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Lipids

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801719/the-phospholipid-composition-of-kangaroo-spermatozoa-verified-by-mass-spectrometric-lipid-analysis
#1
Kathrin M Engel, Jürgen Schiller, Karin Müller, Dirk Dannenberger, Ulrike Jakop
Cryopreservation of kangaroo sperm has not been successful so far, and yet there is no promising cryopreservation protocol for these cells available. However, conservation of gametes is extremely important, particularly in the context of preserving endangered species. As spermatozoa are comprised of different membrane systems, the composition of these membranes might account for difficulties in cryopreservation. Lipids, as the main components, affect the physical properties of biological membranes and play a major role in sperm maturation...
August 11, 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779392/docosahexaenoic-acid-and-eicosapentaenoic-acid-did-not-alter-trans-10-cis-12-conjugated-linoleic-acid-incorporation-into-mice-brain-and-eye-lipids
#2
Madhuri Vemuri, Yuriko Adkins, Bruce E Mackey, Darshan S Kelley
trans 10,cis 12-CLA has been reported to alter fatty acid composition in several non-neurological tissues, but its effects are less known in neurological tissues. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if CLA supplementation would alter brain and eye fatty acid composition and if those changes could be prevented by concomitant supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n3) or eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n3). Eight-week-old, pathogen-free C57BL/6N female mice (n = 6/group) were fed either the control diet or diets containing 0...
August 4, 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776176/white-bass-morone-chrysops-preferentially-retain-n-3-pufa-in-ova-when-fed-prepared-diets-with-varying-fa-content
#3
S Adam Fuller, Steven D Rawles, Matthew E McEntire, Troy J Bader, Marty Riche, Benjamin H Beck, Carl D Webster
We evaluated the fatty acid (FA) composition of broodstock white bass ova fed one of six commercial diets with increasing polyunsaturated FA content (n-6/n-3 ratio; 0.36, 0.39, 0.46, 0.83, 1.07, 1.12) eight weeks prior to sampling. Fatty acid profiles of ova from brooders fed each of the six diets were significantly altered according to canonical discriminant analysis. Ova FA profiles resulting from the 0.39 diet separated those from the 0.36 diet based on lower 18:2n-6 (LNA) and higher 20:1n-9 concentrations from the 0...
August 3, 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776175/synthesis-and-identification-of-acedoxypc-a-protectin-containing-structured-phospholipid-using-liquid-chromatography-mass-spectrometry
#4
Amanda Lo Van, Baptiste Fourmaux, Madeleine Picq, Michel Guichardant, Michel Lagarde, Nathalie Bernoud-Hubac
Fatty acids have many health benefits in a great variety of diseases ranging from cardiovascular to cerebral diseases. For instance, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which is highly enriched in brain phospholipids, plays a major role in anti-inflammatory or neuroprotective pathways. Its effects are thought to be due, in part, to its conversion into derived mediators such as protectins. 1-Lyso,2-docosahexaenoyl-glycerophosphocholine (LysoPtdCho-DHA) is one of the physiological carrier of DHA to the brain. We previously synthesized a structured phosphatidylcholine to mimic 1-lyso,2-docosahexaenoyl-glycerophosphocholine, named AceDoPC(®) (1-acetyl,2-docosahexaenoyl-glycerophosphocholine), that is considered as a stabilized form of the physiological LysoPtdCho-DHA and that is neuroprotective in experimental ischemic stroke...
August 3, 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770378/comprehensive-quantitation-using-two-stable-isotopically-labeled-species-and-direct-detection-of-n-acyl-moiety-of-sphingomyelin
#5
Kotaro Hama, Yuko Fujiwara, Hidetsugu Tabata, Hideyo Takahashi, Kazuaki Yokoyama
Sphingomyelin (ceramide-phosphocholine, CerPCho) is a common sphingolipid in mammalian cells and is composed of phosphorylcholine and ceramide as polar and hydrophobic components, respectively. In this study, a qualitative liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS/MS) analysis is proposed in which CerPCho structures were assigned based on product ion spectra corresponding to sphingosylphosphorylcholine and N-acyl moieties. From MS/MS/MS analysis of CerPCho, we observed product ion spectra of the N-acyl fatty acids as [RCO2](-) ions as well as sphingosylphosphorylcholine...
