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Planta Medica

Mei Wang, Amar G Chittiboyina, Jon F Parcher, Zulfiqar Ali, Paul Ford, Jianping Zhao, Bharathi Avula, Yan-Hong Wang, Ikhlas A Khan
The growing demand and commercial value of black pepper ( Piper nigrum ) has resulted in considerable interest in developing suitable and cost-effective methods for chemical characterization and quality evaluation purposes. In the current study, an extensive set of oil samples (n = 23) that were extracted by steam distillation from black pepper seeds was investigated to compare the chemical profiles of samples originating from nine major producing countries, as well as to identify potential chemical markers for quality evaluation...
November 15, 2018: Planta Medica
Jianqiang Zhang, Qian Zhang, Yangrong Xu, Huixiang Li, Fenglan Zhao, Chaoming Wang, Zhi Liu, Pan Liu, Yanan Liu, Qingguo Meng, Feng Zhao
Ginseng is a perennial herb that contains various medicinal substances. The major active constituents of ginseng are ginsenosides, which have multifarious biological activities. Some pharmacological activities are closely dependent on the stereoisomers derived from the configuration at C20. In this study, the in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of C20 epimeric ocotillol-type triterpenes (2, 3, 9: , and 10: ) and protopanaxadiol [20( S / R )-protopanaxadiol] were investigated. Epimers 2: and 3: were prepared starting from 20( S )-protopanaxadiol...
October 31, 2018: Planta Medica
Rodrigo Moreira da Silva, Cristiane Masetto de Gaitani, Lucas Maciel Mauriz Marques, Karina Fraige Baraco, Alberto José Cavalheiro, Luiz Alberto Beraldo de Moraes, Norberto Peporine Lopes, Anderson Rodrigo Moraes de Oliveira
Casearin X (CAS X) is the major clerodane diterpene isolated from the leaves of Casearia sylvestris and has been extensively studied due to its powerful cytotoxic activity at low concentrations. Promising results for in vivo antitumor action have also been described when CAS X was administered intraperitoneally in mice. Conversely, loss of activity was observed when orally administered. Since the advancement of natural products as drug candidates requires satisfactory bioavailability for their pharmacological effect, this work aimed to characterize the CAS X metabolism by employing an in vitro microsomal model for the prediction of preclinical pharmacokinetic data...
October 29, 2018: Planta Medica
Anju Benny, Jaya Thomas
Alzheimer's disease is a multifarious neurodegenerative disease that causes cognitive impairment and gradual memory loss. Several hypotheses have been put forward to postulate its pathophysiology. Currently, few drugs are available for the management of Alzheimer's disease and the treatment provides only symptomatic relief. Our aim is to review the relevant in vitro, in vivo , and clinical studies focused toward the potential uses of essential oils in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Scientific databases such as PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, and Google Scholar from April 1998 to June 2018 were explored to collect data...
October 25, 2018: Planta Medica
Riham Salah El Dine, Hossam M Abdallah, Zeinab A Kandil, Ahmed A Zaki, Shabana I Khan, Ikhlas A Khan
Anabasis articulata , traditionally used to treat diabetes, is rich in saponin content. This study was performed to investigate the agonistic effect of its saponins on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor- α and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor- γ in human hepatoma (HepG2) cells to explore the possibility of the involvement of these nuclear receptors in the mechanism of the antidiabetic effect of the plant. Chemical investigation of the n -butanol fraction resulted in the isolation of three new and one known 30-noroleanane triterpenoid saponins...
October 25, 2018: Planta Medica
Fatiqa Zafar, Nazish Jahan, Haq Nawaz Bhatti
The aim of the present study was to enhance the pharmaceutical potential and oral bioavailability of piperine, which is the bioactive constituent of Piper nigrum , using the nanosuspension approach. Nanoprecipitation, which is a simple and reproducible process, was used for nanosuspension formulation. To prepare a pharmaceutical-grade nanosuspension with the required particle size, important formulation parameters (amount of plant extract, concentration of stabilizer, and antisolvent-to-solvent ratio) were optimized using the central composite design of response surface methodology...
October 24, 2018: Planta Medica
Iwona J Stanisławska, Sebastian Granica, Jakub P Piwowarski, Joanna Szawkało, Krzysztof Wiązecki, Zbigniew Czarnocki, Anna K Kiss
The gut microbiota-derived metabolites of ellagitannins and green tea catechins, urolithin A (uroA) and 5-(3',4',5'-trihydroxyphenyl)- γ -valerolactone (M4), respectively, are among the main compounds absorbed into human system after ingestion of these polyphenols. The aim of this study was to establish the effects of M4, uroA, and their combinations on LNCaP cells, an androgen dependent prostate cancer in vitro model.. The LNCaP cells were incubated with increasing concentrations of tested metabolites. The cell proliferation was determined by measurement of DNA-bisbenzimide H 33 258 complexes fluorescence...
