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Planta Medica

Carolin de Groot, Christel C Müller-Goymann
Saponins are used in medicine due to their pharmacological and immunological effects. To better understand interactions of saponins with model membranes and natural membranes of, for example, erythrocytes, Langmuir film balance experiments are well established. For most saponins, a strong interaction with cholesterol was demonstrated in dependence of both the aglycone part and the sugar moieties and is suggested to be correlated with a strong hemolytic activity, high toxicity, and high surface activity, as was demonstrated for the steroid saponin digitonin...
October 19, 2016: Planta Medica
Nurkhalida Kamal, Christina V Viegelmann, Carol J Clements, RuAngelie Edrada-Ebel
Fungal endophytes offer diverse and unique secondary metabolites, making these organisms potential sources of promising drug leads. The application of high-resolution-liquid chromatography mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomics to fungal endophytes is practical in terms of dereplication studies and the mining of bioactive compounds. In this paper, we report the application of metabolomics in parallel with anti-trypanosomal assays to determine the ideal conditions for the medium-scale fermentation of the endophyte Lasiodiplodia theobromae...
October 19, 2016: Planta Medica
Mirka Laavola, Tiina Leppänen, Heikki Eräsalo, Mari Hämäläinen, Riina Nieminen, Eeva Moilanen
Nortrachelogenin is a pharmacologically active lignan found in knot extracts of Pinus sylvestris. In previous studies, some lignans have been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties, which made nortrachelogenin an interesting candidate for our study. In inflammation, bacterial products and cytokines induce the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1. These enzymes synthesize factors, which, together with proinflammatory cytokines, are important mediators and drug targets in inflammatory diseases...
October 13, 2016: Planta Medica
Paulina Koczurkiewicz, Ewa Kowolik, Irma Podolak, Dawid Wnuk, Kamil Piska, Anna Łabędź-Masłowska, Katarzyna Wójcik-Pszczoła, Elżbieta Pękala, Jarosław Czyż, Marta Michalik
Triterpene saponins are secondary metabolites typical for higher plants. They possess a wide range of pharmaceutical and biological activities. These include anti-inflammatory, vasoprotective, expectorant, and antitumor properties. In particular, the ability of saponins to enhance the cytotoxicity of chemotherapeutic drugs has opened new perspectives for their application in combined cancer chemotherapy. In this study, the biological activity of the saponin fraction isolated from Lysimachia ciliata (denoted as CIL-1/2) was evaluated to assess its chemosensitizing activity in prostate cancer cell lines (DU-145, PC-3)...
October 13, 2016: Planta Medica
Kenn Foubert, Taposh Gorella, Ahmad Faizal, Paul Cos, Louis Maes, Sandra Apers, Danny Geelen, Luc Pieters
Within an ongoing research program on saponins with potential antileishmanial activity, four previously undescribed saponins were isolated from Maesa argentea leaves and identified by LC-MS/MS, GC-MS, and 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy as 3β-O-{([β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1 → 3)]-[β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1 → 2)]-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl)}-21β-angeloyloxy-22α-butanoyloxy-13β,28-oxidoolean-16α,28α-diol (1), 3β-O-{([β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1 → 3)]-[β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1 → 2)]-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl)}-21β,22α-angeloyloxy-13β,28-oxidoolean-16α,28α-diol (2), 3β-O-{([β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1 → 3)]-[β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1 → 2)]-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl)}-21β-angeloyloxy-22α-(E)-cinnamoyloxy-13β,28-oxidoolean-16α,28α-diol (3), and 3β-O-{([α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1 → 3)]-[β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1 → 2)]-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl)}-21β-angeloyloxy-22α-(E)-cinnamoyloxy-13β,28-oxidoolean-16α,28α-diol (4)...
October 13, 2016: Planta Medica
Samara Requena Nocchi, Mychelle Vianna Pereira Companhoni, João Carlos Palazzo de Mello, Benedito Prado, Dias Filho, Celso Vataru Nakamura, Carlos Alexandre Carollo, Denise Brentan Silva, Tânia Ueda-Nakamura
Herpes simplex virus infections persist throughout the lifetime of the host and affect more than 80 % of the humans worldwide. The intensive use of available therapeutic drugs has led to undesirable effects, such as drug-resistant strains, prompting the search for new antiherpetic agents. Although diverse bioactivities have been identified in Schinus terebinthifolia, its antiviral activity has not attracted much attention. The present study evaluated the antiherpetic effects of a crude hydroethanolic extract from the stem bark of S...
October 5, 2016: Planta Medica
Gloria Crespo, Víctor González-Menéndez, Mercedes de la Cruz, Jesús Martín, Bastien Cautain, Pilar Sánchez, Ignacio Pérez-Victoria, Francisca Vicente, Olga Genilloud, Fernando Reyes
During a high-throughput screening program focused on the discovery and characterization of new antifungal compounds, a total of 8320 extracts from Fundacion MEDINA's collection were screened against a panel of 6 fungal parasitic strains, namely Candida glabrata, Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, Candida albicans, and Aspergillus fumigatus. A total of 127 extracts displayed antifungal properties and, after LC/MS dereplication, 10 were selected for further fractionation. Bioassay-guided fractionation from a 1-L fermentation of one of these extracts, belonging to the fungus Chaetopsina sp...
