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Journal of General Virology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221101/identification-of-a-novel-epitope-in-the-c-terminus-of-hcv-e2-protein-that-induces-potent-and-cross-reactive-neutralizing-antibodies
#1
Soma Das, Ranajoy Mullick, Anuj Kumar, Himani Tandon, Mihika Bose, K Gouthamchandra, Madhavi Chandra, Bagepally Ravishankar, M N Khaja, Narayanaswamy Srinivasan, Saumitra Das, Shaila Melkote Subbarao, Anjali Anoop Karande
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a leading cause of chronic viral hepatitis, but an effective vaccine is still not available to prevent infection. Use of neutralizing antibodies could be a potential therapeutic option. In this study, presence of anti-HCV antibodies in HCV-infected patients' was assessed from 50 patients and examined for the presence of neutralizing antibodies using the 'hepatitis C virus like particles'. Antibodies from two samples exhibited significant inhibitory activity suggesting that these may neutralize viral infection...
February 3, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150581/a-novel-mother-to-child-htlv-1-transmission-model-for-investigating-the-role-of-maternal-anti-htlv-1-antibodies-using-orally-infected-mother-rats
#2
Yuji Murakami, Atsuhiko Hasegawa, Satomi Ando, Reiko Tanaka, Takao Masuda, Yuetsu Tanaka, Mari Kannagi
Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a human retrovirus that is a causative agent of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) and mainly transmitted from an infected mother to her child via breastfeeding. Such an HTLV-1 infection during childhood is believed to be a risk factor for ATL development. Although it has been suggested that an increased proviral load (PVL), a higher titer of antibody (Ab) in the infected mother, and prolonged breastfeeding are associated with an increased risk of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT), the mechanisms underlying MTCT of HTLV-1 remain largely unknown...
February 1, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150575/oral-human-papillomavirus-infection-incidence-and-clearance-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#3
Zoe C Wood, Christopher J Bain, David D Smith, David C Whiteman, Annika Antonsson
Subclinical oral HPV infection that persists for decades is likely to precede a HPV-driven HNSCC, however little is known about the natural history of oral HPV. We systematically reviewed and abstracted data from nine manuscripts that examined HIV-negative and cancer-free subjects for oral HPV DNA to determine the pooled baseline prevalence and incidence of newly acquired oral HPV infections, and specifically for HPV-16. We also documented the clearance rate and the median time to clearance, where data existed...
February 1, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141497/characterization-of-the-bujaru-frijoles-and-tapara-antigenic-complexes-into-the-sandfly-fever-group-and-two-unclassified-phleboviruses-from-brazil
#4
Pedro F C Vasconcelos, Joaquim Pinto Nunes Neto, William Marciel de Souza, Gustavo Olszanski Acrani, Marilia Farignoli Romeiro, Marcílio Jorge Fumagalli, Carlos Luiz Vieira, Daniele Barbosa de Almeida Medeiros, Juliana Abreu de Lima, Clayton Pereira Silva de Lima, Jedson Ferreira Cardoso, Sueli Guerreiro Rodrigues, Luiz Tadeu de Moraes Figueiredo, Sandro Patroca da Silva, Robert Tesh, Márcio Roberto Teixeira Nunes, Pedro Fernando da Costa Vasconcelos
Phlebovirus genus includes the Sandfly fever viruses and tick-transmitted uukuviruses. Sandfly fever group viruses have been isolated from various vertebrate species and from phlebotomines and occasionally alternative arthropods, e.g. mosquitoes, or ceratopogonids in the genus Culicoides. Uukuniemi serogroup viruses have been isolated from various vertebrate species and from ticks. Despite the public health importance of some viruses of the genus, the genomic diversity of phleboviruses that could be incriminated as causative of human or veterinary diseases remains underestimated...
January 28, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141496/anti-melanization-mechanism-of-the-white-spot-syndrome-viral-protein-wssv453-via-interaction-with-shrimp-propo-activating-enzyme-pmproppae2
#5
Jantiwan- Sutthangkul, Piti- Amparyup, Jai Hoon Eum, Michael R Strand, Anchalee Tassanakajon
Inhibition of the host melanization reaction, activated by the prophenoloxidase activating (proPO) system, is one of the crucial evasion strategies of pathogens. Recently, the shrimp pathogen, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), was found to inhibit melanization in the shrimp, Penaeus monodon. The viral protein WSSV453 was previously shown to interact with PO-activating enzyme 2 (PmPPAE2) and reported to be involved in suppressing the shrimp melanization response after WSSV infection. Here, we characterized how WSSV453 inhibits melanization...
