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Planta Medica

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161743/pharmacological-foundations-of-cannabis-chemovars
#1
Mark A Lewis, Ethan B Russo, Kevin M Smith
An advanced Mendelian Cannabis breeding program has been developed utilizing chemical markers to maximize the yield of phytocannabinoids and terpenoids with the aim to improve therapeutic efficacy and safety. Cannabis is often divided into several categories based on cannabinoid content. Type I, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol-predominant, is the prevalent offering in both medical and recreational marketplaces. In recent years, the therapeutic benefits of cannabidiol have been better recognized, leading to the promotion of additional chemovars: Type II, Cannabis that contains both Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol, and cannabidiol-predominant Type III Cannabis...
November 21, 2017: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121679/quality-control-of-valerianae-radix-by-attenuated-total-reflection-fourier-transform-infrared-atr-ftir-spectroscopy
#2
Ramin Nikzad-Langerodi, Katharina Arth, Valerie Klatte-Asselmeyer, Sabine Bressler, Johannes Saukel, Gottfried Reznicek, Christoph Dobeš
(Acetoxy-)valerenic acid and total essential oil content are important quality attributes of pharmacy grade valerian root (Valerianae radix). Traditional analysis of these quantities is time-consuming and necessitates (harmful) solvents. Here we investigated an application of attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for extractionless analysis of these quality attributes on a representative sample comprising 260 wild-crafted individuals covering the Central European taxonomic diversity of the Valeriana officinalis L...
November 9, 2017: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100267/structural-searching-of-biosynthetic-enzymes-to-predict-protein-targets-of-natural-products
#3
Noé Sturm, Ronald J Quinn, Esther Kellenberger
Recently, we have demonstrated that site comparison methodology using flavonoid biosynthetic enzymes as the query could automatically identify structural features common to different flavonoid-binding proteins, allowing for the identification of flavonoid targets such as protein kinases. With the aim of further validating the hypothesis that biosynthetic enzymes and therapeutic targets can contain a similar natural product imprint, we collected a set of 159 crystallographic structures representing 38 natural product biosynthetic enzymes by searching the Protein Databank...
November 3, 2017: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100266/near-infrared-and-mid-infrared-spectroscopic-techniques-for-a-fast-and-nondestructive-quality-control-of-thymi-herba
#4
Cornelia K Pezzei, Stefan A Schönbichler, Shah Hussain, Christian G Kirchler, Verena A Huck-Pezzei, Michael Popp, Justine Krolitzek, Günther K Bonn, Christian W Huck
In this study, novel near-infrared and attenuated total reflectance mid-infrared spectroscopic methods coupled with multivariate data analysis were established enabling the determination of thymol, rosmarinic acid, and the antioxidant capacity of Thymi herba. A new high-performance liquid chromatography method and UV-Vis spectroscopy were applied as reference methods. Partial least squares regressions were carried out as cross and test set validations. To reduce systematic errors, different data pretreatments, such as multiplicative scatter correction, 1st derivative, or 2nd derivative, were applied on the spectra...
November 3, 2017: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096405/isoprenylated-phenolic-compounds-from-morus-macroura-as-potent-tyrosinase-inhibitors
#5
Yifan Wang, Liangjin Xu, Wen Gao, Lixin Niu, Chunyue Huang, Peiming Yang, Xiao Hu
Three new Diels-Alder adducts, macrourins E - G (1-3), one new 2-arylbenzofuran, macrourin H (4), and eight known Diels-Alder adducts (5-12) were isolated from Morus macroura. Their structures were elucidated through extensive analysis of spectroscopic data. The (1)H NMR and ECD trends in the determination of the configurations of these Diels-Alder adducts were summarized. The tyrosinase inhibitory activities of all compounds isolated were evaluated, and the new compounds (1-4) as well as the eight known compounds (5-12) were found to be potent with IC50 values ranging from 0...
November 2, 2017: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096404/cyclopia-extracts-enhance-th1-th2-and-th17-type-t-cell-responses-and-induce-foxp3-cells-in-murine-cell-culture
#6
Shiho Murakami, Yutaka Miura, Makoto Hattori, Hiroshi Matsuda, Christiaan J Malherbe, Christo J F Muller, Elizabeth Joubert, Tadashi Yoshida
Cyclopia genistoides, one of the traditional South African medicinal plants, and other species of the same genus offer noteworthy phenolic profiles, in particular high levels of the anti-allergic xanthone mangiferin. Hot water and 40% ethanol-water (v/v) extracts, prepared from C. genistoides, Cyclopia subternata, and Cyclopia maculata, were tested for immune-regulating activity in vitro using murine splenocytes and mesenteric lymph node cells. The 40% ethanol-water extracts of C. genistoides and C. subternata significantly enhanced production of several types of cytokines, including IL-4, IL-17, and IFN-γ, by antigen-stimulated splenocytes...
