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Clinical and Experimental Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324619/identification-of-a-herv-k-env-surface-peptide-highly-recognized-in-ra-patients-a-cross-sectional-case-control-study
#1
G Mameli, G L Erre, E Caggiu, S Mura, D Cossu, Marco Bo, M L Cadoni, A Piras, N Mundula, E Colombo, G Buscetta, G Passiu, L A Sechi
Endogenous Retroviruses (HERV) are believed to be pathogenic in several autoimmune diseases. Among them, HERV-K viruses have been recently reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In this study we have explored the role of humoral immune response against HERV-K as a potential pathogenetic mechanism in RA. Four different peptides from the extracellular portion of the env protein of HERV-K (env-su 19-37 , env-su 109-26 , env-su 164-186 , env-su 209-226 ) were selected by bioinformatic analysis on the basis of their putative immunogenicity...
March 21, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318015/plasma-levels-of-masp-1-masp-3-and-map44-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-influence-of-glycaemic-control-body-composition-and-polymorphisms-in-the-masp1-gene
#2
Sara Skov Krogh, Charlotte Brinck Holt, Rudi Steffensen, Kristian Løkke Funck, Pernille Høyem, Esben Laugesen, Per Løgstrup Poulsen, Steffen Thiel, Troels Krarup Hansen
Mounting evidence indicates that adverse activation of the complement system plays a role in the development of diabetic vascular complications. Plasma levels of the complement proteins mannan-binding lectin (MBL) and its associated serine proteases (MASP-1 and MASP-2) are elevated in diabetes. We hypothesised that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the MASP1 gene may contribute to altered plasma levels of the belonging gene products; MASP-1, MASP-3 and mannan-binding lectin-associated protein of 44 kDa (MAp44) in patients with type 2 diabetes...
March 20, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317093/non-neutralizing-epitopes-induce-robust-hcv-specific-antibody-dependent-cd56-nk-cell-responses-in-chronic-hcv-infected-patients
#3
Lu Long, Manxue Jia, Xueying Fan, Hua Liang, Jiahua Wang, Liyan Zhu, Zhe Xie, Tao Shen
NK cell-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (NK-ADCC) is of considerable interest in viral infection. However, little is known about NK-ADCC responses in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. In this study, impaired nonspecific antibody-dependent CD56(+) NK cell responses were observed in chronic HCV infection, as shown by decreased degranulation (extracellular CD107a expression) and IFN-γ production in response to antibody-bound P815 cells. A peptide pool composed of epitopes recognized by anti-HCV-E1/E2 antibodies could induce pronounced HCV-specific antibody-dependent NK cell responses in sera from approximately half of the chronic HCV carriers...
March 20, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295247/targeting-c3a-c5a-receptors-inhibits-human-mesangial-cell-proliferation-and-alleviates-iga-nephropathy-in-mice
#4
Ying Zhang, Xianli Yan, Ting Zhao, Qihe Xu, Qi Peng, Ruimin Hu, Songxia Quan, Yali Zhou, Guolan Xing
Complement activation has a deep pathogenic influence in IgA nephropathy (IgAN). C3a and C5a, small cleavage fragments generated by complement activation, are key mediators of inflammation. The fragments exert broad pro-inflammatory effects by binding to specific receptors (C3aR and C5aR, respectively). However, no studies thus far have investigated the effects of C3a, C5a and their receptors on IgAN. We observed that C3aR and C5aR antagonists repressed IgA-induced cell proliferation and IL-6 and MCP-1 production in cultured human mesangial cells (HMCs)...
March 15, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295207/human-gestation-associated-tissues-express-functional-cytosolic-nucleic-acid-sensing-pattern-recognition-receptors
#5
Aled H Bryant, Georgina E Menzies, Louis M Scott, Samantha Spencer-Harty, Lleucu B Davies, Rachel A Smith, Ruth H Jones, Catherine A Thornton
The role of viral infections in adverse pregnancy outcomes has gained interest in recent years. Innate immune pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and their signalling pathways that yield a cytokine output in response to pathogenic stimuli have been postulated to link infection at the maternal-fetal interface and adverse pregnancy outcomes. The objective of this study was to investigate the expression and functional response of nucleic acid ligand responsive Toll-like receptors (TLR3, 7, 8 and 9), and retinoic acid-inducible gene 1 (RIG-I)-like receptors (RIG-I, MDA5 and LGP2) in human term gestation-associated tissues (placenta, choriodecidua and amnion) using an explant model...
