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Chemistry and Physics of Lipids

Bruno Mattei, Rafael B Lira, Katia R Perez, Karin A Riske
Detergents are widely used to solubilize and separate biomembrane components. It is therefore relevant to study and understand the mechanistic details underlying detergent-lipid interactions using biomimetic systems. Here, we have investigated in detail the process of membrane permeabilization and the nature of pores induced by sub-solubilizing concentrations of the detergent Triton X-100 (TX-100) in bilayers composed of palmitoyl oleoyl phosphatidylcholine (POPC), sphingomyelin (SM) and binary mixtures of these phospholipids with 30 mol% cholesterol (chol)...
November 29, 2016: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
Amir Keshavarz, Ligia Zelaya, Jasmeet Singh, Radha Ranganathan, Joseph Hajdu
Syntheses and enzymological characterization of fluorogenic substrate probes targeting secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) for detection and quantitative assays are presented. Three fluorogenic phosphatidylcholine analogs PC-1, PC-2, and PC-3 each containing the duo of 7-mercapto-4-methyl-coumarin fluorophore and 2,4-dinitroanaline quencher on either tail were synthesized from (R)-3-amino-1,2-propanediol and R-(-)-2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolane-4-methanol. These small reporter groups are advantageous in preserving natural membrane integrity...
November 25, 2016: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
Viacheslav G Rybin, Andrey B Imbs, Darja A Demidkova, Ekaterina V Ermolenko
Monoalkyldiacylglycerol (MADAG) is an important lipid class in mollusks, corals, starfishes, and some species of zooplankton. Up to 80% of liver oils of squids and sharks are comprised of MADAG. Except for one fish species, there are no data on the composition of MADAG molecular species of marine organisms. The molecular species of MADAG obtained from digestive glands of the deep-sea squid Berryteuthis magister were identified. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and tandem high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) were applied...
November 25, 2016: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
Tibor Hianik, Christer L Øpstad, Jana Šandorová, Zuzana Garaiová, Vassilia Partali, Hans-Richard Sliwka
We studied the surface properties of monolayers composed of polyunsaturated conjugated ethylene glycol phospholipids (carotenoid lipids), compared the data with monolayers of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) to which carotenoids were added and evaluated the impact of the unsaturated glycol lipids on monolayers with the glycerolipid DPPC. The carotenoid based glycol lipids formed monolayers at the air/water interface. Using the Langmuir method we obtained series of pressure-area (π-A) isotherms and determined the limiting area A per molecule of three glycol lipids, C30:9-C0A=42...
November 21, 2016: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
Masoumeh Moghadasi, Dariush Ilghari, Majid Sirati-Sabet, Abbas Amini, Hamideh Asghari, Nematollah Gheibi
The mutated recombinant kinase domain of human fibroblast growth factor receptor 2b (hFGFR2b) is overexpressed and purified, and its structural changes upon the interaction with three unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs), oleic, linoleic and α-linolenic are studied. This interaction is investigated to find out about the folding and unfolding effect of unsaturated fatty acids on the kinase domain structure of hFGFR2b. Recombinant pLEICS-01 vectors, containing the mutated coding region of hFGFR2b, are expressed in the standard Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) host cells and purified by Ni(2+)-NTA affinity chromatography...
November 18, 2016: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
Masafumi Tanaka, Ayaka Nishimura, Haruka Takeshita, Hiroka Takase, Toshiyuki Yamada, Takahiro Mukai
Human serum amyloid A (SAA) is a precursor protein of AA amyloidosis and a component of high-density lipoproteins (HDLs), thus it is essential to investigate the amyloid fibril formation of SAA under a lipid environment. We used synthetic fragment peptides corresponding to the N-terminal (residues 1-27) and central (residues 43-63) regions of the SAA molecule, which are known to have amyloidogenic properties. Measurements of tryptophan fluorescence in conjunction with circular dichroism showed that SAA (1-27) peptide binds to neutral and acidic lysophospholipids, whereas SAA (43-63) peptide binds only to acidic lysophospholipids...
