little is known about the biology and ecology of ascoviruses, and few isolates have been found outside the United States. We report here the isolation of a new ascovirus variant from Spodoptera litura in Japan. Full genome sequence and phylogenetic analyses showed that this virus was closely related to variants in Heliothis virescens ascovirus-3a, and it was named HvAV-3j...
March 8, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Apamas Sukkaew, Montri Thanagith, Tipparat Thongsakulprasert, Margit Mutso, Suresh Mahalingam, Duncan R Smith, Sukathida Ubol
Low-passage clinical isolates of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) were found to be a mixture of large- and small-plaque viruses, with small-plaque viruses being the predominant species. To investigate the contribution of plaque variants to the pathology of the joint, primary human fibroblast-like synoviocytes (HFLS) were used. Large- and small-plaque viruses were purified from two clinical isolates, CHIKV-031C and CHIKV-033C, and were designated CHIKV-031L and CHIKV-031S and CHIKV-033L and CHIKV-033S, respectively...
March 8, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Rachel D Brownlee, Amir Ardeshir, Michael D Becker, April M Wagner, David G Besselsen
The influence of mouse strain, immune competence and age on the pathogenesis of a field strain of minute virus of mice (MVMm) was examined in BALB/c, C3H, C57BL/6 and SCID mice experimentally infected as neonates, weanlings and adults. Sera, bodily excretions and tissues were harvested at 7, 14, 28 and 56 days after inoculation and evaluated by serology, quantitative PCR and histopathology. Seroconversion to recombinant viral capsid protein 2 was consistently observed in all immunocompetent strains of mice, regardless of the age at which they were inoculated, while seroconversion to the viral nonstructural protein 1 was only consistently detected in neonate inoculates...
March 8, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Fangzhou Chen, Todd P Knutson, Max Ciarlet, Matthew Sturos, Douglas G Marthaler
Rotavirus B (RVB) has been associated with enteric disease in many animal species. An RVB strain was identified in pooled intestinal samples from Alpine caprine kids (between 2 and 3 days of age) experiencing high (>90 %) morbidity, and the complete caprine RVB genome was characterized. Histology revealed villus atrophy, the samples tested positive for RVB by real-time RT-PCR and metagenomic next-generation sequencing identified only RVB and orf virus. In the VP4 gene segment, the caprine RVB strain had a higher percentage nucleotide identity to the Indian bovine RVB strains than to the Japanese bovine RVB strains, but the VP7, VP6, VP2, NSP1, NSP2 and NSP5 gene segments of the American caprine RVB strain were genetically related to the Japanese bovine RVB strains...
March 8, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Daniela Machado, Andrés Pizzorno, Jonathan Hoffmann, Aurélien Traversier, Hubert Endtz, Bruno Lina, Manuel Rosa-Calatrava, Gláucia Paranhos-Baccala, Olivier Terrier
The interplay between respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and the p53 pathway has only been reported in a limited number of studies, yet the underlying abrogation mechanisms of p53 activity during the time course of infection, possibly involving viral proteins, remained unclear. Here, we demonstrate that RSV infection impairs global p53 transcriptional activity, notably via its proteasome-dependent degradation at late stages of infection. We also demonstrate that NS1 and NS2 contribute to the abrogation of p53 activity, and used different experimental strategies (e...
March 5, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Keisuke Ohta, Yusuke Matsumoto, Machiko Nishio
The multifunctional V protein of human parainfluenza virus type 2 (hPIV2) plays important roles in controlling viral genome replication, inhibiting the host interferon response and promoting virus growth. We screened a yeast two-hybrid library using V protein as bait to identify host factors that are important for other functions of V. One of several positive clones isolated from HeLa cell-derived cDNA library encodes caspase-1. We found that the C-terminal region of V interacts with the C-terminal region of caspase-1 in mammalian cells...
February 27, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Qiaomei Wu, Mingyang Ding, Chuanfeng Li, Guangqing Liu, Zongyan Chen
Novel duck reovirus (NDRV), the prototype strain of the species Avian orthoreovirus (ARV), is currently an infectious agent for ducks. Studies on NDRV replication and pathogenesis have been hampered by the lack of an available reverse-genetics system. In this study, a plasmid-based reverse-genetics system that is free of helper viruses has been developed. In this system, 10 full-length gene segments of wild-type NDRV TH11 strain are transfected into BSR-T7/5 cells that express bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase...
