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Wenguang Chang, Ming Zhang, Li Chen, Grant M Hatch
Small clinical studies have shown that oral treatment with the plant alkaloid berberine (BBR) reduces blood glucose levels similar to that of metformin and have promoted its use as a novel anti-diabetic therapy. However, in vitro studies have shown that high concentrations of BBR potently inhibit cell proliferation through inhibition of mitochondrial function. Cardiolipin (Ptd2Gro) is a key phospholipid required for regulating mitochondrial bioenergetic function. We examined if BBR inhibited oxygen consumption rate in H9c2 cardiac myocytes through alteration in Ptd2Gro metabolism...
September 23, 2017: Lipids
Miriam Martínez-Ramírez, Cristóbal Flores-Castillo, L Gabriela Sánchez-Lozada, Rocío Bautista-Pérez, Elizabeth Carreón-Torres, José Manuel Fragoso, José Manuel Rodriguez-Pérez, Fernando E García-Arroyo, Victoria López-Olmos, María Luna-Luna, Gilberto Vargas-Alarcón, Martha Franco, Oscar Pérez-Méndez
The potential cause-effect relationship between uric acid plasma concentrations and HDL functionality remains elusive. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the effect of oxonic acid (OA)-induced hyperuricemia on the HDL size distribution, lipid content of HDL subclasses, and apo AI turnover, as well as HDL functionality in New Zealand white rabbits. Experimental animals received OA 750 mg/kg/day by oral gavage during 21 days. The HDL-apo AI fractional catabolic rate (FCR) was determined by exogenous labeling with (125)I, and HDL subclasses were determined by sequential ultracentrifugation and PAGE...
September 22, 2017: Lipids
Haiyin Han, Shuhua Gu, Weiwei Chu, Wenxing Sun, Wei Wei, Xiaoyong Dang, Ye Tian, Kaiqing Liu, Jie Chen
Fat distribution affects economic value in pork production. Intramuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) improves meat quality, whereas subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) is usually regarded as waste. In the present study, we analyzed IMAT/SCAT (I/S) ratios in each pig. Individuals selected from a population of 1200 Suhuai pigs were divided into two cohorts; those with high I/S ratios and those with low I/S ratios, and correlations between nuclear Receptor Co-activator 3 (NCOA3), a critical gene involved in regulating fat accumulation, and fat distribution were investigated...
September 18, 2017: Lipids
Ali Akbar Hashemzadeh, Nikoo Nasoohi, Fariba Raygan, Esmat Aghadavod, Elmira Akbari, Mohsen Taghizadeh, Mohammad Reza Memarzadeh, Zatollah Asemi
This study was carried out to determine the effects of flaxseed oil administration on gene expression levels related to insulin, lipid and inflammation in overweight diabetic patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). This randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted among 60 diabetic patients with CHD. Subjects were randomly allocated into two groups to intake either 1000 mg n-3 fatty acid from flaxseed oil containing 400 mg α-Linolenic acid [ALA (18:3n-3)] (n = 30) or placebo (n = 30) twice a day for 12 weeks...
September 15, 2017: Lipids
Tomáš Řezanka, Irena Kolouchová, Lucia Gharwalová, Andrea Palyzová, Karel Sigler
Yeast lipids and fatty acids (FA) were analyzed in Saccharomyces pastorianus from seven breweries and in the dietary yeast supplement Pangamin. GC-MS identified more than 30 FA, half of which were very-long chain fatty acids (VLCFA) with hydrocarbon chain lengths of ≥22 C atoms. Positional isomers ω-9 and ω-7 were identified in FA with C18-C28 even-numbered alkyl chains. The most abundant ω-7 isomer was cis-vaccenic acid. The structure of monounsaturated FA was proved by dimethyl disulfide adducts (position of double bonds and cis geometric configuration) and by GC-MS of pyridyl carbinol esters...
September 13, 2017: Lipids
Shatha S Hammad, Peter J Jones
The prevalence of obesity is skyrocketing worldwide. The scientific evidence has associated obesity risk with many independent factors including the quality of dietary fat and genetics. Dietary fat exists as the main focus of dietary guidelines targeting obesity reduction. To prevent/minimize the adipogenic effect of dietary fatty acids (FA), intakes of long-chain saturated- and trans-FA should be reduced and substituted with unsaturated FA. The optimal proportions of dietary unsaturated FA are yet to be defined, along with a particular emphasis on the need to achieve a balanced ratio of n-3:n-6 polyunsaturated FA and to increase monounsaturated FA consumption at the expense of saturated FA...
