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Journal of General Virology

Lorena C S Chaves, Bergmann M Ribeiro, Gary W Blissard
The retroviral Gag protein is frequently used to generate 'virus-like particles' (VLPs) for a variety of applications. Retroviral Gag proteins self-assemble and bud at the plasma membrane to form enveloped VLPs that resemble natural retrovirus virions, but contain no viral genome. The baculovirus expression vector system has been used to express high levels of the retroviral Gag protein to produce VLPs. However, VLP preparations produced from baculovirus-infected insect cells typically contain relatively large concentrations of baculovirus budded virus (BV) particles, which are similar in size and density to VLPs, and thus may be difficult to separate when purifying VLPs...
January 4, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Serap Beldar, Malathy Sony Subramanian Manimekalai, Nam-Joon Cho, Kwanghee Baek, Gerhard Grüber, Ho Sup Yoon
Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) targeting the non-structural 5A (NS5A) protein of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) are crucial drugs that have shown exceptional clinical success in patients. However, their mode of action (MoA) remains unclear, and drug-resistant HCV strains are rapidly emerging. It is critical to characterize the behaviour of the NS5A protein in solution, which can facilitate the development of new classes of inhibitors or improve the efficacy of the currently available DAAs. Using biophysical methods, including dynamic light scattering, size exclusion chromatography and chemical cross-linking experiments, we showed that the NS5A domain 1 from genotypes 1b and 1a of the HCV intrinsically self-associated and existed as a heterogeneous mixture in solution...
January 4, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Sakthivel Subramaniam, Danielle M Yugo, C Lynn Heffron, Adam J Rogers, Harini Sooryanarain, Tanya LeRoith, Christopher Overend, Dianjun Cao, Xiang-Jin Meng
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) poses a serious threat to swine worldwide as evidenced by its recent introduction into the USA and the devastating economic impact it caused to the USA swine industry. Commercial vaccines against PEDV are available but their efficacies are inadequate. Therefore, vaccines with improved efficacy are needed to effectively control PEDV infections. We previously determined the immunogenicity of a novel dendritic cell (DC)-targeted PEDV S1 protein-based subunit vaccine in weaned piglets in which the PEDV antigen was targeted to DCs through a porcine Langerin-specific antibody...
January 4, 2018: Journal of General Virology
J S Evans, D Selden, G Wu, E Wright, D L Horton, A R Fooks, A C Banyard
Lyssavirus infection has a near 100 % case fatality rate following the onset of clinical disease, and current rabies vaccines confer protection against all reported phylogroup I lyssaviruses. However, there is little or no protection against more divergent lyssaviruses and so investigation into epitopes within the glycoprotein (G) that dictate a neutralizing response against divergent lyssaviruses is warranted. Importantly, the facilities required to work with these pathogens, including wild-type and mutated forms of different lyssaviruses, are scarcely available and, as such, this type of study is inherently difficult to perform...
January 4, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Yohei Kurosaki, Mahoko Takahashi Ueda, Yusuke Nakano, Jiro Yasuda, Yoshio Koyanagi, Kei Sato, So Nakagawa
Ebola virus (EBOV), which belongs to the genus Ebolavirus, causes a severe and often fatal infection in primates, including humans, whereas Reston virus (RESTV) only causes lethal disease in non-human primates. Two amino acids (aa) at positions 82 and 544 of the EBOV glycoprotein (GP) are involved in determining viral infectivity. However, it remains unclear how these two aa residues affect the infectivity of Ebolavirus species in various hosts. Here we performed viral pseudotyping experiments with EBOV and RESTV GP derivatives in 10 cell lines from 9 mammalian species...
January 4, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Jocelyne Piret, Julie Carbonneau, Chantal Rhéaume, Mariana Baz, Guy Boivin
Toll-like receptors and RNA helicases are involved in the control of RNA virus infection through production of type I interferons (IFNs). To delineate the relative contributions of these signalling pathways in the innate immune response and the control of Zika virus (ZIKV) pathogenesis, the impact of a deficiency in TRIF and/or IPS-1 adaptor proteins was investigated in mice. Mice were infected intravenously with ZIKV and monitored for clinical signs for 14 days. Groups of mice were sacrificed on days 1, 3 and 7 post-infection (p...
January 3, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Qi Su, Yang Li, Zhizhong Cui, Shuang Chang, Peng Zhao
Following artificial insemination, the egg-laying rate of a large-scale breeder chicken flock declined by10-15 %. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis detected the presence of reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) in semen from the breeder cocks used. Six REV strains were successfully isolated from semen randomly extracted from those cocks. Additionally, the whole sequence of SDAUR-S1 was sequenced and analysed. Cock models with continuous production of REV-positive semen were established by intravenous injection with SDAUR-S1...
