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Yuko Matsumoto, Yasuhiro Ando, Yuko Hiraoka, Atsushi Tawa, Seiji Ohshimo
A method for the direct preparation of fatty-acid methyl esters (FAME) was simplified for fatty-acid analysis of a single fish larva using gas chromatography (GC). The method included the isolation of a larval trunk and drying in a glass vial, followed by saponification of all the contents without prior lipid extraction. Thereafter, the fatty acids released were methylated by trimethylsilyldiazomethane. This method has advantages over another method, direct acid-catalyzed transesterification, because both the saponification and methylation at room temperature can reduce loss of unsaturated fatty acids and formation of artifacts unavoidable in acidic reaction at high temperature...
November 9, 2018: Lipids
Suhad S AbuMweis, Sunil K Panchal, Peter J H Jones
The triacylglycerol (TAG)-lowering effects of long-chain n-3 fatty acids, and in particular docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are well documented, although these effects manifest large interindividual variability. The objective of this secondary analysis is to investigate whether common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in genes involved in DHA synthesis and TAG metabolism are associated with the responsiveness of blood lipids, lipoprotein, and apolipoprotein concentration to dietary treatment by DHA supplied in high-oleic canola oil (HOCO)...
November 8, 2018: Lipids
Tomáš Řezanka, Irena Kolouchová, Lucia Gharwalová, Jana Doležalová, Linda Nedbalová, Karel Sigler
Mass spectrometry-based shotgun lipidomics was applied to the analysis of sphingolipids of 11 yeast strains belonging to four genera, that is Cryptococcus, Saccharomyces, Schizosaccharomyces, and Wickerhamomyces. The analysis yielded comprehensive results on both qualitative and quantitative representation of complex sphingolipids of three classes-phosphoinositol ceramide (PtdInsCer), mannosyl inositol phosphoceramide (MInsPCer), and mannosyl diinositol phosphoceramide (M(InsP)2 Cer). In total, nearly 150 molecular species of complex sphingolipids were identified...
September 12, 2018: Lipids
Avery L McIntosh, Huan Huang, Danilo Landrock, Gregory G Martin, Shengrong Li, Ann B Kier, Friedhelm Schroeder
Liver fatty-acid-binding protein (FABP1, L-FABP) is the major cytosolic binding/chaperone protein for both precursor arachidonic acid (ARA) and the endocannabinoid (EC) products N-arachidonoylethanolamine (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG). Although FABP1 regulates hepatic uptake and metabolism of ARA, almost nothing is known regarding FABP1's impact on AEA and 2-AG uptake, intracellular distribution, and targeting of AEA and 2-AG to degradative hepatic enzymes. In vitro assays revealed that FABP1 considerably enhanced monoacylglycerol lipase hydrolysis of 2-AG but only modestly enhanced AEA hydrolysis by fatty-acid amide hydrolase...
September 10, 2018: Lipids
Breetha Ramaiyan, Ramaprasad Ravichandra Talahalli
The present study assessed the role of dietary unsaturated fatty acids in maternal dyslipidemia-induced DNA methylation and histone acetylation in placenta and fetal liver and accumulation of lipids in the fetal liver. Weanling female Wistar rats were fed control and experimental diets for 2 months, mated, and continued on their diets during pregnancy. At gestation days of 18-20, rats were euthanized to isolate placenta and fetal liver. DNA methylation, DNA methyl transferase-1 (DNMT1) activity, acetylation of histones (H2A and H2B), and histone acyl transferase (HAT) activity were evaluated in placenta and fetal liver...
September 10, 2018: Lipids
Angeliki Bourtsala, Ioannis Dafnis, Angeliki Chroni, Theodora Farmaki, Dia Galanopoulou
Plants use phospholipase D (PLD, EC acid (PtdOH) for the transduction of environmental signals including those coming from wounding. Based on our previous findings suggesting that wound-induced PLDα-derived PtdOH can act as a local signaling molecule in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), we show that wounding immediately increases local NADPH oxidase (NADPHox) and cellulose synthase A (CeSA) gene expression. After developing a novel fluorimetric assay for the investigation of n-butanol inhibitory effect on PLD activity, we show that only NADPHox gene upregulation is reduced when n-butanol is applied prior to wounding...
