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Clinical and Experimental Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543170/specific-activation-of-cd4-cd8-double-negative-t-cells-by-t-cruzi-derived-glycolipids-induces-a-pro-inflammatory-profile-associated-with-cardiomyopathy-in-chagas-patients
#1
Lívia Silva Araújo Passos, Luísa Mourão Dias Magalhães, Rodrigo Pedro Soares, Alexandre F Marques, Maria do Carmo Pereira Nunes, Kenneth J Gollob, Walderez Ornelas Dutra
Cardiomyopathy is the most severe outcome of Chagas disease, causing over 12,000 deaths/year. Immune cells participate in cardiomyopathy development either by direct tissue destruction, or by driving inflammation. We have shown that CD4-CD8- (double negative - DN) T cells are major sources of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, associated with the cardiac (CARD) and indeterminate (IND) forms of Chagas disease, respectively. Here, we sought to identify Trypanosoma cruzi derived components that lead to activation of DN T cells in Chagas patients...
May 24, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542882/butyrate-and-retinoic-acid-synergistically-imprint-mucosal-like-dendritic-cell-development-from-bone-marrow-cells
#2
Yetao Qiang, Jie Xu, Cheng Yan, Huimin Jin, Tengfei Xiao, Nannan Yan, Liping Zhou, Huazhang An, Xiaoming Zhou, Qixiang Shao, Sheng Xia
Accumulating data show that the phenotypes and functions of distinctive mucosal dendritic cells (DCs) in the gut are regulated by retinoic acid (RA). Unfortunately, the exact role of butyrate in RA mediated mucosal DC differentiation has not been thoroughly elucidated to date. Mucosal like dendritic cell differentiation was completed in vitro by culturing bone marrow cells with growth factors (GM-CSF/IL-4), RA and/or butyrate. The phenotypes, cytokine secretion, immune functions and levels of retinal dehydrogenase of different DCs were detected using qPCR, ELISA and flow cytometry, respectively...
May 24, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542869/tanshinone-iia-ameliorates-chronic-arthritis-in-mice-by-modulating-neutrophil-activities
#3
Shan Zhang, Guangrui Huang, Kai Yuan, Qingqing Zhu, Honghao Sheng, Ruipeng Yu, Guangbin Luo, Anlong Xu
AIMS: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic immune inflammatory disease mediated by the influx of immune cells into the synovial joint space. As Tanshinone IIA (TIIA) has potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, we used the adjuvant-induced arthritis (AA) murine model of RA to investigate the impact of TIIA on RA and immune cell activation. METHODS: The anti-arthritic activity of TIIA was investigated in an adjuvant-induced arthritis model of RA in mice...
May 24, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542701/two-separate-effects-contribute-to-regulatory-t-cell-defect-in-sle-patients-and-their-unaffected-relatives
#4
Nuno Costa, Oriana Marques, Sandra I Godinho, Cláudia Carvalho, Barbara Leal, Ana M Figueiredo, Carlos Vasconcelos, António Marinho, Maria F Moraes-Fontes, António Gomes da Costa, Cristina Ponte, Raquel Campanilho-Marques, Telma Cóias, Ana R Martins, João F Viana, Margarida Lima, Berta Martins, Constantin Fesel
FOXP3(+) regulatory T-cells (Tregs) are functionally deficient in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE), characterized by reduced surface CD25 (the IL-2 receptor alpha chain). Low-dose IL-2 therapy is a promising current approach to correct this defect. To elucidate the origins of the SLE Treg phenotype, we studied its role through developmentally defined Treg subsets in 45 SLE patients, 103 SLE-unaffected first-degree relatives and 61 unrelated healthy control subjects, and genetic association with the CD25-encoding IL2RA locus...
