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Daniel P Pike, Celine L Hartman, Gregory J Weissler, Elisa N D Palladino, Carolyn J Albert, David A Ford
Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a potent biologically active phospholipid that mediates human physiological and pathophysiologic responses. PAF levels increase transiently and are typically assessed by techniques with limitations related to expense, sensitivity, pre-analysis derivatization and interference with isobaric molecules. This study elucidates a facile, accurate liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analytical method for PAF. In negative ion mode using electrospray ionization, collisionally-activated dissociation analysis showed a unique product ion for acetate adducts of PAF molecular species representing the loss of methyl acetate from the polar head group and loss of a part of the acetate group from the sn-2 position...
October 18, 2016: Lipids
Jing-Jing Tian, Cai-Xia Lei, Hong Ji, Li-Qiao Chen, Zhen-Yu Du
In this study, we explored the function of arachidonic acid (ARA) in adipogenesis in the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) using in vivo and in vitro models. An 8-week feeding trial was performed using three isonitrogenous and isoenergetic purified diets: ARA-free, ARA, and ARA + acetylsalicylic acid [ASA, a cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor]. Fish were sampled after 4 and 8 weeks of feeding. Results showed that ARA-fed fish had a significantly lower intraperitoneal fat index (IPFI) and smaller adipocytes; these decreases were reversed by ASA after 8 weeks of feeding...
October 17, 2016: Lipids
Nayana Venugopal Yadav, Sadashivaiah, Breetha Ramaiyan, Pooja Acharya, Lokesh Belur, Ramaprasad Ravichandra Talahalli
Though present in small amounts, the minor constituents of dietary oils may supplement the dietary therapies for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Hence, in the present study, we assessed the effect of minor constituents from sesame oil (SO) and rice bran oil (RBO) and their fatty acids on the severity of adjuvant-induced arthritis in experimental rats. Rats were gavaged with 1 mL of SO or RBO or groundnut oil (GNO, control) with or without its minor components for a period 15 days before and 15 days after the induction of arthritis...
October 17, 2016: Lipids
Xinchi Wu, Juan Xu
Hispidulin is a naturally occurring flavonoid isolated from a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, Saussurea involucrata. In this study, the regulating role of hispidulin on the mRNA expression level of enzymes involved in lipid metabolism was examined in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, the in vivo lipid-modulating effect of hispidulin was compared with that of fenofibrate, a classical PPARα agonist. Our results in present study demonstrated that hispidulin can directly bind to and activate PPARα as an agonist and thus modulate the downstream lipid-metabolizing genes...
October 15, 2016: Lipids
Aline G Cozer, Márcia Trapp, Claudia Vieira Marques, Tiago L Martins, Jorge Felipe A Model, Vanessa Schein, Luiz Carlos Kucharski, Roselis S M Da Silva
The present work assesses in vitro the role of human Stanniocalcin 1 (hSTC-1) in glucose metabolism in white retroperitoneal adipose tissue (WRAT) from fed rat. In the fed state, hSTC1 increases the incorporation of (14)C from glucose into lipids in the rat WRAT. The increase in lipogenesis capacity supports the hypothesis that the activity of the glycerol-3-phosphate-generating pathway (glycolysis) from glucose is regulated by hSTC-1. The effect of hSTC-1 on de novo fatty acid synthesis and on glucose oxidation in WRAT is supported by an 85 % increase in (14)CO2 production from (14)C-glucose...
October 11, 2016: Lipids
Hormoz Azizian, Magdi M Mossoba, Ali Reza Fardin-Kia, Sanjeewa R Karunathilaka, John K G Kramer
It was previously demonstrated that Fourier transform near infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy and partial least squares (PLS1) were successfully used to assess whether an olive oil was extra virgin, and if adulterated, with which type of vegetable oil and by how much using previously developed PLS1 calibration models. This last prediction required an initial set of four PLS1 calibration models that were based on gravimetrically prepared mixtures of a specific variety of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) spiked with adulterants...
September 27, 2016: Lipids
Yiu Yiu Lee, Jean-Marie Galano, Camille Oger, Claire Vigor, Reversat Guillaume, Jérôme Roy, Jean-Yves Le Guennec, Thierry Durand, Jetty Chung-Yung Lee
Oxygenated lipid mediators released from non-enzymatic peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are known to have functional roles in humans. Notably, among these lipid mediators, isoprostanes molecules are robust biomarkers of oxidative stress but those from n-3 PUFA are also bioactive molecules. In order to identify and assess the isoprostanes, the use of mass spectrometry (MS) for analysis is preferable and has been used for over two decades. Gas chromatography (GC) is commonly coupled to the MS to separate the derivatized isoprostanes of interest in biological samples...
