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Lipids

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30015391/rice-bran-oil-improves-insulin-resistance-by-affecting-the-expression-of-antioxidants-and-lipid-regulatory-genes
#1
Mervat A Ahmed, Mona A Mohamed, Laila A Rashed, Sohaier A Abd Elbast, Elham A Ahmed
The present study investigated the molecular effects of rice bran oil (RBO) on lipid-regulatory genes (sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 [Srebf1] and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors-α [Ppara]) and the expression of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD1) genes in insulin-resistant rats. Rats were divided into five groups: animals that received standard diet (control); rats fed standard diet containing RBO as the sole source of fat (RBO); a high-fructose diet (HFD) group, which was further divided into two subgroups: rats fed HFD either for only 1 month (HFD1) or for 2 months (HFD2) and rats fed HFD containing RBO for 1 month; while rats in the last group fed HFD for 30 days then treated with RBO for another 30 days...
July 17, 2018: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30009429/black-raspberry-seed-oil-improves-lipid-metabolism-by-inhibiting-lipogenesis-and-promoting-fatty-acid-oxidation-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-mice-and-db-db-mice
#2
Hee Jae Lee, Hana Jung, Hyunnho Cho, Kiuk Lee, Keum Taek Hwang
The objective of this study was to evaluate the beneficial effect of α-linolenic acid-rich black raspberry seed (BRS) oil on lipid metabolism in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese and db/db mice. Five-week-old C57BL/6 mice were fed diets consisting of 50% calories from lard, 5% from soybean, and 5% from corn oil (HFD), or 50% calories from lard and 10% from BRS oil (HFD + BRS oil diet) for 12 weeks. Six-week-old C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice were fed diets consisting of 16% calories from soybean oil (standard diet), 8% from soybean, and 8% from BRS oil, or 16% from BRS oil for 10 weeks...
July 16, 2018: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30009385/biosynthesis-of-oxylipins-by-rhizoctonia-solani-with-allene-oxide-and-oleate-8s-9s-diol-synthase-activities
#3
Ernst H Oliw
Oxylipin biosynthesis by fungi is catalyzed by both the lipoxygenase (LOX) family and the linoleate diol synthase (LDS) family of the peroxidase-cyclooxygenase superfamily. Rhizoctonia solani, a pathogenic fungus, infects staple crops such as potato and rice. The genome predicts three genes with 9-13 introns, which code for tentative dioxygenase (DOX)-cytochrome P450 fusion enzymes of the LDS family, and one gene, which might code for a 13-LOX. The objective was to determine whether mycelia or nitrogen powder of mycelia oxidized unsaturated C18 fatty acids to LDS- or LOX-related metabolites...
July 16, 2018: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29989678/plant-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate-acyltransferases-biocatalysts-involved-in-the-biosynthesis-of-intracellular-and-extracellular-lipids
#4
REVIEW
Kethmi N Jayawardhane, Stacy D Singer, Randall J Weselake, Guanqun Chen
Acyl-lipids such as intracellular phospholipids, galactolipids, sphingolipids, and surface lipids play a crucial role in plant cells by serving as major components of cellular membranes, seed storage oils, and extracellular lipids such as cutin and suberin. Plant lipids are also widely used to make food, renewable biomaterials, and fuels. As such, enormous efforts have been made to uncover the specific roles of different genes and enzymes involved in lipid biosynthetic pathways over the last few decades. sn-Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferases (GPAT) are a group of important enzymes catalyzing the acylation of sn-glycerol-3-phosphate at the sn-1 or sn-2 position to produce lysophosphatidic acids...
July 10, 2018: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29989669/preparation-of-dimethyl-disulfide-adducts-from-the-mono-trans-octadecadienoic-acid-methyl-esters
#5
Shigeaki Shibamoto, Tasuku Murata, Wenjian Lu, Kouhei Yamamoto
The dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) adduct method is one of the more effective methods for determining double bond positions of dienoic acid. The DMDS method can be simply used to obtain the characteristic ions in which cleavage occurs between the methylthio group-added double-bond carbons as can be seen in the mass spectrum obtained using gas chromatography/electron ionization-mass spectrometry. In the case of the methylene-interrupted di-cis type and di-trans type dienoic acid, the DMDS addition reaction only occurs at one double-bond position, and cannot occur at the remaining double-bond position due to steric hindrance...
