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Carl Fruehan, David Johnson, Ruth Welti
LipidomeDB Data Calculation Environment (DCE), a web application for processing data from direct-infusion tandem mass spectrometer data on lipids, was described by Zhou et al. (, Lipids, 46, 879-884). The original version processed multiple precursor and/or neutral loss scans on multiple samples. A recent update to LipidomeDB DCE,, extends LipidomeDB DCE's functionality to process data acquired in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode by direct-infusion mass spectrometry...
December 21, 2018: Lipids
Oren Rom, Nina Volkova, Helana Jeries, Claudia Grajeda-Iglesias, Michael Aviram
The polyphenol-rich pomegranate juice (PJ) and the high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-associated paraoxonase1 (PON1) are known as potent atheroprotective antioxidants, but their effects on other tissues related to cardiovascular disease (CVD) remain unknown. The current study aimed to investigate the effects of treating mice with PJ or recombinant PON1 (rePON1) on the oxidation and lipid status of CVD-related tissues: serum, aorta, heart, liver, kidney, visceral, and subcutaneous adipose tissues (VAT and SAT). Both PJ consumption and rePON1 injection decreased the serum levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (16% and 19%) and triacylglycerols (TAG, 24% and 27%), while only rePON1 increased the levels of thiol groups (35%) and decreased serum cholesterol (15%)...
December 17, 2018: Lipids
Kate J Bowen, Chesney K Richter, Ann C Skulas-Ray, Dariush Mozaffarian, Penny M Kris-Etherton
Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) intake is well below the amount recommended by the 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (0.25 g/day), supporting the need for alternative dietary sources. Stearidonic acid (SDA)-enriched soybeans were bioengineered to endogenously synthesize SDA, which can be readily metabolized to EPA in humans; thus, incorporating the derived SDA-enriched soybean oil into the food supply is a potential strategy to increase EPA. We performed a dietary modeling exercise using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2008 repeat 24-h dietary recall data (n = 24,621) to estimate the potential contribution of SDA-enriched oils to total long-chain n-3 fatty acid intake (defined as EPA + DHA + EPA-equivalents) following two hypothetical scenarios: (1) replacement of regular soybean oil with SDA soybean oil and (2) replacement of four common vegetable oils (corn, canola, cottonseed, and soybean) with respective SDA-modified varieties...
December 7, 2018: Lipids
Timo Ditz, Beate Fuchs
Lysophosphatidylcholine (lysoPtdCho) is a well-known biomarker in body fluids for inflammation and oxidative stress and provides a possible clinical screening marker for certain diseases where inflammation is involved. It was shown in our previous article that the measurement of intact serum using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) provides the phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho)/lysoPtdCho ratios faster than the measurements after organic extraction, while the standard deviations of those "intact" measurements are even smaller...
November 28, 2018: Lipids
Alexander D Dergunov, Dmitry Y Litvinov, Ekaterina V Bazaeva, Veronika G Dmitrieva, Elena V Nosova, Alexandra V Rozhkova, Liudmila V Dergunova
The heterogeneity and content of human plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) related to their atheroprotective properties determined by various molecular and cellular mechanisms still remain to be completely clarified. For 29 atherosclerosis-free male subjects, we studied the relationship of plasma lipid levels and the content of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I)-containing HDL with preβ-electrophoretic mobility, the efficiency of BODIPY-cholesterol efflux from RAW 264.7 macrophages to apolipoprotein B (apoB)-deficient plasma, and the expression level of 22 genes related to HDL metabolism in mononuclear cells...
November 15, 2018: Lipids
Yuko Matsumoto, Yasuhiro Ando, Yuko Hiraoka, Atsushi Tawa, Seiji Ohshimo
A method for the direct preparation of fatty-acid methyl esters (FAME) was simplified for fatty-acid analysis of a single fish larva using gas chromatography (GC). The method included the isolation of a larval trunk and drying in a glass vial, followed by saponification of all the contents without prior lipid extraction. Thereafter, the fatty acids released were methylated by trimethylsilyldiazomethane. This method has advantages over another method, direct acid-catalyzed transesterification, because both the saponification and methylation at room temperature can reduce loss of unsaturated fatty acids and formation of artifacts unavoidable in acidic reaction at high temperature...
November 9, 2018: Lipids
Suhad S AbuMweis, Sunil K Panchal, Peter J H Jones
The triacylglycerol (TAG)-lowering effects of long-chain n-3 fatty acids, and in particular docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are well documented, although these effects manifest large interindividual variability. The objective of this secondary analysis is to investigate whether common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in genes involved in DHA synthesis and TAG metabolism are associated with the responsiveness of blood lipids, lipoprotein, and apolipoprotein concentration to dietary treatment by DHA supplied in high-oleic canola oil (HOCO)...