August 2, 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744771/anti-inflammatory-effects-of-stearidonic-acid-mediated-by-suppression-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-map-kinase-pathways-in-macrophages
#6
Jeehye Sung, Heemang Jeon, In-Hwan Kim, Heon Sang Jeong, Junsoo Lee
Stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4n-3) is an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid present in oils derived from plants of the Boraginaceae family. In this study, we determined the anti-inflammatory effects of SDA isolated from echium oil on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in RAW 264.7 macrophages. SDA significantly downregulated the levels of the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein, thereby suppressing the production of nitric oxide (NO) in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. In addition, SDA inhibited the nuclear translocation and promoter activity of nuclear factor κB (NFκB) and the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) such as extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2, c-jun N terminal kinase, and p38 in LPS-stimulated RAW 264...
July 25, 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631070/lipids-of-the-tail-gland-body-and-muzzle-fur-of-the-red-fox-vulpes-vulpes
#7
Stuart McLean, Noel W Davies, David S Nichols
The tail gland of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) secretes lipids containing volatile terpenes used in social communication. We have analysed lipids extracted from fur of the tail gland, body (flanks) and muzzle of foxes. GC-MS showed a novel group of iso-valerate and tiglate monoesters of alkane-1,2-diols (C18:0-22:0). There was also a larger group of Type II diesters in which a second, longer chain, fatty acid (FA) was attached to the free alcohol group. LC-MS showed the full range of diol diesters, mostly C36:0-50:0, with smaller amounts of the corresponding mono-unsaturated tiglate esters...
June 19, 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625013/anti-mutagenic-properties-of-mono-and-dienoic-acid-biohydrogenation-products-from-beef-fat
#8
Jeyachchandran Visvalingam, Payam Vahmani, David C Rolland, Michael E R Dugan, Xianqin Yang
Unsaturated fatty acid biohydrogenation products from beef fat and pure fatty acids were subjected to the Ames Salmonella mutagenicity testing, including monounsaturated fatty acids [MUFA: oleic acid, vaccenic acid, elaidic acid; beef fatty acid fractions rich in trans (t)11/t13-t14-18:1 (t11,13,14-Frac), t10-18:1 (t10-Frac)] and dienoic fatty acids [linoleic acid, conjugated linoleic isomers cis (c)9,t11-18:2 and t10,c12-18:2, and a mixed beef dienoic fatty acid fraction high in c9,t13-/t8,c12/t11c15-18:2 (MD)]...
June 17, 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601955/suksdorfin-promotes-adipocyte-differentiation-and-improves-abnormalities-in-glucose-metabolism-via-ppar%C3%AE-activation
#9
Mari Iwase, Takayuki Yamamoto, Kanako Nishimura, Haruya Takahashi, Shinsuke Mohri, Yongjia Li, Huei-Fen Jheng, Wataru Nomura, Nobuyuki Takahashi, Chu-Sook Kim, Rina Yu, Masahiko Taniguchi, Kimiye Baba, Shigeru Murakami, Teruo Kawada, Tsuyoshi Goto
Although the Apiaceae herb family has been traditionally used for the management of type 2 diabetes, its molecular mechanism has not been clarified. Coumarin derivatives, which are abundant in plants of the Apiaceae family, were evaluated for their effects on adipogenesis. We found that suksdorfin significantly promoted adipocyte differentiation and enhanced production of adiponectin, an anti-diabetic adipokine. We also demonstrated that suksdorfin activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), a master regulator of adipogenesis...
June 10, 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578537/identification-and-characterization-of-a-novel-thermophilic-organic-solvent-stable-lipase-of-bacillus-from-a-hot-spring
#10
Jiang Li, Xiumeng Liu
A novel lipase gene lip256 was cloned and identified from the genomic library of hot spring strain Bacillus sp. HT19. The deduced amino acid sequence of lip256 has less than 32% identity to a predicted esterase (Cog1752) from Photobacterium leiognathi lrivu.4.1 and contains a novel motif (GTSAG) that differs from other clusters in the lipase superfamily. Following purification, a single band was obtained with a molecular mass of 33 kDa by SDS-PAGE, and the optimal temperature and pH for lipolytic activity of Lip25 were 70 °C and 9...