October 19, 2018: Planta Medica
Ligen Lin, Fayang Zhou, Shengnan Shen, Tian Zhang
Liver fibrosis is a wound-healing response characterized by the accumulation of extracellular matrix following various liver injuries, which results in the deformation of the normal liver architecture and the development of liver cirrhosis and even hepatocellular carcinoma. Numerous in vitro and in vivo studies indicated that oxidative stress mediates the initiation and progression of liver fibrosis. Overaccumulation of reactive oxygen species disrupts macromolecules, induces necrosis and apoptosis of hepatocytes, stimulates the production of pro-fibrogenic mediators, and directly activates hepatic stellate cells, thereby resulting in liver damage and initiating liver fibrosis...
October 12, 2018: Planta Medica
Birte Scharf, Jandirk Sendker, Ulrich Dobrindt, Andreas Hensel
LC-MS characterized cranberry extract from the fruits of Vaccinium macrocarpon inhibited under in vitro conditions the bacterial adhesion of Escherichia coli strain 2980 uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC strains UTI89, NU14) to T24 bladder cells and adhesion of UPEC strain CFT073 to A498 kidney cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Within a biomedical study, urine samples from 16 volunteers (8 male, 8 female) consuming cranberry extract for 7 d (900 mg/d) were analyzed for potential antiadhesive activity against UPEC by ex vivo experiments...
October 12, 2018: Planta Medica
Yu Lei, Peng Fu, Xie Jun, Peng Cheng
Geraniol is an acyclic isoprenoid monoterpene isolated from the essential oils of aromatic plants including Cinnamomum tenuipilum, Valeriana officinalis , and several other plants. The limited source of geraniol from plant isolation cannot fulfill the great demand from the flavor and fragrance industries, which require maximizing geraniol production through biotechnology processes. The diverse activities of geraniol suggested that geraniol could treat various diseases as a promising drug candidate. In order to evaluate the potential of geraniol applied in a clinical trial, this review aims at providing a comprehensive summary of the pharmacological effects of geraniol...
October 11, 2018: Planta Medica
Hyejin Joo, Jinhyun Bae, Jun-Seon Lee, Yumi Bang, Beom-Joon Lee, Jae-Woo Park, Kyungjin Lee, Jae-Heung Cho, Youngmin Bu
Epimedii Herba (EH) has been used in traditional Asian medicine to treat hemiplegia following stroke. Icariin, its major active component, is used as a quality-control marker and for its various pharmacological effects. We hypothesized that icariin would show protective effects following traumatic brain injury (TBI). The TBI mouse model was induced using a controlled cortical impact method. Body weight, brain damage, motor function, and cognitive function were evaluated. Synaptogenesis markers were analyzed to investigate potential mechanisms of action...
October 9, 2018: Planta Medica
Maonian Xu, Starri Heidmarsson, Margret Thorsteinsdottir, Pawel Wasowicz, Hang Sun, Tao Deng, Sesselja Omarsdottir, Elin Soffia Olafsdottir
The alkaloids huperzine A and huperzine B were originally isolated from the Chinese club moss Huperzia serrata . They are known inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase, and especially huperzine A shows pharmaceutical potential for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Its supply heavily relies on natural plant sources belonging to the genus Huperzia , which shows considerable interspecific huperzine A variations. Furthermore, taxonomic controversy remains in this genus, particularly in the Huperzia selago group...
October 5, 2018: Planta Medica
Meng-Yuan Jiang, Ming Luo, Kai Tian, Yan-Hong Li, Jing-Xian Sun, Ya Lu, Xiao-Yun Pu, Xiang-Zhong Huang
Four new coumestans dolichosins A - D (1: -4: ) were isolated from the roots of Dolichos trilobus , together with four known compounds: isosojagol (5: ), phaseol (6: ), psoralidin (7: ), and 4″,5″-dehydroisopsoralidin (8: ). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data interpretation, mass spectrometric analyses, and the comparison with literature data of related compounds. The anti-inflammatory activity of these compounds (1: -8: ) was evaluated through the inhibition of nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-activated murine macrophage RAW 264...
October 2, 2018: Planta Medica
Beom-Geun Jo, No-June Park, Jonghwan Jegal, Sangho Choi, Sang Woo Lee, Li Wan Yi, Su-Nam Kim, Min-Hye Yang
Stellera chamaejasme , also known as " Langdu ", has been traditionally used for the management of skin-related diseases such as psoriasis and skin ulcers. The aim of this study was to determine whether S. chamaejasme and its major component, luteolin 7- O -glucoside, have a preventive effect on the development of atopic dermatitis in oxazolone-treated BALB/c mice and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-treated hairless mice. The epicutaneous applications of oxazolone and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene evoke an experimental murine atopic dermatitis-like reaction in BALB/c mouse ears and SKH-1 hairless mice...
