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Dieter Lütjohann, Adam M Lopez, Jen-Chieh Chuang, Anja Kerksiek, Stephen D Turley
Rett syndrome (RS) is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder resulting from loss-of-function mutations in the X-linked gene methyl-Cpg-binding protein 2 (MECP2). Using a well-defined model for RS, the C57BL6/Mecp2 tm1.1Bird mouse, we have previously found a moderate but persistently lower rate of cholesterol synthesis, measured in vivo, in the brains of Mecp2 -/y mice, starting from about the third week after birth. There was no genotypic difference in the total cholesterol concentration throughout the brain at any age...
May 17, 2018: Lipids
Kiyofumi Wanibuchi, Kouichi Hosoda, Masato Ihara, Kentaro Tajiri, Yuki Sakai, Hisashi Masui, Takashi Takahashi, Yoshikazu Hirai, Hirofumi Shimomura
Helicobacter pylori infects the human stomach and is closely linked with the development of gastric cancer. When detected, this pathogen can be eradicated from the human stomach using wide-spectrum antibiotics. However, year by year, H. pylori strains resistant to the antibacterial action of antibiotics have been increasing. The development of new antibacterial substances effective against drug-resistant H. pylori is urgently required. Our group has recently identified extremely selective bactericidal effects against H...
May 16, 2018: Lipids
Ye Hou, Liangliang Fu, Jingjin Li, Jingxuan Li, Yunxia Zhao, Yu Luan, An Liu, Huiying Liu, Xinyun Li, Shuhong Zhao, Changchun Li
>Emerging evidence indicates that microRNA (miRNA) plays an important role in adipogenesis and disease pathogenesis. To investigate the miRNA involved in regulating different periods of adipogenesis, we performed a comprehensive study on microRNAome during the stimulation of adipogenesis by an adipogenic differentiation cocktail in C2C12 myoblasts at 0, 2, 4, and 7 days using the Solexa sequencing technology. In this study, we identified 52 differentially expressed (DE) miRNA. Functional annotation indicated that the target genes of DE miRNA were mostly enriched in adipogenic transdifferentiation and fat metabolism-related pathways, including Wnt, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and insulin signaling...
May 16, 2018: Lipids
Yvonne Oligschlaeger, Tom Houben, Mike L J Jeurissen, Albert V Bitorina, Maurice Konings, Sabine Baumgartner, Jogchum Plat, Ronit Shiri-Sverdlov
Although phytosterols, plant-derived sterol-like components, are well known for their cholesterol-lowering properties, their atherogenic potential is still under debate. Although they are known to share structural similarities with cholesterol, it is unclear whether their oxidized forms (oxyphytosterols) have the capacity to mediate proinflammatory responses in macrophages. In the present study, bone marrow-derived macrophages were treated with oxidized low-density lipoproteins, oxyphytosterols (7keto-sito/campesterol [7keto-sit/camp] or 7-beta-hydroxy-sito/campesterol [7βOH-sit/camp]), nonoxidized phytosterol (β-sitosterol), or carrier-control (cyclodextrin) in a dose- and time-dependent manner...
May 10, 2018: Lipids
Anita Kaliszewicz, Karolina Jarząbek, Justyna Szymańska, Kamil Karaban, Maciej Sierakowski
Hydra, as sit-and-wait predators with limited food selectivity, could serve as model organisms for the analysis of the effect of a particular dietary component on growth and reproduction. We investigated the effect of food quality and of diets enriched with palmitic (PAM) or α-linolenic acid (ALA) on the life history traits of two hydra species: Hydra oligactis and Hydra vulgaris. We tested the hypothesis that a diet enriched with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) can stimulate growth and reproduction in simple metazoans with a sit-and-wait type of predatory strategy...
May 9, 2018: Lipids
Montserrat Prados, Juana A Flores-Le Roux, David Benaiges, Gemma Llauradó, Juan J Chillarón, Antoni Paya, Juan Pedro-Botet
In a cohort of women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), we aimed to ascertain whether women with abnormal glucose tolerance 1-year postdelivery had a more atherogenic lipid profile during and after pregnancy than those with normal glucose tolerance. A prospective cohort study with longitudinal design between January 2004 and March 2016 was conducted. Three hundred and six (56.8%) of 537 women diagnosed with GDM during the studied period attended a control visit during the first year after delivery...
May 6, 2018: Lipids
Roman A Sidorov, Alexander S Shashkov, Pavel A Solovyev, Elena N Gorshkova, Vladimir D Tsydendambaev
Asymmetric, optically active sn-1,2-diacyl-3-acetyl-glycerols (AcDAG) have been known to scientists for several decades. However, to date, the problem of their structure has not been definitely resolved, which has led to a vast diversity of terms used for their designation in the literature. Using two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance, we have investigated AcDAG from the mature seeds of Euonymus maximowiczianus, from which we have been able to both identify a correlation of the methyl group in acetic acid residue with protons at the carbon atom at sn-3 position in the glycerol residue of the AcDAG molecule and, for the first time, demonstrate that this correlation is observed exclusively with one carbon atom at the α-position, but not with two as would have been expected in case of a racemic mixture...