January 28, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141491/combination-antiretroviral-therapy-cart-and-cell-cell-spread-of-wild-type-and-drug-resistant-hiv-1
#6
Boghuma Kabisen Titanji, Deenan Pillay, Clare Jolly
HIV-1 disseminates between T cells either by cell-free infection or by highly-efficient direct cell-cell spread. The high local multiplicity that characterizes cell-cell infection causes variability in the effectiveness of antiretroviral drugs applied as single agents. Whereas Protease Inhibitors (PIs) are effective inhibitors of HIV-1 cell-cell and cell-free infection, some Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (RTIs) show reduced potency; however antiretrovirals are not administered as single agents and are clinically used as combination antiretroviral therapy (cART)...
January 28, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141490/experimental-vertical-transmission-of-covert-mortality-nodavirus-cmnv-in-exopalaemon-carinicauda
#7
Qingli Zhang, Shuang Liu, Jitao Li, Yuan Tian, Chong Wang, Xiaoping Li, Tingting Xu, Jian Li
Viral covert mortality disease (VCMD) caused serious loss of shrimp aquaculture in China in recent years and the ridgetail white prawn Exopalaemon carinicauda was suspected to be one important factor in perpetuating the high prevalence of the covert mortality nodavirus (CMNV) infections for its perennial presence in the shrimp farming ponds and water from natural habitats. Experiments were carried out to determine the possibility of vertical transmission of CMNV in E. carinicauda in this study. CMNV infection in gonad, fertilized eggs, and larvae were investigated by using the methods of reverse transcription (RT) nested PCR (nRT-PCR), in situ hybrization (ISH) and transmission electron microscope (TEM)...
January 28, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141488/protein-protein-interactions-of-the-baculovirus-per-os-infectivity-factors-in-the-pif-complex
#8
Qin Zheng, Yunwang Shen, Xiangshuo Kon, Jianjia Zhang, Min Feng, Xiaofeng Wu
After ingestion of occlusion bodies, the occlusion-derived viruses (ODVs) of baculoviruses establish the first round of infection within the larval host midgut cells. Several ODV envelope proteins, called per os infectivity factors (PIFs), have been shown to be essential for oral infection. Eight PIFs have been identified to date, including P74, PIFs1-6, and Ac110. At least six PIFs: P74, PIFs1-4, PIF6, together with three other ODV-specific proteins: Ac5, P95 (Ac83), and Ac108, have been reported to form a complex on the ODV surface...
January 28, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141486/usefulness-of-humanized-cdna-upa-scid-mice-for-the-study-of-hepatitis-b-virus-and-hepatitis-c-virus-virology
#9
Takuro Uchida, Michio Imamura, Hiromi Kan, Nobuhiko Hiraga, C Nelson Hayes, Masataka Tsuge, Hiromi Abe-Chayama, Hiroshi Aikata, Grace Naswa Makokha, Daiki Miki, Hidenori Ochi, Yuji Ishida, Chise Tateno, Kazuaki Chayama
Urokinase-type plasminogen activator-severe combined immunodeficiency (uPA/SCID) mice transplanted with human hepatocytes are permissive for hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. However, one of the problems affecting uPA transgenic mice is the expansion of mouse hepatocyte colonies due to homologous recombination of the uPA gene. In this study, we attempted to infect HBV and HCV in humanized cDNA-uPA/SCID mice, a novel uPA transgenic mouse model designed to overcome this disadvantage...
January 28, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141511/truncated-forms-of-the-pa-protein-containing-only-the-c-terminal-domains-are-associated-with-the-rnp-complex-within-h1n1-influenza-virus-particles
#10
Myint Myaing, Raihan Jumat, Tra Huong, Boon Huan Tan, Richard J Sugrue
We have examined the expression profile of the influenza virus PA protein in pH1N1/2009 virus-infected cells. Immunoblotting analysis of virus-infected MDCK cells revealed the presence of full-length PA protein from 8 hrs post-infection, together with the simultaneous appearance of PA protein species of approximately 50 kDa, 35/39 kDa and 20/25 kDa (collectively referred to as PA*). PA* was also detected in H1N1/WSN virus-infected cells indicating that its presence was not virus-specific, and PA* was also observed in virus-infected A549 and CEF cells indicating that its presence was not cell type-specific...
