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Chemistry and Physics of Lipids

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539223/dietary-effects-of-raphanus-sativus-cv-sango-on-lipid-and-oxysterols-accumulation-in-rat-brain-a-lipidomic-study-on-a-non-genetic-obesity-model
#1
V Cardenia, F Vivarelli, S Cirillo, M Paolini, Maria Teresa Rodriguez-Estrada, Donatella Canistro
The present study aimed to evaluate the impact of Raphanus sativus cv Sango sprout juice (SSJ) administration (75mg/kg b.w. SSJ/day) on the brain lipidomic profile (fatty acid, sterols, cholesterol oxidation) of rats (non-genetic model) subjected to a high-fat (34% crude fat) dietary regimen. The SSJ did not affect the lipid infiltration (7.7-9.3%) and the fatty acid composition of the rat brain, which was mainly composed by unsaturated fatty acids (∼58%); however, the high-fat diet regimen significantly halved linoleic acid (LA)...
May 21, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533146/bioactive-lipids-derived-from-arachidonic-acid-metabolism-in-different-types-of-renal-replacement-therapy
#2
Joanna Stępniewska, Barbara Dołęgowska, Kamila Puchałowicz, Edyta Gołembiewska, Kazimierz Ciechanowski
INTRODUCTION: Metabolism and plasma concentration of lipids and lipid-derived compounds play an important role in kidney physiology and pathological processes. The component of membrane phospholipids - arachidonic acid (AA) and its active derivatives - eicosanoids are involved in the development of hypertension, diabetes, inflammation and may contribute to progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The purpose of the study was to determine, whether the type of renal replacement therapy has an effect on eicosanoids metabolism...
May 19, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533145/effects-of-hydroxy-xanthones-on-dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine-lipid-bilayers-a-theoretical-and-experimental-study
#3
M B Sierra, L Alarcón, D Gerbino, V I Pedroni, F E Buffo, M A Morini
Xanthones and derivatives are natural active compounds whose interest has been increased due to its several pharmacological effects. In this work, effects of hydroxy-xanthones on the physicochemical properties of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) liposomes have been investigated in terms of lipid bilayer fluidity, by means of molecular dynamics simulations and temperature dependence of zeta potential studies. Experimental results predict, in good agreement with simulations, that xanthones are able to be incorporated into DPPC liposomes with certain localization, fluidizing the bilayer...
May 19, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528274/angiopoietin-like-8-angptl8-controls-adipocyte-lipolysis-and-phospholipid-composition
#4
Raghavendra Mysore, Gerhard Liebisch, You Zhou, Vesa M Olkkonen, P A Nidhina Haridas
Angiopoietin-like 8 (Angptl8) inhibits lipolysis in the circulation together with Angplt3 and controls post-prandial fat storage in white adipose tissue (WAT). It is strongly induced by insulin in vivo in WAT and in vitro in adipocytes. In this study we addressed the function of Angptl8 in adipocytes by its stable lentivirus-mediated knock-down in 3T3-L1 cells, followed by analyses of triglyceride (TG) storage, lipid droplet (LD) morphology, the cellular lipidome, lipolysis, and gene expression. Depletion of Angptl8 did not drastically affect the adipocytic differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells but resulted in a moderate (18-19%) reduction of stored TGs...
May 17, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476462/new-insights-into-the-antioxidant-activity-and-cytotoxicity-of-arzanol-and-effect-of-methylation-on-its-biological-properties
#5
Antonella Rosa, Angela Atzeri, Mariella Nieddu, Giovanni Appendino
The heterodimeric phloroglucinyl pyrone arzanol (Arz) has raised considerable interest because of its antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activity. We have investigated the effect of methylation of the pyrone moiety on the antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity of Arz. This manoeuvre, that left the polyphenolic moiety unscathed, was nevertheless detrimental for antioxidant activity in both the cholesterol thermal degradation- and the Cu(2+)-induced liposome oxidation assays, providing evidence of structure-activity relationships that go beyond the preservation of the polyphenolic pharmacophore...
