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Tomáš Řezanka, Irena Kolouchová, Lucia Gharwalová, Jana Doležalová, Linda Nedbalová, Karel Sigler
Mass spectrometry-based shotgun lipidomics was applied to the analysis of sphingolipids of 11 yeast strains belonging to four genera, that is Cryptococcus, Saccharomyces, Schizosaccharomyces, and Wickerhamomyces. The analysis yielded comprehensive results on both qualitative and quantitative representation of complex sphingolipids of three classes-phosphoinositol ceramide (PtdInsCer), mannosyl inositol phosphoceramide (MInsPCer), and mannosyl diinositol phosphoceramide (M(InsP)2 Cer). In total, nearly 150 molecular species of complex sphingolipids were identified...
September 12, 2018: Lipids
Avery L McIntosh, Huan Huang, Danilo Landrock, Gregory G Martin, Shengrong Li, Ann B Kier, Friedhelm Schroeder
Liver fatty-acid-binding protein (FABP1, L-FABP) is the major cytosolic binding/chaperone protein for both precursor arachidonic acid (ARA) and the endocannabinoid (EC) products N-arachidonoylethanolamine (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG). Although FABP1 regulates hepatic uptake and metabolism of ARA, almost nothing is known regarding FABP1's impact on AEA and 2-AG uptake, intracellular distribution, and targeting of AEA and 2-AG to degradative hepatic enzymes. In vitro assays revealed that FABP1 considerably enhanced monoacylglycerol lipase hydrolysis of 2-AG but only modestly enhanced AEA hydrolysis by fatty-acid amide hydrolase...
September 10, 2018: Lipids
Breetha Ramaiyan, Ramaprasad Ravichandra Talahalli
The present study assessed the role of dietary unsaturated fatty acids in maternal dyslipidemia-induced DNA methylation and histone acetylation in placenta and fetal liver and accumulation of lipids in the fetal liver. Weanling female Wistar rats were fed control and experimental diets for 2 months, mated, and continued on their diets during pregnancy. At gestation days of 18-20, rats were euthanized to isolate placenta and fetal liver. DNA methylation, DNA methyl transferase-1 (DNMT1) activity, acetylation of histones (H2A and H2B), and histone acyl transferase (HAT) activity were evaluated in placenta and fetal liver...
September 10, 2018: Lipids
Angeliki Bourtsala, Ioannis Dafnis, Angeliki Chroni, Theodora Farmaki, Dia Galanopoulou
Plants use phospholipase D (PLD, EC acid (PtdOH) for the transduction of environmental signals including those coming from wounding. Based on our previous findings suggesting that wound-induced PLDα-derived PtdOH can act as a local signaling molecule in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), we show that wounding immediately increases local NADPH oxidase (NADPHox) and cellulose synthase A (CeSA) gene expression. After developing a novel fluorimetric assay for the investigation of n-butanol inhibitory effect on PLD activity, we show that only NADPHox gene upregulation is reduced when n-butanol is applied prior to wounding...
September 10, 2018: Lipids
Keshuai Li, Bjørg Egelandsdal, Rolf E Olsen
Some lipid digestion pathways in fish deviate from those in mammals, and many differences may also be species dependent. This report describes a pathway for monoacylglycerol (MAG) and lysophospholipid absorption by intestinal enterocytes in brown trout that may be of significance in salmonids. When culturing primary cells in a medium containing 1- and 2-MAG, we observed a massive hydrolysis of unesterified fatty acids. The hydrolysis activity was retained in the medium even after the removal of the cells. To further characterize these activities, both extracellular and isolated membrane proteins were tested for lipase activity toward triacylglycerol (TAG), diacylglycerol (DAG), MAG, phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho), and lysoPtdCho...
September 10, 2018: Lipids
Alessio Correani, Azzurra Pignotti, Luisita Marinelli, Chiara Biagetti, Rita D'Ascenzo, Luca Vedovelli, Giovanna Verlato, Paola Cogo, Marco B L Rocchi, Virgilio P Carnielli
Parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis (PNAC) has been linked to plasma accumulation of phytosterols in infants receiving vegetable-oil-based lipid emulsions (LE). To date, information on the ability of infants with PNAC to metabolize intravenous (IV) phytosterols has been very limited. We characterized plasma phytosterol half-life in very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants with PNAC. As part of a prospective cohort study, VLBW infants with PNAC underwent serial blood sample measurements of sitosterol (Sito), campesterol (Camp), and stigmasterol (Stigma)...
