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Felicity Callard
The category of panic disorder was significantly indebted to early psychopharmacological experiments (in the late 1950s and early 1960s) by the psychiatrist Donald Klein, in collaboration with Max Fink. Klein's technique of "psychopharmacological dissection" underpinned his transformation of clinical accounts of anxiety and was central in effecting the shift from agoraphobic anxiety (with its spatial imaginary of city squares and streets) to panic. This technique disaggregated the previously unitary affect of anxiety-as advanced in psychoanalytic accounts-into two physiological and phenomenological kinds...
2016: Osiris
Zeb Tortorici
This essay examines the medical and legal construction of predatory masculinity in New Spain by contrasting criminal cases of rape [estupro] with those of violent or coercive sodomy [sodomía]. In the context of male-female rape, the rulings of most criminal and ecclesiastical courts imply that predatory masculinity was a "natural" manifestation of male sexual desire, whereas in cases of sodomy and nonconsensual sexual acts between men, courts viewed such desire as "against nature." The processes by which the colonial state prosecuted certain sexual crimes simultaneously criminalized and validated predatory masculinity...
2015: Osiris
Alexandra Rutherford
Using mid-twentieth-century American psychology as my focus, I explore how scientific psychology was constructed as a distinctly masculine enterprise and was navigated by those who did not conform easily to this masculine ideal. I show how women emerged as problems for science through the vigorous gatekeeping activities and personal and professional writings of disciplinary figurehead Edwin G. Boring. I trace Boring's intellectual and professional socialization into masculine science and his efforts to understand women's apparent lack of scientific eminence, efforts that were clearly undergirded by preexisting and widely shared assumptions about men's and women's capacities and preferences...
2015: Osiris
Beth Linker, Whitney Laemmli
At the conclusion of the Second World War, more than 600,000 men returned to the United States with long-term disabilities, profoundly destabilizing the definitions, representations, and experiences of male sexuality in America. By examining an oft-neglected 1950 film, The Men, along with medical, personal, and popular accounts of impotence in paralyzed World War II veterans, this essay excavates the contours of that change and its attendant anxieties. While previous scholarship on film and sexuality in the postwar period has focused on women's experiences, we broaden the analytical lens to provide a fuller picture of the various meanings of male sexuality, especially disabled heterosexuality...
2015: Osiris
Nathan Ha
During the 1960s and 1970s, Kurt Freund and other researchers developed phallometry to demonstrate the effectiveness of behaviorism in the diagnosis and treatment of male homosexuality and pedophilia. Researchers used phallometers to segment different aspects of male arousal, to discern cryptic hierarchies of eroticism, and to monitor the effectiveness of treatments to change an individual's sexuality. Phallometry ended up challenging the expectations of behaviorist researchers by demonstrating that most men could not change their sexual preferences--no matter how hard they tried or how hard others tried to change them...
2015: Osiris
Mary Terrall
In the Royal Academy of Sciences of Paris (founded 1666), expressions of a masculine culture of science echoed contemporary language used to articulate the aristocracy's value to crown and state--even though the academy was not an aristocratic institution as such. In the eighteenth century, the pursuit of science became a new form of manly service to the crown, often described in terms of useful knowledge and benefit to the public good [le bien public]. This article explores the connection of academic scientific knowledge to the domestic spaces where it was made and, in particular, to the household of R...
2015: Osiris
Michael S Reidy
Golden-age mountaineers attempted to codify gender, like flora and fauna, by altitude. They zoned the high Alps masculine. As women also reached into the highest regions, male alpinists increasingly turned to their bodies, and the bodies of their guides, to give scientific validity to their all-male preserve. Edward Whymper traveled to the Andes in 1879, where he transformed Chimborazo into a laboratory and his own body and those of his guides into scientific objects. His work helped spearhead a field-based, vertical approach to human physiology that proliferated after the turn of the century...
2015: Osiris
Eugenia Lean
In the first decade of Republican China (1911-49), masculinity was explored in writings on how to manufacture makeup that appeared in women's magazines. Male authors and editors of these writings--some of whom were connoisseurs of technology, some of whom were would-be manufacturers--appropriated the tropes of the domestic and feminine to elevate hands-on work and explore industry and manufacturing as legitimate masculine pursuits. Tapping into time-honored discourses of virtuous productivity in the inner chambers and employing practices of appropriating the woman's voice to promote unorthodox sentiment, these recipes "feminized" production to valorize a new masculine agenda, which included chemistry and manufacturing, for building a new China...
2015: Osiris
Frances Bernstein
Millions of Soviet soldiers were disabled as a direct consequence of their service in the Second World War. Yet despite its expressions of gratitude for their sacrifices, the state evinced a great deal of discomfort regarding their damaged bodies. The countless armless and legless veterans were a constant reminder of the destruction suffered by the country as a whole, an association increasingly incompatible with the postwar agenda of wholesale reconstruction. This article focuses on a key strategy for erasing the scars of war, one with ostensibly unambiguous benefit for the disabled themselves: the development of prostheses...
2015: Osiris
Michael Robinson
Americans crowded newsstands in early 1910 to read Robert Peary's firsthand account of his expedition to the North Pole. As they read "The Discovery of the North Pole," serialized exclusively in Hampton's Magazine, few knew that this harrowing, hypermasculine tale was really crafted by New York poet Elsa Barker. Barker's authorship of the North Pole story put her at the center of a large community of explorers, writers, patrons, and fans who were taken with Arctic exploration as much for its national symbolism as for its thrilling tales...