December 19, 2017: Journal of General Virology
Said A Ghabrial, José R Castón, Robert H A Coutts, Bradley I Hillman, Daohong Jiang, Dae-Hyun Kim, Hiromitsu Moriyama, Ictv Report Consortium
The Chrysoviridae is a family of small, isometric, non-enveloped viruses (40 nm in diameter) with segmented dsRNA genomes (typically four segments). The genome segments are individually encapsidated and together comprise 11.5-12.8 kbp. The single genus Chrysovirus includes nine species. Chrysoviruses lack an extracellular phase to their life cycle; they are transmitted via intracellular routes within an individual during hyphal growth, in asexual or sexual spores, or between individuals via hyphal anastomosis...
December 18, 2017: Journal of General Virology
Diego Chouhy, Boštjan J Kocjan, Jeannette P Staheli, Elisa M Bolatti, Lea Hošnjak, Martin Sagadin, Adriana A Giri, Timothy M Rose, Mario Poljak
A modified pan-PV consensus-degenerate hybrid oligonucleotide primer (CODEHOP) PCR was developed for generic and sensitive detection of a broad-spectrum of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) infecting the cutaneous epithelium. To test the analytical sensitivity of the assay we examined 149 eyebrow hair follicle specimens from immunocompetent male patients. HPV DNA was detected in 60 % (89/149) of analysed eyebrow samples with a total of 48 different HPV sequences, representing 21 previously described HPVs and 27 putative novel HPV types...
December 15, 2017: Journal of General Virology
Maria C White, Anice C Lowen
Influenza A virus (IAV) is an RNA virus with a segmented genome. These viral properties allow for the rapid evolution of IAV under selective pressure, due to mutation occurring from error-prone replication and the exchange of gene segments within a co-infected cell, termed reassortment. Both mutation and reassortment give rise to genetic diversity, but constraints shape their impact on viral evolution: just as most mutations are deleterious, most reassortment events result in genetic incompatibilities. The phenomenon of segment mismatch encompasses both RNA- and protein-based incompatibilities between co-infecting viruses and results in the production of progeny viruses with fitness defects...
December 15, 2017: Journal of General Virology
Laura Ordeig, Damir Garcia-Cehic, Josep Gregori, Maria Eugenia Soria, Leonardo Nieto-Aponte, Celia Perales, Meritxell Llorens, Qian Chen, Mar Riveiro-Barciela, Maria Buti, Rafael Esteban, Juan Ignacio Esteban, Francisco Rodriguez-Frias, Josep Quer
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a highly divergent virus currently classified into seven major genotypes and 86 subtypes (ICTV, June 2017), which can have differing responses to therapy. Accurate genotyping/subtyping using high-resolution HCV subtyping enables confident subtype identification, identifies mixed infections and allows detection of new subtypes. During routine genotyping/subtyping, one sample from an Equatorial Guinea patient could not be classified into any of the subtypes. The complete genomic sequence was compared to reference sequences by phylogenetic and sliding window analysis...
December 14, 2017: Journal of General Virology
Joanna Zmurko, Douglas B Vasey, Claire L Donald, Alison A Armstrong, Marian L McKee, Alain Kohl, Reginald F Clayton
Ensuring the virological safety of biologicals is challenging due to the risk of viral contamination of raw materials and cell banks, and exposure during in-process handling to known and/or emerging viral pathogens. Viruses may contaminate raw materials and biologicals intended for human or veterinary use and remain undetected until appropriate testing measures are employed. The outbreak and expansive spread of the mosquito-borne flavivirus Zika virus (ZIKV) poses challenges to screening human- and animal -derived products used in the manufacture of biologicals...
December 14, 2017: Journal of General Virology
Anna Katharina Tucakov, Sabine Yavuz, Eva-Maria Schürmann, Manjula Mischler, Anne Klingebeil, Gregor Meyers
The classical swine fever virus (CSFV) represents one of the most important pathogens of swine. The CSFV glycoprotein Erns is an essential structural protein and an important virulence factor. The latter is dependent on the RNase activity of this envelope protein and, most likely, its secretion from the infected cell. A further important feature with regard to its function as a virulence factor is the formation of disulfide-linked Erns homodimers that are found in virus-infected cells and virions. Mutant CSFV lacking cysteine (Cys) 171, the residue responsible for intermolecular disulfide bond formation, were found to be attenuated in pigs (Tews BA, Schürmann EM, Meyers G...
December 13, 2017: Journal of General Virology
Astghik Hakobyan, Inmaculada Galindo, Almudena Nañez, Erik Arabyan, Zaven Karalyan, Alexey A Chistov, Philipp P Streshnev, Vladimir A Korshun, Covadonga Alonso, Hovakim Zakaryan
Rigid amphipathic fusion inhibitors (RAFIs) are a family of nucleoside derivatives that inhibit the infectivity of several enveloped viruses by interacting with virion envelope lipids and inhibiting fusion between viral and cellular membranes. Here we tested the antiviral activity of two RAFIs, 5-(Perylen-3-ylethynyl)-arabino-uridine (aUY11) and 5-(Perylen-3-ylethynyl)uracil-1-acetic acid (cm1UY11) against African swine fever virus (ASFV), for which no effective vaccine is available. Both compounds displayed a potent, dose-dependent inhibitory effect on ASFV infection in Vero cells...
