Read by QxMD icon Read

Chemistry and Physics of Lipids

Ali Reza Fardin-Kia
Non-conjugated geometric/positional isomers of linoleic acid (c9,c12-18:2) are often present in processed foods and oils. The following work presents a simple addition/elimination reaction for preparation of non-conjugated 18:2 fatty acid isomers. A mixture containing positional and geometric isomers of C18:2 fatty acids was produced by addition of hydrobromic acid to the fatty acid double bonds, followed by its elimination with a strong sterically hindered base. Pure 8,12-, 8,13-, 9,12-, and 9,13-18:2 fatty acid methyl esters were isolated from the synthetic mixture by a combination of sub-ambient RP-HPLC and Ag(+)-HPLC...
October 18, 2016: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
Ahmad Arouri, Kira E Lauritsen, Henriette L Nielsen, Ole G Mouritsen
Because of the amphipathicity and conical molecular shape of fatty acids, they can efficiently incorporate into lipid membranes and disturb membrane integrity, chain packing, and lateral pressure profile. These phenomena affect both model membranes as well as biological membranes. We investigated the feasibility of exploiting fatty acids as permeability enhancers in drug delivery systems for enhancing drug release from liposomal carriers and drug uptake by target cells. Saturated fatty acids, with acyl chain length from C8 to C20, were tested using model drug delivery liposomes of 1,2- dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) and the breast cancer MCF-7 cell line as a model cell...
October 7, 2016: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
Takayuki Furukawa, Hirotoshi Fuda, Satoshi Miyanaga, Chinatsu Watanabe, Hitoshi Chiba, Shu-Ping Hui
Even though lysophospholipids have attracted much interest in recent years on account of their unique bioactivity, research related to lysophospholipids is usually hampered by problems associated with standard sample preparation and discrimination of regioisomers. Herein, we demonstrate a quick tin-chemistry-based synthetic route to lysophosphatidylethanolamines (LPEs) and its application in the positional analysis of hepatic LPEs in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) model mice. We found that the preference of hepatic LPE regioisomer largely depends on the unsaturation of acyl chain in both control and NASH model mice...
October 1, 2016: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
Sandeep Kumar, Gaurav Bhanjana, Arvind Kumar, Kapila Taneja, Neeraj Dilbaghi, Ki-Hyun Kim
The use of nanocarriers to enhance drug delivery efficacy has been increasing in the healthcare field due to their tunable surface properties. In this study, ceftriaxone-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (CL-SLNPs) were synthesized using a water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) type double emulsification method. The formulation was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) and was characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), and UV-vis and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy...
September 30, 2016: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
Dasaratha Sethy, Hirak Chakraborty
The interfacial properties of the membrane are exceptionally vital in drug-membrane interaction. They not only select out a particular prototropic form of the drug molecule for incorporation, but are also potent enough to induce structural switchover of these drugs in several cases. In this work, we quantitatively monitored the change in dipolar rearrangement of the micellar interface (as a simplified membrane mimic) by measuring the dielectric constant and dipole potential with the micellization of SDS at pH 3...
September 25, 2016: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
Luisa Giansanti, Alessandro Mauceri, Luciano Galantini, Barbara Altieri, Antonella Piozzi, Giovanna Mancini
The inclusion of pH-sensitive components in liposome formulations can allow a more controlled and efficient release in response to low pH typical of some pathological tissues and/or subcellular compartments. On the other hand decorating the surface of liposomes with sugar moieties attributes to lipid vesicles specificity toward lectins, sugar-binding proteins overexpressed in many tumor tissues. A novel multifunctional pH-sensitive glucosylated amphiphile was synthesized and characterized as pure aggregate component and in mixtures with a natural phospholipid...
