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Chemistry and Physics of Lipids

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807615/interfacial-properties-of-avian-stratum-corneum-monolayers-investigated-by-brewster-angle-microscopy-and-vibrational-sum-frequency-generation
#1
Ellen M Adams, Alex M Champagne, Joseph B Williams, Heather C Allen
The outermost layer of skin, the stratum corneum (SC), contains a complex mixture of lipids, which controls the rate of cutaneous water loss (CWL) in reptiles, mammals, and birds. However, the molecular structure of SC lipids and how molecular configurations influence CWL is poorly understood. Here, the organization and structure of SC lipids extracted from birds were investigated by means of Langmuir films. Properties of lipids from the SC of arid and semi-arid adapted larks, known to have a low CWL, were compared with lipids extracted from the SC of mesic lark species with higher CWL to gain insight into how structure impacts CWL...
August 11, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807614/oxysterols-and-phytosterols-in-human-health
#2
EDITORIAL
Charbel Massaad, Luigi Iuliano, Gérard Lizard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 11, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802697/the-insertion-of-polybia-mp1-into-phospholipid-monolayers-is-regulated-by-its-anionic-nature-and-phase-state
#3
Dayane S Alvares, Natalia Wilke, João Ruggiero Neto, Maria Laura Fanani
Polybia-MP1 or simply MP1 (IDWKKLLDAAKQIL-NH2) is a peptide with broad-spectrum bactericidal activity and a strong inhibitory effect against cancer cells. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of biophysical properties such as membrane texture and film thickness on MP1 interaction with neutral and anionic lipid membranes. For this purpose, we first explored the peptide's surface behavior. MP1 showed high surface activity, adsorbing onto bare air/aqueous interfaces up to higher surface pressures than the collapse pressure of MP1 Langmuir films...
August 9, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800872/oxysterols-and-phytosterols-in-human-health
#4
EDITORIAL
Charbel Massaad, Luigi Iuliano, Gérard Lizard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 8, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698149/gelatin-modified-lipid-nanoparticles-for-anti-viral-drug-delivery
#5
Joshy K S, Snigdha S, Nandakumar Kalarikkal, Laly A Pothen, Sabu Thomas
The major challenges to clinical application of zidovudine are its moderate aqueous solubility and relative short half-life and serious side effects due to frequent administrations. We investigated the preparation of zidovudine-loaded nanoparticles based on lipids which were further modified with the polymer gelatin. Formulation and stability of the modified nanoparticles were analysed from the physico-chemical characterizations. The interactions of nanoparticles with blood components were tested by haemolysis and aggregation studies...
July 8, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684089/quantitative-analysis-of-the-tumor-suppressor-dendrogenin-a-using-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#6
Emmanuel Noguer, Régis Soules, Claude Netter, Citra Nagarathinam, Julie Leignadier, Emilie Huc-Claustre, Nizar Serhan, Arnaud Rives, Philippe de Medina, Sandrine Silvente-Poirot, Marc Poirot
Dendrogenin A (DDA) was recently identified as a mammalian cholesterol metabolite that displays tumor suppressor and neurostimulating properties at low doses. In breast tumors, DDA levels were found to be decreased compared to normal tissues, evidencing a metabolic deregulation of DDA production in cancers. DDA is an amino-oxysterol that contains three protonatable nitrogen atoms. This makes it physico-chemically different from other oxysterols and it therefore requires specific analytical methods We have previously used a two-step method for the quantification of DDA in biological samples: 1) DDA purification from a Bligh and Dyer extract by RP-HPLC using a 250×4...
July 3, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684088/effect-of-electrostatic-interaction-between-fluoxetine-and-lipid-membranes-on-the-partitioning-of-fluoxetine-investigated-using-second-derivative-spectrophotometry-and-ftir
#7
Tien T T Do, Uyen P N Dao, Huong T Bui, Trang T Nguyen
The interaction between a drug molecule and lipid bilayers is highly important regarding the pharmaceutical activity of the drug. In this study, the interaction of fluoxetine, a well-known selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressant and lipid bilayers composed of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-(1'-rac-glycerol) (DPPG) and 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) was studied from the aspect of electrostatics using second derivative spectrophotometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) in order to provide insights into the drug behavior...
July 3, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669640/oxysterols-and-mesenchymal-stem-cell-biology
#8
REVIEW
Débora Levy, Thatiana Correa de Melo, Jorge L M Ruiz, Sérgio P Bydlowski
Oxysterols are oxidized products of cholesterol that play several roles in various pathophysiological processes, including the control of lipid metabolism, immunological processes, and cytotoxicity. Mesenchymal stem cells are multipotent cells with properties of self-renewal and the ability to differentiate into other cell types, including osteoblasts and adipocytes. Here, we review the literature regarding the effects of oxysterols on mesenchymal stem cell differentiation and the main signaling pathways involved in this process...