January 27, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141510/genetic-characterization-of-two-novel-megriviruses-in-geese
#11
Fumin Wang, Te Liang, Ning Liu, Kang Ning, Kangzhen Yu, Dabing Zhang
Two goose megriviruses (W18 and HN56) were detected and sequenced. Both viruses possessed megirivirs-like genomic features, including unusually long genomes (9840 and 10101 nt). W18 and HN56 were very similar to duck megrivirus (DMV) in the P2 and P3 regions, but much less similar in the P1 and 2A1 regions. HN56 may be a potential recombinant virus, with a distinct P1 region possibly originating from an unknown picornavirus. W18 may represent a novel type of DMV, showing a P1 sequence identity of 67%. Similar levels (64-68%) of P1 sequence identity were also displayed by Melegrivirus A (MeV-A) with W18 and DMV, demonstrating an equal genetic separation of the capsid region among W18, DMV, and MeV-A...
January 27, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141507/hcv-intragenomic-interactions-are-modulated-by-the-slvi-rna-structure-of-the-core-coding-sequence
#12
Michel Ventura, Lucie Martin, Chloé Jaubert, Marie-Line Andrèola, Cyril Masante
Several RNA interactions are thought to play a role in the regulation of the hepatitis C virus life cycle. Most of these interactions involve the 5BSL3.2 domain and therefore occur at the 3' end of the viral genomic RNA. A long-range interaction has also been described between 5BSL3.2 and the 5'UTR. Although another interaction involves the SLVI stem loop of the core coding region and the 5'UTR, this SLVI domain is absent from the subgenomic replicon and from most studies. We aim to analyze the role of this SLVI domain, which likely interferes with others interactions...
January 27, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141506/antiviral-activity-of-acid-beta-glucosidase-1-on-enterovirus-71-a-causative-agent-of-hand-foot-mouth-disease
#13
Keiko Nakata, Satoshi Takeda, Atsushi Tanaka, Jimmy Kwang, Jun Komano
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a causative agent of hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD). EV71 causes fever, rash, diarrhea, and, in some cases, acute encephalopathy/encephalitis, which can be fatal. No specific treatment is currently available for EV71 infection. Here, we conducted a cDNA library screen and identified acid β-glucosidase 1 (GBA1; also known as β-glucocerebrosidase) as an EV71 resistance factor. The anti-EV71 function of GBA1 was verified by gene transduction and knockdown experiments. Cerezyme, a molecular drug used to treat Gaucher's disease having recombinant human GBA1 as the active ingredient, protected against EV71 infection...
January 27, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113052/hdac-inhibitors-containing-a-benzamide-functional-group-and-a-pyridyl-cap-are-preferentially-effective-hiv-1-latency-reversing-agents-in-primary-resting-cd4-t-cells
#14
Yoshifumi Kobayashi, Céline Gélinas, Joseph P Dougherty
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) can control HIV-1 replication in infected individuals. Unfortunately, patients remain persistently infected owing to the establishment of latent infection requiring that ART be maintained indefinitely. One strategy being pursued involves the development of latency reversing agents (LRAs) to eliminate the latent arm of the infection. One class of molecules that has been tested for LRA activity is the epigenetic modulating compounds histone deacetylases inhibitors (HDACis). Previously, initial screening of these molecules typically commenced using established cell models of viral latency, and although certain drugs such as the HDACi SAHA demonstrated strong activity in these models, it did not translate to comparable activity with patient samples...
January 22, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113048/large-t-antigen-variants-of-human-polyomaviruses-9-and-12-and-seroreactivity-against-their-n-terminus
#15
Sarah-Verena Korup-Schulz, Claudia Lucke, Rosa Schmuck, Ugo Moens, Bernhard Ehlers
The tumor antigens (TAgs) of mammalian polyomaviruses (PyVs) are key proteins responsible for modulating the host cell cycle and involved in virus replication as well as cell transformation and tumor formation. Here we aimed at identifying mRNA sequences of known and novel TAgs encoded by the recently discovered human polyomaviruses 9 and 12 (HPyV9 and HPyV12) in cell culture. Synthetic viral genomes were transfected into human and animal cell lines. Gene expression occurred in most cell lines, as measured by qPCR of cDNA copies of mRNA encoding major structural protein VP1...
