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Lipids

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429150/short-term-high-fat-diet-induces-obesity-enhancing-changes-in-mouse-gut-microbiota-that-are-partially-reversed-by-cessation-of-the-high-fat-diet
#1
Yue Shang, Ehsan Khafipour, Hooman Derakhshani, Lindsei K Sarna, Connie W Woo, Yaw L Siow, Karmin O
The gut microbiota is proposed as a "metabolic organ" involved in energy utilization and is associated with obesity. Dietary intervention is one of the approaches for obesity management. Changes in dietary components have significant impacts on host metabolism and gut microbiota. In the present study, we examined the influence of dietary fat intervention on the modification of gut mucosa-associated microbiota profile along with body weight and metabolic parameter changes. Male C57BL/6J mice (6-week old) were fed a low fat diet (10% kcal fat) as a control or a high fat diet (HFD 60% kcal fat) for 7 weeks...
April 20, 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421424/erratum-to-replacement-of-marine-fish-oil-with-de-novo-omega-3-oils-from-transgenic-camelina-sativa-in-feeds-for-gilthead-sea-bream-sparus-aurata-l
#2
Mónica B Betancor, M Sprague, D Montero, S Usher, O Sayanova, P J Campbell, J A Napier, M J Caballero, M Izquierdo, D R Tocher
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 18, 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409336/dietary-docosahexaenoic-acid-and-trans-10-cis-12-conjugated-linoleic-acid-differentially-alter-oxylipin-profiles-in-mouse-periuterine-adipose-tissue
#3
Yuriko Adkins, Benjamin J Belda, Theresa L Pedersen, Dawn M Fedor, Bruce E Mackey, John W Newman, Darshan S Kelley
Diets containing high n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) decrease inflammation and the incidence of chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease while trans-fatty acids (TFA) intake increases the incidence of these conditions. Some health benefits of n-3 PUFA are mediated through the impact of their oxygenated metabolites, i.e. oxylipins. The TFA, trans-10, cis-12-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; 18:2n-6) is associated with adipose tissue (AT) inflammation, oxidative stress, and wasting...
April 13, 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405875/acute-fasting-induces-expression-of-acylglycerophosphate-acyltransferase-agpat-enzymes-in-murine-liver-heart-and-brain
#4
Ryan M Bradley, Emily B Mardian, Katherine A Moes, Robin E Duncan
During fasting, cells increase uptake of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and esterify excess into phosphatidic acid (PtdOH), the common precursor of both triacylglycerols and phospholipids, using acylglycerophosphate acyltransferases/lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferases (AGPAT/LPAAT). Knowledge of the regulation of AGPAT enzymes is important for understanding fasting adaptations. Total RNA was isolated from liver, heart, and whole brain tissue of C57BL/6J mice fed ad libitum, or fasted for 16 h. Following fasting, induction of Agpat2, 3, 4, and 5 was observed in the liver, Agpat2 and 3 in heart tissue, and Agpat1, 2, and 3 in whole brain tissue...
April 12, 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401382/first-application-of-newly-developed-ft-nir-spectroscopic-methodology-to-predict-authenticity-of-extra-virgin-olive-oil-retail-products-in-the-usa
#5
Magdi M Mossoba, Hormoz Azizian, Ali Reza Fardin-Kia, Sanjeewa R Karunathilaka, John K G Kramer
Economically motivated adulteration (EMA) of extra virgin olive oils (EVOO) has been a worldwide problem and a concern for government regulators for a long time. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is mandated to protect the US public against intentional adulteration of foods and has jurisdiction over deceptive label declarations. To detect EMA of olive oil and address food safety vulnerabilities, we used a previously developed rapid screening methodology to authenticate EVOO. For the first time, a recently developed FT-NIR spectroscopic methodology in conjunction with partial least squares analysis was applied to commercial products labeled EVOO purchased in College Park, MD, USA to rapidly predict whether they are authentic, potentially mixed with refined olive oil (RO) or other vegetable oil(s), or are of lower quality...
