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Chemistry and Physics of Lipids

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648851/the-influence-of-mild-acidity-on-lysyl-phosphatidylglycerol-biosynthesis-and-lipid-membrane-physico-chemical-properties-in-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#1
Reg P Rehal, Helene Marbach, Alasdair T M Hubbard, Anam A Sacranie, Federica Sebastiani, Giovanna Fragneto, Richard D Harvey
The increased biosynthesis of lysyl-phosphatidylglycerol in Staphylococcus aureus when cultured under conditions of mild acidity and the resultant increased proportion of this lipid in the plasma membrane of the bacterium, alters the physico-chemical properties of lipid bilayers in a manner which is itself dependent upon environmental pH. Clinically relevant strains of S. aureus, both methicillin susceptible and resistant, all exhibited increased lysyl-phosphatidylglycerol biosynthesis in response to mild environmental acidity, albeit to differing degrees, from ∼30% to ∼55% total phospholipid...
June 22, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647339/the-effects-of-amoxicillin-and-vancomycin-on-parameters-reflecting-cholesterol-metabolism
#2
S Baumgartner, D Reijnders, M C J M Konings, A K Groen, D Lütjohann, G H Goossens, E E Blaak, J Plat
BACKGROUND: Changes in the microbiota composition have been implicated in the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes. However, not much is known on the involvement of gut microbiota in lipid and cholesterol metabolism. In addition, the gut microbiota might also be a potential source of plasma oxyphytosterol and oxycholesterol concentrations (oxidation products of plant sterols and cholesterol). Therefore, the aim of this study was to modulate the gut microbiota by antibiotic therapy to investigate effects on parameters reflecting cholesterol metabolism and oxyphytosterol concentrations...
June 21, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629973/%C3%AE-eleostearic-acid-containing-triglycerides-for-a-continuous-assay-to-determine-lipase-sn-1-and-sn-3-regio-preference
#3
Meddy El Alaoui, Laurent Soulère, Alexandre Noiriel, Yves Queneau, Abdelkarim Abousalham
Lipases are essentially described as sn-1 and sn-3 regio-selective. Actually few methods are available to measure this lipase regio-selectivity, moreover they require chiral chromatography analysis or specific derivations which are discontinuous and time consuming. In this study we describe a new, convenient, sensitive and continuous spectrophotometric method to screen lipases regio-selectivity using synthetic triglycerides (TG) containing α-eleostearic acid (9Z, 11E, 13E-octadecatrienoic acid) either at the sn-1 position [1-α-eleostearoyl-2,3-octadecyl-sn-glycerol (sn-EOO)] or at the sn-3 position [1,2-octadecyl-3-α-eleostearoyl-sn-glycerol (sn-OOE)] and coated onto the wells of microtiter plates...
June 16, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624308/efficient-heterologous-expression-functional-characterization-and-molecular-modeling-of-annular-seabream-digestive-phospholipase-a2
#4
Nabil Smichi, Houcemeddine Othman, Neila Achouri, Alexandre Noiriel, Soumaya Triki, Vincent Arondel, Najet Srairi-Abid, Abdelkarim Abousalham, Youssef Gargouri, Nabil Miled, Ahmed Fendri
Here we report the cDNA cloning of a phospholipase A2 (PLA2) from five Sparidae species. The deduced amino acid sequences show high similarity with pancreatic PLA2. In addition, a phylogenetic tree derived from alignment of various available sequences revealed that Sparidae PLA2 are closer to avian PLA2 group IB than to mammals' ones. In order to understand the structure-function relationships of these enzymes, we report here the recombinant expression in E.coli, the refolding and characterization of His-tagged annular seabream PLA2 (AsPLA2)...
June 14, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606714/effect-of-physical-exercise-on-brain-and-lipid-metabolism-in-mouse-models-of-multiple-sclerosis
#5
REVIEW
Léo Houdebine, Cristina Anna Gallelli, Marialetizia Rastelli, Nirmal Kumar Sampathkumar, Julien Grenier
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a central nervous demyelinating disease characterized by cyclic loss and repair of myelin sheaths associated with chronic inflammation and neuronal loss. This degenerative pathology is accompanied by modified levels of oxysterols (oxidative derivatives of cholesterol, implicated in cholesterol metabolism), highlighted in the brain, blood and cerebrospinal fluid of MS patients. The pathological accumulation of such derivatives is thought to participate in the onset and progression of the disease through their implication in inflammation, oxidative stress, demyelination and neurodegeneration...
