journal
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Journal of Applied Ecology

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30147143/effects-of-vegetation-management-intensity-on-biodiversity-and-ecosystem-services-in-vineyards-a-meta-analysis
#1
REVIEW
Silvia Winter, Thomas Bauer, Peter Strauss, Sophie Kratschmer, Daniel Paredes, Daniela Popescu, Blanca Landa, Gema Guzmán, José A Gómez, Muriel Guernion, Johann G Zaller, Péter Batáry
At the global scale, vineyards are usually managed intensively to optimize wine production without considering possible negative impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem services (ES) such as high soil erosion rates, degradation of soil fertility or contamination of groundwater. Winegrowers regulate competition for water and nutrients between the vines and inter-row vegetation by tilling, mulching and/or herbicide application. Strategies for more sustainable viticulture recommend maintaining vegetation cover in inter-rows, however, there is a lack of knowledge as to what extent this less intensive inter-row management affects biodiversity and associated ES...
September 2018: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30147142/nature-extent-and-ecological-implications-of-night-time-light-from-road-vehicles
#2
REVIEW
Kevin J Gaston, Lauren A Holt
The erosion of night-time by the introduction of artificial lighting constitutes a profound pressure on the natural environment. It has altered what had for millennia been reliable signals from natural light cycles used for regulating a host of biological processes, with impacts ranging from changes in gene expression to ecosystem processes.Studies of these impacts have focused almost exclusively on those resulting from stationary sources of light emissions, and particularly streetlights. However, mobile sources, especially road vehicle headlights, contribute substantial additional emissions...
September 2018: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30008483/geostatistical-models-using-remotely-sensed-data-predict-savanna-tsetse-decline-across-the-interface-between-protected-and-unprotected-areas-in-serengeti-tanzania
#3
Jennifer S Lord, Stephen J Torr, Harriet K Auty, Paddy M Brock, Mechtilda Byamungu, John W Hargrove, Liam J Morrison, Furaha Mramba, Glyn A Vale, Michelle C Stanton
Monitoring abundance is essential for vector management, but it is often only possible in a fraction of managed areas. For vector control programmes, sampling to estimate abundance is usually carried out at a local-scale (10s km2 ), while interventions often extend across 100s km2 . Geostatistical models have been used to interpolate between points where data are available, but this still requires costly sampling across the entire area of interest. Instead, we used geostatistical models to predict local-scale spatial variation in the abundance of tsetse-vectors of human and animal African trypanosomes-beyond the spatial extent of data to which models were fitted, in Serengeti, Tanzania...
July 2018: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30008482/prediction-and-attenuation-of-seasonal-spillover-of-parasites-between-wild-and-domestic-ungulates-in-an-arid-mixed-use-system
#4
Josephine G Walker, Kate E Evans, Hannah Rose Vineer, Jan A van Wyk, Eric R Morgan
Transmission of parasites between host species affects host population dynamics, interspecific competition, and ecosystem structure and function. In areas where wild and domestic herbivores share grazing land, management of parasites in livestock may affect or be affected by sympatric wildlife due to cross-species transmission.We develop a novel method for simulating transmission potential based on both biotic and abiotic factors in a semi-arid system in Botswana. Optimal timing of antiparasitic treatment in livestock is then compared under a variety of alternative host scenarios, including seasonally migrating wild hosts...
July 2018: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30089931/density-trends-and-demographic-signals-uncover-the-long-term-impact-of-transmissible-cancer-in-tasmanian-devils
#5
Billie T Lazenby, Mathias W Tobler, William E Brown, Clare E Hawkins, Greg J Hocking, Fiona Hume, Stewart Huxtable, Philip Iles, Menna E Jones, Clare Lawrence, Sam Thalmann, Phil Wise, Howel Williams, Samantha Fox, David Pemberton
1. Monitoring the response of wild mammal populations to threatening processes is fundamental to effective conservation management. This is especially true for infectious diseases, which may have dynamic and therefore unpredictable interactions with their host. 2. We investigate the long-term impact of a transmissible cancer, devil facial tumour disease (DFTD), on the endemic Tasmanian devil. We analyse trends in devil spot-light counts and density across the area impacted by the disease. We investigate the demographic parameters which might be driving these trends, and use spatial capture-recapture models to examine whether DFTD has affected home range size...
