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Clinical and Experimental Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423454/uk-neqas-survey-of-allergen-component-testing-across-the-united-kingdom-and-other-european-countries
#1
R Saleem, C Keymer, D Patel, W Egner, A W Rowbottom
The clinical utility of molecular diagnostic approaches in allergy investigation is being recognized increasingly to play a significant role in the management of allergic patients. Determining the sensitization pattern, which is best achieved through the use of component resolved diagnostics (CRD), allows effective risk stratification, appropriate treatment and patient selection for immunotherapy. In order to assess the diagnostic service provisions for in-vitro allergy testing across Europe, a survey was carried out via the total immunoglobulin (Ig)E and specific IgE external quality assurance schemes run by UK National External Quality Assessment Service (NEQAS) Immunology, Immunochemistry and Allergy...
April 19, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422316/regulatory-t-cells-tolerance-induction-in-solid-organ-transplantation
#2
REVIEW
Trishan Vaikunthanathan, Niloufar Safinia, Dominic Boardman, Robert I Lechler, Giovanna Lombardi
The concept of regulatory T cell (Treg) therapy in transplantation is now a reality. Significant advances in science and technology have enabled us to isolate human Tregs, expand them to clinically relevant numbers and infuse them into human transplant recipients. With several Phase I/II trials underway investigating Treg safety and efficacy it is now more crucial than ever to understand their complex biology. However, our journey is by no means complete, results from these trials will undoubtedly provoke both further knowledge and enquiry, which, alongside evolving science will continue to drive the optimization of Treg therapy in the pursuit of transplantation tolerance...
April 19, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419440/the-role-of-stromal-cells-in-inflammatory-bone-loss
#3
REVIEW
Corinna Wehmeyer, Thomas Pap, Christopher D Buckley, Amy J Naylor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 17, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407442/rotavirus-capsid-vp6-tubular-and-spherical-nanostructures-act-as-local-adjuvants-when-co-delivered-with-norovirus-vlps
#4
Maria Malm, Suvi Heinimäki, Timo Vesikari, Vesna Blazevic
A subunit protein vaccine candidate based on norovirus (NoV) virus-like particles (VLPs) and rotavirus (RV) VP6 protein against acute childhood gastroenteritis has been recently proposed. RV VP6 forms different oligomeric nanostructures, including tubes and spheres when expressed in vitro, which are highly immunogenic in different animal models. We have recently shown that recombinant VP6 nanotubes have an adjuvant effect on immunogenicity of NoV VLPs in mice. In this study, we investigated if the adjuvant effect is dependent on a VP6 dose or different VP6 structural assemblies...
April 13, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395110/murine-models-of-transplantation-tolerance-through-mixed-chimerism-advances-and-roadblocks
#5
REVIEW
Benedikt Mahr, Thomas Wekerle
Organ transplantation is the treatment of choice for patients with end-stage organ failure but chronic immunosuppression is taking its toll in terms of morbidity and poor efficacy in preventing late graft loss. Therefore a drug-free state would be desirable where the recipient permanently accepts a donor organ while remaining otherwise fully immunologically competent. Mouse studies unveiled mixed chimerism as an effective approach to deliberately induce such donor-specific tolerance and laid the foundation for a series of clinical pilot trials...
April 10, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388832/associations-of-baff-and-anti-baff-autoantibodies-with-disease-activity-in-multi-ethnic-asian-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-patients-in-singapore
#6
Hwee Siew Howe, Bernard Y H Thong, Kok Ooi Kong, Hiok Hee Chng, Tsui Yee Lian, Faith L A Chia, Karine S S Tay, Tang Ching Lau, Weng Giap Law, Ee Tzun Koh, Bernard P Leung
OBJECTIVE: To measure the levels of B cell activating factor (BAFF) and endogenous anti-BAFF autoantibodies in a cohort of multi-ethnic Asian systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients in Singapore, to determine their correlation with disease activity. METHODS: Serum samples from 121 SLE patients and 24 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were assayed for BAFF and anti-BAFF IgG antibody levels by ELISA. The lowest reliable detection limit for anti-BAFF-IgG antibody levels was defined as 2 standard deviations (SD) from blank...
April 7, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374535/association-of-esat-6-cfp-10-induced-ifn-%C3%AE-tnf-%C3%AE-and-il-10-with-clinical-tuberculosis-evidence-from-cohorts-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-patients-household-contacts-and-community-controls-in-an-endemic-setting
#7
F Abebe, M Belay, M Legesse, A Mihret, K S Franklin
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) early secreted protein antigen 6 (ESAT-6) and culture filtrate protein 10 (CFP-10) are among candidate vaccines against tuberculosis (TB). Results of experimental animal models show that these antigens are associated with induction of strong T cell immunity (IFN-γ production), while others report that these proteins as virulent factors involved in pathogenicity of Mtb infection. However, the role of ESAT-6/CFP-10 during natural Mtb infections in humans has not been established...