June 29, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669639/whole-blood-glycerophospholipids-in-dried-blood-spots-a-reliable-marker-for-the-fatty-acid-status
#9
Sławomira Drzymała-Czyż, Sophie Janich, Mario Klingler, Johann Demmelmair, Jarosław Walkowiak, Berthold Koletzko
BACKGROUND: Whole blood total fatty acid analysis in capillary blood has recently been proposed for fatty acid status determination, but the accuracy of this method is affected by the fast turnover of triaclyglyceride (TAG) fatty acids, the individual hematocrit and postprandial state. METHOD: An established method for the glycerophospholipid (GPL) analysis in plasma was adapted for the analysis of whole blood GPL and tested in a fat challenge test. Blood samples were collected from nine participants after receiving a standardised breakfast containing 42g of sunflower oil...
June 29, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663071/outside-in-inside-out-proteomic-analysis-of-endothelial-stress-mediated-by-7-ketocholesterol
#10
Lívia Rosa-Fernandes, Luciana M F Maselli, Nair Y Maeda, Giuseppe Palmisano G, Sergio P Bydlowski
Oxysterols are cholesterol oxidation products formed through enzymatic or autoxidation mechanisms. 7-ketocholeterol (7KC) is one of most abundant oxysterols found in atherosclerotic lesions. Its role in atherosclerosis pathogenesis has been broadly studied in a variety of models. The arterial microenvironment is a multicellular dynamic compartment that, among other systemic factors, is continuously stimulated by 7KC. Endothelial cells have a key role on that environment, being in intimate contact with both the blood stream and the vessel wall, the site of disease origin...
June 26, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599978/25-hydroxycholesterol-induces-both-p2x7-dependent-pyroptosis-and-caspase-dependent-apoptosis-in-human-skin-model-new-insights-into-degenerative-pathways
#11
Elodie Olivier, Mélody Dutot, Anne Regazzetti, Olivier Laprévote, Patrice Rat
Degenerative diseases are characterized by both cell death and inflammation, which involve different pathways such as apoptosis and pyroptosis. Oxysterols, oxidized derivatives of cholesterol, are known to act as key actors in degenerative disorders such as skin photoaging. We hypothesize that oxysterols could be implicated in either apoptosis or pyroptosis, or both. The aim of our study was first to quantify oxysterol levels in keratinocytes as a function of aging and UV irradiation. Second, we evaluated the effects of 25-OH oxysterol on apoptosis and pyroptosis hallmarks in keratinocytes...
June 23, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647339/the-effects-of-amoxicillin-and-vancomycin-on-parameters-reflecting-cholesterol-metabolism
#12
S Baumgartner, D Reijnders, M C J M Konings, A K Groen, D Lütjohann, G H Goossens, E E Blaak, J Plat
BACKGROUND: Changes in the microbiota composition have been implicated in the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes. However, not much is known on the involvement of gut microbiota in lipid and cholesterol metabolism. In addition, the gut microbiota might also be a potential source of plasma oxyphytosterol and oxycholesterol concentrations (oxidation products of plant sterols and cholesterol). Therefore, the aim of this study was to modulate the gut microbiota by antibiotic therapy to investigate effects on parameters reflecting cholesterol metabolism and oxyphytosterol concentrations...
June 21, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624308/efficient-heterologous-expression-functional-characterization-and-molecular-modeling-of-annular-seabream-digestive-phospholipase-a2
#13
Nabil Smichi, Houcemeddine Othman, Neila Achouri, Alexandre Noiriel, Soumaya Triki, Vincent Arondel, Najet Srairi-Abid, Abdelkarim Abousalham, Youssef Gargouri, Nabil Miled, Ahmed Fendri
Here we report the cDNA cloning of a phospholipase A2 (PLA2) from five Sparidae species. The deduced amino acid sequences show high similarity with pancreatic PLA2. In addition, a phylogenetic tree derived from alignment of various available sequences revealed that Sparidae PLA2 are closer to avian PLA2 group IB than to mammals' ones. In order to understand the structure-function relationships of these enzymes, we report here the recombinant expression in E.coli, the refolding and characterization of His-tagged annular seabream PLA2 (AsPLA2)...
June 14, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606714/effect-of-physical-exercise-on-brain-and-lipid-metabolism-in-mouse-models-of-multiple-sclerosis
#14
REVIEW
Léo Houdebine, Cristina Anna Gallelli, Marialetizia Rastelli, Nirmal Kumar Sampathkumar, Julien Grenier
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a central nervous demyelinating disease characterized by cyclic loss and repair of myelin sheaths associated with chronic inflammation and neuronal loss. This degenerative pathology is accompanied by modified levels of oxysterols (oxidative derivatives of cholesterol, implicated in cholesterol metabolism), highlighted in the brain, blood and cerebrospinal fluid of MS patients. The pathological accumulation of such derivatives is thought to participate in the onset and progression of the disease through their implication in inflammation, oxidative stress, demyelination and neurodegeneration...