November 16, 2016: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
Inkeri Kontro, Kirsi Svedström, Filip Duša, Patrik Ahvenainen, Suvi-Katriina Ruokonen, Joanna Witos, Susanne K Wiedmer
The effects of ionic liquids on model phospholipid membranes were studied by small-angle X-ray scattering, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and zeta potential measurements. Multilamellar 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine liposomes and large unilamellar vesicles composed of l-α-phosphatidylcholine (eggPC) and l-α-phosphatidylglycerol (eggPG) (80:20mol%) or eggPC, eggPG, and cholesterol (60:20:20mol%) were used as biomimicking membrane models. The effects of the phosphonium-based ionic liquids: tributylmethylphosphonium acetate, trioctylmethylphosphonium acetate, tributyl(tetradecyl)-phosphonium acetate, and tributyl(tetradecyl)-phosphonium chloride, were compared to those of 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium acetate...
November 9, 2016: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
Bhagyashree D Rao, Sandeep Shrivastava, Amitabha Chattopadhyay
The fundamental mechanism behind the action of local anesthetics is still not clearly understood. Phenylethanol (PEtOH) is a constituent of essential oils with a pleasant odor and can act as a local anesthetic. In this work, we have explored the effect of PEtOH on the function of the hippocampal serotonin1A receptor, a representative neurotransmitter receptor belonging to the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family. Our results show that PEtOH induces reduction in ligand binding to the serotonin1A receptor due to lowering of binding affinity, along with a concomitant decrease in the degree of G-protein coupling...
November 5, 2016: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
A Yu Gruzinov, A V Zabelin, M A Kiselev
Small angle X-ray scattering technique was used to determine electron density profiles of short periodicity phase in the model lipid membranes of stratum corneum at different pH. Basic quaternary system was prepared as used previously in the neutron experiments at partial hydration. It was shown that electron density profiles of partially hydrated and fully hydrated model lipid membranes with four basic components were quite similar and demonstrated almost no interbilayer water.
November 3, 2016: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
Gabriela A Dominguez, Josefina Perlo, Carla C Fraenza, Esteban Anoardo
The elastic properties of lipid membranes can be conveniently characterized through the bending elastic modulus κ. Elasticity directly affects the deformability of a membrane, morphological and shape transitions, fusion, lipid-protein interactions, etc. It is also a critical property for the formulation of ultradeformable liposomes, and of interest for the design of theranostic liposomes for efficient drug delivery systems and/or different imaging contrast agents. Measurements of κ in liposome membranes have been made using the fast field cycling nuclear magnetic relaxometry technique...
November 2, 2016: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
Huaze Zhu, Runguang Sun, Changchun Hao, Pengli Zhang
Hexadecanol is chemically stable and can be used as an effective addition in synthetic clinical lung surfactant preparations to improve their spreading properties. In this work, a detailed thermodynamic and structural characterization of a simple model system, which based on a hexadecanol-phospholipid mixture is reported. Langmuir monolayers of binary mixtures of hexadecanol/1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DPPE) have been studied with thermodynamic parameters and monolayer structure. The extent of the thermodynamic parameters has been evaluated by the direct related parameters, such as mean molecular area, percent of condensation, surface excess Gibbs free energies, isothermal compressibility, interaction energy parameter, activity coefficient and two-dimensional phase diagram...
October 24, 2016: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
D Sivaramakrishna, Musti J Swamy
N-Acyl-β-alanines (NABAs) are structural homologues of N-acylglycines (NAGs) and N-acyl-γ-aminobutyric acids (NAGABAs), and achiral isomers of N-acylalanines, which are all present in mammalian brain and other tissues and modulate activity of biological receptors with various functions. In the present study, we synthesized and characterized a homologous series of NABAs bearing saturated acyl chains (n=8-20) and investigated their supramolecular organization and thermotropic phase behavior. In differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) studies, most of the NABAs gave one or two minor transitions before the main chain-melting phase transition in the dry state as well as upon hydration with water, but gave only a single transition when hydrated with buffer (pH7...