September 10, 2018: Lipids
Keshuai Li, Bjørg Egelandsdal, Rolf E Olsen
Some lipid digestion pathways in fish deviate from those in mammals, and many differences may also be species dependent. This report describes a pathway for monoacylglycerol (MAG) and lysophospholipid absorption by intestinal enterocytes in brown trout that may be of significance in salmonids. When culturing primary cells in a medium containing 1- and 2-MAG, we observed a massive hydrolysis of unesterified fatty acids. The hydrolysis activity was retained in the medium even after the removal of the cells. To further characterize these activities, both extracellular and isolated membrane proteins were tested for lipase activity toward triacylglycerol (TAG), diacylglycerol (DAG), MAG, phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho), and lysoPtdCho...
September 10, 2018: Lipids
Kazuo Mukai, Eri Ishikawa, Aya Ouchi, Shin-Ichi Nagaoka, Koichi Abe, Tomomi Suzuki, Katsuhiro Izumisawa
Recently, a new assay method that can quantify the singlet oxygen-absorption capacity (SOAC) of antioxidants (AO) and food extracts in homogeneous organic solvents has been proposed. In the present study, second-order rate constants (kQ ) for the reaction of singlet oxygen (1 O2 ) with vitamin E homologs (α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocopherols [Toc] and α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocotrienols [Toc-3]) were measured in an aqueous Triton X-100 (5.0 wt%) micellar solution (pH 7.4). Toc-3 showed kQ values larger than those of Toc in a micellar solution, although Toc and Toc-3 showed the same kQ values in a homogeneous solution...
August 28, 2018: Lipids
Jetty Chung-Yung Lee, Dalal Samir AlGhawas, Kaisa Poutanen, Kin Sum Leung, Camille Oger, Jean-Marie Galano, Thierry Durand, Hani El-Nezami
Oat bran is suggested to attenuate atherosclerotic conditions by regulating dyslipidemia, endothelial function, and oxidative damage. Through the measurement of oxidized polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), oxidative stress, and inflammation status in liver and heart tissues of apolipoprotein E-/- (ApoE -/- ), mice fed with high fat diet (HFD) or HFD with oat bran (HFD + Oat) were investigated. Using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), PUFA and over 40 types of its oxidized products were assessed...
August 2018: Lipids
Jeff M Howard, Peter L Beech, Damien L Callahan
Plant diseases caused by Phytophthora species are serious threats to agriculture and the natural environment. Genome sequencing has revealed the lack of a gene for canonical phospholipase C (PLC), an enzyme that was hitherto thought to be ubiquitous in eukaryotes. PLC acts in the hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns-4,5-P2 ), a membrane-bound phospholipid critical for signal initiation in many cellular processes. Previous studies have not provided evidence of endogenous PtdIns-4,5-P2 in Phytophthora and, in the absence of canonical PLC, argued for redundancy or loss in the PLC pathway in Phytophthora...
August 2018: Lipids
Phoebe B Chen, Ju Hyeon Kim, Daeyoung Kim, John M Clark, Yeonhwa Park
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been reported to be a bioactive food component. However, there is limited knowledge on the sex-dependent effects of CLA on energy metabolism. In the present study, Drosophila melanogaster was used to investigate the sex-dependent effects of CLA with respect to body fat, muscle, locomotion, and a key metabolic regulator, AMP-activated protein kinase α (AMPKα). Adult flies were fed a cornmeal-based fly food with 0.5% of CLA oil (50:50 of cis-9,trans-11 and trans-10,cis-12 CLA isomers in triacylglycerol (TAG) form), 0...
August 2018: Lipids
Emily J Koubek, Jillian S Weissenrieder, Jeffrey D Neighbors, Raymond J Hohl
The schweinfurthin family of compounds displays exciting potent and differential cytotoxicity against human cancer cell lines. Currently, the effect of schweinfurthins on tumor development and progression is being explored in animal models of cancer with promising results. The first schweinfurthin family member, vedelianin, was isolated in 1992, followed by other schweinfurthins in 1998. This opened up the door for the synthesis of additional analogs. At present, the focus of research lies on delineating the mechanism of schweinfurthin action and identifying the nature of sensitivity...
August 2018: Lipids
Takuya Imatoh, Loic Yengo, Ghislain Rocheleau, Seiichiro Kamimura, Shiro Maeda, Motonobu Miyazaki, Philippe Froguel
It has been reported that polymorphisms within the gene-encoding enzymes related to alcohol metabolism are associated with levels of serum HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) in East Asian populations. We evaluated the effects of genetic variants within the aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) gene and the alcohol dehydrogenase-1B (ADH1B) gene on changes in the lipid profile in an 11-year longitudinal study. We genotyped rs1229984 within ADH1B and rs671 within ALDH2. We combined the genetic data with longitudinal clinical and biochemical data from 2002 to 2013 and designed a retrospective longitudinal study of 1436 Japanese males...