June 9, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599978/25-hydroxycholesterol-induces-both-p2x7-dependent-pyroptosis-and-caspase-dependent-apoptosis-in-human-skin-model-new-insights-into-degenerative-pathways
#6
Elodie Olivier, Mélody Dutot, Anne Regazzetti, Olivier Laprevote, Patrice Rat
Degenerative diseases are characterized by both cell death and inflammation, which involve different pathways such as apoptosis and pyroptosis. Oxysterols, oxidized derivatives of cholesterol, are known to act as key actors in degenerative disorders such as skin photoaging. We hypothesize that oxysterols could be implicated in either apoptosis or pyroptosis, or both. The aim of our study was first to quantify oxysterol levels in keratinocytes as a function of aging and UV irradiation. Second, we evaluated the effects of 25-OH oxysterol on apoptosis and pyroptosis hallmarks in keratinocytes...
June 6, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596068/meaning-of-activation-energy-in-phospholipid-multibilayers-phase-transitions
#7
K Lonhus, L Budianska, L Lisetski
The question of the activation energy of phase transitions in lyotropic liquid crystal phases of model phospholipid membranes was considered. In our experiments, we obtained DSC thermograms of hydrated DPPC and DMPC at different scanning rates, and activation energy values were determined by a modification of Kissinger non-isothermal kinetics method. Using this approach the equivalent order of reaction corresponding to the phase transition can be determined alongside the activation energy. The cooperativity of both main transition and pre-transition was shown to be strongly dependent on scanning rate, asymptotically tending to a certain value at high rates, which corresponds to the number of lipid molecules in two concentric layers of hexagonal tiling...
June 6, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587764/toxicity-of-phenolipids-protocatechuic-acid-alkyl-esters-trigger-disruption-of-mitochondrial-membrane-potential-and-caspase-activation-in-macrophages
#8
David M Pereira, Tânia C Silva, Sónia Losada-Barreiro, Patrícia Valentão, Fátima Paiva-Martins, Paula B Andrade
Phenolipids are a class of phenolic compounds with a lipidic moiety that have been receiving increasing attention due to their promising biological activities; however data regarding their toxicity and mechanism of action are scarce. A series of 11 phenolipids consisting of alkyl esters derivatives of the natural molecule protocatechuic acid was synthesized and evaluated against a panel of cancer and non-cancer cell lines. The macrophage cell line RAW 264.7, widely used as a tool for screening anti-inflammatory drugs, was more susceptible to the toxicity of these molecules than human cancer cells, reason for which mechanist studies were conducted...
June 3, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583433/non-aqueous-capillary-electrophoretic-separation-of-cholesterol-and-25-hydroxycholesterol-after-derivatization-with-girard-p-reagent
#9
Michal Gregus, Hanne Roberg-Larsen, Elsa Lundanes, Frantisek Foret, Petr Kuban, Steven Ray Wilson
Capillary electrophoresis (CE) can provide high separation efficiency with very simple instrumentation, but has yet to be explored regarding oxysterols/cholesterol. Cholesterol and 25-hydroxycholesterol (both are 4-ene-3-ketosteroids) were quantitatively transformed into hydrazones using Girard P reagent after enzymatic oxidation by cholesterol oxidase. Separation was achieved using non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis with UV detection at 280nm; the "charge-tagging" Girard P reagent ensured both charge and chromophore (which are requirements for CE-UV)...
June 3, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583434/27-hydroxycholesterol-a-novel-player-in-molecular-carcinogenesis-of-breast-and-prostate-cancer
#10
REVIEW
Gurdeep Marwarha, Shaneabbas Raza, Kimberly Hammer, Othman Ghribi
Several studies have suggested an etiological role for hypercholesterolemia in the pathogenesis of breast cancer and prostate cancer (PCa). However, the molecular mechanisms that underlie and mediate the hypercholesterolemia-fostered increased risk for breast cancer and PCa are yet to be determined. The discovery that the most abundant cholesterol oxidized metabolite in the plasma, 27 hydroxycholesterol (27-OHC), is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) and an agonist of Liver X receptors (LXR) partially fills the void in our understanding and knowledge of the mechanisms that may link hypercholesterolemia to development and progression of breast cancer and PCa...
