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Planta Medica

Clizia Guccione, Maria Camilla Bergonzi, Khaled M Awada, Vieri Piazzini, Anna Rita Bilia
The aim of this study was the development and characterization of lipid nanocarriers using food grade components for oral delivery of Serenoa repens CO2 extract, namely microemulsions (MEs) and self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems (SMEDDSs) to improve the oral absorption. A commercial blend (CB) containing 320 of S. repens CO2 extract plus the aqueous soluble extracts of nettle root and pineapple stem was formulated in two MEs and two SMEDDSs. The optimized ME loaded with the CB (CBM2) had a very low content of water (only 17...
March 15, 2018: Planta Medica
Emmy Tuenter, Kenn Foubert, Luc Pieters
Cocoa and chocolate, prepared from cocoa beans that originate from the fruits of the cocoa tree Theobroma cacao , have a long-standing reputation as healthy food, including mood-enhancing effects. In spite of many clinical trials with chocolate, cocoa, or its constituents, the mechanisms of action on mood and cognition remain unclear. More in particular, it is still controversial which constituents may contribute to the psychopharmacological activities, ranging from the major cacao flavanols and methylxanthines to the minor amines, amides, and alkaloids...
March 14, 2018: Planta Medica
Mei Wang, Vijayasankar Raman, Jianping Zhao, Bharathi Avula, Yan-Hong Wang, Philip L Wylie, Ikhlas A Khan
Correct identification of the true bay leaf ( Laurus nobilis ) and its substitutes is important not only for the quality control of the products, but also for the safety of the consumers. L. nobilis is often substituted or confused with other species, such as Cinnamomum tamala, Pimenta racemosa, Syzygium polyanthum , and Umbellularia californica. In the present study, the potential of gas chromatography combined with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry for the profiling of various bay leaf products was evaluated for the first time...
March 14, 2018: Planta Medica
Sarah Berndt, Mark E Issa, Gilles Carpentier, Muriel Cuendet
The effects of genistein on angiogenesis remain poorly understood. Some studies claim an antiangiogenic effect and others claim a pro-angiogenic one. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine if genistein may exhibit bivalent angiogenic effects. To address this question, genistein angiogenic modulatory effects were examined using an in vitro 3D angiogenesis model using human umbilical vein endothelial cells. In this model, a bivalent effect of genistein was demonstrated on sprouting angiogenesis, with angiogenic stimulation at low concentrations (0...
March 14, 2018: Planta Medica
John Parker, Amanda N Schellenberger, Amy L Roe, Hellen Oketch-Rabah, Angela I Calderón
The attraction of novel foods proceeds alongside epidemic cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, and related risk factors. Dieticians have identified chia ( Salvia hispanica ) as a product with a catalog of potential health benefits relating to these detriments. Chia is currently consumed not only as seeds, but also as oil, which brings about similar effects. Chia seeds and chia seed oil are used mainly as a food commodity and the oil is also used popularly as a dietary ingredient used in various dietary supplements available in the U...
March 13, 2018: Planta Medica
Rosa Tundis, Monica Rosa Loizzo
The genus Santolina is a taxonomically complex group of plant species widely distributed in the Mediterranean flora and used in traditional medicine since ancient times for their biological properties, including antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, digestive, and analgesic activities. Phytochemical investigations of Santolina species have revealed the presence of terpenoids as the main bioactive constituents of the genus. Coumarins and flavonoids were also identified. This review deals, for the first time, with information on the traditional uses, chemical profile, and biological properties of plants of the genus Santolina in order to provide input for future research prospects...
March 8, 2018: Planta Medica
Suvi T Häkkinen, Heli Nygren, Natalia Maiorova, Raisa Haavikko, Sami Alakurtti, Jari Yli-Kauhaluoma, Heiko Rischer, Kirsi-Marja Oksman-Caldentey
In this study, three semisynthetic betulonic acid-based compounds, 20(29)-dihydrolup-2-en[2,3- d ]isoxazol-28-oic acid, 1-betulonoylpyrrolidine, and lupa-2,20(29)-dieno[2,3- b ]pyrazin-28-oic acid, were studied in biotransformation experiments using Nicotiana tabacum and Catharanthus roseus cell suspension cultures. Biotransformation was performed using cyclodextrin to aid dissolving poorly water-soluble substrates. Several new derivatives were found, consisting of oxidized and glycosylated (pentose- and hexose-conjugated) products...
