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Devin Hasanally, Andrea Edel, Rakesh Chaudhary, Amir Ravandi
Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL) plays an important role in initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. Proatherogenic effects of OxLDL have been attributed to bioactive phospholipids generated during LDL oxidation. It is unknown what effect oxidation has on the phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) molecules in LDL, even though PtdIns is 6% of the total LDL phospholipid pool. We sought to identify and quantitate oxidized phosphatidylinositol (OxPtdIns) species in OxLDL and human atherosclerotic plaque. Bovine liver PtdIns was subjected to non-enzymatic and lipoxygenase-catalyzed oxidation...
December 2, 2016: Lipids
M Florentin, M S Elisaf, C V Rizos, V Nikolaou, E Bilianou, C Pitsavos, E N Liberopoulos
Lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. There are currently limited therapeutic options to lower Lp(a) levels. L-Carnitine has been reported to reduce Lp(a) levels. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of L-carnitine/simvastatin co-administration with that of simvastatin monotherapy on Lp(a) levels in subjects with mixed hyperlipidemia and elevated Lp(a) concentration. Subjects with levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) >160 mg/dL, triacylglycerol (TAG) >150 mg/dL and Lp(a) >20 mg/dL were included in this study...
December 2, 2016: Lipids
Sandra Montero-Villegas, Mónica Polo, Marianela Galle, Boris Rodenak-Kladniew, María Castro, Ana Ves-Losada, Rosana Crespo, Margarita García de Bravo
The essential oils (EOs) of Lippia alba, an herb extensively used as a folk medicine in Latin America, are today promoted as an effective means of eliminating problems caused by hyperlipemia. We hypothesized that L.alba EOs inhibited cholesterol and triacylglycerols synthesis and decreased the intracellular depots of those lipids (lipid droplets), mechanisms involving the induction of a hypolipidemic response. Our aim was, therefore, to evaluate the hypolipogenic capability of the EOs of four L. alba chemotypes on liver-derived (HepG2) and non-liver (A549) human cell lines and to identify the potential biochemical targets of those chemotypes, particularly within the mevalonate pathway (MP)...
November 30, 2016: Lipids
Keshuai Li, Rolf Erik Olsen
sn-2-Monoacylglycerol (2-MAG) and sn-1(3)-monoacylglycerol [1(3)-MAG] are important but yet little studied intermediates in lipid metabolism. The current study compared the metabolic fate of 2-MAG and 1(3)-MAG in isolated caecal enterocytes and hepatocytes of brown trout (Salmo trutta). 1(3)-Oleoyl [9,10-3H(N)]-glycerol and 2-Oleoyl [9,10-3H(N)]-glycerol were prepared by pancreatic lipase digestion of triolein [9,10-3H(N)]. The 1(3)-MAG and 2-MAG were efficiently absorbed by enterocytes and hepatocytes at similar rates...
November 21, 2016: Lipids
Elena A Santalova, Vladimir A Denisenko
In order to identify new structures, the free fatty acids from an extract of a glass sponge Aulosaccus sp. (from the north-west Pacific) belonging to one of the least chemically investigated classes (Hexactinellida), were fractionated by RP-HPLC and analyzed by NMR spectroscopy and GC-MS of their pyrrolidine derivatives, methyl(ethyl) esters and their dimethyl disulfide adducts. One hundred and twenty-three C12-C31 acids (including nine new compounds) were detected, one hundred and ten of these compounds have not been found previously in glass sponges...
November 18, 2016: Lipids
A Baran, M Świderska, Joanna Bacharewicz-Szczerbicka, H Myśliwiec, I Flisiak
Psoriasis is associated with metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Fatty acid-binding proteins (FABP) have been recognized as predictors of these systemic disorders. The aim of this study was to assess correlations between levels of serum heart and adipocyte fatty acid-binding proteins (FABP3, FABP4) and disease severity, indicators of inflammation or metabolic disturbances, and topical treatment in psoriatic patients. Thirty-seven patients with relapse of plaque-type psoriasis and 16 healthy volunteers were recruited...
November 18, 2016: Lipids
Yao Pan, Benxin Liu, Zeyuan Deng, Yawei Fan, Jing Li, Hongyan Li
The effects of two fatty acids, oleic acid (OLA) and elaidic acid (ELA) on normal human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and non-rafts HUVEC were investigated in this study. The expression levels of inflammatory cytokines (ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and IL-6) were analyzed. Western blot was used to analyze the expression levels of inflammation-related proteins (NF-κB, ERK1/2) and toll-like receptors 4 (TLR4). The results showed that the levels of nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 and phosphorylated ERK1/2 were significantly decreased only in non-lipid rafts cells pretreated with trans fatty acid (TFA)...