November 2, 2017: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076119/identification-of-potential-biomarkers-from-aconitum-carmichaelii-a-traditional-chinese-medicine-using-a-metabolomic-approach
#7
Dake Zhao, Yana Shi, Xinyan Zhu, Li Liu, Pengzhang Ji, Chunlin Long, Yong Shen, Edward J Kennelly
Despite their well-known toxicity, Aconitum species are important traditional medicines worldwide. Aconitum carmichaelii, known in Chinese as (fuzi), is an officially recognized traditional Chinese medicine with characteristic analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities, whose principal pharmacological ingredients are considered as aconitine-type diterpene alkaloids. Notwithstanding the long-recorded use of A. carmichaelii in traditional Chinese medicine, no single-entity aconitum alkaloid drug has been developed for clinical use...
October 26, 2017: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017217/5-4-dihydroxy-7-8-dimethoxyflavanone-and-alizarin-from-dodonaea-viscosa-are-activators-of-ppar%C3%AE
#8
Jing-Jie Zhu, Jun Ji, Ai-Jun Hou, He-Yao Wang
PPARγ agonists are widely used medications in diabetes mellitus therapy. Their role in improving adipose tissue function contribute to the antidiabetic effects. The extracts of Dodonaea viscosa (Sapindaceae) have been reported to exert antidiabetic activity. However, the effective mediators and the underlying mechanisms were largely unknown. In this study, we investigated action on PPARγ transactivation and adipocyte modulation of two typical flavonoid constituents from D. viscosa, 5,4'-dihydroxy-7,8-dimethoxyflavanone (DHDMF) and alizarin...
October 10, 2017: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017216/erratum-for-dna-barcoding-for-industrial-quality-assurance
#9
Tiziana Sgamma, Claire Lockie-Williams, Marco Kreuzer, Sarah Williams, Ulrike Scheyhing, Egon Koch, Adrian Slater, Caroline Howard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 10, 2017: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985643/hyperspectral-imaging-and-support-vector-machine-a-powerful-combination-to-differentiate-black-cohosh-actaea-racemosa-from-other-cohosh-species
#10
Sidonie Tankeu, Ilze Vermaak, Weiyang Chen, Maxleene Sandasi, Guy Kamatou, Alvaro Viljoen
Actaea racemosa (black cohosh) has a history of traditional use in the treatment of general gynecological problems. However, the plant is known to be vulnerable to adulteration with other cohosh species. This study evaluated the use of shortwave infrared hyperspectral imaging (SWIR-HSI) in tandem with chemometric data analysis as a fast alternative method for the discrimination of four cohosh species (Actaea racemosa, Actaea podocarpa, Actaea pachypoda, Actaea cimicifuga) and 36 commercial products labelled as black cohosh...
October 6, 2017: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985642/farrerol-modulates-aorta-gene-expression-profile-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#11
Xiaojiang Qin, Xiaomin Hou, Kun Zhang, Qingshan Li
Farrerol, a typical natural flavanone and major active component in Rhododendron dauricum var. ciliatum, has been shown to possess vasoactive ability in vitro. The aim of this study was to investigate its effect on aorta gene expression in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Twelve-week-old male normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats were treated with orally administered farrerol (50 mg/kg body weight) for 8 wk before they were sacrificed. We found that aorta samples showed 444 upregulated genes in control spontaneously hypertensive rats compared with the control Wistar Kyoto rats...
October 6, 2017: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962049/inhibition-of-tnf-%C3%AE-induced-inflammation-by-sesquiterpene-lactones-from-saussurea-lappa-and-semi-synthetic-analogues
#12
Siwattra Choodej, Khanitha Pudhom, Tohru Mitsunaga
We investigated the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) inhibitory activity of sesquiterpenes from Saussurea lappa root extracts. According to the hexane and EtOAc extracts showing significant activity with IC50 values of 0.5 and 1.0 µg/mL, respectively, chromatographic fractionation of the extracts was performed and led to the isolation of 10 sesquiterpenes (1-10). Costunolide (1), a major compound, and dehydrocostus lactone (4) exhibited high efficiency in decreasing TNF-α levels, with IC50 values of 2...
September 29, 2017: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950383/grincamycins-i%C3%A2-%C3%A2-k-cytotoxic-angucycline-glycosides-derived-from-marine-derived-actinomycete-streptomyces-lusitanus-scsio-lr32
#13
Zhenzhu Lai, Jianchen Yu, Huiping Ling, Yongxiang Song, Jie Yuan, Jianhua Ju, Yiwen Tao, Hongbo Huang
Three new angucycline glycosides, designated grincamycin I (1), J (2), and K (3), together with the known congener A-7884 (4), were isolated from marine-derived actinomycete Streptomyces lusitanus SCSIO LR32. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by comprehensive spectral data analysis. Compounds 2 and 4 exhibited antitumor activity against human cancer cells MDA-MB-435, MDA-MB-231, NCI-H460, HCT-116 and HepG2, and human normal breast epithelial cell MCF10A with IC50 values ranging from 0.4 to 6...