July 10, 2018: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923600/natural-abundance-carbon-isotopic-analysis-indicates-the-equal-contribution-of-local-synthesis-and-plasma-uptake-to-palmitate-levels-in-the-mouse-brain
#6
R J Scott Lacombe, Vanessa Giuliano, Raphaël Chouinard-Watkins, Richard P Bazinet
Saturated fatty acids are the most abundant fatty acids in the brain, however, there has been some debate regarding the ability of intact dietary saturated fatty acids to be incorporated into the brain. In the present study, we use compound specific isotope analysis to measure the natural abundance carbon isotopic signature of brain, liver, and blood palmitic acid (PAM) and compare it to the dietary PAM and sugar isotopic signatures to calculate the relative contribution of both the incorporation of intact and endogenously synthesized PAM to these pools...
June 20, 2018: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770459/identification-of-correlative-shifts-in-indices-of-brain-cholesterol-metabolism-in-the-c57bl6-mecp2-tm1-1bird-mouse-a-model-for-rett-syndrome
#7
Dieter Lütjohann, Adam M Lopez, Jen-Chieh Chuang, Anja Kerksiek, Stephen D Turley
Rett syndrome (RS) is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder resulting from loss-of-function mutations in the X-linked gene methyl-Cpg-binding protein 2 (MECP2). Using a well-defined model for RS, the C57BL6/Mecp2tm1.1Bird mouse, we have previously found a moderate but persistently lower rate of cholesterol synthesis, measured in vivo, in the brains of Mecp2-/y mice, starting from about the third week after birth. There was no genotypic difference in the total cholesterol concentration throughout the brain at any age...
April 2018: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766504/indene-compounds-synthetically-derived-from-vitamin-d-have-selective-antibacterial-action-on-helicobacter-pylori
#8
Kiyofumi Wanibuchi, Kouichi Hosoda, Masato Ihara, Kentaro Tajiri, Yuki Sakai, Hisashi Masui, Takashi Takahashi, Yoshikazu Hirai, Hirofumi Shimomura
Helicobacter pylori infects the human stomach and is closely linked with the development of gastric cancer. When detected, this pathogen can be eradicated from the human stomach using wide-spectrum antibiotics. However, year by year, H. pylori strains resistant to the antibacterial action of antibiotics have been increasing. The development of new antibacterial substances effective against drug-resistant H. pylori is urgently required. Our group has recently identified extremely selective bactericidal effects against H...
April 2018: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766503/transcriptome-analysis-of-potential-mirna-involved-in-adipogenic-differentiation-of-c2c12-myoblasts
#9
Ye Hou, Liangliang Fu, Jingjin Li, Jingxuan Li, Yunxia Zhao, Yu Luan, An Liu, Huiying Liu, Xinyun Li, Shuhong Zhao, Changchun Li
>Emerging evidence indicates that microRNA (miRNA) plays an important role in adipogenesis and disease pathogenesis. To investigate the miRNA involved in regulating different periods of adipogenesis, we performed a comprehensive study on microRNAome during the stimulation of adipogenesis by an adipogenic differentiation cocktail in C2C12 myoblasts at 0, 2, 4, and 7 days using the Solexa sequencing technology. In this study, we identified 52 differentially expressed (DE) miRNA. Functional annotation indicated that the target genes of DE miRNA were mostly enriched in adipogenic transdifferentiation and fat metabolism-related pathways, including Wnt, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and insulin signaling...
April 2018: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746008/exogenously-added-oxyphytosterols-do-not-affect-macrophage-mediated-inflammatory-responses
#10
Yvonne Oligschlaeger, Tom Houben, Mike L J Jeurissen, Albert V Bitorina, Maurice Konings, Sabine Baumgartner, Jogchum Plat, Ronit Shiri-Sverdlov
Although phytosterols, plant-derived sterol-like components, are well known for their cholesterol-lowering properties, their atherogenic potential is still under debate. Although they are known to share structural similarities with cholesterol, it is unclear whether their oxidized forms (oxyphytosterols) have the capacity to mediate proinflammatory responses in macrophages. In the present study, bone marrow-derived macrophages were treated with oxidized low-density lipoproteins, oxyphytosterols (7keto-sito/campesterol [7keto-sit/camp] or 7-beta-hydroxy-sito/campesterol [7βOH-sit/camp]), nonoxidized phytosterol (β-sitosterol), or carrier-control (cyclodextrin) in a dose- and time-dependent manner...