May 2, 2018: Lipids
Tomáš Řezanka, Milada Vítová, Jaromír Lukavský, Karel Sigler
Freshwater bryozoan Pectinatella magnifica was collected from a sand pit (South Bohemia). The total lipids after extraction from lyophilized bryozoans were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography/high-resolution negative tandem electrospray mass spectrometry. A total of 19 lipid classes were identified, including N-acyl-substituted phospholipids, that is, N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine and N-acylphosphatidylserine in their plasmenyl forms. Based on gas chromatography/mass spectrometry of 3-pyridylcarbonyl (picolinyl) esters, a very unusual fatty acid was identified, namely 24:7n-3 (all-cis-3,6,9,12,15,18,21-tetracosaheptaenoic acid)...
April 30, 2018: Lipids
Matthew W Elmes, Anthony D Volpe, Simon d'Oelsnitz, Joseph M Sweeney, Martin Kaczocha
Lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase (L-PGDS; EC: is an enzyme with dual functional roles as a prostaglandin D2 -synthesizing enzyme and as an extracellular transporter for diverse lipophilic compounds in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Transport of hydrophobic endocannabinoids is mediated by serum albumin in the blood and intracellularly by the fatty acid binding proteins, but no analogous transport mechanism has yet been described in CSF. L-PGDS has been reported to promiscuously bind a wide variety of lipophilic ligands and is among the most abundant proteins found in the CSF...
April 18, 2018: Lipids
Alan F Hofmann, Thomas Herdt, Norman Kent Ames, Zhouji Chen, Lee R Hagey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 18, 2018: Lipids
Sajjad Moradi, Khadijeh Mirzaei, Zhila Maghbooli, Ahmed A Abdurahman, Seyed Ali Keshavarz
Recent studies have shown that dietary intake and genetic variants play a decisive role in the risk of obesity. Therefore, this study was designed to examine the interaction between dietary fat and PPARGC1A polymorphisms on the level of resting metabolic rate (RMR). We enrolled 288 Iranian overweight and obese women in this cross-sectional study. We sequenced the 648 b.p. DNA in Exon 8 of PPARGC1A gene. We analyzed the two single-nucleotide polymorphisms, namely rs11290186 and rs2970847, in this region. All participants were assessed for RMR, dietary intake, and body composition...
April 16, 2018: Lipids
Perttu Sahlman, Markku Nissinen, Piia Simonen, Martti Färkkilä
Severe alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is a life-threatening condition lacking good serologic markers to tailor treatment and predict recovery. We examined the cholesterol metabolism in severe AH to explore prognostic markers and evaluate the profile of cholesterol precursors, cholestanol and phytosterols, in this context. We assessed serum cholesterol, cholesterol precursors, cholestanol, phytosterols, and biochemical markers in 24 patients with severe AH treated with prednisolone and randomized to ciprofloxacin in the ratio 1:1...
April 16, 2018: Lipids
Mutay Aslan, Ebru Kıraç, Sabriye Kaya, Filiz Özcan, Ozan Salim, Osman Alphan Küpesiz
Limited data are available on the serum levels of different sphingomyelin (CerPCho) and ceramide (CER) species in sickle-cell disease (SCD). This study was aimed at identifying the levels of C16-C24 CerPCho and C16-C24 CER in serum obtained from SCD patients and controls. Circulating levels of neutral sphingomyelinase (N-SMase) activity, ceramide-1-phosphate (C1P), and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) were also determined. Blood was collected from 35 hemoglobin (Hb)A volunteers and 45 homozygous HbSS patients...
April 16, 2018: Lipids
Rebeca Martínez, Carmen Morales, Amilcar Arenal, Antonio Morales, Fidel Herrera, Víctor González, Mario Pablo Estrada
Growth hormone (GH) release is a process that is well regulated by several factors, including GH secretagogues. GH can mediate the regulation of the fatty acid level and composition. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a synthetic GH secretagogue peptide (A233) on the growth and fatty acid composition in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). To address this objective, we administrated a diet supplemented with A233 to juvenile tilapia for 60 days. The group fed with a diet supplemented with 600 μg of A233 per kg of feed increased in weight (4...