October 5, 2016: Planta Medica
Ik-Soo Lee, Yu Jin Kim, Seung-Hyun Jung, Joo-Hwan Kim, Jin Sook Kim
In our ongoing efforts to identify effective naturally sourced agents for the treating of diabetic complications, two new (1 and 2) and 11 known phenolic compounds (3-13) were isolated from an 80 % ethanol extract of Litsea japonica leaves. The structures of the new compounds were established by spectroscopic and chemical studies. These isolates (1-13) were subjected to an in vitro bioassay evaluating their inhibitory activity on advanced glycation end products formation and rat lens aldose reductase activity...
September 30, 2016: Planta Medica
Martin Flemmig, André Domsalla, Harshadrai Rawel, Matthias F Melzig
A protease called Mauritanicain was isolated from the latex of Euphorbia mauritanica L. (Euphorbiaceae) by combining ion exchange chromatography, ultrafiltration, and gel filtration chromatography. It has a high proteolytic activity against casein. The activity was only inhibited by specific serine protease inhibitors, classifying it to the serine protease family. An optimal degradation of the substrate casein takes place at a temperature of 55-65 °C and a pH of 5.5-6.5, and is unstable at pH < 5 and pH > 9...
September 28, 2016: Planta Medica
Min Li, Fen Liu, Yong-Ri Jin, Xiao-Zhong Wang, Qian Wu, Ying Liu, Xu-Wen Li
Five new triterpenoid saponins (1-5) and four known triterpenoid saponins, ginsenoside Re5 (6), majonoside R1 (7), 24(R)-majonoside R1 (8), and ginsenoside Rf (9), were isolated from the rhizomes of Panacis majoris. The structures of new compounds were elucidated as (20S,24S,25R*)-6-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-dammar-20,24-epoxy-3β,6α,12β,25,26-pentaol (1), (20S,24R,25R)-6-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-dammar-20,24-epoxy-3β,6α,12β,25,26-pentaol (2), (20S)-6-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-dammar-20,25-epoxy-3β,6α,12β,24α-tetraol (3), 6-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-dammar-3β,6α,12β,20S,24R,25-hexaol (4), and 6-O-[β-D-glucop-yranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-dammar-25(26)-ene-3β,6α,12β,20S,24R-pentaol (5) on the basis of extensive spectral analysis and chemical methods...
September 27, 2016: Planta Medica
Xiaomeng Tian, Hui Li, Faliang An, Ruijun Li, Miaomiao Zhou, Minghua Yang, Lingyi Kong, Jun Luo
Twelve new limonoids (khasenegasins O-Z; 1-12) with three different kinds of skeletons, including eight mexicanolides, two gedunins, and two andirobins, together with four known limonoids (13-16) were isolated from the seeds of Khaya senegalensis. Their structures were determined by extensive spectroscopic analyses (HR-ESI-MS, 1D/2D NMR), and the absolute configurations of 1 and 2 were established by the electronic circular dichroism exciton chirality method. Moreover, a new andirobin-type limonoid (12) showed significant neuroprotective activity against glutamate-induced injury in primary rat cerebellar granule neuronal cells with increased viability of 83...
September 20, 2016: Planta Medica
Mariana Andrea Peralta, María Angel da Silva, María Gabriela Ortega, José Luis Cabrera, María Gabriela Paraje
Several studies report that (+)-usnic acid, a lichen secondary metabolite, inhibits growth of different bacteria and fungi; however, the mechanism of its antimicrobial activity remains unknown. In this study, we explored the ability of usnic acid, obtained from Usnea amblyoclada, as an antibiofilm agent against azole-resistant and azole-sensitive Candida albicans strains by studying the cellular stress and antioxidant response in biofilms. The biofilm inhibitory concentration of usnic acid (4 µg/mL) exhibited a significant biofilm inhibition, 71...
September 20, 2016: Planta Medica
Ling Wang, Xue Wang, Xiao-Ming Zhu, Yan-Qi Liu, Wen-Juan Du, Jun Ji, Xin He, Chun-Feng Zhang, Fei Li, Chang-Run Guo, Chong-Zhi Wang, Chun-Su Yuan
The present study aimed to investigate the gastroprotective activity of the total alkaloids from the bark of Phellodendron amurense and identify their possible mechanism. Total alkaloids were obtained through an alcohol extraction method and were analyzed using LC-MS/MS. Chronic gastric ulcers were induced by acetic acid (0.14 mol/L) filter paper on the gastric serosa. The antiulcer effect of total alkaloids was evaluated using the ulcer area, the ulcer inhibition ratio, and epidermal growth factor. The gastroprotective mechanism of total alkaloids was revealed using the levels of serotonin and noradrenaline...