April 2018: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741213/alpha-linolenic-acid-but-not-palmitic-acid-negatively-impacts-survival-asexual-reproductive-rate-and-clonal-offspring-size-in-hydra-oligactis
#11
Anita Kaliszewicz, Karolina Jarząbek, Justyna Szymańska, Kamil Karaban, Maciej Sierakowski
Hydra, as sit-and-wait predators with limited food selectivity, could serve as model organisms for the analysis of the effect of a particular dietary component on growth and reproduction. We investigated the effect of food quality and of diets enriched with palmitic (PAM) or α-linolenic acid (ALA) on the life history traits of two hydra species: Hydra oligactis and Hydra vulgaris. We tested the hypothesis that a diet enriched with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) can stimulate growth and reproduction in simple metazoans with a sit-and-wait type of predatory strategy...
April 2018: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732563/previous-gestational-diabetes-increases-atherogenic-dyslipidemia-in-subsequent-pregnancy-and-postpartum
#12
Montserrat Prados, Juana A Flores-Le Roux, David Benaiges, Gemma Llauradó, Juan J Chillarón, Antoni Paya, Juan Pedro-Botet
In a cohort of women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), we aimed to ascertain whether women with abnormal glucose tolerance 1-year postdelivery had a more atherogenic lipid profile during and after pregnancy than those with normal glucose tolerance. A prospective cohort study with longitudinal design between January 2004 and March 2016 was conducted. Three hundred and six (56.8%) of 537 women diagnosed with GDM during the studied period attended a control visit during the first year after delivery...
April 2018: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722017/evidence-of-strict-stereospecificity-in-the-structure-of-sn-1-2-diacyl-3-acetyl-glycerols-from-euonymus-maximowiczianus-seeds-using-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy
#13
Roman A Sidorov, Alexander S Shashkov, Pavel A Solovyev, Elena N Gorshkova, Vladimir D Tsydendambaev
Asymmetric, optically active sn-1,2-diacyl-3-acetyl-glycerols (AcDAG) have been known to scientists for several decades. However, to date, the problem of their structure has not been definitely resolved, which has led to a vast diversity of terms used for their designation in the literature. Using two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance, we have investigated AcDAG from the mature seeds of Euonymus maximowiczianus, from which we have been able to both identify a correlation of the methyl group in acetic acid residue with protons at the carbon atom at sn-3 position in the glycerol residue of the AcDAG molecule and, for the first time, demonstrate that this correlation is observed exclusively with one carbon atom at the α-position, but not with two as would have been expected in case of a racemic mixture...
April 2018: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709080/lipidomic-study-of-precursors-of-endocannabinoids-in-freshwater-bryozoan-pectinatella-magnifica
#14
Tomáš Řezanka, Milada Vítová, Jaromír Lukavský, Karel Sigler
Freshwater bryozoan Pectinatella magnifica was collected from a sand pit (South Bohemia). The total lipids after extraction from lyophilized bryozoans were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography/high-resolution negative tandem electrospray mass spectrometry. A total of 19 lipid classes were identified, including N-acyl-substituted phospholipids, that is, N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine and N-acylphosphatidylserine in their plasmenyl forms. Based on gas chromatography/mass spectrometry of 3-pyridylcarbonyl (picolinyl) esters, a very unusual fatty acid was identified, namely 24:7n-3 (all-cis-3,6,9,12,15,18,21-tetracosaheptaenoic acid)...
April 2018: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655176/growth-hormone-secretagogue-a233-improves-growth-and-changes-the-tissue-fatty-acid-profile-in-juvenile-tilapia-oreochromis-niloticus
#15
Rebeca Martínez, Carmen Morales, Amilcar Arenal, Antonio Morales, Fidel Herrera, Víctor González, Mario Pablo Estrada
Growth hormone (GH) release is a process that is well regulated by several factors, including GH secretagogues. GH can mediate the regulation of the fatty acid level and composition. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a synthetic GH secretagogue peptide (A233) on the growth and fatty acid composition in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). To address this objective, we administrated a diet supplemented with A233 to juvenile tilapia for 60 days. The group fed with a diet supplemented with 600 μg of A233 per kg of feed increased in weight (4...