September 26, 2017: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950382/comparison-of-in-vitro-hepatic-scoparone-7-o-demethylation-between-humans-and-experimental-animals
#14
Anam Fayyaz, Seddy Makwinja, Seppo Auriola, Hannu Raunio, Risto O Juvonen
Scoparone is a natural bioactive compound in Chinese herbal medicines. It has numerous pharmacological actions, including liver protective, hypolipidemic, antitumor, and anti-inflammatory effects. The primary metabolism route of scoparone is O-demethylation to scopoletin or isoscopoletin catalyzed by CYP enzymes. The aims of our study were to identify the human CYP enzymes catalyzing scoparone 7-O-demethylation to scopoletin and to compare this oxidation reaction in liver microsomes among different species...
September 26, 2017: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938496/icaritin-improves-antibody-induced-thrombocytopenia-in-a-mouse-model-by-regulating-t-cell-polarization
#15
Chenghong Sun, Jian Yang, Mingzhi Wang, Lihong Pan, Jingchun Yao, Shenglan Wang, Na Guo, Chunyan Li, Guimin Zhang
Previous studies have shown that icaritin (ICT) has significant protective effects on immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), and the present study aimed to discuss the mechanism of this protective effect from the aspect of regulating T-cell polarization by an antibody-induced ITP mice model. Mice were given rat anti-mouse CD41 antibody (MWReg30) by intraperitoneal injection for 7 d to produce ITP model. At the same time, ICT was administrated at 10 mg/kg/d orally for 9 d. Peripheral blood platelets were counted by hematology analyzer...
September 22, 2017: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938495/polyphenol-enriched-fractions-of-cyclopia-intermedia-selectively-affect-lipogenesis-and-lipolysis-in-3t3-l1-adipocytes
#16
Babalwa U Jack, Christiaan J Malherbe, Elize L Willenburg, Dalene de Beer, Barbara Huisamen, Elizabeth Joubert, Christo J F Muller, Johan Louw, Carmen Pheiffer
Cyclopia species are increasingly investigated as sources of phenolic compounds with potential as therapeutic agents. Recently, we demonstrated that a crude polyphenol-enriched organic fraction (CPEF) of Cyclopia intermedia, currently forming the bulk of commercial production, decreased lipid content in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and inhibited body weight gain in obese db/db mice. The aim of the present study was to determine whether a more effective product and/or one with higher specificity could be obtained by fractionation of the CPEF by purposely increasing xanthone and benzophenone levels...
September 22, 2017: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938494/supercritical-fluid-chromatography-in-natural-product-analysis-an-update
#17
Nora Gibitz Eisath, Sonja Sturm, Hermann Stuppner
The wide chemical diversity of natural products has challenged analysts all over the world and has been a driving force for the development of innovative technologies since decades. In the last years, supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) has finally emerged from the shadow of liquid chromatography (LC) and gas chromatography (GC) and has become a powerful tool in modern natural product analysis. Whereas in the past the technique had mainly been restricted to a small group of nonpolar compounds, it has largely expanded its suitability in the last years and has demonstrated possibilities without boundaries...
September 22, 2017: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926863/evaluation-of-cannabinoid-and-terpenoid-content-cannabis-flower-compared-to-supercritical-co2-concentrate
#18
Michelle Sexton, Kyle Shelton, Pam Haley, Mike West
A recent cannabis use survey revealed that 60% of cannabis users rely on smelling the flower to select their cannabis. Olfactory indicators in plants include volatile compounds, principally represented by the terpenoid fraction. Currently, medicinal- and adult-use cannabis is marketed in the United States with relatively little differentiation between products other than by a common name, association with a species type, and Δ-9 tetrahydrocannabinol/cannabidiol potency. Because of this practice, how terpenoid compositions may change during an extraction process is widely overlooked...
September 19, 2017: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926862/comparison-of-the-morphology-anatomy-and-chemical-profile-of-mikania-glomerata-and-mikania-laevigata
#19
Vanessa Cruz de Oliveira Costa, Alexandre Augusto Borghi, Juliana Lischka Sampaio Mayer, Alexandra Christine Helena Frankland Sawaya
Mikania glomerata and Mikania laevigata are medicinal plants popularly used in Brazil for colds and asthma. Although several studies report differences in their composition, they are frequently used indistinctly, which may be due to misidentification of the species or the plant part used. Herein, the chemical, anatomical, and morphological profiles of both species were evaluated, seeking to differentiate them. Due to the pattern of secondary metabolites found in M. glomerata and M. laevigata, the chemical profile of the leaves was the characteristic that best differentiated the two species...
September 19, 2017: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877539/liquid-and-vapor-phase-activity-of-artemisia-annua-essential-oil-against-pathogenic-malassezia-spp
#20
Francesca Santomauro, Rosa Donato, Gabriella Pini, Cristiana Sacco, Roberta Ascrizzi, Anna Rita Bilia
Artemisia annua essential oil has given us many encouraging results for its numerous antimicrobial properties. In this study, the essential oil, both in liquid and in vapor phases, was tested against various Malassezia species closely related to many skin disorders in humans and animals. Malassezia treatment and eradication are mainly based on old azole drugs, which are characterized by poor compliance, unpredictable clinical efficacy, emerging resistance, and several side effects. Monoterpenes (ca. 88%) represent the most abundant group of compounds in the essential oil, mainly the oxygenated derivatives (ca...
September 6, 2017: Planta Medica
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