September 9, 2017: Lipids
María Cuevas-Tena, Amparo Alegría, María Jesús Lagarda
The aim of this study was to develop a method for neutral fecal sterols determination in subjects receiving a normal diet with or without a plant sterols-enriched beverage using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Sample preparation conditions (homogenization of lyophilized feces with water) were evaluated. Sterol determination required direct hot saponification, unsaponifiable extraction with hexane, and the formation of trimethylsilyl (TMS) ether derivatives. The method allows the quantification of cholesterol, plant sterols and their metabolites (coprostanol, coprostanone, cholestanol, cholestanone, methylcoprostanol, methylcoprostanone, ethylcoprostenol, stigmastenol, ethylcoprostanol and ethylcoprostanone)...
September 6, 2017: Lipids
Simon C Dyall
The brain is enriched in arachidonic acid (ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) of the n-6 and n-3 series, respectively. Both are essential for optimal brain development and function. Dietary enrichment with DHA and other long-chain n-3 PUFA, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), has shown beneficial effects on learning and memory, neuroinflammatory processes, and synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis. ARA, DHA and EPA are precursors to a diverse repertoire of bioactive lipid mediators, including endocannabinoids...
September 5, 2017: Lipids
Jukka-Pekka Suomela, Marko Tarvainen, Heikki Kallio, Susanna Airaksinen
This study examined the effect of substituting vegetable oil for fish oil in feed, with subsequent re-introduction of fish oil-rich feed (finishing feeding) in late stages of growth, on the fatty acids of cultivated European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus). Restorative finishing feeding with fish oil-rich feed for 15 and 25 weeks was sufficient to change the total content of nutritionally valuable long-chain n-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3), to correspond to that of fish fed the fish oil-rich feed throughout their lifespan...
August 31, 2017: Lipids
Angela Oboh, Juan C Navarro, Douglas R Tocher, Oscar Monroig
Elongation of very long-chain fatty acid 4 (Elovl4) proteins participate in the biosynthesis of very long-chain (>C24) saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA). Previous studies have shown that fish possess two different forms of Elovl4, termed Elovl4a and Elovl4b. The present study aimed to characterize both molecularly and functionally two elovl4 cDNA from the African catfish Clarias gariepinus. The results confirmed that C. gariepinus possessed two elovl4-like elongases with high homology to two previously characterized Elovl4 from Danio rerio, and thus they were termed accordingly as Elovl4a and Elovl4b...
August 30, 2017: Lipids
Nikolaos Tentolouris, Panagiotis T Kanellos, Evangelia Siami, Elpida Athanasopoulou, Nikolaos Chaviaras, Genovefa Kolovou, Petros P Sfikakis, Nikolaos Katsilambros
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 29, 2017: Lipids
Amanda N Davis, J L Clegg, C A Perry, J W McFadden
The progression of insulin resistance in dairy cows represents a maternal adaptation to support milk production during heightened energy demand; however, excessive adipose tissue lipolysis can develop. In diabetic non-ruminants, the mechanisms that mediate insulin resistance involve the sphingolipid ceramide. We tested the hypothesis that ceramide accumulates in dairy cows experiencing lipolysis and insulin resistance. Nine dairy cows were utilized in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design. Cows were ad libitum fed, nutrient-restricted (NR), or NR with nicotinic acid (NA; 5 mg of NA/h per kg BW; delivered i...
August 23, 2017: Lipids
Lucas Adrian, Matthias Lenski, Klaus Tödter, Jörg Heeren, Michael Böhm, Ulrich Laufs
Palmitic acid, a main fatty acid (FA) in human nutrition, can induce apoptosis of cardiomyocytes. However, a specific combination of palmitic, myristic and palmitoleic acid (CoFA) has been reported to promote beneficial cardiac growth. The aim of this study was to investigate the relevance of CoFA for cardiac growth and to delineate the underlying signaling pathways of CoFA and palmitic acid treatment. CoFA treatment of C57Bl/6 mice increased FA serum concentrations. However, morphologic and echocardiographic analysis did not show myocardial hypertrophy...
August 20, 2017: Lipids
Kathrin M Engel, Jürgen Schiller, Karin Müller, Dirk Dannenberger, Ulrike Jakop
Cryopreservation of kangaroo sperm has not been successful so far, and yet there is no promising cryopreservation protocol for these cells available. However, conservation of gametes is extremely important, particularly in the context of preserving endangered species. As spermatozoa are comprised of different membrane systems, the composition of these membranes might account for difficulties in cryopreservation. Lipids, as the main components, affect the physical properties of biological membranes and play a major role in sperm maturation...