April 2018: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520792/chemical-synthesis-of-rare-natural-bile-acids-11%C3%AE-hydroxy-derivatives-of-lithocholic-and-chenodeoxycholic-acids
#16
Kazunari Namegawa, Kyoko Iida, Kaoru Omura, Shoujiro Ogawa, Alan F Hofmann, Takashi Iida
A method for the preparation of 11α-hydroxy derivatives of lithocholic and chenodeoxycholic acids, recently discovered to be natural bile acids, is described. The principal reactions involved were (1) elimination of the 12α-mesyloxy group of the methyl esters of 3α-acetate-12α-mesylate and 3α,7α-diacetate-12α-mesylate derivatives of deoxycholic acid and cholic acid with potassium acetate/hexamethylphosphoramide; (2) simultaneous reduction/hydrolysis of the resulting △11 -3α-acetoxy and △11 -3α,7α-diacetoxy methyl esters with lithium aluminum hydride; (3) stereoselective 11α-hydroxylation of the △11 -3α,24-diol and △11 -3α,7α,24-triol intermediates with B2 H6 /tetrahydrofuran (THF); and (4) selective oxidation at C-24 of the resulting 3α,11α,24-triol and 3α,7α,11α,24-tetrol to the corresponding C-24 carboxylic acids with NaClO2 catalyzed by 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine 1-oxyl free radical (TEMPO) and NaClO...
April 2018: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701266/sex-specific-alterations-in-serology-and-the-expression-of-liver-fatp4-protein-in-offspring-exposed-to-high-fat-diet-during-pregnancy-and-or-lactation
#17
Mingqiu Zhao, Yi Li, Huihui Yao, Lihua Dou, Shuya Zhang, Qihong Zhao, Li Li
Changes in dietary composition will have a significant impact on the nutritional status of the mother and the offspring. To examine the relevant hormone level changes during lactation and the expression of fatty acid transporters in the placenta and liver under the condition of a high-fat (HF) diet, we established HF animal models and conducted a cross-fostering program to mimic the shift in diet. On gestation day (GD)18, the weight of placenta in the HF group was significantly higher than that in the control group (p < 0...
March 2018: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701265/cyclopropaneoctanoic-acid-2-hexyl-upregulates-the-expression-of-genes-responsible-for-lipid-synthesis-and-release-in-human-hepatic-hepg2-cells
#18
Aleksandra Czumaj, Adriana Mika, Michał Chmielewski, Tomasz Sledzinski
Recently we have found cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl (CPOA2H) in humans and demonstrated its elevated levels in patients with metabolic diseases associated with hypertriglyceridemia. However, it is still unclear whether CPOA2H may influence lipid metabolism in lipogenic tissues. To verify this, HepG2 hepatocytes and 3T3-L1 adipocytes were cultured with various concentrations of CPOA2H, and then the expressions of genes associated with lipid metabolism were determined. Incubation with CPOA2H at concentrations found in patients with metabolic diseases enhanced the expression of hepatocyte genes associated with lipid synthesis and release, in particular, the fatty acid synthase gene (nearly 20-fold increase in the mRNA level)...
March 2018: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701264/rat-small-intestinal-mucosal-epithelial-cells-absorb-dietary-1-3-diacylglycerol-via-phosphatidic-acid-pathways
#19
Tongcheng Xu, Jianpeng Li, Jiayong Zou, Bin Qiu, Wei Liu, Xinying Lin, Duo Li, Zhenhua Liu, Fangling Du
Compared with triacylglycerol (TAG), dietary 1,3-diacylglycerol (1,3-DAG) is associated with reduced serum lipid and glucose levels. We investigated the metabolism of 1,3-DAG by assaying its intermediate metabolites during digestion and absorption in the rat small intestine. After gavage with TAG emulsion, TAG was digested mainly to 2-monoacylglycerol (2-MAG) and unesterified fatty acid (FFA) in the rat small intestinal lumen. 2-MAG was directly absorbed into the small intestinal epithelial cells and esterified to 1,2(2,3)-DAG, and further esterified to TAG...
March 2018: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668081/lipocalin-type-prostaglandin-d-synthase-is-a-novel-phytocannabinoid-binding-protein
#20
Matthew W Elmes, Anthony D Volpe, Simon d'Oelsnitz, Joseph M Sweeney, Martin Kaczocha
Lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase (L-PGDS; EC:5.3.99.2) is an enzyme with dual functional roles as a prostaglandin D2 -synthesizing enzyme and as an extracellular transporter for diverse lipophilic compounds in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Transport of hydrophobic endocannabinoids is mediated by serum albumin in the blood and intracellularly by the fatty acid binding proteins, but no analogous transport mechanism has yet been described in CSF. L-PGDS has been reported to promiscuously bind a wide variety of lipophilic ligands and is among the most abundant proteins found in the CSF...
March 2018: Lipids
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