September 4, 2016: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
Massimo Aureli, Domitilla Schiumarini, Nicoletta Loberto, Rosaria Bassi, Anna Tamanini, Giulia Mancini, Matteo Tironi, Silvia Munari, Giulio Cabrini, Maria Cristina Dechecchi, Sandro Sonnino
Cystic fibrosis (CF), one of the most common lethal hereditary diseases of white European populations, is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the CF Transmembrane conductance Regulator (CFTR) gene. One of the main causes of mortality is the onset of CF lung disease, which is characterized by chronic infection and inflammation resulting in the progressive remodelling, irreversible damage and fibrosis of the airways. An increasing number of studies indicate that sphingolipids are crucial players in pulmonary manifestations of CF, even if their direct involvement in CF lung disease is still unclear...
August 31, 2016: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
Mariza Gomes Reis, Rodrigo Bibiloni, Paul McJarrow, Alastair MacGibbon, Bertram Fong, Shalome Bassett, Nicole Roy, Marlon Martins Dos Reis
The most abundant ganglioside group in both human milk and bovine milk during the first postnatal week is ganglioside GD3. This group of disialogangliosides forms up to 80% of the total ganglioside content of colostrum. Although dietary gangliosides have shown biological activity such as improvement of cognitive development, gastrointestinal health, and immune function, there is still a gap in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms governing its uptake and the metabolic processes affecting its bioavailability...
August 31, 2016: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
Manuela Petaccia, Luisa Giansanti, Francesca Leonelli, Angela La Bella, Denise Gradella Villalva, Giovanna Mancini
The aggregation properties of a new cationic fluorescent amphiphile tagged on the hydrophobic tail with a pyrene moiety and bearing two hydroxyethyl functionalities on the polar headgroup were investigated by fluorescence experiments as pure components or in mixed liposomes containing an unsaturated phospholipid, 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, at different molar ratios. The obtained results put in evidence that the conformation and the miscibility of the lipids in the aggregates strongly influence the excimer/monomer ratio...
August 10, 2016: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
Richard M Epand, Amitabha Chattopadhyay
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
Richard M Epand, Diana Bach, Ellen Wachtel
Cholesterol has limited solubility in phospholipid bilayers. The solubility limit is strongly dependent on the nature of the lipid with which the cholesterol is mixed while properties of the crystals formed can be modified by phospholipid-cholesterol interactions. In this review we summarize the various methods that have been developed to prepare hydrated mixtures of cholesterol and phospholipid. We point out some of the factors that determine the form adopted when cholesterol crystallizes in such mixtures, i...
September 2016: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
Arlene Albert, Desiree Alexander, Kathleen Boesze-Battaglia
The rod outer segment (ROS) of retinal photoreceptor cells consists of disk membranes surrounded by the plasma membrane. It is a relatively uncomplicated system in which to investigate cholesterol distribution and its functional consequences in biologically relevant membranes. The light sensitive protein, rhodopsin is the major protein in both membranes, but the lipid compositions are significantly different in the disk and plasma membranes. Cholesterol is high in the ROS plasma membrane. Disk membranes are synthesized at the base of the ROS and are also high in cholesterol...
September 2016: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
Sung-Tae Yang, Alex J B Kreutzberger, Jinwoo Lee, Volker Kiessling, Lukas K Tamm
Cholesterol modulates the bilayer structure of biological membranes in multiple ways. It changes the fluidity, thickness, compressibility, water penetration and intrinsic curvature of lipid bilayers. In multi-component lipid mixtures, cholesterol induces phase separations, partitions selectively between different coexisting lipid phases, and causes integral membrane proteins to respond by changing conformation or redistribution in the membrane. But, which of these often overlapping properties are important for membrane fusion?-Here we review a range of recent experiments that elucidate the multiple roles that cholesterol plays in SNARE-mediated and viral envelope glycoprotein-mediated membrane fusion...
September 2016: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
Trivikram R Molugu, Michael F Brown
Applications of solid-state NMR spectroscopy for investigating the influences of lipid-cholesterol interactions on membrane fluctuations are reviewed in this paper. Emphasis is placed on understanding the energy landscapes and fluctuations at an emergent atomistic level. Solid-state (2)H NMR spectroscopy directly measures residual quadrupolar couplings (RQCs) due to individual C-(2)H labeled segments of the lipid molecules. Moreover, residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) of (13)C-(1)H bonds are obtained in separated local-field NMR spectroscopy...