October 19, 2016: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
Ali Reza Fardin-Kia
Non-conjugated geometric/positional isomers of linoleic acid (c9,c12-18:2) are often present in processed foods and oils. The following work presents a simple addition/elimination reaction for preparation of non-conjugated 18:2 fatty acid isomers. A mixture containing positional and geometric isomers of C18:2 fatty acids was produced by addition of hydrobromic acid to the fatty acid double bonds, followed by its elimination with a strong sterically hindered base. Pure 8,12-, 8,13-, 9,12-, and 9,13-18:2 fatty acid methyl esters were isolated from the synthetic mixture by a combination of sub-ambient RP-HPLC and Ag(+)-HPLC...
October 18, 2016: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
Ahmad Arouri, Kira E Lauritsen, Henriette L Nielsen, Ole G Mouritsen
Because of the amphipathicity and conical molecular shape of fatty acids, they can efficiently incorporate into lipid membranes and disturb membrane integrity, chain packing, and lateral pressure profile. These phenomena affect both model membranes as well as biological membranes. We investigated the feasibility of exploiting fatty acids as permeability enhancers in drug delivery systems for enhancing drug release from liposomal carriers and drug uptake by target cells. Saturated fatty acids, with acyl chain length from C8 to C20, were tested using model drug delivery liposomes of 1,2- dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) and the breast cancer MCF-7 cell line as a model cell...
October 7, 2016: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
Takayuki Furukawa, Hirotoshi Fuda, Satoshi Miyanaga, Chinatsu Watanabe, Hitoshi Chiba, Shu-Ping Hui
Even though lysophospholipids have attracted much interest in recent years on account of their unique bioactivity, research related to lysophospholipids is usually hampered by problems associated with standard sample preparation and discrimination of regioisomers. Herein, we demonstrate a quick tin-chemistry-based synthetic route to lysophosphatidylethanolamines (LPEs) and its application in the positional analysis of hepatic LPEs in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) model mice. We found that the preference of hepatic LPE regioisomer largely depends on the unsaturation of acyl chain in both control and NASH model mice...
October 1, 2016: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
Sandeep Kumar, Gaurav Bhanjana, Arvind Kumar, Kapila Taneja, Neeraj Dilbaghi, Ki-Hyun Kim
The use of nanocarriers to enhance drug delivery efficacy has been increasing in the healthcare field due to their tunable surface properties. In this study, ceftriaxone-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (CL-SLNPs) were synthesized using a water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) type double emulsification method. The formulation was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) and was characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), and UV-vis and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy...
September 30, 2016: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
Dasaratha Sethy, Hirak Chakraborty
The interfacial properties of the membrane are exceptionally vital in drug-membrane interaction. They not only select out a particular prototropic form of the drug molecule for incorporation, but are also potent enough to induce structural switchover of these drugs in several cases. In this work, we quantitatively monitored the change in dipolar rearrangement of the micellar interface (as a simplified membrane mimic) by measuring the dielectric constant and dipole potential with the micellization of SDS at pH 3...
September 25, 2016: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
Luisa Giansanti, Alessandro Mauceri, Luciano Galantini, Barbara Altieri, Antonella Piozzi, Giovanna Mancini
The inclusion of pH-sensitive components in liposome formulations can allow a more controlled and efficient release in response to low pH typical of some pathological tissues and/or subcellular compartments. On the other hand decorating the surface of liposomes with sugar moieties attributes to lipid vesicles specificity toward lectins, sugar-binding proteins overexpressed in many tumor tissues. A novel multifunctional pH-sensitive glucosylated amphiphile was synthesized and characterized as pure aggregate component and in mixtures with a natural phospholipid...
September 4, 2016: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
Richard M Epand, Amitabha Chattopadhyay
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
Richard M Epand, Diana Bach, Ellen Wachtel
Cholesterol has limited solubility in phospholipid bilayers. The solubility limit is strongly dependent on the nature of the lipid with which the cholesterol is mixed while properties of the crystals formed can be modified by phospholipid-cholesterol interactions. In this review we summarize the various methods that have been developed to prepare hydrated mixtures of cholesterol and phospholipid. We point out some of the factors that determine the form adopted when cholesterol crystallizes in such mixtures, i...
September 2016: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
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