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Chemistry and Physics of Lipids

Shiva Emami, Sodeif Azadmard-Damirchi, Seyed Hadi Peighambardoust, Javad Hesari, Hadi Valizadeh, Roland Faller
An atomic-level molecular dynamics simulation was carried out to study the effects of a plant sterol (sitosterol) and glucosylceramide (GlcCer) on a 1,2-dilinoleoylposphocholine (DLiPC) membrane. Initially, a membrane containing 50mol % sitosterol was compared with that containing the same ratio of cholesterol. These simulations showed differential condensing and ordering effects of sitosterol and cholesterol, with cholesterol being slightly more efficient than sitosterol in packing the membrane more tightly to a liquid ordered phase...
January 11, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
Nora Slekiene, Lina Ramanauskaite, Valentinas Snitka
In this work surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) has been used for the investigation of the self-assembled layers of lipid molecules (SALLMs) deposited on the nanostructured Au and Ag surfaces. The SALLMs were prepared from one part of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-l-serine (DOPS) and four parts of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) lipids. The synthesis of Au and Ag SERS substrates was based on the direct gold and silver ions reduction onto HF etched silicon wafers. Au SERS substrates were not suitable for the formation of SALLMs because of the inappropriate contact angle of surface...
January 6, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
Kathrin M Engel, Jürgen Schiller
Oxidized (phospho)lipids are of paramount interest for different reasons: besides their in vivo relevance as markers of inflammatory diseases, they are often needed in the laboratory to study the response of selected cells to oxidized lipids. Mass spectrometry (MS) is nowadays one of the most powerful methods to identify lipid oxidation products. Although MALDI and ESI MS are both widely used, it is so far not clear whether all potential phospholipid oxidation products can be detected by both methods This aspect will be studied here using NaMnO4-oxidized phosphatidylcholine 16:0/18:1 and 16:0/18:2 as simple, but reliable model systems...
January 4, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
Hiroshi Nishimura, Daisuke Yamaguchi, Takashi Watanabe
Ceriporiopsis subvermispora is a selective white-rot fungus that degrades lignin at a site far from the hyphae and extracellular enzymes, without intensive damage to the cellulose. In selective ligninolysis, low molecular mass metabolites play a principal role and amphipathic substances are involved to control the degradation and transport of hydrophobic aromatic molecules, including lignin and lipids; however, secretion of the amphipathic substances by this fungus has not been well understood, except for alk(en)yl itaconates called ceriporic acids, which have a weak amphiphilicity...
January 3, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
M Ahumada, C Calderon, E Lissi, C Alvarez, M E Lanio
The osmotic condition modulates the properties of liposomes, particularly those related to their stability and response to external agents such as membrane-active proteins or peptides. In a previous work, we have demonstrated that an osmotic shock can increase, per se, water influx/efflux and the exit of the fluorophore calcein entrapped in the aqueous pool of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and DPPC:sphingomyelin (SM) large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs), suggesting a loss of integrity of the liposome bilayer...
December 31, 2016: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
Kamila Riedlová, Michaela Nekardová, Petr Kačer, Kamila Syslová, Mario Vazdar, Pavel Jungwirth, Eva Kudová, Lukasz Cwiklik
Interactions of two neurosteroids, inhibiting membrane-bound N-Methyl-d-aspartate receptors, with phospholipid membranes are studied. Namely, endogenous pregnanolone sulfate is compared with pregnanolone glutamate, the latter being a novel synthetic steroidal inhibitor of these receptors with potential pharmaceutical use. Molecular-level details of steroid-phospholipid membranes interactions are scrutinized employing molecular dynamics simulations supported by quantum chemical calculations to assess steroid lipophilicity...
December 30, 2016: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
Kervin O Evans, David L Compton
Hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol phospholipids were enzymatically synthesized and investigated for their bilayer properties. Dynamic light scattering demonstrated that hand extrusion at 100nm consistently resulted in liposomes of nearly 85nm diameter for both phosphatidyl-hydroxytyrosol (DOPHT) and phosphatidyl-tyrosol (DOPT). Transmission electron microscopy showed DOPT and DOPHT liposomes extruded at 100-nm to be spherical and non-distinctive from one another. Zeta potential measurements resulted in surface charges<-25mV, demonstrating both DOPT and DOPHT form highly stable liposomes...