2015: Osiris
Erika Lorraine Milam
By the late 1950s, Harry Frank Guggenheim was concerned with understanding why some charismatic leaders fought for freedom, while others sought power and domination. He believed that best-selling books on ethological approaches to animal and human behavior, especially those by playwright and screenwriter Robert Ardrey, promised a key to this dilemma, and he created a foundation that would fund research addressing problems of violence, aggression, and dominance. Under the directorship of Rutgers University professors Robin Fox and Lionel Tiger, the Harry Frank Guggenheim Foundation fostered scientific investigations into the biological basis of human nature...
2015: Osiris
Nathan Ensmenger
Over the course of the 1960s and 1970s, male computer experts were able to successfully transform the "routine and mechanical" (and therefore feminized) activity of computer programming into a highly valued, well-paying, and professionally respectable discipline. They did so by constructing for themselves a distinctively masculine identity in which individual artistic genius, personal eccentricity, anti-authoritarian behavior, and a characteristic "dislike of activities involving human interaction" were mobilized as sources of personal and professional authority...
2015: Osiris
Leah DeVun
This essay focuses on "hermaphrodites" and the emerging profession of surgery in thirteenth- and fourteenth-century Europe. During this period, surgeons made novel claims about their authority to regulate sexual difference by surgically ''correcting" errant sexual anatomies. Their theories about sex, I argue, drew upon both ancient roots and contemporary conflicts to conceptualize sexual difference in ways that influenced Western Europe for centuries thereafter. I argue that a close examination of medieval surgical texts complicates orthodox narratives in the broader history of sex and sexuality: medieval theorists approached sex in sophisticated and varied manners that belie any simple opposition of modern and premodern paradigms...
2015: Osiris
Erika Lorraine Milam, Robert A Nye
This volume seeks to integrate gender analysis into the global history of science and medicine from the late Middle Ages to the present by focusing on masculinity, the part of the gender equation that has received the least attention from scholars. The premise of the volume is that social constructions of masculinity function simultaneously as foils for femininity and as methods of differentiating between "kinds" of men. In exploring scientific masculinities without taking the dominance of men and masculinity in the sciences for granted, we ask, What is masculinity and how does it operate in science? Our answers remind us that gender is at once an analytical category and a historical object...
2015: Osiris
Bernadette Bensaude-Vincent
Reflecting on the upsurge of interest among historians of chemistry in the material, artisanal, and commercial aspects of early modern chemistry, this essay argues that they are attracting attention because of a number of similarities between the style of chemistry cultivated in this period and the new cultures of chemistry being developed today. The close interactions between knowing and making, academic knowledge and practical applications, the social value and prestige attached to chemistry, the public engagement in chemical culture, the concern with recycling, and even a specific relational ontology instantiated in the term "rapport" are characteristic features of the current technoscientific culture...
2014: Osiris
Jonathan Simon
This essay questions the continuity of chemistry across the eighteenth century based on an analysis of its relationship to pharmacy in France. Comparing a text by Nicolas Lémery (1675) with one by Antoine Baumé (1773), the article argues for a key transformation in chemistry across this period. The elimination of the practical side of pharmacy (indications and dosages) from chemistry texts is symptomatic of a reorientation of chemistry toward more theoretical or philosophical concerns. The essay considers several possible explanations for this change in orientation, including developments within pharmacy, but in the end privileges an approach in terms of the changing publics for chemistry in eighteenth-century France...
2014: Osiris
Ursula Klein
Eighteenth-century chemists defined chemistry as both a "science and an art." By "chemical art" they meant not merely experimentation but also parts of certain arts and crafts. This raises the question of how to identify the "chemical parts" of the arts and crafts in eighteenth-century Europe. In this essay I tackle this question with respect to porcelain manufacture. My essay begins with a brief discussion of historiographical problems related to this question. It then analyzes practices involved in porcelain manufacture that can be reasonably identified as chemical practices or a chemical art...
2014: Osiris
Christine Lehman
Despite recent studies of chemistry courses and of academic research at the beginning of the eighteenth century, the perception of chemistry in the French Enlightenment has often been overshadowed by Lavoisier's works. This article proposes three specific case studies selected from Pierre Joseph Macquer's (1718-84) rich career to show the continuous evolution of chemistry throughout the century: medicinal chemistry through the application of the Comte de La Garaye's metallic salt solutions, the emergence of industrial chemistry through a few of Macquer's evaluations at the Bureau du Commerce, and finally communal academic research through the experiments on diamonds using Tschirnhaus's lens...
2014: Osiris
Hjalmar Fors
This essay examines how the modern concept of the chemical element emerged during the eighteenth century. It traces this concept to a group of assayers, mineralogists, and chemists active at the Swedish Bureau of Mines (Bergskollegium). Driven by a deep ontological pragmatism, these "mining chemists" came to regard all inquiries into the component parts of metals as useless speculation. Instead, metals were treated as immutable species that made mineralogical taxonomy possible. Their work was a form of Enlightenment boundary work, which associated chrysopoeia and the pursuit of the components of metals with superstition and disreputable activities such as astrology...
2014: Osiris
Matthew James Crawford
In 1790, the Spanish Crown sent a "botanist-chemist" to South America to implement production of a chemical extract made from cinchona bark, a botanical medicament from the Andes used throughout the Atlantic World to treat malarial fevers. Even though the botanist-chemist's efforts to produce the extract failed, this episode offers important insight into the role of chemistry in the early modern Atlantic World. Well before the Spanish Crown tried to make it a tool of empire, chemistry provided a vital set of techniques that circulated among a variety of healers, who used such techniques to make botanical medicaments useful and intelligible in new ways...
2014: Osiris
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