December 13, 2017: Journal of General Virology
Zhubing Li, Qiang Liu
Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is a serine protease actively involved in regulating lipid homeostasis. Although PCSK9 has been shown to inhibit hepatitis C virus (HCV) entry and replication, the underlying mechanisms have not been thoroughly characterized. Moreover, whether PCSK9 regulates HCV translation and assembly/secretion has not been determined. We therefore further studied the effects of PCSK9 on the HCV life cycle. We showed that PCSK9 did not affect HCV translation or assembly/secretion...
December 13, 2017: Journal of General Virology
Xuefeng Qi, Huizhu Zhang, Tianxia Xue, Bo Yang, Meiyu Deng, Jingyu Wang
The pathogenesis of H9N2 subtype avian influenza virus (AIV) infection in hens is often related to oviduct tissue damage. Our previous study suggested that H9N2 AIV induces cellular apoptosis by activating reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and mitochondria-mediated apoptotic signalling in chicken oviduct epithelial cells (COECs). Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is an inducible enzyme that exerts protective effects against oxidative stress and activated HO-1 was recently shown to have antiviral activity. To study the potential involvement of HO-1 in H9N2 AIV proliferation, the role of its expression in H9N2-infected COECs was further investigated...
December 8, 2017: Journal of General Virology
Eeva J Vainio, Sotaro Chiba, Said A Ghabrial, Edgar Maiss, Marilyn Roossinck, Sead Sabanadzovic, Nobuhiro Suzuki, Jiatao Xie, Max Nibert, Ictv Report Consortium
The Partitiviridae is a family of small, isometric, non-enveloped viruses with bisegmented double-stranded (ds) RNA genomes of 3-4.8 kbp. The two genome segments are individually encapsidated. The family has five genera, with characteristic hosts for members of each genus: either plants or fungi for genera Alphapartitivirus and Betapartitivirus, fungi for genus Gammapartitivirus, plants for genus Deltapartitivirus and protozoa for genus Cryspovirus. Partitiviruses are transmitted intracellularly via seeds (plants), oocysts (protozoa) or hyphal anastomosis, cell division and sporogenesis (fungi); there are no known natural vectors...
December 7, 2017: Journal of General Virology
Sebastian Neuber, Karen Wagner, Martin Messerle, Eva Maria Borst
The cleavage and packaging of the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) genome is accomplished by the viral terminase, comprising pUL56 and pUL89, and the recently identified pUL51 subunit. Since knowledge about pUL51 is scarce, we aimed at identifying pUL51 domains that are important for terminase assembly. In silico analysis suggested that the N-terminal half of pUL51 is intrinsically disordered, and that α-helices are present in the C-terminal part. Linker-scanning mutagenesis of pUL51 in the context of the viral genome revealed that amino acid insertions into the predicted α-helices are not compatible with viral growth, whereas upon mutagenesis of the putatively disordered parts interaction with pUL56 and pUL89 was retained and viral progeny was produced...
December 5, 2017: Journal of General Virology
Li Xie, Baojing Lu, Zhenhua Zheng, Yuanjiu Miao, Yan Liu, Yuan Zhang, Caishang Zheng, Xianliang Ke, Qinxue Hu, Hanzhong Wang
Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) is a positive-strand RNA virus that causes hand-foot-mouth disease and neurological complications in children and infants. Although the underlying mechanisms remain to be further defined, impaired immunity is thought to play an important role. The host zinc-finger antiviral protein (ZAP), an IFN-stimulated gene product, has been reported to specifically inhibit the replication of certain viruses. However, whether ZAP restricts the infection of enteroviruses remains unknown. Here, we report that EV-A71 infection upregulates ZAP mRNA in RD and HeLa cells...
November 28, 2017: Journal of General Virology
Hui Jen Soe, Asif M Khan, Rishya Manikam, Chandramathi Samudi Raju, Paul Vanhoutte, Shamala Devi Sekaran
Plasma leakage is the main pathophysiological feature in severe dengue, resulting from altered vascular barrier function associated with an inappropriate immune response triggered upon infection. The present study investigated functional changes using an electric cell-substrate impedance sensing system in four (brain, dermal, pulmonary and retinal) human microvascular endothelial cell (MEC) lines infected with purified dengue virus, followed by assessment of cytokine profiles and the expression of inter-endothelial junctional proteins...
November 24, 2017: Journal of General Virology
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