April 11, 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382456/effect-of-fabp1-scp-2-scp-x-ablation-on-whole-body-and-hepatic-phenotype-of-phytol-fed-male-mice
#6
Danilo Landrock, Sherrelle Milligan, Gregory G Martin, Avery L McIntosh, Kerstin K Landrock, Friedhelm Schroeder, Ann B Kier
Liver fatty acid binding protein (Fabp1) and sterol carrier protein-2/sterol carrier protein-x (SCP-2/SCP-x) genes encode proteins that enhance hepatic uptake, cytosolic transport, and peroxisomal oxidation of toxic branched-chain fatty acids derived from dietary phytol. Since male wild-type (WT) mice express markedly higher levels of these proteins than females, the impact of ablating both genes (TKO) was examined in phytol-fed males. In WT males, high phytol diet alone had little impact on whole body weight and did not alter the proportion of lean tissue mass (LTM) versus fat tissue mass (FTM)...
April 5, 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357619/milk-fermented-by-lactic-acid-bacteria-enhances-the-absorption-of-dietary-sphingomyelin-in-rats
#7
Masashi Morifuji, Masami Kitade, Chisato Oba, Tomoyuki Fukasawa, Keiko Kawahata, Taketo Yamaji, Yuki Manabe, Tatsuya Sugawara
Supplementation with sphingomyelin has been reported to prevent disease and maintain good health. However, intact sphingomyelin and ceramides are poorly absorbed compared with glycerolipids. Therefore, if the bioavailability of dietary sphingomyelin can be increased, supplementation would be more effective at lower doses. The aim of this study in rats was to evaluate the effect of fermented milk on the bioavailability of dietary sphingomyelin in rats. After the rats had fasted for 15 h, test solutions were administrated orally...
March 29, 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332043/high-arachidonic-acid-levels-in-the-tissues-of-herbivorous-fish-species-siganus-fuscescens-calotomus-japonicus-and-kyphosus-bigibbus
#8
Asada Jiarpinijnun, Soottawat Benjakul, Akasith Pornphatdetaudom, Junichiro Shibata, Emiko Okazaki, Kazufumi Osako
The lipid and fatty acid compositions in the various organs (muscle, liver, other viscera) and stomach contents of three common herbivorous fish species in Japan, Siganus fuscescens, Calotomus japonicus and Kyphosus bigibbus, were examined to explore the stable 20:4n-6 (arachidonic acid, ARA) sources. Triacylglycerol (TAG), phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdEtn), and phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) were the dominant lipid classes, while the major FA contents were 16:0, 18:1n-9, 16:1n-7, 14:0, 18:0, 18:1n-7, and some PUFA, including ARA, 20:5n-3 (eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA), 22:5n-3 (docosapentaenoic acid, DPA), and 22:6n-3 (docosahexaenoic acid, DHA)...
March 22, 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324248/incorporation-of-flaxseed-flour-as-a-dietary-source-for-ala-increases-bone-density-and-strength-in-post-partum-female-rats
#9
Danielle Cavalcante Ribeiro, Aline D'Avila Pereira, Fernanda Carvalho de Santana, Jorge Mancini-Filho, Eduardo Moreira da Silva, Carlos Alberto Soares da Costa, Gilson Teles Boaventura
In women, bone mass undergoes changes during pregnancy and the postpartum period, which has a risk for subsequent development of osteoporosis. Thus, the present study aims to evaluate the effects of flaxseed flour in femur quality during post-weaning of dam rats. After weaning, the rats were divided into control (C, n = 7) and experimental (F, n = 7) groups treated with a diet containing 25 g of flaxseed flour in the lactating period and 15 g in the maintenance period. After 51 days post-partum, serum hormone, fatty acids composition, bone compartments, computed tomography, and biomechanical analyses were determined...
March 21, 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315997/trans-fatty-acids-suppress-tnf-%C3%AE-induced-inflammatory-gene-expression-in-endothelial-huvec-and-hepatocellular-carcinoma-hepg2-cells
#10
Marine S Da Silva, Pierre Julien, Jean-François Bilodeau, Olivier Barbier, Iwona Rudkowska
Trans fatty acids (TFA) intake has been linked to cardiovascular diseases and liver diseases; yet the effect of TFA on inflammation remains controversial. Accordingly, the objective of this paper was to determine the in vitro effects of TFA on inflammatory gene expression. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells were treated for 24 h with either trans-vaccenic acid (tVA), trans-palmitoleic acid (tPA) or elaidic acid (EA) at concentrations of 5-150 µM, or with a mixture of tVA and tPA (150/50 µM)...