May 2018: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780172/a-spatially-integrated-framework-for-assessing-socioecological-drivers-of-carnivore-decline
#6
Nicolás Gálvez, Gurutzeta Guillera-Arroita, Freya A V St John, Elke Schüttler, David W Macdonald, Zoe G Davies
Habitat loss, fragmentation and degradation are key threats to the long-term persistence of carnivores, which are also susceptible to direct persecution by people. Integrating natural and social science methods to examine how habitat configuration/quality and human-predator relations may interact in space and time to effect carnivore populations within human-dominated landscapes will help prioritise conservation investment and action effectively.We propose a socioecological modelling framework to evaluate drivers of carnivore decline in landscapes where predators and people coexist...
May 2018: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780171/is-saltmarsh-restoration-success-constrained-by-matching-natural-environments-or-altered-succession-a-test-using-niche-models
#7
Martin J P Sullivan, Anthony J Davy, Alastair Grant, Hannah L Mossman
Restored habitats, such as saltmarsh created through managed realignment, sometimes fail to meet targets for biological equivalence with natural reference sites. Understanding why this happens is important in order to improve restoration outcomes.Elevation in the tidal frame and sediment redox potential are major controls on the distribution of saltmarsh plants. We use niche models to characterize 10 species' responses to these, and test whether differences in species occurrence between restored and natural saltmarshes in the UK result from failure to recreate adequate environmental conditions...
May 2018: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551835/alteration-of-plant-species-assemblages-can-decrease-the-transmission-potential-of-malaria-mosquitoes
#8
Babak Ebrahimi, Bryan T Jackson, Julie L Guseman, Colin M Przybylowicz, Christopher M Stone, Woodbridge A Foster
Knowledge of the link between a vector population's pathogen-transmission potential and its biotic environment can generate more realistic forecasts of disease risk due to environmental change. It also can promote more effective vector control by both conventional and novel means.This study assessed the effect of particular plant species assemblages differing in nectar production on components of the vectorial capacity of the mosquito Anopheles gambiae s.s. , an important vector of African malaria.We followed cohorts of mosquitoes for three weeks in greenhouse mesocosms holding nectar-poor and nectar-rich plant species by tracking daily mortalities and estimating daily biting rates and fecundities...
March 2018: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540935/weed-suppression-greatly-increased-by-plant-diversity-in-intensively-managed-grasslands-a-continental-scale-experiment
#9
John Connolly, Maria-Teresa Sebastià, Laura Kirwan, John Anthony Finn, Rosa Llurba, Matthias Suter, Rosemary P Collins, Claudio Porqueddu, Áslaug Helgadóttir, Ole H Baadshaug, Gilles Bélanger, Alistair Black, Caroline Brophy, Jure Čop, Sigridur Dalmannsdóttir, Ignacio Delgado, Anjo Elgersma, Michael Fothergill, Bodil E Frankow-Lindberg, An Ghesquiere, Piotr Golinski, Philippe Grieu, Anne-Maj Gustavsson, Mats Höglind, Olivier Huguenin-Elie, Marit Jørgensen, Zydre Kadziuliene, Tor Lunnan, Paivi Nykanen-Kurki, Angela Ribas, Friedhelm Taube, Ulrich Thumm, Alex De Vliegher, Andreas Lüscher
Grassland diversity can support sustainable intensification of grassland production through increased yields, reduced inputs and limited weed invasion. We report the effects of diversity on weed suppression from 3 years of a 31-site continental-scale field experiment.At each site, 15 grassland communities comprising four monocultures and 11 four-species mixtures based on a wide range of species' proportions were sown at two densities and managed by cutting. Forage species were selected according to two crossed functional traits, "method of nitrogen acquisition" and "pattern of temporal development"...
March 2018: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681651/flow-intermittence-and-ecosystem-services-in-rivers-of-the-anthropocene
#10
Thibault Datry, Andrew J Boulton, Núria Bonada, Ken Fritz, Catherine Leigh, Eric Sauquet, Klement Tockner, Bernard Hugueny, Clifford N Dahm
Intermittent rivers and ephemeral streams (IRES) are watercourses that cease flow at some point in time and space. Arguably Earth's most widespread type of flowing water, IRES are expanding where Anthropocenic climates grow drier and human demands for water escalate.However, IRES have attracted far less research than perennial rivers and are undervalued by society, jeopardizing their restoration or protection. Provision of ecosystem services by IRES is especially poorly understood, hindering their integration into management plans in most countries...