November 8, 2018: Lipids
Jinhee Hwang, Neetu Singh, Charles Long, Stephen B Smith
The most highly regulated and abundant fatty acid in animal tissue is oleic acid (18:1n9). Oleic acid is synthesized by the Δ9 desaturase, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1), which is responsible for the synthesis of the putative cytokine palmitoleic acid (16:1n7) and 18:2 cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid. Owing to the importance of SCD1 in lipid metabolism, we generated porcine swine kidney (SK6) transgenic cell lines for sustained overexpression or knockdown of porcine stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (pSCD1) in an inducible manner by utilizing a lentiviral expression system...
October 2018: Lipids
Magalí Barchuk, Verónica Miksztowicz, Valeria Zago, Agata Cevey, Graciela López, Nora Goren, Silvia Friedman, Ricardo Jorge Gelpi, Celina Morales, María Del Carmen Fernandez Tomé, Laura Schreier, Gabriela Berg
Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and endothelial lipase (EL) are involved in lipoprotein metabolism. In insulin-resistance, their behavior is altered. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) and apoproteins (apo)CII and CIII could be partly responsible for these alterations. To evaluate this response, we assessed Lpl and Lipg expression, protein levels, and enzyme activity in adipose tissue (AT) and heart in an obesity model. Besides, we assessed the role of PPAR and apoC. Male Wistar rats were fed with standard diet (Control, n = 14) or high-fat diet (HFD, n = 14) for 14 weeks...
October 2018: Lipids
Christopher J Kochansky, Michael J Lyman, Scott E Fauty, Katerina Vlasakova, Anil P D'mello
Proteins involved in lipid homeostasis are often regulated through the nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR). PPARα is the target for the fibrate-class of drugs. Fenofibrate has been approved for its lipid-lowering effects in patients with hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia. We were interested in understanding the expression of the energy transporters in energy-utilizing tissues like liver, heart, muscle, and adipose tissues in rat with the hypothesis that the change in transporter expression would align with the known lipid-lowering effects of PPARα agonists like fenofibrate...
October 2018: Lipids
Ayedh Alqarni, Kiara J Mcintyre, Simon H J Brown, Barbara J Meyer, Todd W Mitchell
Omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) have several health benefits. In particular, low n-3 LCPUFA status is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and led to the development of the omega-3 index that is the proportion of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in the erythrocyte membranes, as a marker of CVD risk. Most methods used to measure the omega-3 index are laborious and time consuming. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a high-throughput method for the extraction and measurement of erythrocyte fatty acids and the omega-3 index...
October 2018: Lipids
Tomáš Řezanka, Irena Kolouchová, Lucia Gharwalová, Jana Doležalová, Linda Nedbalová, Karel Sigler
Mass spectrometry-based shotgun lipidomics was applied to the analysis of sphingolipids of 11 yeast strains belonging to four genera, that is Cryptococcus, Saccharomyces, Schizosaccharomyces, and Wickerhamomyces. The analysis yielded comprehensive results on both qualitative and quantitative representation of complex sphingolipids of three classes-phosphoinositol ceramide (PtdInsCer), mannosyl inositol phosphoceramide (MInsPCer), and mannosyl diinositol phosphoceramide (M(InsP)2 Cer). In total, nearly 150 molecular species of complex sphingolipids were identified...
September 12, 2018: Lipids
Avery L McIntosh, Huan Huang, Danilo Landrock, Gregory G Martin, Shengrong Li, Ann B Kier, Friedhelm Schroeder
Liver fatty-acid-binding protein (FABP1, L-FABP) is the major cytosolic binding/chaperone protein for both precursor arachidonic acid (ARA) and the endocannabinoid (EC) products N-arachidonoylethanolamine (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG). Although FABP1 regulates hepatic uptake and metabolism of ARA, almost nothing is known regarding FABP1's impact on AEA and 2-AG uptake, intracellular distribution, and targeting of AEA and 2-AG to degradative hepatic enzymes. In vitro assays revealed that FABP1 considerably enhanced monoacylglycerol lipase hydrolysis of 2-AG but only modestly enhanced AEA hydrolysis by fatty-acid amide hydrolase...