December 14, 2016: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
A Valiūnienė, T Petrulionienė, I Balevičiūtė, L Mikoliūnaitė, G Valinčius
Phospholipid bilayer membranes are essential elements of living organisms as they form boundaries between the intracellular cytoplasm and the extracellular environment, as well as organelles. In this work we report on our attempts to assemble artificial phospholipid bilayer model membranes on Ti surface. To provide hydrophobic cushion for phospholipids, the surface of a thin-film Ti electrode was initially functionalized with trichloro(octadecyl)silane (OTS). Increased hydrophobicity of the solid support allowed vesicle fusion and the formation of a hybrid 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) bilayer, as probed by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), contact angle measurements (CA) also by the Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) and atomic force microscopy (AFM)...
December 10, 2016: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
Mathilde S Piel, Günther H J Peters, Jesper Brask
Phospholipases are ubiquitous in nature and the target of significant research aiming at both their physiological roles and technical applications in e.g. the food industry. In the search for sensitive and selective phospholipase assays, we have focused on synthetic FRET (Förster resonance energy transfer) substrates. This has led to the development of a facile, easily scalable and low cost synthesis of fluorogenic phospholipids featuring the dansyl/dabcyl fluorophore/quencher-pair on the fatty acid ω-position and on the phosphatidylethanolamine head group, respectively...
December 10, 2016: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
Rongfu Zhang, Indra D Sahu, Avnika P Bali, Carole Dabney-Smith, Gary A Lorigan
A recently developed membrane mimetic system called styrene maleic acid lipid particles (SMALPs) or lipodisq nanoparticles has shown to possess significant potential for biophysical studies of membrane proteins. This new nanoparticle system is composed of lipids encircled by SMA copolymers. Previous studies showed that SMA copolymers are capable of extracting membrane proteins directly from their native environments without the assistance of detergents. However, a full structural characterization of this promising membrane mimetic system is still lacking...
December 9, 2016: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
Bruno Mattei, Rafael B Lira, Katia R Perez, Karin A Riske
Detergents are widely used to solubilize and separate biomembrane components. It is therefore relevant to study and understand the mechanistic details underlying detergent-lipid interactions using biomimetic systems. Here, we have investigated in detail the process of membrane permeabilization and the nature of pores induced by sub-solubilizing concentrations of the detergent Triton X-100 (TX-100) in bilayers composed of palmitoyl oleoyl phosphatidylcholine (POPC), sphingomyelin (SM) and binary mixtures of these phospholipids with 30 mol% cholesterol (chol)...
November 29, 2016: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
Viacheslav G Rybin, Andrey B Imbs, Darja A Demidkova, Ekaterina V Ermolenko
Monoalkyldiacylglycerol (MADAG) is an important lipid class in mollusks, corals, starfishes, and some species of zooplankton. Up to 80% of liver oils of squids and sharks are comprised of MADAG. Except for one fish species, there are no data on the composition of MADAG molecular species of marine organisms. The molecular species of MADAG obtained from digestive glands of the deep-sea squid Berryteuthis magister were identified. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and tandem high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) were applied...
November 25, 2016: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
Tibor Hianik, Christer L Øpstad, Jana Šandorová, Zuzana Garaiová, Vassilia Partali, Hans-Richard Sliwka
We studied the surface properties of monolayers composed of polyunsaturated conjugated ethylene glycol phospholipids (carotenoid lipids), compared the data with monolayers of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) to which carotenoids were added and evaluated the impact of the unsaturated glycol lipids on monolayers with the glycerolipid DPPC. The carotenoid based glycol lipids formed monolayers at the air/water interface. Using the Langmuir method we obtained series of pressure-area (π-A) isotherms and determined the limiting area A per molecule of three glycol lipids, C30:9-C0A=42...
November 21, 2016: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
Masoumeh Moghadasi, Dariush Ilghari, Majid Sirati-Sabet, Abbas Amini, Hamideh Asghari, Nematollah Gheibi
The mutated recombinant kinase domain of human fibroblast growth factor receptor 2b (hFGFR2b) is overexpressed and purified, and its structural changes upon the interaction with three unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs), oleic, linoleic and α-linolenic are studied. This interaction is investigated to find out about the folding and unfolding effect of unsaturated fatty acids on the kinase domain structure of hFGFR2b. Recombinant pLEICS-01 vectors, containing the mutated coding region of hFGFR2b, are expressed in the standard Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) host cells and purified by Ni(2+)-NTA affinity chromatography...