May 3, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461098/organization-and-dynamics-of-trp14-of-hemagglutinin-fusion-peptide-in-membrane-mimetic-environment
#6
Geetanjali Meher, Hirak Chakraborty
The fusion peptide of influenza hemagglutinin (HA) is important for cellular entry of influenza virus. Previous studies showed that HA fusion peptide assumes a bent structure in membrane environment, which is extremely important for its fusion-promoting activity. In this work, we have measured the organization and dynamics of the tryptophan (Trp14) residue in presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) to investigate the conformational flexibility of tryptophan in membrane-mimetic environment. The steady state and time-resolved fluorescence measurements were employed to investigate the location and rotational flexibility of the tryptophan residue in the SDS micelles...
April 28, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455203/deuterium-kinetic-isotope-effect-dkie-in-copper-induced-ldl-peroxidation-interrelated-effects-of-on-inhibition-and-propagation
#7
Ilya Pinchuk, Dov Lichtenberg
LDL peroxidation plays a major role in many physiological and pathophysiological processes. The mechanisms of LDL peroxidation induced by transition metal ions have therefore been studied intensively. It has been proposed that the mechanism involves free radical production that occurs via decomposition of hydroperoxides. This, in turn, requires the cleavage of O-H bonds. Cleavage of O-D bond is slower and comparison of the kinetics in D2O to the kinetics in H2O is therefore a straightforward way to test this aspect of the alleged mechanism...
April 26, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445710/stereoselective-preparation-of-quaternary-2-vinyl-sphingosines-and-ceramides-and-their-effect-on-basal-sphingolipid-metabolism
#8
Raquel Calderón, Nerea Mercadal, José Luis Abad, Xavier Ariza, Antonio Delgado, Jordi Garcia, Aleix Rodríguez, Gemma Fabriàs
The dicyclohexylborane-mediated addition of allene 1 to (E)-2-tridecenal affords a quaternary protected 2-amino-2-vinyl-1,3-diol in good yield as a single diastereomer. This compound is readily transformed into the four stereoisomers of the quaternary (E)-2-vinyl analogs of sphingosine. The metabolic fate and the effect of these compounds on the basal sphingolipid metabolism in human A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells has been studied, together with the ceramide analog of the most relevant vinylsphingosine derivative...
April 23, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435101/interaction-of-glucocorticoids-and-progesterone-derivatives-with-human-serum-albumin
#9
Rola Abboud, Mohammad Akil, Catherine Charcosset, Hélène Greige-Gerges
Glucocorticoids (GCs) and progesterone derivatives (PGDs) are steroid hormones with well-known biological activities. Their interaction with human serum albumin (HSA) may control their distribution. Their binding to albumin is poorly studied in literature. This paper deals with the interaction of a series of GCs (cortisol, cortisone, prednisolone, prednisone, 6-methylprednisolone and 9-fluorocortisol acetate) and PGDs (progesterone, hydroxylated PGDs, methylated PGDs and dydrogesterone) with HSA solution (pH 7...
April 20, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412174/experimentally-determined-tilt-and-bending-moduli-of-single-component-lipid-bilayers
#10
REVIEW
John F Nagle
Values of the bending modulus KC and the tilt modulus Kθ are reported for single component lipid bilayers. The lipids studied have the common names DOPC, DMPC, diC22:1PC, SOPC, POPC, diPhyPC, DLPC, DPPC, DHPC and DEPC, listed in the order of number of samples examined. The experimental method, thus far the only one that measures the tilt modulus of lipid bilayers, first obtains diffuse X-ray scattering data from oriented stacks of bilayers. The values of the moduli emerge from fitting the data to the accepted tilt-dependent continuum model for the free energy of a single bilayer, further enhanced by interactions between bilayers in the stack...
April 12, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412173/spontaneous-formation-of-single-component-liposomes-from-a-solution
#11
Sopan M Phapal, Chandra Has, P Sunthar
The diameter of lipid vesicles is generally known to be determined by parameters external to the system, such as fluid shear, electric fields, co-surfactants, etc. We present a mechanism by which a system consisting of a single component lipid can spontaneously assemble from a solution phase to form monodisperse unilamellar vesicles of well-defined diameters dictated only by thermodynamic parameters intrinsic to the system. Here, the lipids self-assemble as vesicles when an aqueous phase diffusively replaces the original solvent in a macroscopically stationary (or quiescent) manner...