March 13, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268243/immunomodulatory-glc-man-directed-dolichos-lablab-lectin-dll-evokes-anti-tumor-response-in-vivo-by-counteracting-angiogenic-gene-expressions
#6
V Vigneshwaran, Prabhu Thirusangu, Vijay Avin Br, V Krishna, Siddanakoppalu N Pramod, B T Prabhakar
Neovascularization and jeopardized immunity has been critically emphasized for the establishment of malignant progression. Lectins are the diverse class of carbohydrate interacting proteins having great potential as immunopotentiating and anticancer agents. The present investigation sought to demonstrate the antiproliferative activity of Dolichos lablab lectin (DLL) encompassing immunomodulatory attribute. DLL specific to glucose and mannose carbohydrate moieties has been purified to homogeneity from the common dietary legume Dolichos lablab...
March 7, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263381/obesity-promotes-prolonged-ovalbumin-induced-airway-inflammation-modulating-th1-th2-and-th17-immune-responses-in-balb-c-mice
#7
F M C Silva, E E Oliveira, A C C Gouveia, A S S Brugiolo, C C Alves, J O A Correa, J Gameiro, J Mattes, H C Teixeira, A P Ferreira
Clinical and epidemiological studies indicate that obesity affects the development and phenotype of asthma by inducing inflammatory mechanisms in addition to eosinophilic inflammation. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of obesity on allergic airway inflammation and T helper 2 (Th2) immune responses using an experimental model of asthma in BALB/c mice. Mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 10 weeks were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA), and analysis were performed at 24 and 48 hours after the last OVA challenge...
March 6, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263379/considerations-for-dosing-immunoglobulin-in-obese-patients
#8
REVIEW
John P Hodkinson
Obesity is a very common condition however the effect of excess body weight on the appropriate dose of immunoglobulin has not been empirically defined. The proposed pharmacokinetic differences between lean and obese patients and the opportunity to reduce costs has led to the proposition that obese patients should receive proportionally lower doses of immunoglobulin once a certain threshold is reached. Here the theoretical factors which could affect dosing in obese patients are considered alongside the available empirical evidence...
March 6, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257599/immunosuppressive-drugs-affect-ifn%C3%AE-and-pd1-kinetics-in-patients-with-newly-diagnosed-autoimmune-hepatitis
#9
Charlotte R Grant, Beth S Holder, Rodrigo Liberal, Michael A Heneghan, Yun Ma, Giorgina Mieli-Vergani, Diego Vergani, Maria Serena Longhi
Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is characterized by overwhelming effector immune responses associated with defective regulatory T cells (Tregs). Several lines of evidence indicate CD4 as the main effectors involved in the autoimmune liver damage. Herein we investigate the in vitro effects of prednisolone, 6-mercaptopurine, cyclosporine, tacrolimus, mycophenolic acid (MPA) and rapamycin, immunosuppressive drugs (ISDs) used in AIH treatment, on the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, co-inhibitory molecules and ability to proliferate of CD4(+) CD25(-) cells, isolated from the peripheral blood of treatment-naïve patients with AIH...
March 3, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257596/interferon-%C3%AE-coincides-with-suppressed-levels-of-pentraxin-3-ptx3-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-and-regulates-leukocyte-ptx3-in-vitro
#10
Lina Wirestam, Helena Enocsson, Thomas Skogh, Maija-Leena Eloranta, Lars Rönnblom, Christopher Sjöwall, Jonas Wetterö
Dysfunctional elimination of cell debris, and the role of opsonins such as pentraxins, is of interest regarding systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) pathogenesis. Interferon-α (IFN-α) is typically elevated during SLE flares, and inhibits hepatocyte production of the pentraxin 'C-reactive protein' (CRP), partly explaining the poor correlation between CRP levels and SLE disease activity. The extrahepatically produced 'pentraxin 3' (PTX3) shares waste disposal functions with CRP, but has not been extensively studied in SLE...