June 3, 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547181/sequential-feeding-of-lipid-supplement-enriches-beef-adipose-tissues-with-18-3n-3-biohydrogenation-intermediates
#11
P Vahmani, J L Aalhus, D C Rolland, T A McAllister, N Prieto, H C Block, S D Proctor, L L Guan, M E R Dugan
The present study was designed to determine if feeding steers extruded flaxseed and hay (25 and 75%; DM basis) together as a total mixed ration (TMR), or sequentially (non-TMR) would result in different enrichments of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and their biohydrogenation intermediates (BHI) in beef adipose tissues [subcutaneous (SC) vs perirenal (PR) fat]. Forty-eight Angus cross steers (325 ± 16 kg) were stratified by weight to six pens, and pens were randomized to either TMR or non-TMR and fed ad libitum for an average of 242 days...
May 25, 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707153/medium-chain-enriched-diacylglycerol-mce-dag-oil-decreases-body-fat-mass-in-mice-by-increasing-lipolysis-and-thermogenesis-in-adipose-tissue
#12
Haeun Kim, Jee-Hwan Choe, Jong Hun Choi, Hun Jung Kim, Soo Hyun Park, Moon Won Lee, Wooki Kim, Gwang-Woong Go
Medium chain fatty acid (MCFA) escapes the formation of chylomicrons in the small intestine, resulting in energy expenditure through beta-oxidation. Diacylglycerol (DAG) is susceptible to oxidation rather than being stored in the adipose tissue. This study was conducted to verify the effect of MCE-DAG oil on body fat mass in vivo. Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 12) as follows: (1) normal diet (18% kcal from fat), (2) canola oil as a control (40% kcal from canola oil), (3) MCE-DAG10 (10% kcal from MCE-DAG + 30% kcal from canola oil), and (4) MCE-DAG20 (20% kcal from MCE-DAG + 20% kcal from canola oil)...
August 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689316/higher-lipophilic-index-indicates-higher-risk-of-coronary-heart-disease-in-postmenopausal-women
#13
Qing Liu, Alice H Lichtenstein, Nirupa R Matthan, Chanelle J Howe, Matthew A Allison, Barbara V Howard, Lisa W Martin, Carolina Valdiviezo, JoAnn E Manson, Simin Liu, Charles B Eaton
Fatty acids (FAs) are essential components of cell membranes and play an integral role in membrane fluidity. The lipophilic index [LI, defined as the sum of the products between FA levels and melting points (°C), divided by the total amount of FA: [Formula: see text]] is thought to reflect membrane and lipoprotein fluidity and may be associated with the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Therefore, we examined the associations of dietary and plasma phospholipid (PL) LI with CHD risk among postmenopausal women...
August 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660529/inhibition-of-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-synthesis-decreases-growth-rate-and-membrane-fluidity-of-rhodosporidium-kratochvilovae-at-low-temperature
#14
Jun Wang, Wei Chen, Hongjuan Nian, Xiuling Ji, Lianbing Lin, Yunlin Wei, Qi Zhang
The intention of this study was to investigate the role of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the cold adaptation of Rhodosporidium kratochvilovae YM25235 by knockout of the Δ(12)/Δ(15)-fatty acid desaturase gene (RKD12) to inactivate Δ(12)/Δ(15)-fatty acid desaturase. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification was used to detect the genomic structure of RKD12 gene in YM25235. The RKD12 gene was knocked out by DNA homologous recombination to inhibit the biosynthesis of PUFA. Then, the contents of linoleic acid (LNA) and α-linolenic acid (ALA) after gene knockout were investigated using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer, followed by determination of the growth rate and membrane fluidity of YM25235 at low temperature...