June 9, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583433/non-aqueous-capillary-electrophoretic-separation-of-cholesterol-and-25-hydroxycholesterol-after-derivatization-with-girard-p-reagent
#15
Michal Gregus, Hanne Roberg-Larsen, Elsa Lundanes, Frantisek Foret, Petr Kuban, Steven Ray Wilson
Capillary electrophoresis (CE) can provide high separation efficiency with very simple instrumentation, but has yet to be explored regarding oxysterols/cholesterol. Cholesterol and 25-hydroxycholesterol (both are 4-ene-3-ketosteroids) were quantitatively transformed into hydrazones using Girard P reagent after enzymatic oxidation by cholesterol oxidase. Separation was achieved using non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis with UV detection at 280nm; the "charge-tagging" Girard P reagent ensured both charge and chromophore (which are requirements for CE-UV)...
June 3, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583434/27-hydroxycholesterol-a-novel-player-in-molecular-carcinogenesis-of-breast-and-prostate-cancer
#16
REVIEW
Gurdeep Marwarha, Shaneabbas Raza, Kimberly Hammer, Othman Ghribi
Several studies have suggested an etiological role for hypercholesterolemia in the pathogenesis of breast cancer and prostate cancer (PCa). However, the molecular mechanisms that underlie and mediate the hypercholesterolemia-fostered increased risk for breast cancer and PCa are yet to be determined. The discovery that the most abundant cholesterol oxidized metabolite in the plasma, 27 hydroxycholesterol (27-OHC), is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) and an agonist of Liver X receptors (LXR) partially fills the void in our understanding and knowledge of the mechanisms that may link hypercholesterolemia to development and progression of breast cancer and PCa...
June 2, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576384/interaction-of-triterpenoids-with-human-serum-albumin-a-review
#17
REVIEW
Rola Abboud, Catherine Charcosset, Hélène Greige-Gerges
Triterpenoids are a large group of natural and synthetic products. This review deals with the current state of knowledge on their interaction with serum albumin. The binding of drugs to albumin may control their distribution in tissues. In literature, different techniques were used to investigate the albumin-triterpenoid interaction and include fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, circular dichroism, calorimetric techniques and molecular modeling. Changes in fluorescence intensity of albumin were observed upon triterpenoid-albumin complex formation...
May 30, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576383/cholesterol-metabolism-and-glaucoma-modulation-of-muller-cell-membrane-organization-by-24s-hydroxycholesterol
#18
Ségolène Gambert, Pierre-Henry Gabrielle, Elodie Masson, Elise Leger-Charnay, Arthur Ferrerro, Arthur Vannier, Clément Gendrault, Méline Lachot, Catherine Creuzot-Garcher, Alain Bron, Stéphane Gregoire, Laurent Leclere, Lucy Martine, Géraldine Lucchi, Caroline Truntzer, Delphine Pecqueur, Lionel Bretillon
Glaucoma is a progressive and irreversible blinding neuropathy that is characterized by the loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Muller Glial Cell (MGC) activation is induced in retinal gliosis. MGCs are the most numerous glial cells in the retina and one of their roles is to sustain cholesterol homeostasis. 24S-hydroxycholesterol (24S-OHC) is one of the form of cholesterol elimination from the retina and is overexpressed during glaucoma. The objective of this study was to determine whether 24S-OHC triggers MGC membrane dynamics involving lipid rafts and contributes to gliosis at early and late time points...
May 30, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571786/biodegradation-of-7-ketocholesterol-by-rhodococcus-erythropolis-mtcc-3951-process-optimization-and-enzymatic-insights
#19
Shubhrima Ghosh, S K Khare
The oxidation of cholesterol results in the formation of oxysterols such as 7-ketocholesterol(7KC), which are implicated in a number of age-related disorders such as atherosclerosis, Alzheimers' disease and macular degeneration. Current modalities use antioxidants and other natural or synthetic molecules to reduce 7KC-induced cytotoxity. The alternative application of enzymes from microbial sources to degrade oxysterols in vitro and in vivo is an innovative approach. The present study aims to assess the potential of the bacteria Rhodococcus erythropolis MTCC 3951 in degrading 7KC and mining relevant enzymes involved...
May 29, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554594/improvement-of-5-6%C3%AE-epoxycholesterol-5-6%C3%AE-epoxycholesterol-cholestane-3%C3%AE-5%C3%AE-6%C3%AE-triol-and-6-oxo-cholestan-3%C3%AE-5%C3%AE-diol-recovery-for-quantification-by-gc-ms
#20
Regis Soules, Emmanuel Noguer, Luigi Iuliano, Chiara Zerbinati, Julie Leignadier, Arnaud Rives, Philippe de Medina, Sandrine Silvente-Poirot, Marc Poirot
5,6α-epoxycholesterol (5,6α-EC) and 5,6β-epoxycholesterol (5,6β-EC) are oxysterols involved in the anticancer pharmacology of the widely used antitumor drug tamoxifen. They are both metabolized into cholestane-3β,5α,6β-triol (CT) by the cholesterol-5,6-epoxide hydrolase (ChEH) enzyme, and CT is metabolized by an as-yet uncharacterized enzyme into 6-oxo-cholestan-3β,5α-diol (OCDO). A recent feasibility study showed that the 5,6-ECs may represent surrogate markers of tamoxifen activity in breast cancer patients undergoing endocrine therapy, thus there is a growing interest in their accurate quantification...
May 26, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
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