May 24, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518224/t-helper-1-related-molecules-as-well-as-il-15-are-hyperexpressed-in-the-skin-lesions-of-patients-with-pyoderma-gangrenosum
#5
Emiliano Antiga, Roberto Maglie, Walter Volpi, Beatrice Bianchi, Emilio Berti, Angelo Valerio Marzano, Marzia Caproni
Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is a rare, immune-mediated skin disease classified into the group of neutrophilic dermatoses. Whether a number of studies confirmed the central role of innate immunity, only few studies investigated the possible contributing role of acquired immunity. In particular, no reports about Th1 and Th2 cells are available yet. Therefore, 15 patients with PG, 5 with Sweet's syndrome (SS) and 9 skin specimens from healthy controls (HC) were investigated, evaluating the expression of Th1-related markers IL-12, IFN-γ, CXCR3, CCR5, of the Th2 related molecules IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 and CCR3, of the co-stimulatory axis CD40/CD40L, of IL-15 and the NK cell marker CD56 in skin lesions by immunohistochemistry...
May 18, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518214/immune-monitoring-as-prerequisite-for-transplantation-tolerance-trials
#6
REVIEW
Katayoun Behnam Sani, Birgit Sawitzki
Ever since its first application in clinical medicine, scientists have urged to induce tolerance towards foreign allogeneic transplants and thus avoid rejection by the recipient's immune system. This would circumvent chronic use of immunosuppressive drugs (IS) and thus avoid development of IS-induced side effects, which are contributing to the still unsatisfactory long-term graft and patient survival after solid organ transplantation. Although manifold strategies of tolerance induction have been described in preclinical models, only three therapeutic approaches have been successfully utilized in a still small number of patients...
May 18, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509333/altered-glycan-accessibility-on-native-immunoglobulin-g-complexes-in-early-rheumatoid-arthritis-and-its-changes-during-therapy
#7
Judith Stümer, Mona H C Biermann, Jasmin Knopf, Iryna Magorivska, Alf Kastbom, Anna Svärd, Christina Janko, Rostyslav Bilyy, Georg Schett, Christopher Sjöwall, Martin Herrmann, Luis E Muñoz
The goal of this study was to investigate the glycosylation profile of native IgG present in serum immune complexes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). To accomplish this, lectin binding assays, detecting the accessibility of glycans present on IgG-containing immune complexes by biotinylated lectins were employed. Lectins capturing fucosyl residues (AAL), fucosylated tri-mannose N-glycan core sites (LCA), terminal sialic acid residues (SNA) and O-glycosidically-linked galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNac-L) were used...
May 16, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500641/t-and-b-cell-clonal-expansion-in-ras-associated-lymphoproliferative-disease-rald-as-revealed-by-next-generation-sequencing
#8
Sarina Levy-Mendelovich, Atar Lev, Erez Rechavi, Ortal Barel, Hana Golan, Bela Bielorai, Yoram Neumann, Amos J Simon, Raz Somech
Ras associated lymphoproliferative disease (RALD) is an autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS)-like disease caused by mutations in KRAS or NRAS. The immunological phenotype and pathogenesis of RALD have yet to be extensively studied. Here we report a thorough immunological investigation of a RALD patient with a somatic KRAS mutation. Patient lymphocytes were analyzed for phenotype, immunoglobulin levels and T cell proliferation capacity. T and B cell receptor excision circles (TREC and KREC, respectively), markers of naïve T and B cell production, were serially measured over three years...
May 12, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498568/reconstitution-of-immune-cell-populations-in-multiple-sclerosis-patients-after-autologous-stem-cell-transplantation
#9
REVIEW
Fredrick G Karnell, Dongxia Lin, Samantha Motley, Thomas Duhen, Noha Lim, Daniel J Campbell, Laurence A Turka, Holden T Maecker, Kristina M Harris
Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory T-cell-mediated autoimmune disease. In a phase II clinical trial, high-dose immunosuppressive therapy combined with autologous CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cell transplant resulted in 69.2% of subjects remaining disease-free without evidence of relapse, loss of neurological function or new MRI lesions through year 5 post-treatment. A combination of CyTOF mass cytometry and multi-parameter flow cytometry was used to explore the reconstitution kinetics of immune cell subsets in the periphery post HSCT and the impact of treatment on the phenotype of circulating T cells in this study population...