March 18, 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315136/ursodeoxycholic-acid-suppresses-lipogenesis-in-mouse-liver-possible-role-of-the-decrease-in-%C3%AE-muricholic-acid-a-farnesoid-x-receptor-antagonist
#11
Kyosuke Fujita, Yusuke Iguchi, Mizuho Une, Shiro Watanabe
The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a major nuclear receptor of bile acids; its activation suppresses sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP1c)-mediated lipogenesis and decreases the lipid contents in the liver. There are many reports showing that the administration of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) suppresses lipogenesis and reduces the lipid contents in the liver of experimental animals. Since UDCA is not recognized as an FXR agonist, these effects of UDCA cannot be readily explained by its direct activation of FXR...
March 17, 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299528/dietary-conjugated-linoleic-acid-c9t11-prevents-collagen-induced-arthritis-whereas-conjugated-linoleic-acid-t10c12-increases-arthritic-severity
#12
Jessica A Muhlenbeck, Daniel E Butz, Jake M Olson, Daniela Uribe-Cano, Mark E Cook
Two conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers, cis-9, trans-11 (CLAc9t11) and trans-10, cis-12 (CLAt10c12), reduce inflammation in a number of animal models, including collagen-induced arthritis (CA). However, little is known about the ability of individual CLA isomers to prevent autoimmune disease onset. Evidence that mixed isomer CLA drives T helper cell (Th) 1 responses suggests that CLA, or a specific isomer, exacerbates onset of Th1 autoimmune diseases. In two experiments, we examined if prior dietary exposure to CLAt10c12 (experiment 1) or CLAc9t11 (experiment 2) affected the incidence or severity of CA...
March 15, 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243820/digestion-of-ceramide-2-aminoethylphosphonate-a-sphingolipid-from-the-jumbo-flying-squid-dosidicus-gigas-in-mice
#13
Nami Tomonaga, Yuki Manabe, Tatsuya Sugawara
Ceramide 2-aminoethylphosphonate (CAEP), a sphingophosphonolipid containing a carbon-phosphorus bond, is frequently found in marine organisms and has a unique triene type of sphingoid base in its structure. CAEP has not been evaluated as a food ingredient, although it is generally contained in Mollusca organisms such as squids and shellfish, which are consumed worldwide. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the effects of CAEP as a food component by evaluating the digestion of CAEP extracted from the skin of the jumbo flying squid Dosidicus gigas...
February 27, 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229337/novel-odd-chain-fatty-acids-with-a-terminal-double-bond-in-ovaries-of-the-limpet-cellana-toreuma
#14
Hideki Kawashima, Masao Ohnishi
Our previous study characterized highly diverse dienoic fatty acids (FA), in particular an uncommon non-methylene-interrupted (NMI) FA, in the ovaries of the Japanese limpet Cellana toreuma belonging to the archaeogastropods, but many minor chemically unidentified FA remain. In this study, among previously unidentified FA (less than 0.1% of total FA), four novel NMI FA with a terminal double bond [7,18-nonadecadienoic (19:2Δ7,18), 11,18-nonadecadienoic (19:2Δ11,18), 7,20-heneicosadienoic (21:2Δ7,20), and 11,20-heneicosadienoic (21:2Δ11,20) acids] were found, along with known 14-pentadecenoic (15:1Δ14), 16-heptadecenoic (17:1Δ16), and 9,18-nonadecadienoic (19:2Δ9,18) acids, based on capillary GC-MS of their methyl esters, 3-pyridylcarbinol derivatives, and argentation thin-layer chromatography...
February 23, 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210982/new-and-uncommon-fatty-acids-in-lipids-of-deep-sea-foraminifera
#15
Vladimir I Kharlamenko, Vasily I Svetashev, Tatyana S Tarasova
Fatty acids (FA) of agglutinating foraminifera of two genera, Bathysiphon and Rhabdammina, collected from a depth of 3307-3377 m in the Kuril Basin, Sea of Okhotsk, and adjacent deep-sea waters of the Pacific Ocean, were analyzed. In lipids of two Bathysiphon species, in addition to common FA typical for marine organisms, the uncommon ∆4 and ∆7 monoenoic acids and ∆4,7-dienoic acid were found in noticeable amounts. FA of two Rhabdammina species included also such uncommon acids as ∆5,8,11,14-21:4, ∆5,8,11,14-22:4, and ∆5,8,11,14-23:4, which are homologues to arachidonic acid...