2018: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610540/determinants-of-pseudogymnoascus-destructans-within-bat-hibernacula-implications-for-surveillance-and-management-of-white-nose-syndrome
#11
Michelle L Verant, Elizabeth A Bohuski, Katherine L D Richgels, Kevin J Olival, Jonathan H Epstein, David S Blehert
1. Fungal diseases are an emerging global problem affecting human health, food security and biodiversity. Ability of many fungal pathogens to persist within environmental reservoirs can increase extinction risks for host species and presents challenges for disease control. Understanding factors that regulate pathogen spread and persistence in these reservoirs is critical for effective disease management. 2. White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a disease of hibernating bats caused by Pseudogymnoascus destructans ( Pd ), a fungus that establishes persistent environmental reservoirs within bat hibernacula, which contribute to seasonal disease transmission dynamics in bats...
2018: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276308/impacts-of-salvage-logging-on-biodiversity-a-meta-analysis
#12
Simon Thorn, Claus Bässler, Roland Brandl, Philip J Burton, Rebecca Cahall, John L Campbell, Jorge Castro, Chang-Yong Choi, Tyler Cobb, Daniel C Donato, Ewa Durska, Joseph B Fontaine, Sylvie Gauthier, Christian Hebert, Torsten Hothorn, Richard L Hutto, Eun-Jae Lee, Alexandro B Leverkus, David B Lindenmayer, Martin K Obrist, Josep Rost, Sebastian Seibold, Rupert Seidl, Dominik Thom, Kaysandra Waldron, Beat Wermelinger, Maria-Barbara Winter, Michal Zmihorski, Jörg Müller
Logging to "salvage" economic returns from forests affected by natural disturbances has become increasingly prevalent globally. Despite potential negative effects on biodiversity, salvage logging is often conducted, even in areas otherwise excluded from logging and reserved for nature conservation, inter alia because strategic priorities for post-disturbance management are widely lacking.A review of the existing literature revealed that most studies investigating the effects of salvage logging on biodiversity have been conducted less than 5 years following natural disturbances, and focused on non-saproxylic organisms...
January 2018: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225369/embracing-uncertainty-in-applied-ecology
#13
E J Milner-Gulland, K Shea
Applied ecologists often face uncertainty that hinders effective decision-making.Common traps that may catch the unwary are: ignoring uncertainty, acknowledging uncertainty but ploughing on, focussing on trivial uncertainties, believing your models, and unclear objectives.We integrate research insights and examples from a wide range of applied ecological fields to illustrate advances that are generally underused, but could facilitate ecologists' ability to plan and execute research to support management.Recommended approaches to avoid uncertainty traps are: embracing models, using decision theory, using models more effectively, thinking experimentally, and being realistic about uncertainty...
December 2017: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200497/sweat-bees-on-hot-chillies-provision-of-pollination-services-by-native-bees-in-traditional-slash-and-burn-agriculture-in-the-yucat%C3%A3-n-peninsula-of-tropical-mexico
#14
Patricia Landaverde-González, José Javier G Quezada-Euán, Panagiotis Theodorou, Tomás E Murray, Martin Husemann, Ricardo Ayala, Humberto Moo-Valle, Rémy Vandame, Robert J Paxton
Traditional tropical agriculture often entails a form of slash-and-burn land management that may adversely affect ecosystem services such as pollination, which are required for successful crop yields. The Yucatán Peninsula of Mexico has a >4000 year history of traditional slash-and-burn agriculture, termed 'milpa'. Hot 'Habanero' chilli is a major pollinator-dependent crop that nowadays is often grown in monoculture within the milpa system.We studied 37 local farmers' chilli fields (sites) to evaluate the effects of landscape composition on bee communities...
December 2017: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200496/a-national-scale-model-of-linear-features-improves-predictions-of-farmland-biodiversity
#15
Martin J P Sullivan, James W Pearce-Higgins, Stuart E Newson, Paul Scholefield, Tom Brereton, Tom H Oliver
Modelling species distribution and abundance is important for many conservation applications, but it is typically performed using relatively coarse-scale environmental variables such as the area of broad land-cover types. Fine-scale environmental data capturing the most biologically relevant variables have the potential to improve these models. For example, field studies have demonstrated the importance of linear features, such as hedgerows, for multiple taxa, but the absence of large-scale datasets of their extent prevents their inclusion in large-scale modelling studies...