August 11, 2017: Lipids
Madhuri Vemuri, Yuriko Adkins, Bruce E Mackey, Darshan S Kelley
trans 10,cis 12-CLA has been reported to alter fatty acid composition in several non-neurological tissues, but its effects are less known in neurological tissues. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if CLA supplementation would alter brain and eye fatty acid composition and if those changes could be prevented by concomitant supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n3) or eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n3). Eight-week-old, pathogen-free C57BL/6N female mice (n = 6/group) were fed either the control diet or diets containing 0...
August 4, 2017: Lipids
S Adam Fuller, Steven D Rawles, Matthew E McEntire, Troy J Bader, Marty Riche, Benjamin H Beck, Carl D Webster
We evaluated the fatty acid (FA) composition of broodstock white bass ova fed one of six commercial diets with increasing polyunsaturated FA content (n-6/n-3 ratio; 0.36, 0.39, 0.46, 0.83, 1.07, 1.12) eight weeks prior to sampling. Fatty acid profiles of ova from brooders fed each of the six diets were significantly altered according to canonical discriminant analysis. Ova FA profiles resulting from the 0.39 diet separated those from the 0.36 diet based on lower 18:2n-6 (LNA) and higher 20:1n-9 concentrations from the 0...
August 3, 2017: Lipids
Amanda Lo Van, Baptiste Fourmaux, Madeleine Picq, Michel Guichardant, Michel Lagarde, Nathalie Bernoud-Hubac
Fatty acids have many health benefits in a great variety of diseases ranging from cardiovascular to cerebral diseases. For instance, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which is highly enriched in brain phospholipids, plays a major role in anti-inflammatory or neuroprotective pathways. Its effects are thought to be due, in part, to its conversion into derived mediators such as protectins. 1-Lyso,2-docosahexaenoyl-glycerophosphocholine (LysoPtdCho-DHA) is one of the physiological carrier of DHA to the brain. We previously synthesized a structured phosphatidylcholine to mimic 1-lyso,2-docosahexaenoyl-glycerophosphocholine, named AceDoPC(®) (1-acetyl,2-docosahexaenoyl-glycerophosphocholine), that is considered as a stabilized form of the physiological LysoPtdCho-DHA and that is neuroprotective in experimental ischemic stroke...
August 3, 2017: Lipids
Kotaro Hama, Yuko Fujiwara, Hidetsugu Tabata, Hideyo Takahashi, Kazuaki Yokoyama
Sphingomyelin (ceramide-phosphocholine, CerPCho) is a common sphingolipid in mammalian cells and is composed of phosphorylcholine and ceramide as polar and hydrophobic components, respectively. In this study, a qualitative liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS/MS) analysis is proposed in which CerPCho structures were assigned based on product ion spectra corresponding to sphingosylphosphorylcholine and N-acyl moieties. From MS/MS/MS analysis of CerPCho, we observed product ion spectra of the N-acyl fatty acids as [RCO2](-) ions as well as sphingosylphosphorylcholine...
August 2, 2017: Lipids
Jeehye Sung, Heemang Jeon, In-Hwan Kim, Heon Sang Jeong, Junsoo Lee
Stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4n-3) is an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid present in oils derived from plants of the Boraginaceae family. In this study, we determined the anti-inflammatory effects of SDA isolated from echium oil on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in RAW 264.7 macrophages. SDA significantly downregulated the levels of the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein, thereby suppressing the production of nitric oxide (NO) in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. In addition, SDA inhibited the nuclear translocation and promoter activity of nuclear factor κB (NFκB) and the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) such as extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2, c-jun N terminal kinase, and p38 in LPS-stimulated RAW 264...
July 25, 2017: Lipids
Haeun Kim, Jee-Hwan Choe, Jong Hun Choi, Hun Jung Kim, Soo Hyun Park, Moon Won Lee, Wooki Kim, Gwang-Woong Go
Medium chain fatty acid (MCFA) escapes the formation of chylomicrons in the small intestine, resulting in energy expenditure through beta-oxidation. Diacylglycerol (DAG) is susceptible to oxidation rather than being stored in the adipose tissue. This study was conducted to verify the effect of MCE-DAG oil on body fat mass in vivo. Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 12) as follows: (1) normal diet (18% kcal from fat), (2) canola oil as a control (40% kcal from canola oil), (3) MCE-DAG10 (10% kcal from MCE-DAG + 30% kcal from canola oil), and (4) MCE-DAG20 (20% kcal from MCE-DAG + 20% kcal from canola oil)...
August 2017: Lipids
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