April 3, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369855/in-vivo-activation-of-invariant-natural-killer-t-cells-induces-systemic-and-local-alterations-in-t-cell-subsets-prior-to-preterm-birth
#8
Nardhy Gomez-Lopez, Roberto Romero, Marcia Arenas-Hernandez, George Schwenkel, Derek St Louis, Sonia S Hassan, Tara N Mial
Preterm birth, the leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality worldwide, is frequently preceded by spontaneous preterm labor, a syndrome of multiple etiologies. Pathological inflammation is causally linked to spontaneous preterm labor. Indeed, direct activation of invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells via α-galactosylceramide induces preterm labor/birth largely by initiating systemic and local (i.e., decidua and myometrium) innate immune responses. Herein, we investigated whether iNKT-cell activation altered local and systemic T-cell subsets...
April 2, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369830/chimerism-based-tolerance-in-organ-transplantation-preclinical-and-clinical-studies
#9
REVIEW
T Oura, A B Cosimi, T Kawai
Induction of allograft tolerance has been considered the ultimate goal in organ transplantation. Although numerous protocols to induce allograft tolerance have been reported in mice, a chimerism-based approach through donor haematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been the only approach to date that induced allograft tolerance reproducibly following kidney transplantation in man. Renal allograft tolerance has been achieved by induction of either transient mixed chimerism or persistent full donor chimerism...
April 2, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369805/exosomes-carrying-immunoinhibitory-proteins-and-their-role-in-cancer
#10
REVIEW
Theresa L Whiteside
Recent emergence of exosomes as information carriers between cells has introduced us to a new previously unknown biological communication system. Multi-directional cross-talk mediated by exosomes carrying proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids between normal cells, cells harboring a pathogen or cancer and immune cells has been instrumental in determining outcomes of physiological as well as pathological conditions. Exosomes play a key role in the broad spectrum of human diseases. In cancer, tumor-derived exosomes carry multiple immunoinhibitory signals, disable anti-tumor immune effector cells and promote tumor escape from immune control...
April 2, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369789/increased-il-20-and-il-24-target-osteoblasts-and-synovial-monocytes-in-spondyloarthritis
#11
Tue Wenzel Kragstrup, Morten Nørgaard Andersen, Berit Schiøttz-Christensen, Anne Grethe Jurik, Malene Hvid, Bent Deleuran
The pathogenesis of spondyloarthritis (SpA) involves activation of the innate immune system, inflammation and new bone formation. The two cytokines IL-20 and IL-24 have been shown to link innate immune activation and tissue homeostasis. We hypothesized that these two cytokines are secreted as part of activation of the innate immune system and affect bone homeostasis in SpA. IL-20 and IL-24 were measured in plasma from axial SpA patients (n=83). Peripheral SpA patients (n=16) were included for in vitro cell culture studies...
April 2, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369745/inflammasome-gene-profile-is-modulated-in-septic-patients-with-a-greater-magnitude-in-non-survivors
#12
K F Esquerdo, N K Sharma, M K C Brunialti, G L Baggio-Zappia, M Assunção, L C P Azevedo, A T Bafi, R Salomao
Inflammasome signalling induces the processing and secretion of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18 which, coupled with pyroptosis, activate further the inflammatory response. In the present study we evaluated the expression of genes involved in inflammasome signalling pathways in septic patients, their interaction networks and the predicted functions modulated in survivors and non-survivors. Twenty-seven patients with sepsis secondary to community-acquired pneumonia admitted to intensive care units from three general hospitals in São Paulo were included into the study...
April 2, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369741/janus-kinase-inhibitors-prevent-migration-of-rheumatoid-arthritis-neutrophils-towards-interleukin-8-but-do-not-inhibit-priming-of-the-respiratory-burst-or-reactive-oxygen-species-production
#13
T S Mitchell, R J Moots, H L Wright
Neutrophils play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) via the release of reactive oxygen species (ROS), proteases and cytokines. Orally active Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors (JAKi), e.g. baricitinib and tofacitinib, have high clinical efficacy in RA but are linked with neutropenia and increased infections. Our aim was to determine the effect of JAK inhibition with baricitinib and tofacitinib on healthy control and RA neutrophil lifespan and function. RA (n = 7) and healthy control (n = 7) neutrophils were treated with baricitinib or tofacitinib for 30 min, prior to incubation in the absence or presence of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) or interferon (IFN)-γ...
April 2, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369827/complement-factor-5-c5-p-a252t-mutation-is-prevalent-in-but-not-restricted-to-sub-saharan-africa-implications-for-the-susceptibility-to-meningococcal-disease
#14
C Franco-Jarava, D Comas, A Orren, M Hernández-González, R Colobran
Complement C5 deficiency (C5D) is a rare primary immunodeficiency associated with recurrent infections, particularly meningitis, by Neisseria species. To date, studies to elucidate the molecular basis of hereditary C5D have included fewer than 40 families, and most C5 mutations (13 of 17) have been found in single families. However, the recently described C5 p.A252T mutation is reported to be associated with approximately 7% of meningococcal disease cases in South Africa. This finding raises the question of whether the mutation may be prevalent in other parts of Africa or other continental regions...