May 12, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470739/vitamin-d-treatment-modulates-immune-activation-in-cystic-fibrosis
#10
T Pincikova, D Paquin-Proulx, J K Sandberg, M Flodström-Tullberg, L Hjelte
Persistent inflammatory response in cystic fibrosis (CF) airways is believed to play a central role in the progression of lung damage. Anti-inflammatory treatment may slow lung disease progression, but adverse side effects have limited its use. Vitamin D has immunoregulatory properties. We randomized 16 CF patients to receive vitamin D2, vitamin D3 or to serve as controls, and investigated the effect of vitamin D supplementation on soluble immunological parameters, myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) and T cell activation...
May 3, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470729/airway-epithelial-cells-enhance-the-immunogenicity-of-human-myeloid-dendritic-cells-under-steady-state
#11
S Agrawal, R Srivastava, F Rahmatpanah, C Madiraju, L BenMohamed, A Agrawal
Dendritic cells (DCs) and airway epithelial cells (AECs) are in close proximity, and AECs secrete factors such as retinoic acid which induce tolerance in DCs at homeostasis. However, the question remains as to how DCs in the lung are able to respond to pathogens in the immunosuppressive environment. Using an in vitro human myeloid DC (mDC)-AEC co-culture system, we demonstrate that AECs induced several gene changes in the mDCs cultured with AECs compared to the mDCs not cultured with AECs. Analysis revealed that several chemokine genes were altered...
May 3, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466499/implementation-of-national-institute-for-health-and-care-excellence-nice-guidance-to-measure-iga-with-all-coeliac-screens-can-an-affordable-solution-be-devised
#12
Dylan James Mac Lochlainn, Ravina Hira-Kazal, Helen Varney, John Maher
There has been a dramatic increase in requests for coeliac disease (CD) serological screening using IgA tissue transglutaminase antibodies (IgA-tTG). Recently, the UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence has revised its guidance, recommending that total IgA should also be measured in all samples. This is justified since false negative results may occur with IgA deficiency. However, implementation of this guidance will incur considerable expense. Tests that measure IgA-tTG antibodies can detect IgA deficiency, indicated by low background signal...
May 2, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449211/operational-tolerance-in-kidney-transplantation-and-associated-biomarkers
#13
REVIEW
Annick Massart, Lidia Ghisdal, Marc Abramowicz, Daniel Abramowicz
In the 1960s, our predecessors won a historical battle against acute rejection and ensured that transplantation became a common life-saving treatment. In parallel to this success, or perhaps because of it, we lost the battle for long-lived transplants, being overwhelmed with chronic immune insults and the toxicities of immunosuppression. It is likely that current powerful treatments block acute rejection, but at the same time condemn the few circulating donor cells that would have been able to elicit immunoregulatory host responses towards the allograft...
April 27, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439882/prevalence-and-clinical-relevance-of-tsh-receptor-blocking-antibodies-in-autoimmune-thyroid-disease
#14
T Diana, J Krause, P D Olivo, J König, M Kanitz, B Decallonne, G J Kahaly
OBJECTIVE: The prevalence and clinical relevance of TSH-receptor (TSHR) blocking antibodies (TBAb) in patients with autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) was investigated. METHODS: Serum TBAb were measured with a reporter gene bioassay using chinese hamster ovary cells. Blocking activity was defined as percentage inhibition of luciferase expression relative to induction with bovine TSH alone (cut-off 40% inhibition). All samples were measured for TSHR stimulatory Ab (TSAb) and TSHR binding inhibiting immunoglobulins (TBII)...