June 2, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579420/dynamic-processes-in-biological-membrane-mimics-revealed-by-quasielastic-neutron-scattering
#11
REVIEW
Lisa Lautner, Kristyna Pluhackova, Nicolai K H Barth, Tilo Seydel, Wiebke Lohstroh, Rainer A Böckmann, Tobias Unruh
Neutron scattering is a powerful tool to study relaxation processes in biological membrane mimics in space and time. Combining different inelastic and quasielastic neutron scattering techniques, a large dynamic range can be covered: from atomic to mesoscopic lengths and from femto- to some hundreds of nanoseconds in time. This allows studies on e.g. the diffusion of lipids, the membrane undulation motions, the dispersion of sound waves in membranes as well as the mutual interactions of membrane constituents such as lipids, proteins, and additives...
June 1, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576384/interaction-of-triterpenoids-with-human-serum-albumin-a-review
#12
REVIEW
Rola Abboud, Catherine Charcosset, Hélène Greige-Gerges
Triterpenoids are a large group of natural and synthetic products. This review deals with the current state of knowledge on their interaction with serum albumin. The binding of drugs to albumin may control their distribution in tissues. In literature, different techniques were used to investigate the albumin-triterpenoid interaction and include fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, circular dichroism, calorimetric techniques and molecular modeling. Changes in fluorescence intensity of albumin were observed upon triterpenoid-albumin complex formation...
May 30, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576383/cholesterol-metabolism-and-glaucoma-modulation-of-muller-cell-membrane-organization-by-24s-hydroxycholesterol
#13
Ségolène Gambert, Pierre-Henry Gabrielle, Elodie Masson, Elise Leger-Charnay, Arthur Ferrerro, Arthur Vannier, Clément Gendrault, Méline Lachot, Catherine Creuzot-Garcher, Alain Bron, Stéphane Gregoire, Laurent Leclere, Lucy Martine, Géraldine Lucchi, Caroline Truntzer, Delphine Pecqueur, Lionel Bretillon
Glaucoma is a progressive and irreversible blinding neuropathy that is characterized by the loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Muller Glial Cell (MGC) activation is induced in retinal gliosis. MGCs are the most numerous glial cells in the retina and one of their roles is to sustain cholesterol homeostasis. 24S-hydroxycholesterol (24S-OHC) is one of the form of cholesterol elimination from the retina and is overexpressed during glaucoma. The objective of this study was to determine whether 24S-OHC triggers MGC membrane dynamics involving lipid rafts and contributes to gliosis at early and late time points...
May 30, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571787/probing-topology-and-dynamics-of-the-second-transmembrane-domain-m2%C3%AE-of-the-acetyl-choline-receptor-using-magnetically-aligned-lipid-bilayers-bicelles-and-epr-spectroscopy
#14
Indra D Sahu, Daniel J Mayo, Nidhi Subbaraman, Johnson J Inbaraj, Robert M McCarrick, Gary A Lorigan
Characterizing membrane protein structure and dynamics in the lipid bilayer membrane is very important but experimentally challenging. EPR spectroscopy offers a unique set of techniques to investigate a membrane protein structure, dynamics, topology, and distance constraints in lipid bilayers. Previously our lab demonstrated the use of magnetically aligned phospholipid bilayers (bicelles) for probing topology and dynamics of the membrane peptide M2δ of the acetyl choline receptor (AchR) as a proof of concept...
May 29, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571786/biodegradation-of-7-ketocholesterol-by-rhodococcus-erythropolis-mtcc-3951-process-optimization-and-enzymatic-insights
#15
Shubhrima Ghosh, S K Khare
The oxidation of cholesterol results in the formation of oxysterols such as 7-ketocholesterol(7KC), which are implicated in a number of age-related disorders such as atherosclerosis, Alzheimers' disease and macular degeneration. Current modalities use antioxidants and other natural or synthetic molecules to reduce 7KC-induced cytotoxity. The alternative application of enzymes from microbial sources to degrade oxysterols in vitro and in vivo is an innovative approach. The present study aims to assess the potential of the bacteria Rhodococcus erythropolis MTCC 3951 in degrading 7KC and mining relevant enzymes involved...