January 22, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113045/pan-substitutions-a37s-a37s-i61t-and-a37s-v63i-attenuate-the-replication-of-h7n7-influenza-a-virus-by-impairing-the-polymerase-and-endonuclease-activities
#16
Meng Hu, Shuofeng Yuan, Zi-Wei Ye, Kailash Singh, Cun Li, Huiping Shuai, Ng Fai, Billy K C Chow, Hin Chu, Bo-Jian Zheng
Substitutions in the PA N-terminus (PAN) of influenza A viruses (IAVs) are associated with viral pathogenicity. During our previous study that identified PAN-V63I and -A37S/I61T/V63I/V100A substitutions as virulence determinants, we observed a severe decrease in virus growth and transcription/replication capacity posed by PAN-A37S/V100A substitution. To further delineate the significance of substitutions at these positions, we generated mutant H7N7 viruses bearing substitutions PAN-A37S, -A37S/I61T, -A37S/V63I, -V100A, -I61T/V100A and -V63I/V100A by reverse genetics...
January 22, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113044/viral-dependence-on-cellular-ion-channels-an-emerging-anti-viral-target
#17
Samantha Hover, Becky Foster, John Barr, Jamel Mankouri
The broad range of cellular functions governed by ion channels represents an attractive target for viral manipulation. Indeed, modulation of host cell ion channel activity by viral proteins is being increasingly identified as an important virus-host interaction. Recent examples have demonstrated that virion entry, virus-egress and the maintenance of a cellular environment conducive to virus persistence are in part, dependent on virus manipulation of ion channel activity. Most excitingly, evidence has emerged that targeting ion channels pharmacologically can impede virus lifecycles...
January 22, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113043/activation-of-gga-mir-155-by-reticuloendotheliosis-virus-t-strain-and-its-contribution-to-transformation
#18
Yongxiu Yao, Deepali Vasoya, Lydia Kgosana, Lorraine Smith, Yulong Gao, Xiaomei Wang, Michael Watson, Venugopal Nair
The v-rel oncoprotein encoded by reticuloendotheliosis virus T strain (Rev-T) is a member of the rel/NF-κB family of transcription factors capable of transformation of primary chicken spleen and bone marrow cells. Rapid transformation of avian haematopoietic cells by v-rel occurs through a process of deregulation of multiple protein-encoding genes through its direct effect on their promoters. More recently, upregulation of oncogenic miR-155 and its precursor pre-miR-155 were demonstrated in Rev-T-infected chicken embryo fibroblast cultures as well as Rev-T-induced B-cell lymphomas...
January 22, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100306/diverse-novel-astroviruses-identified-in-wild-himalayan-marmots
#19
Yuanyun Ao, Jiemei Yu, Lili Li, Jingyuan Cao, Hongyan Deng, Yunyun Xin, Mengmeng Liu, Lin Lin, Shan Lu, Jianguo Xu, Zhaojun Duan
With advances in viral surveillance and next generation sequencing, highly diverse novel astroviruses (AstVs) and different animal hosts have been discovered in recent years. However, the existence of AstVs in marmots has yet to be shown. Here, we identified for the first time two highly divergent strains of AstVs, (tentatively named Qinghai Himalayana marmot AstV, HHMAstV1 and HHMAstV2), by viral metagenomic analysis in liver tissues isolated from wild Marmota himalayana in China. Overall, 12 of 99 (12.1%) M...
January 18, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100302/fecal-virome-of-healthy-chickens-reveals-a-large-diversity-of-the-eukaryote-viral-community-including-novel-circular-single-stranded-dna-viruses
#20
Diane Lima, Samuel Paulo Cibulski, Fabrine Finkler, Thais Teixeira, Ana Paula Varela, Cristine Cerva, Márcia Loiko, Camila Scheffer, Helton Dos Santos, Fabiana Mayer, Paulo Roehe
This study is focused on the identification of the fecal virome of healthy chickens raised in high-density, export-driven poultry farms in Brazil. Following high-throughput sequencing, a total of 7,743 de novo-assembled contigs were constructed and compared with known nucleotide/amino acid sequences from the GenBank database. Analyses with BLASTx revealed that 279 contigs (4%) were related to sequences of eukaryotic viruses. Viral genome sequences (total or partial) indicative of members of recognized viral families, including Adenoviridae, Caliciviridae, Circoviridae, Parvoviridae, Picobirnaviridae, Picornaviridae and Reoviridae, were identified, some of those representing novel genotypes...
January 18, 2017: Journal of General Virology
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