April 14, 2018: Lipids
Gilberto Vargas-Alarcon, Oscar Perez-Mendez, Gabriel Herrera-Maya, Cynthia Garcia-Sanchez, Marco Antonio Martinez-Rios, Marco Antonio Peña-Duque, Rosalinda Posadas-Sanchez, Carlos Posadas-Romero, Galileo Escobedo, Jose Manuel Fragoso
We evaluated whether CETP and LCAT gene polymorphisms are statistically associated with the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) size distribution, the cholesterol level of HDL subclasses, and the acute coronary syndrome (ACS) susceptibility. Two CETP gene polymorphisms (rs4783961 and rs708272) and one LCAT polymorphism (rs2292318) were genotyped by 5' exonuclease TaqMan assays in 619 patients with ACS and 607 control individuals. For HDL analysis, a subgroup of 100 healthy individuals was recruited; the HDL subclasses were separated via ultracentrifugation and polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis under native conditions...
March 23, 2018: Lipids
Robert G Elkin, Alexandra N Kukorowski, Yun Ying, Kevin J Harvatine
Chickens can hepatically synthesize eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n-3) from α-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3 n-3); however, the process is inefficient and competitively inhibited by dietary linoleic acid (LNA; 18:2 n-6). In the present study, the influence of dietary high-oleic acid (OLA; 18:1 n-9) soybean oil (HOSO) on egg and tissue deposition of ALA and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) synthesized from dietary ALA was investigated in laying hens fed a reduced-LNA base diet supplemented with high-ALA flaxseed oil (FLAX)...
March 22, 2018: Lipids
Fang Yang, Guoxun Chen, Meihu Ma, Ning Qiu, Lingjiao Zhu, Jing Li
Phospholipids have been shown to modulate intestinal cholesterol absorption in cells and animals, a process that is regulated by several transporter proteins. Of these proteins, Niemann-Pick C1-Like 1 (NPC1L1) is a major contributor to this process. The mechanism by which phospholipids modulate cholesterol absorption remains unknown. Here, we evaluate the effects of egg-yolk phospholipids on cholesterol absorption and transport in human colon carcinoma cell line (Caco-2 cells) and on the expression of NPC1L1 and others proteins associated with cholesterol absorption (ABCG5, ABCG8, ABCA1, ACAT2, MTP, CAV-1, ANX-2)...
March 22, 2018: Lipids
Kazunari Namegawa, Kyoko Iida, Kaoru Omura, Shoujiro Ogawa, Alan F Hofmann, Takashi Iida
A method for the preparation of 11α-hydroxy derivatives of lithocholic and chenodeoxycholic acids, recently discovered to be natural bile acids, is described. The principal reactions involved were (1) elimination of the 12α-mesyloxy group of the methyl esters of 3α-acetate-12α-mesylate and 3α,7α-diacetate-12α-mesylate derivatives of deoxycholic acid and cholic acid with potassium acetate/hexamethylphosphoramide; (2) simultaneous reduction/hydrolysis of the resulting △11 -3α-acetoxy and △11 -3α,7α-diacetoxy methyl esters with lithium aluminum hydride; (3) stereoselective 11α-hydroxylation of the △11 -3α,24-diol and △11 -3α,7α,24-triol intermediates with B2 H6 /tetrahydrofuran (THF); and (4) selective oxidation at C-24 of the resulting 3α,11α,24-triol and 3α,7α,11α,24-tetrol to the corresponding C-24 carboxylic acids with NaClO2 catalyzed by 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine 1-oxyl free radical (TEMPO) and NaClO...
March 9, 2018: Lipids
Mingqiu Zhao, Yi Li, Huihui Yao, Lihua Dou, Shuya Zhang, Qihong Zhao, Li Li
Changes in dietary composition will have a significant impact on the nutritional status of the mother and the offspring. To examine the relevant hormone level changes during lactation and the expression of fatty acid transporters in the placenta and liver under the condition of a high-fat (HF) diet, we established HF animal models and conducted a cross-fostering program to mimic the shift in diet. On gestation day (GD)18, the weight of placenta in the HF group was significantly higher than that in the control group (p < 0...
March 2018: Lipids
Aleksandra Czumaj, Adriana Mika, Michał Chmielewski, Tomasz Sledzinski
Recently we have found cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl (CPOA2H) in humans and demonstrated its elevated levels in patients with metabolic diseases associated with hypertriglyceridemia. However, it is still unclear whether CPOA2H may influence lipid metabolism in lipogenic tissues. To verify this, HepG2 hepatocytes and 3T3-L1 adipocytes were cultured with various concentrations of CPOA2H, and then the expressions of genes associated with lipid metabolism were determined. Incubation with CPOA2H at concentrations found in patients with metabolic diseases enhanced the expression of hepatocyte genes associated with lipid synthesis and release, in particular, the fatty acid synthase gene (nearly 20-fold increase in the mRNA level)...
March 2018: Lipids
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