February 26, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Mariela Martínez Gómez, Filipe Vieira Santos de Abreu, Alexandre Araujo Cunha Dos Santos, Iasmim Silva de Mello, Marta Pereira Santos, Ieda Pereira Ribeiro, Anielly Ferreira-de-Brito, Rafaella Moraes de Miranda, Marcia Gonçalves de Castro, Mario Sergio Ribeiro, Roberto da Costa Laterrière Junior, Shirlei Ferreira Aguiar, Guilherme Louzada Silva Meira, Deborah Antunes, Pedro Henrique Monteiro Torres, Daiana Mir, Ana Carolina Paulo Vicente, Ana Carolina Ramos Guimarães, Ernesto Raul Caffarena, Gonzalo Bello, Ricardo Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Myrna Cristina Bonaldo
Southeastern Brazil has been suffering a rapid expansion of a severe sylvatic yellow fever virus (YFV) outbreak since late 2016, which has reached one of the most populated zones in Brazil and South America, heretofore a yellow fever-free zone for more than 70 years. In the current study, we describe the complete genome of 12 YFV samples from mosquitoes, humans and non-human primates from the Brazilian 2017 epidemic. All of the YFV sequences belong to the modern lineage (sub-lineage 1E) of South American genotype I, having been circulating for several months prior to the December 2016 detection...
February 22, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Zoe E Smeele, Jennifer M Burns, Koenraad Van Doorsaler, Rafaela S Fontenele, Kara Waits, Daisy Stainton, Michelle R Shero, Roxanne S Beltran, Amy L Kirkham, Rachel Berngartt, Simona Kraberger, Arvind Varsani
Papillomaviridae is a diverse family of circular, double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses that infect a broad range of mammalian, avian and fish hosts. While papillomaviruses have been characterized most extensively in humans, the study of non-human papillomaviruses has contributed greatly to our understanding of their pathogenicity and evolution. Using high-throughput sequencing approaches, we identified 7 novel papillomaviruses from vaginal swabs collected from 81 adult female Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) in the Ross Sea of Antarctica between 2014-2017...
February 22, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Xi Wang, Cheng Chen, Nan Zhang, Jiang Li, Fei Deng, Hualin Wang, Just M Vlak, Zhihong Hu, Manli Wang
Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) orf5 (ac5) is a group I alphabaculovirus-specific gene of unknown function, although the protein (AC5) was previously reported to be associated with the per os infectivity factor (PIF) complex. The purpose of this study was to study the dynamics of AC5 during AcMNPV infection and to verify whether it is indeed a component of the PIF complex. Transcription and expression analyses suggested that ac5 is a late viral gene. An ac5-deleted recombinant AcMNPV was generated by homologous recombination...
February 21, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Dibya Ghimire, Madhu Rai, Ritu Gaur
Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) is known to interact with multiple host cellular proteins during its replication in the target cell. While many of these host cellular proteins facilitate viral replication, a number of them are reported to inhibit HIV-1 replication at various stages of its life cycle. These host cellular proteins, which are known as restriction factors, constitute an integral part of the host's first line of defence against the viral pathogen. Since the discovery of apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme 3G (APOBEC3G) as an HIV-1 restriction factor, several human proteins have been identified that exhibit anti-HIV-1 restriction...
February 19, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Peter J Walker, Kim R Blasdell, Charles H Calisher, Ralf G Dietzgen, Hideki Kondo, Gael Kurath, Ben Longdon, David M Stone, Robert B Tesh, Noël Tordo, Nikos Vasilakis, Anna E Whitfield, Ictv Report Consortium
The family Rhabdoviridae comprises viruses with negative-sense (-) single-stranded RNA genomes of 10.8-16.1 kb. Virions are typically enveloped with bullet-shaped or bacilliform morphology but can also be non-enveloped filaments. Rhabdoviruses infect plants and animals including mammals, birds, reptiles and fish, as well as arthropods which serve as single hosts or act as biological vectors for transmission to animals or plants. Rhabdoviruses include important pathogens of humans, livestock, fish and agricultural crops...
February 19, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Kyung-Il Kang, Erich Linnemann, Alan H Icard, Vijay Durairaj, Egbert Mundt, Holly S Sellers
Despite descriptions of runting-stunting syndrome (RSS) in broiler chickens dating back over 40 years, the aetiology has not yet been described. A novel chicken astrovirus (CkAstV) was isolated in an LMH liver cell line from the intestines of chickens affected with RSS. Clinical RSS is characterized by retarded growth and cystic crypt lesions in the small intestine. In 1-day-old broiler chickens infected with the CkAstV isolate, virus was only detected in the intestinal epithelial cells during the first few days after infection...
February 14, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Zizhang Sheng, Runxia Liu, Jieshi Yu, Zhiguang Ran, Simon J Newkirk, Wenfeng An, Feng Li, Dan Wang
Influenza B virus (FLUBV) is an important pathogen that infects humans and causes seasonal influenza epidemics. To date, little is known about defective genomes of FLUBV and their roles in viral replication. In this study, by using a next-generation sequencing approach, we analyzed total mRNAs extracted from A549 cells infected with B/Brisbane/60/2008 virus (Victoria lineage), and identified four defective FLUBV genomes with two (PB1∆A and PB1∆B) from the polymerase basic subunit 1 (PB1) segment and the other two (M∆A and M∆B) from the matrix (M) protein-encoding segment...
February 12, 2018: Journal of General Virology
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