March 3, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253538/the-identification-of-upregulated-ebv-mir-bhrf1-2-5p-targeting-malt1-and-ebv-mir-bhrf1-3-in-the-circulation-of-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis
#11
Yifei Wang, Dandan He, Hongwei Liang, Dan Yang, Hui Yue, Xuemei Zhang, Rui Wang, Bing Li, Hongxia Yang, Yuan Liu, Yao Chen, Yuxiao Duan, ChenYu Zhang, Xi Chen, Jin Fu
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a well-documented etiologic factor for multiple sclerosis (MS). EBV encodes at least 44 microRNAs (miRNAs) that are readily detectable in the circulation of human. Previous studies have demonstrated that EBV-encoded miRNAs regulate host immune response and may serve as biomarkers for EBV-associated diseases. However, the roles of EBV miRNAs in MS are still unkown. To fill the gap, we conducted a comprehensive profiling of 44 mature EBV miRNAs in 30 relapse-remitting MS (RRMS) patients at relapse and 30 matched healthy controls...
March 2, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253537/mrna-profiling-identifies-low-levels-of-dusp7-and-cdc25b-phosphatases-in-patients-with-early-arthritis
#12
P Castro-Sánchez, R Ramirez-Munoz, A Lamana, A Ortiz, I González-Álvaro, P Roda-Navarro
Phospho-tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) control phosphorylation levels and, consequently, regulate the output of intracellular signalling networks in health and disease. Despite the high number of PTPs expressed in CD4 T cells and their involvement in autoimmunity, information about the expression profile of PTPs in these cells has not been obtained in patients diagnosed with autoimmune diseases. Here, we compare the expression profile of PTPs in CD4 T cells of healthy volunteers and patients submitted to an Early Arthritis Clinic, due to suspicion of Rheumatoid Arthritis, an autoimmune disease mediated by CD4 T cells...
March 2, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249350/production-of-complement-components-by-cells-of-the-immune-system
#13
REVIEW
R Lubbers, M F van Essen, C van Kooten, L A Trouw
The complement system is an important part of the innate immune defence. It not only contributes to local inflammation, removal and killing of pathogens, but it also assists in shaping of the adaptive immune response. Besides a role in inflammation, complement is also involved in physiological processes such as waste disposal and developmental programs. The complement system comprises several soluble and membrane bound proteins. The bulk of the soluble proteins is mainly produced by the liver. While several complement proteins are produced by a wide variety of cell types other complement proteins are produced by only a few related cell types...
March 1, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245526/progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy-driven-from-rarity-to-clinical-mainstream-by-iatrogenic-immunodeficiency
#14
REVIEW
Siraj A Misbah
Advances in immune-mediated targeted therapies have proven to be a double-edged sword for patients by highlighting the risk of iatrogenic infective complications. This has been exemplified by progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), a hitherto rare devastating viral infection of the brain caused by the neurotropic JC polyoma virus. While PML achieved prominence during the first two decades of the HIV epidemic, effective anti-retroviral treatment and restitution of T cell function has led to PML being less prominent in this population...
February 28, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245522/inflammatory-cytokines-compromise-pd-1-mediated-t-cell-suppression-in-inflammatory-arthritis-through-upregulation-of-soluble-pd-1
#15
Davide Bommarito, Christopher Hall, Leonie S Taams, Valerie M Corrigall
The Programmed Cell Death 1 (PD-1) receptor plays a major role in regulating T cell activation. Our aim was to determine how inflammation influences PD-1-mediated T cell suppression. Flow cytometry analysis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) synovial fluid (SF) mononuclear cells showed an increase in the percentage of PD-1+ cells within the CD4+ and CD8+ T cell compartment compared to paired peripheral blood (PB). Upon in vitro TCR stimulation of healthy control (HC) CD4+ T cells in the presence of plate bound PD-L1fc chimera, significantly decreased proliferation and IFN-γ secretion was observed...