November 18, 2016: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
Masafumi Tanaka, Ayaka Nishimura, Haruka Takeshita, Hiroka Takase, Toshiyuki Yamada, Takahiro Mukai
Human serum amyloid A (SAA) is a precursor protein of AA amyloidosis and a component of high-density lipoproteins (HDLs), thus it is essential to investigate the amyloid fibril formation of SAA under a lipid environment. We used synthetic fragment peptides corresponding to the N-terminal (residues 1-27) and central (residues 43-63) regions of the SAA molecule, which are known to have amyloidogenic properties. Measurements of tryptophan fluorescence in conjunction with circular dichroism showed that SAA (1-27) peptide binds to neutral and acidic lysophospholipids, whereas SAA (43-63) peptide binds only to acidic lysophospholipids...
November 16, 2016: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
Inkeri Kontro, Kirsi Svedström, Filip Duša, Patrik Ahvenainen, Suvi-Katriina Ruokonen, Joanna Witos, Susanne K Wiedmer
The effects of ionic liquids on model phospholipid membranes were studied by small-angle X-ray scattering, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and zeta potential measurements. Multilamellar 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine liposomes and large unilamellar vesicles composed of l-α-phosphatidylcholine (eggPC) and l-α-phosphatidylglycerol (eggPG) (80:20mol%) or eggPC, eggPG, and cholesterol (60:20:20mol%) were used as biomimicking membrane models. The effects of the phosphonium-based ionic liquids: tributylmethylphosphonium acetate, trioctylmethylphosphonium acetate, tributyl(tetradecyl)-phosphonium acetate, and tributyl(tetradecyl)-phosphonium chloride, were compared to those of 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium acetate...
November 9, 2016: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
Bhagyashree D Rao, Sandeep Shrivastava, Amitabha Chattopadhyay
The fundamental mechanism behind the action of local anesthetics is still not clearly understood. Phenylethanol (PEtOH) is a constituent of essential oils with a pleasant odor and can act as a local anesthetic. In this work, we have explored the effect of PEtOH on the function of the hippocampal serotonin1A receptor, a representative neurotransmitter receptor belonging to the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family. Our results show that PEtOH induces reduction in ligand binding to the serotonin1A receptor due to lowering of binding affinity, along with a concomitant decrease in the degree of G-protein coupling...
November 5, 2016: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
A Yu Gruzinov, A V Zabelin, M A Kiselev
Small angle X-ray scattering technique was used to determine electron density profiles of short periodicity phase in the model lipid membranes of stratum corneum at different pH. Basic quaternary system was prepared as used previously in the neutron experiments at partial hydration. It was shown that electron density profiles of partially hydrated and fully hydrated model lipid membranes with four basic components were quite similar and demonstrated almost no interbilayer water.
November 3, 2016: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
Gabriela A Dominguez, Josefina Perlo, Carla C Fraenza, Esteban Anoardo
The elastic properties of lipid membranes can be conveniently characterized through the bending elastic modulus κ. Elasticity directly affects the deformability of a membrane, morphological and shape transitions, fusion, lipid-protein interactions, etc. It is also a critical property for the formulation of ultradeformable liposomes, and of interest for the design of theranostic liposomes for efficient drug delivery systems and/or different imaging contrast agents. Measurements of κ in liposome membranes have been made using the fast field cycling nuclear magnetic relaxometry technique...
November 2, 2016: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
Ankit Jain, Sanjay K Jain
Liposomes are emerging cargoes for bioactive delivery owing to their widely accepted biocompatible and biodegradable nature. It is always a challenge to control the release of payload for effective delivery to the site of interest. Over the couple of decennia, mathematical modeling of release process is a need of time whether the drug remains in the circulation or reaches at the target site. For establishing a better in vitro - in vivo correlation, release kinetics models viz. Peppas, Higuchi, Weibull, Zero Order and First order including mechanistic models like All-or-None, Toroidal, and Biomembrane models etc...
October 29, 2016: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
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