September 26, 2016: Lipids
Sara Savini, Alessio Correani, Daniele Pupillo, Rita D'Ascenzo, Chiara Biagetti, Adriana Pompilio, Manuela Simonato, Giovanna Verlato, Paola Cogo, Marina Taus, Albano Nicolai, Virgilio Paolo Carnielli
Several studies reported the association between total plasma phytosterol concentrations and the parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis (PNAC). To date, no data are available on phytosterol esterification in animals and in humans during parenteral nutrition (PN). We measured free and esterified sterols (cholesterol, campesterol, stigmasterol, and sitosterol) plasma concentrations during PN in 16 preterm infants (500-1249 g of birth weight; Preterm-PN), in 11 term infants (Term-PN) and in 12 adults (Adult-PN)...
September 24, 2016: Lipids
C Leigh Broadhurst, Walter F Schmidt, Moon S Kim, Julie K Nguyen, Jianwei Qin, Kuanglin Chao, Gary L Bauchan, Daniel R Shelton
We analyzed the unsaturated fatty acids oleic (OA, 18:1n-9) and linoleic (LA, 18:2n-3), and a 3:1 LA:OA mixture from -100 to 50 °C with continuous gradient temperature Raman spectroscopy (GTRS). The 20 Mb three-dimensional data arrays with 0.2 °C increments and first/second derivatives allowed rapid, complete assignment of solid, liquid, and transition state vibrational modes. For OA, large spectral and line width changes occurred in the solid state γ to α transition near -4 °C, and the melt (13 °C) over a range of only 1 °C...
September 23, 2016: Lipids
Jennifer K Yee, Guang Han, Juan Vega, Wai-Nang P Lee, Michael G Ross, Mina Desai
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) with rapid catch-up growth leads to adult obesity and insulin resistance. We have previously shown that IUGR male rats demonstrated increased de novo fatty acid synthesis in the subcutaneous (SC) fat, but not the visceral fat, during the nursing period prior to the onset of obesity. Young IUGR females do not exhibit the same increase. We further hypothesized that in male IUGR offspring, de novo synthesis is a programmed intrinsic effect that persists to adulthood and does not suppress in response to a high fat diet...
September 22, 2016: Lipids
Yan Yang, Jiangong Ren, Yuzhen Tong, Xuejian Hu, Qingguo Lv, Nanwei Tong
Lipoapoptosis plays an important role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARdelta), a vital regulator of glucose and lipid metabolism, may reduce fatty acid-induced pancreatic β cell lipotoxicity in diabetes. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms underlying this process are not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of activation of PPARdelta on palmitate-induced β cell apoptosis, and we explored the potential mechanism of the antiapoptotic effect...
September 8, 2016: Lipids
Payam Vahmani, William J Meadus, David C Rolland, Pascale Duff, Michael E R Dugan
During ruminal biohydrogenation of α-linolenic acid, a non-conjugated non-methylene interrupted dienoic acid is formed containing a t10 double bond, namely t10,c15-18:2. The present study was designed to examine whether t10,c15-18:2 would exert similar anti-adipogenic effects compared to t10,c12-18:2 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with 35 or 70 µM of LNA, t10,c12-18:2, t10,c15-18:2, or bovine serum albumin (BSA) vehicle control for 120 h. Cellular triacylglycerol and protein were quantified using commercial colorimetric kits...
September 3, 2016: Lipids
Jianzhong Chen, Kari B Green, Kelly K Nichols
Wax esters (WE) are one of the predominant lipid types in human meibomian gland secretions (meibum) and account for 40-50 % of total meibum lipids. Recently, we managed to quantify 51 isomeric groups of intact WE in normal human meibum samples by direct infusion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), with each WE peak in the MS spectrum corresponding to one isomeric group (Chen et al, Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 54(8):5730-53, 2013). However, the information of the isomeric composition in each group was not obtained...
August 29, 2016: Lipids
Carsten Stoetzer, Katja Nickel, Annette Weißig, Marieke Großheim, Dirk Scheinichen, Thorben Doll, Björn Jüttner
Lipid emulsions influence platelet aggregation and receptor expression. However, the effect on platelet function is not fully explained. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the influence of the lipids Lipofundin(®), Lipidem(®) and ClinOleic(®) on surface expressions of P-selectin, GPIb and GPIIb/IIIa on platelets in vitro. Whole blood was incubated in two different concentrations (0.06 and 0.6 mg/ml) of LCT/MCT, n-3/LCT/MCT and LCT-MUFA for 30 min, followed by activation with TRAP-6 or ADP for flow-cytometric assay...