October 1, 2018: Planta Medica
Xinhui Wang, Dujuan Wang, Xue Wang, Manana Khutsishvili, Kamilla Tamanyan, George Fayvush, Daniel Atha, Youcai Zhang, Robert P Borris
Phytochemical investigation of Camphorosma lessingii has resulted in the isolation of four previously unreported isoflavones (1: -4: ) and eight known compounds (5: -12: ). Nine of these compounds (1: -6, 8: -10: ) are reported for the first time from members of the family Amaranthaceae. The structures of all isolated compounds were determined by spectroscopic methods, primarily one-dimensional and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. The absolute configuration of 6: was confirmed by circular dichroism...
September 24, 2018: Planta Medica
Florian Guenther, Deborah Maus, Sarah Hedtrich, Matthias F Melzig
In recent years, skin reactions such as phytophotodermatitis, contact dermatitis, and other inflammatory responses after contact with chemicals from various plants, e.g., Heracleum mantegazzianum or Hippomane mancinella , are one of the hot topics in phytobiology. Occupational skin inflammation after contact with latices of plants from Euphorbiaceae are common among people who work with plants of this family. Activation of protein kinase C by G protein-coupled receptors such as protease-activated receptors is associated with skin inflammation...
September 24, 2018: Planta Medica
Francyelle Borges Rosa de Moura, Allisson Benatti Justino, Bruno Antonio Ferreira, Foued Salmen Espindola, Fernanda de Assis Araújo, Tatiana Carla Tomiosso
A polyphenol-enriched fraction from Annona crassiflora fruit peel (PEF-Ac) containing chlorogenic acid, epi-catechin, procyanidins B2 and C1, quercetin-glucoside, kaempferol, and caffeoyl-glucoside was investigated for its anti-inflammatory, pro-angiogenic, and profibrogenic potential in the healing of cutaneous wounds. Four wounds were performed on the back of C57 mice and the lesions were treated with the vehicle (Vaseline and lanolin) and PEF-Ac at concentrations of 2%, 4%, and 6% for 4 and 7 d. Neutrophils and macrophages activities were evaluated indirectly by the activity of myeloperoxidase and N-acetyl- β -D-glycosaminidase, angiogenesis was evaluated by hemoglobin dosing and vessel count in histological sections, and collagen deposition was assessed from histological sections stained with picrosirius red...
September 20, 2018: Planta Medica
Qiang-Qiang Shi, Wei-Hua Wang, Jing Lu, Da-Shan Li, Lin Zhou, Ming-Hua Qiu
One new 15,16-seco-cycloartane triterpene (1: ), three new cycloartane triterpene glycosides (2: -4: ), and five known compounds (5: -9: ) were isolated from the aerial parts of Actaea heracleifolia. The chemical structures of these compounds were determined on the basis of NMR analysis, HRTOF-ESIMS data, and other spectroscopic methods. Selected compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against human tumor cell lines (HL-60, SMMC-7721, A549, MCF-7, and SW480) in vitro . Compounds 3: and 4: showed weak activity against the HL-60, A-549, and MCF-7 cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 21...
September 19, 2018: Planta Medica
Hisahiro Kai, Yoshihiro Uesawa, Hisato Kunitake, Kazuhiro Morishita, Yoshihito Okada, Koji Matsuno
Metabolic profiling is often used to identify possible correlations between a compound's metabolic profile and biological activity. Direct-injection electron ionization-mass spectrometry "fingerprinting" is useful for characterizing biological materials. We demonstrate the utility of direct-injection electron ionization-mass spectrometry for metabolic profiling using 100 different extracts of leaves from 20 blueberry cultivars collected at 5 time points from April to December 2008. A qualitative direct-injection electron ionization-mass spectrometry method was used to profile the major and/or minor constituents in the blueberry leaf extracts...
September 13, 2018: Planta Medica
Carmelo Puglia, Debora Santonocito, Teresa Musumeci, Venera Cardile, Adriana Carol Eleonora Graziano, Loredana Salerno, Giuseppina Raciti, Lucia Crascì, Anna Maria Panico, Giovanni Puglisi
Crocin and crocetin are two interesting constituents of saffron ( Crocus sativus ) that possess important biological activities. Their use as therapeutic agents is strongly compromised by a scarce stability, poor absorption, and low bioavailability. Therefore, to improve these unfavorable features, the aim of the present work has been to apply a nanotechnological approach based on the formulation of solid lipid nanoparticles containing crocin and crocetin. Solid lipid nanoparticles were formulated according to crocin and crocetin chemical properties, using a variation of the quasi-emulsion solvent diffusion method to formulate crocin-solid lipid nanoparticles, while crocetin-solid lipid nanoparticles were prepared following the solvent diffusion method...
September 11, 2018: Planta Medica
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