December 2017: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104309/quantification-of-within-and-between-farm-dispersal-of-culicoides-biting-midges-using-an-immunomarking-technique
#16
Christopher J Sanders, Lara E Harrup, Laura A Tugwell, Victor A Brugman, Marion England, Simon Carpenter
Culicoides biting midges (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae) are vectors of arboviruses that cause significant economic and welfare impact. Local-scale spread of Culicoides -borne arboviruses is largely determined by the between-farm movement of infected Culicoides .Study of the dispersal behaviour of Culicoides by capture-mark-recapture (CMR) is problematic due to the likelihood of mortality and changes in behaviour upon capture caused by the small size and fragility of these insects, evidenced by low recapture rates...
October 2017: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081540/harvesting-wildlife-affected-by-climate-change-a-modelling-and-management-approach-for-polar-bears
#17
Eric V Regehr, Ryan R Wilson, Karyn D Rode, Michael C Runge, Harry L Stern
The conservation of many wildlife species requires understanding the demographic effects of climate change, including interactions between climate change and harvest, which can provide cultural, nutritional or economic value to humans.We present a demographic model that is based on the polar bear Ursus maritimus life cycle and includes density-dependent relationships linking vital rates to environmental carrying capacity ( K ). Using this model, we develop a state-dependent management framework to calculate a harvest level that (i) maintains a population above its maximum net productivity level (MNPL; the population size that produces the greatest net increment in abundance) relative to a changing K , and (ii) has a limited negative effect on population persistence...
October 2017: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081539/seasonal-variation-in-the-biocontrol-efficiency-of-bacterial-wilt-is-driven-by-temperature-mediated-changes-in-bacterial-competitive-interactions
#18
Zhong Wei, Jianfeng Huang, Tianjie Yang, Alexandre Jousset, Yangchun Xu, Qirong Shen, Ville-Petri Friman
Microbe-based biocontrol applications hold the potential to become an efficient way to control plant pathogen disease outbreaks in the future. However, their efficiency is still very variable, which could be due to their sensitivity to the abiotic environmental conditions.Here, we assessed how environmental temperature variation correlates with ability of Ralstonia pickettii , an endophytic bacterial biocontrol agent, to suppress the Ralstonia solanacearum pathogen during different tomato crop seasons in China...
October 2017: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717255/sequential-stable-isotope-analysis-reveals-differences-in-multi-year-dietary-history-of-three-sympatric-equid-species-in-sw-mongolia
#19
Martina Burnik Šturm, Oyunsaikhan Ganbaatar, Christian C Voigt, Petra Kaczensky
1. Competition among sympatric wild herbivores is reduced by different physiological, morphological, and behavioral traits resulting in different dietary niches. Wild equids are a rather uniform group of large herbivores which have dramatically declined in numbers and range. Correlative evidence suggests that pasture competition with livestock is one of the key factors for this decline, and the situation may be aggravated in areas where different equid species overlap. 2. The Dzungarian Gobi is currently the only place where two wild equid species coexist and share the range with the domesticated form of a third equid species...
August 2017: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30319142/soil-drainage-facilitates-earthworm-invasion-and-subsequent-carbon-loss-from-peatland-soil
#20
Xinwei Wu, Rui Cao, Xue Wei, Xinqiang Xi, Peili Shi, Nico Eisenhauer, Shucun Sun
1. Human activities have been a significant driver of environmental changes with tremendous consequences for carbon dynamics. Peatlands are critical ecosystems because they store ~30% of the global soil organic carbon pool and are particularly vulnerable to anthropogenic changes. The Zoige peatland on the eastern Tibet Plateau, as the largest alpine peatland in the world, accounts for 1‰ of global peat soil organic carbon storage. However, this peatland has experienced dramatic climate change including increased temperature and reduced precipitation in the past decades, which likely is responsible for a decline of the water table and facilitated earthworm invasion, two major factors reducing soil organic carbon (SOC) storage of peatlands...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Applied Ecology
journal
journal
21408
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"