April 25, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422316/regulatory-t-cells-tolerance-induction-in-solid-organ-transplantation
#15
REVIEW
T Vaikunthanathan, N Safinia, D Boardman, R I Lechler, G Lombardi
The concept of regulatory T cell (Treg ) therapy in transplantation is now a reality. Significant advances in science and technology have enabled us to isolate human Tregs , expand them to clinically relevant numbers and infuse them into human transplant recipients. With several Phase I/II trials under way investigating Treg safety and efficacy it is now more crucial than ever to understand their complex biology. However, our journey is by no means complete; results from these trials will undoubtedly provoke both further knowledge and enquiry which, alongside evolving science, will continue to drive the optimization of Treg therapy in the pursuit of transplantation tolerance...
April 19, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419440/the-role-of-stromal-cells-in-inflammatory-bone-loss
#16
REVIEW
Corinna Wehmeyer, Thomas Pap, Christopher D Buckley, Amy J Naylor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 17, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407442/rotavirus-capsid-vp6-tubular-and-spherical-nanostructures-act-as-local-adjuvants-when-co-delivered-with-norovirus-vlps
#17
Maria Malm, Suvi Heinimäki, Timo Vesikari, Vesna Blazevic
A subunit protein vaccine candidate based on norovirus (NoV) virus-like particles (VLPs) and rotavirus (RV) VP6 protein against acute childhood gastroenteritis has been recently proposed. RV VP6 forms different oligomeric nanostructures, including tubes and spheres when expressed in vitro, which are highly immunogenic in different animal models. We have recently shown that recombinant VP6 nanotubes have an adjuvant effect on immunogenicity of NoV VLPs in mice. In this study, we investigated if the adjuvant effect is dependent on a VP6 dose or different VP6 structural assemblies...
April 13, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395110/murine-models-of-transplantation-tolerance-through-mixed-chimerism-advances-and-roadblocks
#18
REVIEW
B Mahr, T Wekerle
Organ transplantation is the treatment of choice for patients with end-stage organ failure, but chronic immunosuppression is taking its toll in terms of morbidity and poor efficacy in preventing late graft loss. Therefore, a drug-free state would be desirable where the recipient permanently accepts a donor organ while remaining otherwise fully immunologically competent. Mouse studies unveiled mixed chimerism as an effective approach to induce such donor-specific tolerance deliberately and laid the foundation for a series of clinical pilot trials...
April 10, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388832/associations-of-b-cell-activating-factor-baff-and-anti-baff-autoantibodies-with-disease-activity-in-multi-ethnic-asian-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-patients-in-singapore
#19
H S Howe, B Y H Thong, K O Kong, H H Chng, T Y Lian, F L Chia, K S S Tay, T C Lau, W G Law, E T Koh, B P Leung
To measure the levels of B cell-activating factor (BAFF) and endogenous anti-BAFF autoantibodies in a cohort of multi-ethnic Asian systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients in Singapore, to determine their correlation with disease activity. Serum samples from 121 SLE patients and 24 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were assayed for BAFF and anti-BAFF immunoglobulin (Ig)G antibody levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The lowest reliable detection limit for anti-BAFF-IgG antibody levels was defined as 2 standard deviations (s...
April 7, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374535/association-of-esat-6-cfp-10-induced-ifn-%C3%AE-tnf-%C3%AE-and-il-10-with-clinical-tuberculosis-evidence-from-cohorts-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-patients-household-contacts-and-community-controls-in-an-endemic-setting
#20
F Abebe, M Belay, M Legesse, A Mihret, K S Franklin
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) early secreted protein antigen 6 (ESAT-6) and culture filtrate protein 10 (CFP-10) are among candidate vaccines against tuberculosis (TB). Results of experimental animal models show that these antigens are associated with induction of strong T cell immunity (IFN-γ production), while others report that these proteins as virulent factors involved in pathogenicity of Mtb infection. However, the role of ESAT-6/CFP-10 during natural Mtb infections in humans has not been established...
April 3, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
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