August 2018: Lipids
Anna Fickler, Stefanie Staats, Mario Hasler, Gerald Rimbach, Carsten Schulz
The utilization of vegetable oils in salmonid diets substantially decreased the body content of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA), and thus the product quality for human consumption. Therefore, new ingredients for aquaculture feeds are needed that maximize the deposition of health-promoting n-3 LC-PUFA. This study investigated Buglossoides arvensis (Ahiflower) oil, a plant oil rich in alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3, ALA) and stearidonic acid (18:4n-3, SDA), as a source of n-3 fatty acids in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) nutrition...
August 2018: Lipids
Hideki Kawashima
Highly diverse dienoic fatty acids (FA), especially non-methylene-interrupted (NMI) FA, have been recognized in triacylglycerols (TAG) and polar lipids of ovaries of the limpet Cellana toreuma. To gain additional insights into the structural diversity of FA in ovaries, this study aimed to clarify previously undescribed minor monoenoic FA isomers and unidentified minor NMI FA by combined argentation thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of their 3-pyridylcarbinol derivatives...
August 2018: Lipids
Shigeaki Shibamoto, Tasuku Murata, Wenjian Lu, Kouhei Yamamoto
The dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) adduct method is one of the more effective methods for determining double bond positions of dienoic acid. The DMDS method can be simply used to obtain the characteristic ions in which cleavage occurs between the methylthio group-added double-bond carbons as can be seen in the mass spectrum obtained using gas chromatography/electron ionization-mass spectrometry. In the case of the methylene-interrupted di-cis type and di-trans type dienoic acid, the DMDS addition reaction only occurs at one double-bond position, and cannot occur at the remaining double-bond position due to steric hindrance...
July 10, 2018: Lipids
Nina S Liland, Karin Pittman, Paul Whatmore, Bente E Torstensen, Nini H Sissener
Several feeding trials with Atlantic salmon fed naturally high phytosterol concentrations due to dietary rapeseed oil inclusion have shown changes in lipid metabolism and increased hepatic lipid storage in the fish. An in vitro trial with Atlantic salmon hepatocytes was, therefore, performed to study the possible direct effects of phytosterols on lipid storage and metabolism. The isolated hepatocytes were exposed to seven different sterol treatments and gene expression, as well as lipid accumulation by Oil Red O dyeing, was assessed...
July 2018: Lipids
Jessica A Muhlenbeck, Jake M Olson, Anna B Hughes, Mark E Cook
Mixed-isomer conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and the individual isomers, trans-10, cis-12 (CLAt10c12) and cis-9, trans-11 (CLAc9t11), decrease severity of collagen-induced arthritis (CA) when consumed after disease onset. Few studies have been conducted exploring the role of CLA in the prevention of autoimmune diseases. These studies suggest that isomer-specific effects may be occurring; however, a direct comparison of CLAt10c12 and CLAc9t11 has yet to be conducted. A study to compare the ability of CLAt10c12 and CLAc9t11 to prevent CA and assess their effects on early inflammation was performed...
July 2018: Lipids
Payam Vahmani, David C Rolland, Katherine E Gzyl, Danica D S Baines, Michael E R Dugan
Biohydrogenation intermediates (BHI) including conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers are formed during ruminal biohydrogenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in ruminants. Although many studies have examined the anticarcinogenic effects of CLA, few studies have reported the anticarcinogenic properties of BHI in their natural form found in dairy and beef fats. The present study compared the growth-inhibitory effects of fatty acids from beef perirenal fat (PRF) or subcutaneous fat (SCF) with low or high levels of BHI in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells...
July 2018: Lipids
Sebastian Schultz, Apostolos-Manuel Koussoroplis, Martin J Kainz
In this fish-feeding study, we tested similarity patterns between fatty acids (FA) in diets and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) of fish ponds used for semi-intensive aquaculture, containing naturally occurring pond zooplankton and different feeds (marine or terrestrial feeds) until carp reached market size. We evaluated if and how total lipid contents in dorsal fillets can reflect dietary FA compositions in farm-raised common carp and hypothesized that increasing total lipid contents in dorsal fillets significantly increase the similarity between dietary and dorsal fillets' FA compositions...
July 2018: Lipids
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