August 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660528/lipid-transfers-to-hdl-are-diminished-in-long-term-bedridden-patients-association-with-low-hdl-cholesterol-and-increased-inflammatory-markers
#15
Wilson Pascoalino Camargo de Oliveira, Thauany Martins Tavoni, Fatima Rodrigues Freitas, Bruna Miranda Oliveira Silva, Raul Cavalcante Maranhão
Plasma lipids have been extensively studied in sedentary and in subjects practicing exercise training, but not in extreme inactivity as occurs in bedridden patients. This is important for the care of bedridden patients and understanding the overall plasma lipid regulation. Here, we investigated plasma lipids, lipid transfers to HDL and inflammatory markers in bedridden patients. Fasting blood samples were collected from 23 clinically stable bedridden patients under long-term care (>90 days) and 26 normolipidemic sedentary subjects, paired for age and gender...
August 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653085/assessment-of-the-validity-and-reproducibility-of-a-novel-standardized-test-meal-for-the-study-of-postprandial-triacylglycerol-concentrations
#16
Nikolaos Tentolouris, Panagiotis T Kanellos, Evangelia Siami, Elpida Athanasopoulou, Nikolaos Chaviaras, Genovefa Kolovou, Petros P Sfikakis, Nikolaos Katsilambros
Lipotest(®) is a standardized fat-rich meal designed for use as a test meal during a fat tolerance test (FTT) for the study of postprandial triacylglycerol (TAG) concentrations. Herein we examined the precision and reproducibility of examination using Lipotest(®) on postprandial TAG levels. A total of 26 healthy consenting subjects were examined twice after 8-10 h fasting with an interval of approximately 1 week apart. Blood samples were collected at baseline and 1, 2, 3, and 4 h after consumption of the test meal for measurement of plasma total TAG levels...
August 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639182/differential-interaction-of-myoglobin-with-select-fatty-acids-of-carbon-chain-lengths-c8-to-c16
#17
Thomas Jue, Lifan Shih, Youngran Chung
Previous studies have shown that palmitic acid (PAM) and oleic acid (OLE) can bind myoglobin (Mb). How fatty acids (FA) with different carbon chain lengths and sulfate substitution interact with Mb remains uncertain. Indeed, C8:0 and C10:0 fatty acids do not perturb the intensities of the (1)H-NMR MbCN signal intensity at FA:Mb ratios below 2:1. Starting with C12:0, C12:0-C16:0, FA induce a noticeable spectral change. C12:0 and C14:0 FA affect both the 5- and 8-heme methyl signals, whereas the C16:0 FA perturbs only the 8-heme methyl signal...
August 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631071/oxidation-of-c18-hydroxy-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-to-epoxide-or-ketone-by-catalase-related-hemoproteins-activated-with-iodosylbenzene
#18
Tarvi Teder, William E Boeglin, Alan R Brash
Small catalase-related hemoproteins with a facility to react with fatty acid hydroperoxides were examined for their potential mono-oxygenase activity when activated using iodosylbenzene. The proteins tested were a Fusarium graminearum 41 kD catalase hemoprotein (Fg-cat, gene FGSG_02217), a Pseudomonas fluorescens Pfl01 catalase (37.5 kD, accession number WP_011333788.1), and a Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis 33 kD catalase (gene MAP-2744c). 13-Hydroxy-octadecenoic acids (which are normally unreactive) were selected as substrates because these enzymes react specifically with the corresponding 13S-hydroperoxides (Pakhomova et al...
July 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603809/an-ethical-dilemma-to-share-or-not-to-share-your-paper-published-in-lipids-using-an-on-line-outlet
#19
EDITORIAL
Eric J Murphy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578538/phospholipids-of-new-zealand-edible-brown-algae
#20
Mikhail Vyssotski, Kirill Lagutin, Andrew MacKenzie, Kevin Mitchell, Dawn Scott
Edible brown algae have attracted interest as a source of beneficial allenic carotenoid fucoxanthin, and glyco- and phospholipids enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Unlike green algae, brown algae contain no or little phosphatidylserine, possessing an unusual aminophospholipid, phosphatidyl-O-[N-(2-hydroxyethyl) glycine], PHEG, instead. When our routinely used technique of (31)P-NMR analysis of phospholipids was applied to the samples of edible New Zealand brown algae, a number of signals corresponding to unidentified phosphorus-containing compounds were observed in total lipids...
July 2017: Lipids
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