November 16, 2016: Lipids
P Vahmani, D C Rolland, K E Gzyl, M E R Dugan
Human liver cells (HepG2) were cultured with individual trans (t) 18:1 including t6-, t12-, t13-, t14-, t15- and t16-18:1, and retention times of their Δ-9 desaturation products were determined using 100-m biscyanopropyl-polysiloxane and SLB-IL111 columns. Corresponding peaks were found in beef adipose tissues known to have different delta-9 desaturase activities. Further lines of evidence indicating the presence of Δ-9 desaturation products of t-18:1 isomers in beef fat were developed by analysis of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) fractionated using Ag(+)-TLC, and by GC/MS...
November 16, 2016: Lipids
Mohamed Amine Lounis, Simon Lalonde, Sabri Ahmed Rial, Karl-F Bergeron, Jessica C Ralston, David M Mutch, Catherine Mounier
Berardinelli-Seip congenital lipodystrophy (BSCL) is an autosomal recessive disorder. The more severe form, designated BSCL2, arises due to mutations in the BSCL2 gene. Patients with BSCL2, as well as Bscl2 (-/-) mice, have a near total absence of body fat, an organomegaly, and develop metabolic disorders including insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis. The function of the Seipin (BSCL2) protein remains poorly understood. Several lines of evidence have indicated that Seipin may have distinct functions in adipose versus non-adipose cells...
November 12, 2016: Lipids
W Łuczaj, P Domingues, M R Domingues, S Pancewicz, E Skrzydlewska
In recent years, the number of patients suffering from Lyme Disease (LD) has significantly increased. The most dangerous manifestation of LD is neuroborreliosis associated with invasion of the central nervous system by Borrelia burgdorferi. Phospholipids (PL) and their metabolites are involved in inflammation, which plays a dominant, but still unclear, role in the pathogenesis of neuroborreliosis. We analyzed the plasma PL profiles of neuroborreliosis patients (n = 8) and healthy volunteers (n = 8) using a lipidomic approach...
November 10, 2016: Lipids
Roseli de Souza Santos da Costa, Flavia da Silva Santos, Daniela de Barros Mucci, Tânia Vignuda de Souza, Fátima Lucia de Carvalho Sardinha, Célia Regina Moutinho de Miranda Chaves, Maria das Graças Tavares do Carmo
The purpose of this study was to investigate the trans fatty acids (TFA) content and distribution in colostrum, mature milk, and diet of adolescent mothers, after TFA declaration in food labels became mandatory in Brazil. Participants were healthy adolescents (n 54, 15-19 years, 1-90 days postpartum) practicing exclusive breastfeeding. Milk samples were collected 3 days after delivery (colostrum) and in the third month postpartum (mature milk) by hand expression. The fatty acid composition of the milk samples was determined by gas chromatography...
November 9, 2016: Lipids
N Aryaeian, F Shahram, M Djalali
: Rheumatoid arthritis is a systemic, chronic disease which may increase the risk of osteoporosis. This study was carried out in order to examine the effect of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on bone markers in rheumatoid arthritis disease which is the most common autoimmune disease. The present study is a randomized double-blind clinical trial. Subjects included 52 patients with active rheumatoid arthritis who were divided into two groups. Group I received standard treatment plus 2 daily 1...
November 4, 2016: Lipids
Radu C Racovita, Reinhard Jetter
Cuticular waxes are complex mixtures consisting mostly of very-long-chain aliphatics with single, primary functional groups. However, the waxes of many plant species also include aliphatics with one or more functional groups residing on subterminal or mid-chain carbons. In the present work, the cuticular wax mixtures from flag leaf blades and peduncles of Triticum aestivum cv. Bethlehem were analyzed in a search for novel wax constituents with in-chain functionalities, potentially of polyketide origin. The structures of compounds belonging to six different compound classes were elucidated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of various derivatives...
October 28, 2016: Lipids
Jing-Jing Tian, Cai-Xia Lei, Hong Ji, Li-Qiao Chen, Zhen-Yu Du
In this study, we explored the function of arachidonic acid (ARA) in adipogenesis in the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) using in vivo and in vitro models. An 8-week feeding trial was performed using three isonitrogenous and isoenergetic purified diets: ARA-free, ARA, and ARA + acetylsalicylic acid [ASA, a cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor]. Fish were sampled after 4 and 8 weeks of feeding. Results showed that ARA-fed fish had a significantly lower intraperitoneal fat index (IPFI) and smaller adipocytes; these decreases were reversed by ASA after 8 weeks of feeding...