September 10, 2018: Lipids
Breetha Ramaiyan, Ramaprasad Ravichandra Talahalli
The present study assessed the role of dietary unsaturated fatty acids in maternal dyslipidemia-induced DNA methylation and histone acetylation in placenta and fetal liver and accumulation of lipids in the fetal liver. Weanling female Wistar rats were fed control and experimental diets for 2 months, mated, and continued on their diets during pregnancy. At gestation days of 18-20, rats were euthanized to isolate placenta and fetal liver. DNA methylation, DNA methyl transferase-1 (DNMT1) activity, acetylation of histones (H2A and H2B), and histone acyl transferase (HAT) activity were evaluated in placenta and fetal liver...
September 10, 2018: Lipids
Angeliki Bourtsala, Ioannis Dafnis, Angeliki Chroni, Theodora Farmaki, Dia Galanopoulou
Plants use phospholipase D (PLD, EC acid (PtdOH) for the transduction of environmental signals including those coming from wounding. Based on our previous findings suggesting that wound-induced PLDα-derived PtdOH can act as a local signaling molecule in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), we show that wounding immediately increases local NADPH oxidase (NADPHox) and cellulose synthase A (CeSA) gene expression. After developing a novel fluorimetric assay for the investigation of n-butanol inhibitory effect on PLD activity, we show that only NADPHox gene upregulation is reduced when n-butanol is applied prior to wounding...
September 10, 2018: Lipids
Keshuai Li, Bjørg Egelandsdal, Rolf E Olsen
Some lipid digestion pathways in fish deviate from those in mammals, and many differences may also be species dependent. This report describes a pathway for monoacylglycerol (MAG) and lysophospholipid absorption by intestinal enterocytes in brown trout that may be of significance in salmonids. When culturing primary cells in a medium containing 1- and 2-MAG, we observed a massive hydrolysis of unesterified fatty acids. The hydrolysis activity was retained in the medium even after the removal of the cells. To further characterize these activities, both extracellular and isolated membrane proteins were tested for lipase activity toward triacylglycerol (TAG), diacylglycerol (DAG), MAG, phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho), and lysoPtdCho...
September 10, 2018: Lipids
Sunhye Shin, Kolapo M Ajuwon
Fatty acids are involved in the regulation of inflammatory responses in obesity. However, despite being the largest dietary fatty-acid class, effects of 18-carbon fatty acids with different degrees of saturation on inflammatory, metabolic, and thermogenic markers have not been well studied. Therefore, the objective of this study was to test if diets with different 18-carbon fatty-acid profiles differentially regulate inflammatory and metabolic genes. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed one of the four different diets: a control diet (CON) containing 5...
September 2018: Lipids
Kai-Pi Cheng, Horng-Yih Ou, Hao-Chang Hung, Chung-Hao Li, Kang-Chih Fan, Jin-Shang Wu, Hung-Tsung Wu, Chih-Jen Chang
Hepassocin (HPS) is a hepatokine that regulates hepatocyte proliferation. It is known that HPS plays an important role in the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD). Fatty acids, such as oleic acid (OLA), exhibit the ability to activate the signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3), and the binding site of STAT3 is found in the promoter region of HPS. However, the regulation of HPS by fatty acids is still obscure. To clarify the regulation of HPS, we detected the expression of HPS by western blots...
September 2018: Lipids
Maria Grazia Signorello, Giuliana Leoncini
The objective of this study was to determine whether adenosine 5' monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is activated by anandamide (AEA) and is involved in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activation. We found that AEA stimulates and activates AMPKα through a Ca2+ -dependent/Calmodulin (CaM)-dependent pathway as the specific inhibitor of the Ca2+ /Calmodulin kinase kinase β (CaMKKβ) STO-609 abolishes the AMPK phosphorylation/activation. The same inhibiting effect is shown in platelets pretreated with LY294002, an inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K), or with MK2206, an inhibitor of protein kinase B (AKT), suggesting that AMPK is downstream of the PI3K/AKT pathway...
September 2018: Lipids
Hyun Kyung Choi, Hyun-Ji Kim, Kwang-Hyeon Liu, Chang Seo Park
Ceramide NP is known to be the most abundant class of 12 ceramide (CER) families that form a permeability barrier in the human skin barrier. However, not many studies have been reported on the regulation of the biosynthesis of ceramide NP. Recently, it has been reported that phytosphingosine (PHS) treatment in the cultured keratinocytes (KC) notably increased the content of ceramide NP. However, the mechanism behind the PHS-induced enhancement of ceramide NP has not been elucidated. In this study, we investigated the effects of PHS on the expression of several essential genes for the biosynthesis of CER...
September 2018: Lipids
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