March 8, 2018: Planta Medica
Mayuree Kanlayavattanakul, Nattaya Lourith
Skin hyperpigmentation is caused by several factors that upregulate melanogenesis. Plants and natural products with skin-whitening effects are gaining interest among consumers and researchers because they are perceived to be milder, safer, and healthier than synthetic alternatives. This review extensively summarizes the status of plants and natural products currently used in skin-whitening cosmetics as well as potential candidates for future use, because the scope of natural choices for efficient treatment of skin hyperpigmentation is rapidly widening...
March 5, 2018: Planta Medica
Szilvia Czigle, Jaroslav Tóth, Nikoletta Jedlinszki, Erzsébet Háznagy-Radnai, Dezső Csupor, Daniela Tekeľová
The aim of this study was to prove whether Ginkgo biloba food supplements on the European market comply with pharmaceutical quality, and whether their composition satisfies the European Pharmacopoeia criteria. Medicinal products containing a standardised Ginkgo leaf extract are used for the improvement of cognitive impairment and quality of life in mild dementia. Further, Ginkgonis folium is used for the treatment of peripheral circulation disorders. Pharmacopoeial Ginkgo dry extract contains 22.0 - 27...
March 5, 2018: Planta Medica
Ulrike Steiner, Eckhard Leistner
Naturally occurring and semisynthetic ergot alkaloids play a role in health care or as recreational drugs in Western and indigenous Mexican societies. Evidence is summarized that ergot alkaloids present in Central American Convolvulaceae like Turbina corymbosa, Ipomoea violacea , and Ipomoea asarifolia are colonized by different species of a newly described clavicipitaceous fungal genus named Periglandula . The fungi are associated with peltate glandular trichomes on the adaxial leaf surface of its host plants...
March 2, 2018: Planta Medica
Sheela Verjee, Anna Weston, Christiane Kolb, Heba Kalbhenn-Aziz, Veronika Butterweck
Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis plays an important part in the development of depressive symptoms. In this study, the effects of a commercial St. John's wort extract (STW3-VI), hyperforin, miquelianin, and the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram on the expression of genes relevant to HPA axis function were investigated in human neuronal cells. SH-SY5Y cells were treated with STW3-VI (20 µg/mL), hyperforin (1 µM), miquelianin (10 µM), or citalopram (10 µM) in the presence of the glucocorticoid receptor agonist dexamethasone (DEX,10 µM) for 6 h and 48 h, respectively...
March 2, 2018: Planta Medica
Sianne L Schwikkard, Hannah Whitmore, Timothy W Corson, Kamakshi Sishtla, Moses K Langat, Mark Carew, Dulcie A Mulholland
The Hyacinthaceae family ( sensu APGII), with approximately 900 species in around 70 genera, plays a significant role in traditional medicine in Africa as well as across Europe and the Middle and Far East. The dichloromethane extract of the bulbs of Massonia pustulata (Hyacinthaceae sensu APGII) yielded two known homoisoflavonoids, ( R )-5-hydroxy-3-(4-hydroxybenzyl)-7-methoxy-4-chromanone 1: and 5-hydroxy-3-(4-hydroxybenzyl)-7-methoxy-4-chromone 2: and four spirocyclic nortriterpenoids, eucosterol 3: , 28-hydroxyeucosterol 4: and two previously unreported triterpenoid derivatives, ( 17S,23S )-17 α ,23-epoxy-3 β ,22 β ,29-trihydroxylanost-8-en-27,23-olide 5: , and ( 17S, 23S )-17 α ,23-epoxy-28,29-dihydroxylanost-8-en-3-on-27,23-olide 6: ...
February 28, 2018: Planta Medica
Nadine A Pringle, Trevor C Koekemoer, Andrea Holzer, Carly Young, Luanne Venables, Maryna van de Venter
The process of wound healing constitutes an ordered sequence of events that provides numerous opportunities for therapeutic intervention to improve wound repair. Rooibos, Aspalathus linearis , is a popular ingredient in skin care products, however, little scientific data exists exploring its therapeutic potential. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of fermented and aspalathin-enriched green rooibos in various in vitro models representative of dermal wound healing. Treatment of RAW 264.7 macrophages with fermented rooibos resulted in increased nitric oxide production as well as increased levels of cellular inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2, which are typical markers for classically activated macrophages...