October 17, 2016: Lipids
Nayana Venugopal Yadav, Sadashivaiah, Breetha Ramaiyan, Pooja Acharya, Lokesh Belur, Ramaprasad Ravichandra Talahalli
Though present in small amounts, the minor constituents of dietary oils may supplement the dietary therapies for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Hence, in the present study, we assessed the effect of minor constituents from sesame oil (SO) and rice bran oil (RBO) and their fatty acids on the severity of adjuvant-induced arthritis in experimental rats. Rats were gavaged with 1 mL of SO or RBO or groundnut oil (GNO, control) with or without its minor components for a period 15 days before and 15 days after the induction of arthritis...
October 17, 2016: Lipids
Aline G Cozer, Márcia Trapp, Claudia Vieira Marques, Tiago L Martins, Jorge Felipe A Model, Vanessa Schein, Luiz Carlos Kucharski, Roselis S M Da Silva
The present work assesses in vitro the role of human Stanniocalcin 1 (hSTC-1) in glucose metabolism in white retroperitoneal adipose tissue (WRAT) from fed rat. In the fed state, hSTC1 increases the incorporation of (14)C from glucose into lipids in the rat WRAT. The increase in lipogenesis capacity supports the hypothesis that the activity of the glycerol-3-phosphate-generating pathway (glycolysis) from glucose is regulated by hSTC-1. The effect of hSTC-1 on de novo fatty acid synthesis and on glucose oxidation in WRAT is supported by an 85 % increase in (14)CO2 production from (14)C-glucose...
October 11, 2016: Lipids
Hormoz Azizian, Magdi M Mossoba, Ali Reza Fardin-Kia, Sanjeewa R Karunathilaka, John K G Kramer
It was previously demonstrated that Fourier transform near infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy and partial least squares (PLS1) were successfully used to assess whether an olive oil was extra virgin, and if adulterated, with which type of vegetable oil and by how much using previously developed PLS1 calibration models. This last prediction required an initial set of four PLS1 calibration models that were based on gravimetrically prepared mixtures of a specific variety of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) spiked with adulterants...
September 27, 2016: Lipids
Yiu Yiu Lee, Jean-Marie Galano, Camille Oger, Claire Vigor, Reversat Guillaume, Jérôme Roy, Jean-Yves Le Guennec, Thierry Durand, Jetty Chung-Yung Lee
Oxygenated lipid mediators released from non-enzymatic peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are known to have functional roles in humans. Notably, among these lipid mediators, isoprostanes molecules are robust biomarkers of oxidative stress but those from n-3 PUFA are also bioactive molecules. In order to identify and assess the isoprostanes, the use of mass spectrometry (MS) for analysis is preferable and has been used for over two decades. Gas chromatography (GC) is commonly coupled to the MS to separate the derivatized isoprostanes of interest in biological samples...
September 26, 2016: Lipids
Sara Savini, Alessio Correani, Daniele Pupillo, Rita D'Ascenzo, Chiara Biagetti, Adriana Pompilio, Manuela Simonato, Giovanna Verlato, Paola Cogo, Marina Taus, Albano Nicolai, Virgilio Paolo Carnielli
Several studies reported the association between total plasma phytosterol concentrations and the parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis (PNAC). To date, no data are available on phytosterol esterification in animals and in humans during parenteral nutrition (PN). We measured free and esterified sterols (cholesterol, campesterol, stigmasterol, and sitosterol) plasma concentrations during PN in 16 preterm infants (500-1249 g of birth weight; Preterm-PN), in 11 term infants (Term-PN) and in 12 adults (Adult-PN)...
September 24, 2016: Lipids
C Leigh Broadhurst, Walter F Schmidt, Moon S Kim, Julie K Nguyen, Jianwei Qin, Kuanglin Chao, Gary L Bauchan, Daniel R Shelton
We analyzed the unsaturated fatty acids oleic (OA, 18:1n-9) and linoleic (LA, 18:2n-3), and a 3:1 LA:OA mixture from -100 to 50 °C with continuous gradient temperature Raman spectroscopy (GTRS). The 20 Mb three-dimensional data arrays with 0.2 °C increments and first/second derivatives allowed rapid, complete assignment of solid, liquid, and transition state vibrational modes. For OA, large spectral and line width changes occurred in the solid state γ to α transition near -4 °C, and the melt (13 °C) over a range of only 1 °C...
September 23, 2016: Lipids
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