August 12, 2016: Lipids
Aline D Gomes, Carlos E Tolussi, Iola G Boëchat, Marcelo L M Pompêo, Maíra P T Cortez, Renato M Honji, Renata G Moreira
Eutrophication results in a deficiency of n-3 LC-PUFA (long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids) in aquatic food chains, affecting fish nutrition and physiology. The trophic transfer of FA (fatty acids) to fish species of different feeding habits was investigated in two reservoirs in southeast Brazil-the mesotrophic Ponte Nova Reservoir (PN) and the hypereutrophic Billings Reservoir (Bil). Total FA profile of stomach contents and adipose tissue, triacylglycerols (TAG), and phospholipids (PL) from liver and muscle of the omnivorous Astyanax fasciatus and the carnivorous Hoplias malabaricus were analyzed by gas chromatography...
October 2016: Lipids
Chad M Cook, Terje S Larsen, Linda D Derrig, Kathleen M Kelly, Kurt S Tande
Oil from the marine copepod, Calanus finmarchicus, which contains >86 % of fatty acids present as wax esters, is a novel source of n-3 fatty acids for human consumption. In a randomized, two-period crossover study, 18 healthy adults consumed 8 capsules providing 4 g of Calanus(®) Oil supplying a total of 260 mg EPA and 156 mg DHA primarily as wax esters, or 1 capsule of Lovaza(®) providing 465 mg EPA and 375 mg DHA as ethyl esters, each with an EPA- and DHA-free breakfast. Plasma EPA and DHA were measured over a 72 h period (t = 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h)...
October 2016: Lipids
Jamie K Schnuck, Michele A Johnson, Lacey M Gould, Nicholas P Gannon, Roger A Vaughan
Leucine modulates synthetic and degradative pathways in muscle, possibly providing metabolic benefits for both athletes and diseased populations. Leucine has become popular among athletes for improving performance and body composition, however little is known about the metabolic effects of the commonly consumed leucine-derived metabolite β-hydroxy-β-methyl butyrate (HMB). Our work measured the effects of HMB on metabolic protein expression, mitochondrial content and metabolism, as well as lipid content in skeletal muscle cells...
October 2016: Lipids
Mónica B Betancor, M Sprague, D Montero, S Usher, O Sayanova, P J Campbell, J A Napier, M J Caballero, M Izquierdo, D R Tocher
Omega-3 (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) are essential components of the diet of all vertebrates. The major dietary source of n-3 LC-PUFA for humans has been fish and seafood but, paradoxically, farmed fish are also reliant on marine fisheries for fish meal and fish oil (FO), traditionally major ingredients of aquafeeds. Currently, the only sustainable alternatives to FO are vegetable oils, which are rich in C18 PUFA, but devoid of the eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA) abundant in FO...
October 2016: Lipids
Sun Hee Hong, Mijeong Kim, Jeong Sook Noh, Yeong Ok Song
Consumption of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is associated with a reduced incidence of atherosclerosis. Perilla oil (PO) is a vegetable oil rich in α-linolenic acid (ALA), an n-3 PUFA. In this study, antiatherogenic effects and related mechanisms of PO were investigated in atherosclerotic mice. Apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE KO) mice (male, n = 27) were fed high-cholesterol and high-fat diets containing 10 % w/w lard (LD), PO, or sunflower oil (SO) for 10 weeks. Plasma triglyceride, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations reduced in the PO and SO groups compared to the concentrations in the LD group (P < 0...
October 2016: Lipids
Mamoru Ohtoyo, Masakazu Tamura, Nobuo Machinaga, Fumihito Muro, Ryuji Hashimoto
Compounds that modulate the activity of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P)-metabolizing enzymes are expected to be potential therapeutic agents for various diseases. Investigation of their potencies requires not only cell-free but also cell-based assays in which intracellular accumulation/depletion of S1P could be monitored. However, conventional methods have limitations to their simplicity, mainly due to the necessity of a separation process that separates S1P from its related substances. Here, we describe a method utilizing a scintillation proximity assay (SPA) for semi-quantifying intracellular [(3)H]-labeled dihydroS1P ([(3)H]dhS1P), which is also a substrate for S1P-metabolizing enzymes...
October 2016: Lipids
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