February 28, 2018: Planta Medica
Benyakan Pongkitwitoon, Seiichi Sakamoto, Rika Nagamitsu, Waraporn Putalun, Hiroyuki Tanaka, Satoshi Morimoto
Homoharringtonine (HHT), also known as omacetaxine, is a natural compound found in the genus Cephalotaxus and is a promising pharmaceutical drug used for the treatment of chronic or accelerated phase chronic myeloid leukemia. As a tool for the quantitative determination of HHT, a specific monoclonal antibody against HHT (MAb 6A1) was generated by conjugates prepared via sodium periodate-mediated oxidation. The developed indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA) using MAb 6A1 was found to be highly specific and sensitive with a limit of detection for HHT of 48...
February 28, 2018: Planta Medica
Débora Arruda Frommenwiler, Jonghwan Kim, Chang-Soo Yook, Thi Thu Trang Tran, Salvador Cañigueral, Eike Reich
The quality of herbal drugs is usually controlled using several tests recommended in a monograph. HPTLC is the method of choice for identification in many pharmacopoeias. If combined with a suitable reference material for comparison, HPTLC can provide information beyond identification and thus may simplify quality control. This paper describes, as a proof of concept, how HPTLC can be applied to define specifications for an herbal reference material and to control the quality of an herbal drug according to these specifications...
February 28, 2018: Planta Medica
Alyne Lizane Cardoso, Sheyla de Liz, Débora Kurrle Rieger, Ana Carolina Aguiar Farah, Francilene Gracieli Kunradi Vieira, Maria Alice Altenburg de Assis, Patricia Faria Di Pietro
The palm tree Euterpe edulis , known as juçara, produces spherical and purple fruits, similar to those of the Euterpe oleracea and Euterpe precatoria palm trees, from which the common name açaí originates. Juçara fruit has been gaining prominence in the scientific world for its interesting nutritional composition, which is rich in antioxidants, and for its sustainable production model. Recently, relevant biological activities have been associated with the juçara fruit, and its use in alimentation has become an important nutritional, environmental, and economic alternative...
February 21, 2018: Planta Medica
Sven Stadlbauer, Carmen Steinborn, Amy Klemd, Fumihiko Hattori, Ken Ohmori, Keisuke Suzuki, Roman Huber, Philipp Wolf, Carsten Gründemann
Among the known or suspected risk factors, inflammation plays an important role in infectious and non-infectious pathways leading to cancer. Green tea polyphenols have been associated with reducing inflammation and protection against carcinogenesis, especially in prostate cancer. While most of the research in this field, so far, has focussed on epigallocatechin-3- O -gallate only, we studied epicatechin-3- O -gallate, the second most abundant green tea polyphenol with essential therapeutic potential, to obtain a more detailed understanding of its anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory action...
February 21, 2018: Planta Medica
Rachel Mata, Mario Figueroa, Isabel Rivero-Cruz, Martha L Macías-Rubalcava
Fungi have consistently been one of the richest sources of natural products, with unprecedented chemical scaffolds and potent biological activities. During the last 20 years, pharmacognosy researchers in Mexico, in collaboration with mycologists, have discovered many novel bioactive fungi natural products and new fungal species. To date, more than 100 bioactive secondary metabolites from 20 fungi from different ecosystems throughout Mexico have been documented in peer-reviewed literature according to Scopus and SciFinder databases...
February 1, 2018: Planta Medica
Delphine Parrot, Stefano Papazian, Daniel Foil, Deniz Tasdemir
Imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) has recently established itself in the field of "spatial metabolomics." Merging the sensitivity and fast screening of high-throughput mass spectrometry with spatial and temporal chemical information, IMS visualizes the production, location, and distribution of metabolites in intact biological models. Since metabolite profiling and morphological features are combined in single images, IMS offers an unmatched chemical detail on complex biological and microbiological systems. Thus, IMS-type "spatial metabolomics" emerges as a powerful and complementary approach to genomics, transcriptomics, and classical metabolomics studies...
January 31, 2018: Planta Medica
Rabia Johnson, Dalene de Beer, Phiwayinkosi V Dludla, Daneel Ferreira, Christo J F Muller, Elizabeth Joubert
Aspalathin is a C-glucosyl dihydrochalcone that is abundantly present in Aspalathus linearis. This endemic South African plant, belonging to the Cape Floristic region, is normally used for production of rooibos, a herbal tea. Aspalathin was valued initially only as precursor in the formation of the characteristic red-brown colour of "fermented" rooibos, but the hype about the potential role of natural antioxidants to alleviate oxidative stress, shifted interest in aspalathin to its antioxidant properties and subsequently, its potential role to improve metabolic syndrome, a disease condition interrelated with oxidative stress...
January 31, 2018: Planta Medica
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