September 20, 2016: Planta Medica
Gregory Marslin, Bruno Filipe Carmelino Cardoso Sarmento, Gregory Franklin, José Alberto Ribeiro Martins, Carlos Jorge Ribeiro Silva, Andreia Ferreira Castro Gomes, Marisa Passos Sárria, Olga Maria Fernandes Pereira Coutinho, Alberto Carlos Pires Dias
Curcumin is a natural polyphenolic compound isolated from turmeric (Curcuma longa) with well-demonstrated neuroprotective and anticancer activities. Although curcumin is safe even at high doses in humans, it exhibits poor bioavailability, mainly due to poor absorption, fast metabolism, and rapid systemic elimination. To overcome these issues, several approaches, such as nanoparticle-mediated targeted delivery, have been undertaken with different degrees of success. The present study was conducted to compare the neuroprotective effect of curcumin encapsulated in poly(ε-caprolactone) and methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) poly(ε-caprolactone) nanoparticles in U251 glioblastoma cells...
September 14, 2016: Planta Medica
Pornwimon Lomchid, Pitak Nasomjai, Somdej Kanokmedhakul, Jaursup Boonmak, Sujittra Youngme, Kwanjai Kanokmedhakul
Two lupane and hopane caffeates (1 and 4) and two hopane coumarates (2 and 3) along with eight known compounds (5-12) were isolated from stems and roots of Lepisanthes senegalensis. Their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic techniques. The structure of compound 2 was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Triterpenes 1 and 4-6 showed cytotoxicity against the NCI-H187 cell line with IC50 values of 31.5, 28.5, 16.2, and 4.0 µM, respectively. However, these compounds also showed cytotoxicity against Vero cells, with IC50 values of 75...
September 12, 2016: Planta Medica
Pavel Tomšík, Stanislav Mičuda, Darina Muthná, Eva Čermáková, Radim Havelek, Emil Rudolf, Miloš Hroch, Zuzana Kadová, Martina Řezáčová, Jana Ćmielová, Pavel Živný
Boldine is an aporphine alkaloid widely consumed in the folk medicine of some regions. Its anticancer potential has been shown but not yet elucidated. We compared the antitumor effect of orally and parenterally applied boldine in mice bearing solid Ehrlich tumor. We also explored the effects of boldine on breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells in vitro. Repeated i. p. injections of 30, 60, or 90 mg boldine/kg, either alone or combined with doxorubicin, slowed tumor growth in vivo. The latter two doses also prolonged the post-therapeutic survival of the mice...
September 9, 2016: Planta Medica
Vivian E Cornelio, Moacir R Forim, Bruno Perlatti, João B Fernandes, Paulo C Vieira, Michael P Napolitano, Richard A Yost, Maria Fátima G F da Silva
Indiscriminate use of synthetic pesticides can be hazardous to both humans and the environment, but the use of natural products as a source of bio-based products, such as Melia azedarach extracts, is an interesting approach to overcome these hazards. Unfortunately, the limonoids found in M. azedarach with desired insecticidal properties (e.g. azadirachtin) may also be present with limonoids toxic to mammals. The goal of this report was to develop a fast and reliable MS-based experiment to characterize meliatoxins in crude extracts of M...
September 6, 2016: Planta Medica
Sergio Alegre-Gómez, Paula Sainz, M Fátima Simões, Patrícia Rijo, Cristina Moiteiro, Azucena González-Coloma, Rafael A Martínez-Díaz
Twenty-seven diterpenes, including abietanes, labdanes, abeoabietanes, halimanes, and pimaranes, have been evaluated against epimastigote and intracellular amastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi and also against LC5 and NCTC cell lines. Royleanones (3, 4, and 5) and a further abietane (12), obtained by purification of Plectranthus spp. extracts, were the most active compounds on epimastigotes, showing IC50 values similar (1.73 µg/mL, 12) or even lower (0.39, 0.99, and 1.20 µg/mL, 3, 4, and 5 respectively) than the positive control nifurtimox (2...
September 6, 2016: Planta Medica
Anna Herman, Andrzej P Herman
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized histologically by hyperproliferation and aberrant differentiation of epidermal keratinocytes. A wide range of conventional medical therapies to treat psoriasis is established, from topical therapies and systemic medications through to phototherapy or combinations of those. However, most of these therapies have a limited efficacy and may cause a number of side effects, including cutaneous atrophy, organ toxicity, carcinogenicity, and broadband immunosuppression, which are restricting their long-term use...
August 30, 2016: Planta Medica
Jetsada Ruangsuriya, Piyaporn Budprom, Nawarat Viriyakhasem, Patiwat Kongdang, Chatchadawalai Chokchaitaweesuk, Nutnicha Sirikaew, Siriwadee Chomdej, Korakot Nganvongpanit, Siriwan Ongchai
Zingerone, an active compound that is present in cooked ginger, has been claimed to be a bioactive ingredient that holds the potential of preventing and/or treating diseases involving inflammation. In this study, zingerone was used to discover its properties against joint inflammation using interleukin-1β-induced osteoarthritis in cartilage explant and cell culture models. Zingerone was supplemented into the cartilage explant and cell culture media at different concentrations along with the presence of interleukin-1β, an inducer of osteoarthritis...
August 30, 2016: Planta Medica
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