September 6, 2018: Lipids
Kazuo Mukai, Eri Ishikawa, Aya Ouchi, Shin-Ichi Nagaoka, Koichi Abe, Tomomi Suzuki, Katsuhiro Izumisawa
Recently, a new assay method that can quantify the singlet oxygen-absorption capacity (SOAC) of antioxidants (AO) and food extracts in homogeneous organic solvents has been proposed. In the present study, second-order rate constants (kQ ) for the reaction of singlet oxygen (1 O2 ) with vitamin E homologs (α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocopherols [Toc] and α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocotrienols [Toc-3]) were measured in an aqueous Triton X-100 (5.0 wt%) micellar solution (pH 7.4). Toc-3 showed kQ values larger than those of Toc in a micellar solution, although Toc and Toc-3 showed the same kQ values in a homogeneous solution...
August 28, 2018: Lipids
Shigeaki Shibamoto, Tasuku Murata, Wenjian Lu, Kouhei Yamamoto
The dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) adduct method is one of the more effective methods for determining double bond positions of dienoic acid. The DMDS method can be simply used to obtain the characteristic ions in which cleavage occurs between the methylthio group-added double-bond carbons as can be seen in the mass spectrum obtained using gas chromatography/electron ionization-mass spectrometry. In the case of the methylene-interrupted di-cis type and di-trans type dienoic acid, the DMDS addition reaction only occurs at one double-bond position, and cannot occur at the remaining double-bond position due to steric hindrance...
July 10, 2018: Lipids
Svetlana A Golovko, Mikhail Y Golovko
Although plasma biomarkers would facilitate rapid and accurate diagnosis of ischemic stroke for immediate treatment, no such biomarkers have been developed to date. In the present study, we tested our hypothesis that plasma unesterified fatty acids (FFA) are altered at early stages of acute ischemic stroke. Plasma was collected from mice 2 h after the permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAo) onset, as well as from sham operated and control animals. After 2 h, pMCAo significantly changed the plasma FFA profile with the most dramatic 2- to 3-fold relative increase in very long n-3 and n-6 FFA including 20:4n-6, 22:4n-6, 22:5n-6, and 22:6n-3...
June 2018: Lipids
Yu-Hong Lin, Joseph R Hibbeln, Anthony F Domenichiello, Christopher E Ramsden, Nicholas M Salem, Chuck T Chen, Haksong Jin, Amber B Courville, Sharon F Majchrzak-Hong, Stanley I Rapoport, Richard P Bazinet, Bernard V Miller
The rate at which dietary α-linolenic acid (ALA) is desaturated and elongated to its longer-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in humans is not agreed upon. In this study, we applied a methodology developed using rodents to investigate the whole-body, presumably hepatic, synthesis-secretion rates of esterified n-3 PUFA from circulating unesterified ALA in 2 healthy overweight women after 10 weeks of low-linoleate diet exposure. During continuous iv infusion of d5-ALA, 17 arterial blood samples were collected from each subject at -10, 0, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 150, 180, and 210 min, and at 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 h after beginning infusion...
May 2018: Lipids
Jean-Louis Dupas, Norman F H Ho, Alan F Hofmann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Lipids
Kewei Cao, Yanjun Liu, Yingying Tian, Qin Zhang, Peixu Cong, Hongyan Li, Jie Xu, Zhaojie Li, Jingfeng Wang, Xiangzhao Mao, Changhu Xue
Phospholipase D (PLD) can react with phospholipids as substrates, generally phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho), and the PLD-substrate intermediate can be cleaved by another alcohol, resulting in transphosphatidylation of the substrate, which can be used in the production of special lipids. In this study, the reaction conditions affecting the transphosphatidylation of PtdCho with serine were optimized and the reaction specificity of a novel PLD prepared from Acinetobacter radioresistens a2 was evaluated for transphosphatidylation with a variety of phospholipid substrates and head group donors...
May 2018: Lipids
Sumedha Roy Chowdhuri, Anashuya Biswas Raha, Souvik Mitra, Jayashree Datta, Mousumi Poddar Sarkar
The phospholipids of two moss samples Oreoweisia laxifolia (Hookf.) Kindb. (family-Dicranaceae Schimp.) and Leptodontium viticulosoides (P. Beauv.) Wijk & Margad (family-Pottiaceae Schimp.) of the Eastern Himalayan Biodiversity Hotspot were investigated to find out any peculiarity in their fatty acid profiles. Detailed analysis of phospholipid classes and the respective fatty acids was performed using high-performance thin-layer chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. An array of different saturated and unsaturated fatty acids were detected in both the samples...