February 28, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245520/autoantibodies-to-box-a-of-high-mobility-group-box-1-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#16
F Schaper, K de Leeuw, G Horst, F Maas, H Bootsma, P Heeringa, P C Limburg, J Westra
OBJECTIVE: Auto-antibodies to nuclear structures are a hallmark of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), including auto-antibodies to nuclear protein High Mobility Group Box-1 (HMGB1). HMGB1 consists of three separate domains: Box A, Box B and an acidic tail. Recombinant Box A acts as a competitive antagonist for HMGB1 and might be an interesting treatment option in SLE. However, antibodies to Box A might interfere. Therefore, levels of anti-Box A were examined in SLE patients in association with disease activity and clinical parameters...
February 28, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236292/the-role-of-genomics-in-common-variable-immunodeficiency-disorders
#17
REVIEW
Anne-Kathrin Kienzler, Chantal E Hargreaves, Smita Y Patel
The advent of next generation sequencing (NGS) and 'omic' technologies has revolutionised the field of genetics and its implementation in healthcare has the potential to realise precision medicine. Primary immunodeficiencies (PID) are a group of rare diseases which have benefitted from NGS, with a massive increase in causative genes identified in the past few years. Common Variable Immunodeficiency Disorders (CVID) are a heterogeneous form of PID and the most common form of antibody failure in children and adults...
February 25, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213939/protective-antibodies-against-clostridium-difficile-are-present-in-intravenous-immunoglobulin-and-are-retained-in-humans-following-its-administration
#18
Ola H Negm, Brendon MacKenzie, Mohamed R Hamed, Omar Aj Ahmad, Clifford C Shone, David P Humphreys, K Ravi Acharya, Christine E Loscher, Izabela Marszalowska, Mark Lynch, Mark H Wilcox, Tanya M Monaghan
The prevalence of serum antibodies against C. difficile (CD) toxins A and B in healthy populations have prompted interest in evaluating the therapeutic activity of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) in individuals experiencing severe or recurrent C. difficile infection (CDI). Despite some promising case reports, a definitive clinical role for IVIg in CDI remains unclear. Contradictory results may be attributed to a lack of consensus regarding optimal dose, timing of administration and patient selection as well as variability in specific antibody content between commercial preparations...
February 18, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205212/sarcoidosis-extent-relates-to-molecular-variability
#19
Calixte S Monast, Katherine Li, Marc A Judson, Robert P Baughman, Eric Wadman, Rosemary Watt, Philip E Silkoff, Elliot S Barnathan, Carrie Brodmerkel
The molecular basis of sarcoidosis phenotype heterogeneity and its relationship to effective treatment of sarcoidosis have not been elucidated. Peripheral samples from sarcoidosis subjects who participated in a phase 2 study of golimumab (anti-TNFα) and ustekinumab (anti-IL12p40) were used to measure the whole blood transcriptome and levels of serum proteins. Differential gene and protein expression analyses were used to explore the molecular differences between sarcoidosis phenotypes as defined by extent of organ involvement...
February 16, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194776/mutational-spectrum-of-the-serping1-gene-in-swiss-patients-with-hereditary-angioedema
#20
Urs C Steiner, Melanie Keller, Pirmin Schmid, Sven Cichon, Walter A Wuillemin
Hereditary angioedema with C1 inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-HAE) is a rare autosomal dominant disease caused by mutations in the C1 inhibitor gene SERPING1. Phenotype and clinical features of the disease are very heterogeneous, varying even in the same family. Compared to HAE cohorts in other countries the genetic background of the Swiss HAE patients has not been elucidated yet. In the present study we investigated the mutational spectrum of the SERPING1 gene in nineteen patients of nine unrelated Swiss families...
February 14, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
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