April 12, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411018/charge-tagging-liquid-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-methodology-targeting-oxysterol-diastereoisomers
#12
William J Griffiths, Thomas Hearn, Peter J Crick, Jonas Abdel-Khalik, Alison Dickson, Eylan Yutuc, Yuqin Wang
The introduction of a hydroxy group to the cholesterol skeleton introduces not only the possibility for positional isomers but also diastereoisomers, where two or more isomers have different configurations at one or more of the stereocentres but are not mirror images. The differentiation of diastereoisomers is important as differing isomers can have differing biochemical properties and are formed via different biochemical pathways. Separation of diasterioisomers is not always easy by chromatographic methods Here we demonstrate, by application of charge-tagging and derivatisation with the Girard P reagent, the separation and detection of biologically relevant diastereoisomers using liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry with multistage fragmentation...
April 12, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411017/biological-properties-of-propolis-extracts-something-new-from-an-ancient-product
#13
REVIEW
Nada Zabaiou, Allan Fouache, Amalia Trousson, Silvère Baron, Amar Zellagui, Mesbah Lahouel, Jean-Marc A Lobaccaro
Natural products are an interesting source of new therapeutics, especially for cancer therapy as 70% of them have botany origin. Propolis, a resinous mixture that honey bees collect and transform from tree buds, sap flows, or other botanical sources, has been used by ethnobotany and traditional practitioners as early in Egypt as 3000 BC. Enriched in flavonoids, phenol acids and terpene derivatives, propolis has been widely used for its antibacterial, antifungal and anti-inflammatory properties. Even though it is a challenge to standardize propolis composition, chemical analyses have pointed out interesting molecules that also present anti-oxidant and anti-proliferative properties that are of interest in the field of anti-cancer therapy...
April 11, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408132/comparison-of-the-effects-of-major-fatty-acids-present-in-the-mediterranean-diet-oleic-acid-docosahexaenoic-acid-and-in-hydrogenated-oils-elaidic-acid-on-7-ketocholesterol-induced-oxiapoptophagy-in-microglial-bv-2-cells
#14
Meryam Debbabi, Amira Zarrouk, Maryem Bezine, Wiem Meddeb, Thomas Nury, Asmaa Badreddine, El Mostafa Karym, Randa Sghaier, Lionel Bretillon, Stéphane Guyot, Mohammad Samadi, Mustapha Cherkaoui-Malki, Boubker Nasser, Mondher Mejri, Sofien Ben-Hammou, Mohamed Hammami, Gérard Lizard
Increased levels of 7-ketocholesterol (7KC), which results mainly from cholesterol auto-oxidation, are often found in the plasma and/or cerebrospinal fluid of patients with neurodegenerative diseases and might contribute to activation of microglial cells involved in neurodegeneration. As major cellular dysfunctions are induced by 7KC, it is important to identify molecules able to impair its side effects. Since consumption of olive and argan oils, and fish is important in the Mediterranean diet, the aim of the study was to determine the ability of oleic acid (OA), a major compound of olive and argan oil, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) present in fatty fishes, such as sardines, to attenuate 7KC-induced cytotoxic effects...
April 10, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389107/ceramide-binding-to-anandamide-increases-its-half-life-and-potentiates-its-cytotoxicity-in-human-neuroblastoma-cells
#15
Coralie Di Scala, Morgane Mazzarino, Nouara Yahi, Karine Varini, Nicolas Garmy, Jacques Fantini, Henri Chahinian
Anandamide (AEA) is a ubiquitous lipid that exerts neurotransmitter functions but also controls important biological functions such as proliferation, survival, or programmed cell death. The latter effects are also regulated by ceramide, a lipid enzymatically generated from sphingomyelin hydrolysis by sphingomyelinase. Ceramide has been shown to increase the cellular toxicity of AEA, but the mechanisms controlling this potentiating effect remained unclear. Here we have used a panel of in silico, physicochemical, biochemical and cellular approaches to study the crosstalk between AEA and ceramide apoptotic pathways...
