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Journal of Applied Ecology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225369/embracing-uncertainty-in-applied-ecology
#1
E J Milner-Gulland, K Shea
Applied ecologists often face uncertainty that hinders effective decision-making.Common traps that may catch the unwary are: ignoring uncertainty, acknowledging uncertainty but ploughing on, focussing on trivial uncertainties, believing your models, and unclear objectives.We integrate research insights and examples from a wide range of applied ecological fields to illustrate advances that are generally underused, but could facilitate ecologists' ability to plan and execute research to support management.Recommended approaches to avoid uncertainty traps are: embracing models, using decision theory, using models more effectively, thinking experimentally, and being realistic about uncertainty...
December 2017: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200497/sweat-bees-on-hot-chillies-provision-of-pollination-services-by-native-bees-in-traditional-slash-and-burn-agriculture-in-the-yucat%C3%A3-n-peninsula-of-tropical-mexico
#2
Patricia Landaverde-González, José Javier G Quezada-Euán, Panagiotis Theodorou, Tomás E Murray, Martin Husemann, Ricardo Ayala, Humberto Moo-Valle, Rémy Vandame, Robert J Paxton
Traditional tropical agriculture often entails a form of slash-and-burn land management that may adversely affect ecosystem services such as pollination, which are required for successful crop yields. The Yucatán Peninsula of Mexico has a >4000 year history of traditional slash-and-burn agriculture, termed 'milpa'. Hot 'Habanero' chilli is a major pollinator-dependent crop that nowadays is often grown in monoculture within the milpa system.We studied 37 local farmers' chilli fields (sites) to evaluate the effects of landscape composition on bee communities...
December 2017: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200496/a-national-scale-model-of-linear-features-improves-predictions-of-farmland-biodiversity
#3
Martin J P Sullivan, James W Pearce-Higgins, Stuart E Newson, Paul Scholefield, Tom Brereton, Tom H Oliver
Modelling species distribution and abundance is important for many conservation applications, but it is typically performed using relatively coarse-scale environmental variables such as the area of broad land-cover types. Fine-scale environmental data capturing the most biologically relevant variables have the potential to improve these models. For example, field studies have demonstrated the importance of linear features, such as hedgerows, for multiple taxa, but the absence of large-scale datasets of their extent prevents their inclusion in large-scale modelling studies...
December 2017: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104309/quantification-of-within-and-between-farm-dispersal-of-culicoides-biting-midges-using-an-immunomarking-technique
#4
Christopher J Sanders, Lara E Harrup, Laura A Tugwell, Victor A Brugman, Marion England, Simon Carpenter
Culicoides biting midges (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae) are vectors of arboviruses that cause significant economic and welfare impact. Local-scale spread of Culicoides-borne arboviruses is largely determined by the between-farm movement of infected Culicoides.Study of the dispersal behaviour of Culicoides by capture-mark-recapture (CMR) is problematic due to the likelihood of mortality and changes in behaviour upon capture caused by the small size and fragility of these insects, evidenced by low recapture rates...
October 2017: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081540/harvesting-wildlife-affected-by-climate-change-a-modelling-and-management-approach-for-polar-bears
#5
Eric V Regehr, Ryan R Wilson, Karyn D Rode, Michael C Runge, Harry L Stern
The conservation of many wildlife species requires understanding the demographic effects of climate change, including interactions between climate change and harvest, which can provide cultural, nutritional or economic value to humans.We present a demographic model that is based on the polar bear Ursus maritimus life cycle and includes density-dependent relationships linking vital rates to environmental carrying capacity (K). Using this model, we develop a state-dependent management framework to calculate a harvest level that (i) maintains a population above its maximum net productivity level (MNPL; the population size that produces the greatest net increment in abundance) relative to a changing K, and (ii) has a limited negative effect on population persistence...
October 2017: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081539/seasonal-variation-in-the-biocontrol-efficiency-of-bacterial-wilt-is-driven-by-temperature-mediated-changes-in-bacterial-competitive-interactions
#6
Zhong Wei, Jianfeng Huang, Tianjie Yang, Alexandre Jousset, Yangchun Xu, Qirong Shen, Ville-Petri Friman
Microbe-based biocontrol applications hold the potential to become an efficient way to control plant pathogen disease outbreaks in the future. However, their efficiency is still very variable, which could be due to their sensitivity to the abiotic environmental conditions.Here, we assessed how environmental temperature variation correlates with ability of Ralstonia pickettii, an endophytic bacterial biocontrol agent, to suppress the Ralstonia solanacearum pathogen during different tomato crop seasons in China...
October 2017: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717255/sequential-stable-isotope-analysis-reveals-differences-in-multi-year-dietary-history-of-three-sympatric-equid-species-in-sw-mongolia
#7
Martina Burnik Šturm, Oyunsaikhan Ganbaatar, Christian C Voigt, Petra Kaczensky
1. Competition among sympatric wild herbivores is reduced by different physiological, morphological, and behavioral traits resulting in different dietary niches. Wild equids are a rather uniform group of large herbivores which have dramatically declined in numbers and range. Correlative evidence suggests that pasture competition with livestock is one of the key factors for this decline, and the situation may be aggravated in areas where different equid species overlap. 2. The Dzungarian Gobi is currently the only place where two wild equid species coexist and share the range with the domesticated form of a third equid species...