May 29, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554594/improvement-of-5-6%C3%AE-epoxycholesterol-5-6%C3%AE-epoxycholesterol-cholestane-3%C3%AE-5%C3%AE-6%C3%AE-triol-and-6-oxo-cholestan-3%C3%AE-5%C3%AE-diol-recovery-for-quantification-by-gc-ms
#16
Regis Soules, Emmanuel Noguer, Luigi Iuliano, Chiara Zerbinati, Julie Leignadier, Arnaud Rives, Philippe de Medina, Sandrine Silvente-Poirot, Marc Poirot
5,6α-epoxycholesterol (5,6α-EC) and 5,6β-epoxycholesterol (5,6β-EC) are oxysterols involved in the anticancer pharmacology of the widely used antitumor drug tamoxifen. They are both metabolized into cholestane-3β,5α,6β-triol (CT) by the cholesterol-5,6-epoxide hydrolase (ChEH) enzyme, and CT is metabolized by an as-yet uncharacterized enzyme into 6-oxo-cholestan-3β,5α-diol (OCDO). A recent feasibility study showed that the 5,6-ECs may represent surrogate markers of tamoxifen activity in breast cancer patients undergoing endocrine therapy, thus there is a growing interest in their accurate quantification...
May 26, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539223/dietary-effects-of-raphanus-sativus-cv-sango-on-lipid-and-oxysterols-accumulation-in-rat-brain-a-lipidomic-study-on-a-non-genetic-obesity-model
#17
V Cardenia, F Vivarelli, S Cirillo, M Paolini, Maria Teresa Rodriguez-Estrada, Donatella Canistro
The present study aimed to evaluate the impact of Raphanus sativus cv Sango sprout juice (SSJ) administration (75mg/kg b.w. SSJ/day) on the brain lipidomic profile (fatty acid, sterols, cholesterol oxidation) of rats (non-genetic model) subjected to a high-fat (34% crude fat) dietary regimen. The SSJ did not affect the lipid infiltration (7.7-9.3%) and the fatty acid composition of the rat brain, which was mainly composed by unsaturated fatty acids (∼58%); however, the high-fat diet regimen significantly halved linoleic acid (LA)...
May 21, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533146/bioactive-lipids-derived-from-arachidonic-acid-metabolism-in-different-types-of-renal-replacement-therapy
#18
Joanna Stępniewska, Barbara Dołęgowska, Kamila Puchałowicz, Edyta Gołembiewska, Kazimierz Ciechanowski
INTRODUCTION: Metabolism and plasma concentration of lipids and lipid-derived compounds play an important role in kidney physiology and pathological processes. The component of membrane phospholipids - arachidonic acid (AA) and its active derivatives - eicosanoids are involved in the development of hypertension, diabetes, inflammation and may contribute to progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The purpose of the study was to determine, whether the type of renal replacement therapy has an effect on eicosanoids metabolism...
May 19, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533145/effects-of-hydroxy-xanthones-on-dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine-lipid-bilayers-a-theoretical-and-experimental-study
#19
M B Sierra, L Alarcón, D Gerbino, V I Pedroni, F E Buffo, M A Morini
Xanthones and derivatives are natural active compounds whose interest has been increased due to its several pharmacological effects. In this work, effects of hydroxy-xanthones on the physicochemical properties of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) liposomes have been investigated in terms of lipid bilayer fluidity, by means of molecular dynamics simulations and temperature dependence of zeta potential studies. Experimental results predict, in good agreement with simulations, that xanthones are able to be incorporated into DPPC liposomes with certain localization, fluidizing the bilayer...
May 19, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528274/angiopoietin-like-8-angptl8-controls-adipocyte-lipolysis-and-phospholipid-composition
#20
Raghavendra Mysore, Gerhard Liebisch, You Zhou, Vesa M Olkkonen, P A Nidhina Haridas
Angiopoietin-like 8 (Angptl8) inhibits lipolysis in the circulation together with Angplt3 and controls post-prandial fat storage in white adipose tissue (WAT). It is strongly induced by insulin in vivo in WAT and in vitro in adipocytes. In this study we addressed the function of Angptl8 in adipocytes by its stable lentivirus-mediated knock-down in 3T3-L1 cells, followed by analyses of triglyceride (TG) storage, lipid droplet (LD) morphology, the cellular lipidome, lipolysis, and gene expression. Depletion of Angptl8 did not drastically affect the adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells but resulted in a moderate (18-19%) reduction of stored TGs...
May 18, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
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