May 2018: Lipids
Mervat A Ahmed, Mona A Mohamed, Laila A Rashed, Sohaier A Abd Elbast, Elham A Ahmed
The present study investigated the molecular effects of rice bran oil (RBO) on lipid-regulatory genes (sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 [Srebf1] and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors-α [Ppara]) and the expression of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD1) genes in insulin-resistant rats. Rats were divided into five groups: animals that received standard diet (control); rats fed standard diet containing RBO as the sole source of fat (RBO); a high-fructose diet (HFD) group, which was further divided into two subgroups: rats fed HFD either for only 1 month (HFD1) or for 2 months (HFD2) and rats fed HFD containing RBO for 1 month; while rats in the last group fed HFD for 30 days then treated with RBO for another 30 days...
May 2018: Lipids
Hee Jae Lee, Hana Jung, Hyunnho Cho, Kiuk Lee, Keum Taek Hwang
The objective of this study was to evaluate the beneficial effect of α-linolenic acid-rich black raspberry seed (BRS) oil on lipid metabolism in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese and db/db mice. Five-week-old C57BL/6 mice were fed diets consisting of 50% calories from lard, 5% from soybean, and 5% from corn oil (HFD), or 50% calories from lard and 10% from BRS oil (HFD + BRS oil diet) for 12 weeks. Six-week-old C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice were fed diets consisting of 16% calories from soybean oil (standard diet), 8% from soybean, and 8% from BRS oil, or 16% from BRS oil for 10 weeks...
May 2018: Lipids
Ernst H Oliw
Oxylipin biosynthesis by fungi is catalyzed by both the lipoxygenase (LOX) family and the linoleate diol synthase (LDS) family of the peroxidase-cyclooxygenase superfamily. Rhizoctonia solani, a pathogenic fungus, infects staple crops such as potato and rice. The genome predicts three genes with 9-13 introns, which code for tentative dioxygenase (DOX)-cytochrome P450 fusion enzymes of the LDS family, and one gene, which might code for a 13-LOX. The objective was to determine whether mycelia or nitrogen powder of mycelia oxidized unsaturated C18 fatty acids to LDS- or LOX-related metabolites...
May 2018: Lipids
Kethmi N Jayawardhane, Stacy D Singer, Randall J Weselake, Guanqun Chen
Acyl-lipids such as intracellular phospholipids, galactolipids, sphingolipids, and surface lipids play a crucial role in plant cells by serving as major components of cellular membranes, seed storage oils, and extracellular lipids such as cutin and suberin. Plant lipids are also widely used to make food, renewable biomaterials, and fuels. As such, enormous efforts have been made to uncover the specific roles of different genes and enzymes involved in lipid biosynthetic pathways over the last few decades. sn-Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferases (GPAT) are a group of important enzymes catalyzing the acylation of sn-glycerol-3-phosphate at the sn-1 or sn-2 position to produce lysophosphatidic acids...
May 2018: Lipids
R J Scott Lacombe, Vanessa Giuliano, Raphaël Chouinard-Watkins, Richard P Bazinet
Saturated fatty acids are the most abundant fatty acids in the brain, however, there has been some debate regarding the ability of intact dietary saturated fatty acids to be incorporated into the brain. In the present study, we use compound specific isotope analysis to measure the natural abundance carbon isotopic signature of brain, liver, and blood palmitic acid (PAM) and compare it to the dietary PAM and sugar isotopic signatures to calculate the relative contribution of both the incorporation of intact and endogenously synthesized PAM to these pools...
May 2018: Lipids
Dieter Lütjohann, Adam M Lopez, Jen-Chieh Chuang, Anja Kerksiek, Stephen D Turley
Rett syndrome (RS) is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder resulting from loss-of-function mutations in the X-linked gene methyl-Cpg-binding protein 2 (MECP2). Using a well-defined model for RS, the C57BL6/Mecp2tm1.1Bird mouse, we have previously found a moderate but persistently lower rate of cholesterol synthesis, measured in vivo, in the brains of Mecp2-/y mice, starting from about the third week after birth. There was no genotypic difference in the total cholesterol concentration throughout the brain at any age...
April 2018: Lipids
Kiyofumi Wanibuchi, Kouichi Hosoda, Masato Ihara, Kentaro Tajiri, Yuki Sakai, Hisashi Masui, Takashi Takahashi, Yoshikazu Hirai, Hirofumi Shimomura
Helicobacter pylori infects the human stomach and is closely linked with the development of gastric cancer. When detected, this pathogen can be eradicated from the human stomach using wide-spectrum antibiotics. However, year by year, H. pylori strains resistant to the antibacterial action of antibiotics have been increasing. The development of new antibacterial substances effective against drug-resistant H. pylori is urgently required. Our group has recently identified extremely selective bactericidal effects against H...
April 2018: Lipids
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