April 4, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365392/effects-of-seaweed-sterols-fucosterol-and-desmosterol-on-lipid-membranes
#16
Ole G Mouritsen, Luis A Bagatolli, Lars Duelund, Olav Garvik, John H Ipsen, Adam Cohen Simonsen
Higher sterols are universally present in large amounts (20-30%) in the plasma membranes of all eukaryotes whereas they are universally absent in prokaryotes. It is remarkable that each kingdom of the eukaryotes has chosen, during the course of evolution, its preferred sterol: cholesterol in animals, ergosterol in fungi and yeast, phytosterols in higher plants, and e.g., fucosterol and desmosterol in algae. The question arises as to which specific properties do sterols impart to membranes and to which extent do these properties differ among the different sterols...
March 30, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322741/evidence-of-k-homeostasis-disruption-in-cellular-dysfunction-triggered-by-7-ketocholesterol-24s-hydroxycholesterol-and-tetracosanoic-acid-c24-0-in-158n-murine-oligodendrocytes
#17
Maryem Bezine, Meryam Debbabi, Thomas Nury, Rym Ben-Khalifa, Mohammad Samadi, Mustapha Cherkaoui-Malki, Anne Vejux, Quentin Raas, Jérôme de Sèze, Thibault Moreau, Mohamed El-Ayeb, Gérard Lizard
Imbalance in the homeostasis of K(+) ions has been reported to contribute to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. 7-ketocholesterol (7KC), 24S-hydroxycholesterol (24S-OHC), and tetracosanoic acid (C24:0), often found at increased levels in patients with Alzheimer's disease, Multiple Sclerosis and X-ALD, are able to trigger numerous nerve cell dysfunctions. We therefore studied the impact of 7KC, 24S-OHC, and C24:0 on 158N murine oligodendrocytes, and determined their impact on K(+) homeostasis. The effects of 7KC, 24S-OHC and C24:0 on lipid membrane organization and membrane potential were examined with merocyanine 540 (MC540) and bis-(1,3-diethylthiobarbituric acid) trimethine oxonol (DiSBAC2(3)), respectively...
March 18, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267434/dietary-phytochemicals-in-the-protection-against-oxysterol-induced-damage
#18
REVIEW
Antonio Cilla, Amparo Alegría, Alessandro Attanzio, Guadalupe Garcia-Llatas, Luisa Tesoriere, Maria A Livrea
The intake of fruits and vegetables is associated with reduced incidence of many chronic diseases. These foods contain phytochemicals that often possess antioxidant and free radical scavenging capacity and show anti-inflammatory action, which are also the basis of other bioactivities and health benefits, such as anticancer, anti-aging, and protective action for cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, obesity and neurodegenerative disorders. Many factors can be included in the etiopathogenesis of all of these multifactorial diseases that involve oxidative stress, inflammation and/or cell death processes, oxysterols, i...
March 3, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259649/role-of-the-liver-x-receptors-in-skin-physiology-putative-pharmacological-targets-in-human-diseases
#19
REVIEW
Zangbéwendé Guy Ouedraogo, Allan Fouache, Amalia Trousson, Silvère Baron, Jean-Marc A Lobaccaro
Liver X receptors (LXRs) are members of the nuclear receptor superfamily that have been shown to regulate various physiological functions such as lipid metabolism and cholesterol homeostasis. Concordant reports have elicited the possibility to target them to cure many human diseases including arteriosclerosis, cancer, arthritis, and diabetes. The high relevance of modulating LXR activities to treat numerous skin diseases, mainly those with exacerbated inflammation processes, contrasts with the lack of approved therapeutic use...
March 1, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363784/the-effect-of-cannabinoid-receptor-1-blockade-on-hepatic-free-fatty-acid-profile-in-mice-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#20
Bojan Jorgačević, Danijela Vučević, Ivana Đuričić, Slađana Šobajić, Dušan Mladenović, Milena Vesković, Rada Ješić Vukićević, Tatjana Radosavljević
We used rimonabant to investigate the role of CB1 receptor on hepatic FFAs profile during NAFLD. Male mice C57BL/6 were divided into: control group fed with control diet 20 weeks (C; n=6); group fed with HFD 20 weeks (HF; n=6); group fed with control diet and treated with rimonabant after 18 weeks (R; n=9); group fed with HFD and treated with rimonabant after 18 weeks (HFR; n=10). Rimonabant (10mg/kg) was administered daily to HFR and R group by oral gavage. Rimonabant decreased liver palmitic acid proportion in HFR group compared to HF group (p<0...
April 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
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