August 2017: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670002/extreme-climate-events-counteract-the-effects-of-climate-and-land-use-changes-in-alpine-treelines
#8
Ceres Barros, Maya Guéguen, Rolland Douzet, Marta Carboni, Isabelle Boulangeat, Niklaus E Zimmermann, Tamara Münkemüller, Wilfried Thuiller
1. Climate change and extreme events, such as drought, threaten ecosystems worldwide and in particular mountain ecosystems, where species often live at their environmental tolerance limits. In the European Alps, plant communities are also influenced by land-use abandonment leading to woody encroachment of subalpine and alpine grasslands. 2. In this study, we explored how the forest-grassland ecotone of Alpine treelines will respond to gradual climate warming, drought events and land-use change in terms of forest expansion rates, taxonomic diversity and functional composition...
February 2017: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111479/the-impacts-of-climate-change-and-disturbance-on-spatio-temporal-trajectories-of-biodiversity-in-a-temperate-forest-landscape
#9
Dominik Thom, Werner Rammer, Thomas Dirnböck, Jörg Müller, Johannes Kobler, Klaus Katzensteiner, Norbert Helm, Rupert Seidl
1. The ongoing changes to climate challenge the conservation of forest biodiversity. Yet, in thermally limited systems, such as temperate forests, not all species groups might be affected negatively. Furthermore, simultaneous changes in the disturbance regime have the potential to mitigate climate-related impacts on forest species. Here, we (i) investigated the potential long-term effect of climate change on biodiversity in a mountain forest landscape, (ii) assessed the effects of different disturbance frequencies, severities and sizes and (iii) identified biodiversity hotspots at the landscape scale to facilitate conservation management...
February 2017: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867217/avoidance-of-wind-farms-by-harbour-seals-is-limited-to-pile-driving-activities
#10
Debbie J F Russell, Gordon D Hastie, David Thompson, Vincent M Janik, Philip S Hammond, Lindesay A S Scott-Hayward, Jason Matthiopoulos, Esther L Jones, Bernie J McConnell
As part of global efforts to reduce dependence on carbon-based energy sources there has been a rapid increase in the installation of renewable energy devices. The installation and operation of these devices can result in conflicts with wildlife. In the marine environment, mammals may avoid wind farms that are under construction or operating. Such avoidance may lead to more time spent travelling or displacement from key habitats. A paucity of data on at-sea movements of marine mammals around wind farms limits our understanding of the nature of their potential impacts...
December 2016: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867216/investigating-the-impacts-of-field-realistic-exposure-to-a-neonicotinoid-pesticide-on-bumblebee-foraging-homing-ability-and-colony-growth
#11
Dara A Stanley, Avery L Russell, Sarah J Morrison, Catherine Rogers, Nigel E Raine
The ability to forage and return home is essential to the success of bees as both foragers and pollinators. Pesticide exposure may cause behavioural changes that interfere with these processes, with consequences for colony persistence and delivery of pollination services.We investigated the impact of chronic exposure (5-43 days) to field-realistic levels of a neonicotinoid insecticide (2·4 ppb thiamethoxam) on foraging ability, homing success and colony size using radio frequency identification (RFID) technology in free-flying bumblebee colonies...
October 2016: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708457/type-of-fitness-cost-influences-the-rate-of-evolution-of-resistance-to-transgenic-bt-crops
#12
Sean C Hackett, Michael B Bonsall
The evolution of resistance to pesticides by insect pests is a significant challenge for sustainable agriculture. For transgenic crops expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), crystalline (Cry) toxins resistance evolution may be delayed by the high-dose/refuge strategy in which a non-toxic refuge is planted to promote the survival of susceptible insects. The high-dose/refuge strategy may interact with fitness costs associated with resistance alleles to further delay resistance. However, while a diverse range of fitness costs are reported in the field, they are typically represented as a fixed reduction in survival or viability which is insensitive to ecological conditions such as competition...
October 2016: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708456/the-importance-of-realistic-dispersal-models-in-conservation-planning-application-of-a-novel-modelling-platform-to-evaluate-management-scenarios-in-an-afrotropical-biodiversity-hotspot
#13
Job Aben, Greta Bocedi, Stephen C F Palmer, Petri Pellikka, Diederik Strubbe, Caspar Hallmann, Justin M J Travis, Luc Lens, Erik Matthysen
As biodiversity hotspots are often characterized by high human population densities, implementation of conservation management practices that focus only on the protection and enlargement of pristine habitats is potentially unrealistic. An alternative approach to curb species extinction risk involves improving connectivity among existing habitat patches. However, evaluation of spatially explicit management strategies is challenging, as predictive models must account for the process of dispersal, which is difficult in terms of both empirical data collection and modelling...