April 1, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369786/the-role-of-interleukin-6-signalling-and-its-therapeutic-blockage-in-skewing-the-t-cell-balance-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#15
REVIEW
K Schinnerling, J C Aguillón, D Catalán, L Soto
Therapeutic blockage of cytokine signalling in autoimmune diseases has improved our understanding of the role of these cytokines in triggering, shaping and perpetuating autoimmune responses. In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), immunopathology is driven by a predominance of arthritogenic T helper cells secreting interferon-γ [T helper type 1 (Th1)] and interleukin (IL)-17 (Th17) over regulatory T cells (Treg ). The pleiotropic cytokine IL-6 is crucial to the differentiation of Th17 cells and the balance between pathogenic Th17 and protective Treg ...
April 1, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324619/identification-of-a-herv-k-env-surface-peptide-highly-recognized-in-ra-patients-a-cross-sectional-case-control-study
#16
G Mameli, G L Erre, E Caggiu, S Mura, D Cossu, Marco Bo, M L Cadoni, A Piras, N Mundula, E Colombo, G Buscetta, G Passiu, L A Sechi
Endogenous Retroviruses (HERV) are believed to be pathogenic in several autoimmune diseases. Among them, HERV-K viruses have been recently reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In this study we have explored the role of humoral immune response against HERV-K as a potential pathogenetic mechanism in RA. Four different peptides from the extracellular portion of the env protein of HERV-K (env-su 19-37 , env-su 109-26 , env-su 164-186 , env-su 209-226 ) were selected by bioinformatic analysis on the basis of their putative immunogenicity...
March 21, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318015/plasma-levels-of-masp-1-masp-3-and-map44-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-influence-of-glycaemic-control-body-composition-and-polymorphisms-in-the-masp1-gene
#17
S S Krogh, C B Holt, R Steffensen, K L Funck, P Høyem, E Laugesen, P L Poulsen, S Thiel, T K Hansen
Mounting evidence indicates that adverse activation of the complement system plays a role in the development of diabetic vascular complications. Plasma levels of the complement proteins mannan-binding lectin (MBL) and its associated serine proteases (MASP-1 and MASP-2) are elevated in diabetes. We hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the MASP1 gene may contribute to altered plasma levels of the belonging gene products; MASP-1, MASP-3 and mannan-binding lectin-associated protein of 44 kDa (MAp44) in patients with type 2 diabetes...
March 20, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317093/non-neutralizing-epitopes-induce-robust-hcv-specific-antibody-dependent-cd56-nk-cell-responses-in-chronic-hcv-infected-patients
#18
Lu Long, Manxue Jia, Xueying Fan, Hua Liang, Jiahua Wang, Liyan Zhu, Zhe Xie, Tao Shen
NK cell-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (NK-ADCC) is of considerable interest in viral infection. However, little is known about NK-ADCC responses in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. In this study, impaired nonspecific antibody-dependent CD56(+) NK cell responses were observed in chronic HCV infection, as shown by decreased degranulation (extracellular CD107a expression) and IFN-γ production in response to antibody-bound P815 cells. A peptide pool composed of epitopes recognized by anti-HCV-E1/E2 antibodies could induce pronounced HCV-specific antibody-dependent NK cell responses in sera from approximately half of the chronic HCV carriers...
March 20, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295247/targeting-c3a-c5a-receptors-inhibits-human-mesangial-cell-proliferation-and-alleviates-iga-nephropathy-in-mice
#19
Ying Zhang, Xianli Yan, Ting Zhao, Qihe Xu, Qi Peng, Ruimin Hu, Songxia Quan, Yali Zhou, Guolan Xing
Complement activation has a deep pathogenic influence in IgA nephropathy (IgAN). C3a and C5a, small cleavage fragments generated by complement activation, are key mediators of inflammation. The fragments exert broad pro-inflammatory effects by binding to specific receptors (C3aR and C5aR, respectively). However, no studies thus far have investigated the effects of C3a, C5a and their receptors on IgAN. We observed that C3aR and C5aR antagonists repressed IgA-induced cell proliferation and IL-6 and MCP-1 production in cultured human mesangial cells (HMCs)...
March 15, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295207/human-gestation-associated-tissues-express-functional-cytosolic-nucleic-acid-sensing-pattern-recognition-receptors
#20
A H Bryant, G E Menzies, L M Scott, S Spencer-Harty, L B Davies, R A Smith, R H Jones, C A Thornton
The role of viral infections in adverse pregnancy outcomes has gained interest in recent years. Innate immune pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and their signalling pathways, that yield a cytokine output in response to pathogenic stimuli, have been postulated to link infection at the maternal-fetal interface and adverse pregnancy outcomes. The objective of this study was to investigate the expression and functional response of nucleic acid ligand responsive Toll-like receptors (TLR-3, -7, -8 and -9), and retinoic acid-inducible gene 1 (RIG-I)-like receptors [RIG-I, melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA5) and Laboratory of Genetics and Physiology 2(LGP2)] in human term gestation-associated tissues (placenta, choriodecidua and amnion) using an explant model...
March 13, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
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