September 2016: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
C Roger White, Samantha Giordano, G M Anantharamaiah
Ischemic injury is associated with acute myocardial infarction, percutaneous coronary intervention, coronary artery bypass grafting and open heart surgery. The timely re-establishment of blood flow is critical in order to minimize cardiac complications. Reperfusion after a prolonged ischemic period, however, can induce severe cardiomyocyte dysfunction with mitochondria serving as a major target of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. An increase in the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induces damage to mitochondrial respiratory complexes leading to uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation...
September 2016: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
Aritz B García-Arribas, Alicia Alonso, Felix M Goñi
Sphingolipids contain in their polar heads chemical groups allowing them to establish a complex network of H-bonds (through different OH and NHgroups) with other lipids in the bilayer. In the recent years the specific interaction of sphingomyelin (SM) with cholesterol (Chol) has been examined, largely in the context of the "lipid raft" hypothesis. Formation of SM-Ceramide (Cer) complexes, proposed to exist in cell membranes in response to stress, has also been described. More recently, a delicate balance of phase formation and transformation in ternary mixtures of SM, Chol and Cer, with mutual displacement of Chol and Cer from their interaction with SM is considered to exist...
September 2016: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
Gerald Gimpl
G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) form the largest receptor superfamily in eukaryotic cells. Owing to their seven transmembrane helices, large parts of these proteins are embedded in the cholesterol-rich plasma membrane bilayer. Thus, GPCRs are always in proximity to cholesterol. Some of them are functionally dependent on the specific presence of cholesterol. Over the last years, enormous progress on receptor structures has been achieved. While lipophilic ligands other than cholesterol have been shown to bind either inside the helix bundle or at the receptor-lipid interface, the binding site of cholesterol was either a single transmembrane helix or a groove between two or more transmembrane helices...
September 2016: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
Drew Marquardt, Norbert Kučerka, Stephen R Wassall, Thad A Harroun, John Katsaras
It is well known that cholesterol modifies the physical properties of lipid bilayers. For example, the much studied liquid-ordered Lo phase contains rapidly diffusing lipids with their acyl chains in the all trans configuration, similar to gel phase bilayers. Moreover, the Lo phase is commonly associated with cholesterol-enriched lipid rafts, which are thought to serve as platforms for signaling proteins in the plasma membrane. Cholesterol's location in lipid bilayers has been studied extensively, and it has been shown - at least in some bilayers - to align differently from its canonical upright orientation, where its hydroxyl group is in the vicinity of the lipid-water interface...
September 2016: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
Daniel Wüstner, Maciej Modzel, Frederik W Lund, Michael A Lomholt
Cholesterol is an important lipid component of the plasma membrane (PM) of mammalian cells, where it is involved in control of many physiological processes, such as endocytosis, cell migration, cell signalling and surface ruffling. In an attempt to explain these functions of cholesterol, several models have been put forward about cholesterol's lateral and transbilayer organization in the PM. In this article, we review imaging techniques developed over the last two decades for assessing the distribution and dynamics of cholesterol in the PM of mammalian cells...
September 2016: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
Vicky Howe, Laura J Sharpe, Stephanie J Alexopoulos, Sarah V Kunze, Ngee Kiat Chua, Dianfan Li, Andrew J Brown
Cholesterol is vital in mammals, but toxic in excess. Consequently, elaborate molecular mechanisms have evolved to maintain this sterol within narrow limits. How cells sense excess cholesterol is an intriguing area of research. Cells sense cholesterol, and other related sterols such as oxysterols or cholesterol synthesis intermediates, and respond to changing levels through several elegant mechanisms of feedback regulation. Cholesterol sensing involves both direct binding of sterols to the homeostatic machinery located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and indirect effects elicited by sterol-dependent alteration of the physical properties of membranes...
September 2016: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"