August 2016: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27499553/foraging-choices-of-vampire-bats-in-diverse-landscapes-potential-implications-for-land-use-change-and-disease-transmission
#14
Daniel G Streicker, Jacob E Allgeier
In Latin America, the common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus is the primary reservoir of rabies, a zoonotic virus that kills thousands of livestock annually and causes sporadic and lethal human rabies outbreaks. The proliferation of livestock provides an abundant food resource for this obligate blood-feeding species that could alter its foraging behaviour and rabies transmission, but poor understanding of the dietary plasticity of vampire bats limits understanding of how livestock influences rabies risk.We analysed individual- and population-level foraging behaviour by applying δ(13)C and δ(15)N stable isotope analysis to hair samples from 183 vampire bats captured from nine colonies in Peru...
August 2016: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773942/environmental-dna-edna-detects-the-invasive-rusty-crayfish-orconectes-rusticus-at-low-abundances
#15
Matthew M Dougherty, Eric R Larson, Mark A Renshaw, Crysta A Gantz, Scott P Egan, Daniel M Erickson, David M Lodge
Early detection is invaluable for the cost-effective control and eradication of invasive species, yet many traditional sampling techniques are ineffective at the low population abundances found at the onset of the invasion process. Environmental DNA (eDNA) is a promising and sensitive tool for early detection of some invasive species, but its efficacy has not yet been evaluated for many taxonomic groups and habitat types.We evaluated the ability of eDNA to detect the invasive rusty crayfish Orconectes rusticus and to reflect patterns of its relative abundance, in upper Midwest, USA, inland lakes...
June 2016: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27609988/modest-enhancements-to-conventional-grassland-diversity-improve-the-provision-of-pollination-services
#16
Katherine A Orford, Phil J Murray, Ian P Vaughan, Jane Memmott
Grassland for livestock production is a major form of land use throughout Europe and its intensive management threatens biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in agricultural landscapes. Modest increases to conventional grassland biodiversity could have considerable positive impacts on the provision of ecosystem services, such as pollination, to surrounding habitats.Using a field-scale experiment in which grassland seed mixes and sward management were manipulated, complemented by surveys on working farms and phytometer experiments, the impact of conventional grassland diversity and management on the functional diversity and ecosystem service provision of pollinator communities were investigated...
June 2016: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27609987/using-in%C3%A2-situ-management-to-conserve-biodiversity-under-climate-change
#17
Owen Greenwood, Hannah L Mossman, Andrew J Suggitt, Robin J Curtis, Ilya M D Maclean
Successful conservation will increasingly depend on our ability to help species cope with climate change. While there has been much attention on accommodating or assisting range shifts, less has been given to the alternative strategy of helping species survive climate change through in situ management.Here we provide a synthesis of published evidence examining whether habitat management can be used to offset the adverse impacts on biodiversity of changes in temperature, water availability and sea-level rise...
June 2016: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867215/resolving-large-scale-pressures-on-species-and-ecosystems-propensity-modelling-identifies-agricultural-effects-on-streams
#18
Caitlin E Pearson, Steve J Ormerod, William O C Symondson, Ian P Vaughan
Although agriculture is amongst the world's most widespread land uses, studies of its effects on stream ecosystems are often limited in spatial extent. National monitoring data could extend spatial coverage and increase statistical power, but present analytical challenges where covarying environmental variables confound relationships of interest.Propensity modelling is used widely outside ecology to control for confounding variables in observational data. Here, monitoring data from over 3000 English and Welsh river reaches are used to assess the effects of intensive agricultural land cover (arable and pastoral) on stream habitat, water chemistry and invertebrates, using propensity scores to control for potential confounding factors (e...
April 2016: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27667853/coho-salmon-spawner-mortality-in-western-us-urban-watersheds-bioinfiltration-prevents-lethal-storm-water-impacts
#19
Julann A Spromberg, David H Baldwin, Steven E Damm, Jenifer K McIntyre, Michael Huff, Catherine A Sloan, Bernadita F Anulacion, Jay W Davis, Nathaniel L Scholz
Adult coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch return each autumn to freshwater spawning habitats throughout western North America. The migration coincides with increasing seasonal rainfall, which in turn increases storm water run-off, particularly in urban watersheds with extensive impervious land cover. Previous field assessments in urban stream networks have shown that adult coho are dying prematurely at high rates (>50%). Despite significant management concerns for the long-term conservation of threatened wild coho populations, a causal role for toxic run-off in the mortality syndrome has not been demonstrated...
April 2016: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27478205/prioritizing-management-actions-for-invasive-populations-using-cost-efficacy-demography-and-expert-opinion-for-14-plant-species-world-wide
#20
Natalie Z Kerr, Peter W J Baxter, Roberto Salguero-Gómez, Glenda M Wardle, Yvonne M Buckley
Management of invasive populations is typically investigated case-by-case. Comparative approaches have been applied to single aspects of management, such as demography, with cost or efficacy rarely incorporated.We present an analysis of the ranks of management actions for 14 species in five countries that extends beyond the use of demography alone to include multiple metrics for ranking management actions, which integrate cost, efficacy and demography (cost-effectiveness) and managers' expert opinion of ranks...
April 2016: Journal of Applied Ecology
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