February 16, 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161835/changes-in-lipid-and-fatty-acid-composition-during-intramacrophagic-transformation-of-leishmania-donovani-complex-promastigotes-into-amastigotes
#16
Hana Bouazizi-Ben Messaoud, Marion Guichard, Philippe Lawton, Isabelle Delton, Samira Azzouz-Maache
Leishmania sp., are trypanosomatid parasites that are phagocytized by human and animal macrophages. Transformation from the vector promastigote stage to the intracellular amastigote host cell stage is mandatory, since development in the host depends on the internalization of the parasite. We identified and analyzed the lipids involved in the promastigote to amastigote transformation process in the Leishmania donovani complex. Four lipid classes, phospholipids, free fatty acids, triglycerides and sterols were studied...
February 4, 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205069/transcriptomic-analysis-of-thp-1-macrophages-exposed-to-lipoprotein-hydrolysis-products-generated-by-lipoprotein-lipase
#17
Narmadaa Thyagarajan, Jenika D Marshall, Arthur T Pickett, Clemens Schumacher, Yanbo Yang, Sherri L Christian, Robert J Brown
Macrophage lipoprotein lipase (LPL) induces lipid accumulation and promotes atherosclerosis. However, the effects of lipoprotein hydrolysis products generated by LPL on macrophage-derived foam cell formation are not clearly understood. Thus, we analyzed the transcriptomic response to hydrolysis products via microarray analyses on RNA isolated from human THP-1 macrophages incubated with total lipoprotein hydrolysis products generated by LPL. The expression of 183 transcripts was significantly upregulated and 133 transcripts were significantly downregulated...
March 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197856/determination-of-substrate-preferences-for-desaturases-and-elongases-for-production-of-docosahexaenoic-acid-from-oleic-acid-in-engineered-canola
#18
Jenny Lindberg Yilmaz, Ze Long Lim, Mirela Beganovic, Steven Breazeale, Carl Andre, Sten Stymne, Patricia Vrinten, Toralf Senger
Production of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in plant seed oils has been pursued to improve availability of these omega-3 fatty acids that provide important human health benefits. Canola (Brassica napus), through the introduction of 10 enzymes, can convert oleic acid (OLA) into EPA and ultimately DHA through a pathway consisting of two elongation and five desaturation steps. Herein we present an assessment of the substrate specificity of the seven desaturases and three elongases that were introduced into canola by expressing individual proteins in yeast...
March 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194557/-4z-15z-octadecadienoic-acid-inhibits-glycogen-synthase-kinase-3%C3%AE-and-glucose-production-in-h4iie-cells
#19
Jun Yoshida, Shota Uesugi, Tetsuaki Kawamura, Ken-Ichi Kimura, Dawei Hu, Shuang Xia, Naoki Toyooka, Masao Ohnishi, Hideki Kawashima
Many uncommon non-methylene-interrupted fatty acids (NMI FA) are present in limpet gonads, but their biological properties remain unknown. To investigate new biological effects of naturally occurring NMI FA in eukaryotic cells, the biological activities of structurally analogous (4Z,15Z)-octadecadienoic acid (1), (9Z,20Z)-tricosadienoic acid (2), and (12Z,23Z)-hexacosadienoic acid (3) were examined by using a yeast-based drug-screening system using the Ca(2+)-sensitive mutant strain, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (zds1Δ erg3Δ pdr1Δ pdr3Δ)...
March 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132119/epa-dha-and-lipoic-acid-differentially-modulate-the-n-3-fatty-acid-biosynthetic-pathway-in-atlantic-salmon-hepatocytes
#20
Marta Bou, Tone-Kari Østbye, Gerd M Berge, Bente Ruyter
The aim of the present study was to investigate how EPA, DHA, and lipoic acid (LA) influence the different metabolic steps in the n-3 fatty acid (FA) biosynthetic pathway in hepatocytes from Atlantic salmon fed four dietary levels (0, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0%) of EPA, DHA or a 1:1 mixture of these FA. The hepatocytes were incubated with [1-(14)C] 18:3n-3 in the presence or absence of LA (0.2 mM). Increased endogenous levels of EPA and/or DHA and LA exposure both led to similar responses in cells with reduced desaturation and elongation of [1-(14)C] 18:3n-3 to 18:4n-3, 20:4n-3, and EPA, in agreement with reduced expression of the Δ6 desaturase gene involved in the first step of conversion...
March 2017: Lipids
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