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Journal of Applied Ecology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867217/avoidance-of-wind-farms-by-harbour-seals-is-limited-to-pile-driving-activities
#1
Debbie J F Russell, Gordon D Hastie, David Thompson, Vincent M Janik, Philip S Hammond, Lindesay A S Scott-Hayward, Jason Matthiopoulos, Esther L Jones, Bernie J McConnell
As part of global efforts to reduce dependence on carbon-based energy sources there has been a rapid increase in the installation of renewable energy devices. The installation and operation of these devices can result in conflicts with wildlife. In the marine environment, mammals may avoid wind farms that are under construction or operating. Such avoidance may lead to more time spent travelling or displacement from key habitats. A paucity of data on at-sea movements of marine mammals around wind farms limits our understanding of the nature of their potential impacts...
December 2016: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867216/investigating-the-impacts-of-field-realistic-exposure-to-a-neonicotinoid-pesticide-on-bumblebee-foraging-homing-ability-and-colony-growth
#2
Dara A Stanley, Avery L Russell, Sarah J Morrison, Catherine Rogers, Nigel E Raine
The ability to forage and return home is essential to the success of bees as both foragers and pollinators. Pesticide exposure may cause behavioural changes that interfere with these processes, with consequences for colony persistence and delivery of pollination services.We investigated the impact of chronic exposure (5-43 days) to field-realistic levels of a neonicotinoid insecticide (2·4 ppb thiamethoxam) on foraging ability, homing success and colony size using radio frequency identification (RFID) technology in free-flying bumblebee colonies...
October 2016: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708457/type-of-fitness-cost-influences-the-rate-of-evolution-of-resistance-to-transgenic-bt-crops
#3
Sean C Hackett, Michael B Bonsall
The evolution of resistance to pesticides by insect pests is a significant challenge for sustainable agriculture. For transgenic crops expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), crystalline (Cry) toxins resistance evolution may be delayed by the high-dose/refuge strategy in which a non-toxic refuge is planted to promote the survival of susceptible insects. The high-dose/refuge strategy may interact with fitness costs associated with resistance alleles to further delay resistance. However, while a diverse range of fitness costs are reported in the field, they are typically represented as a fixed reduction in survival or viability which is insensitive to ecological conditions such as competition...
October 2016: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708456/the-importance-of-realistic-dispersal-models-in-conservation-planning-application-of-a-novel-modelling-platform-to-evaluate-management-scenarios-in-an-afrotropical-biodiversity-hotspot
#4
Job Aben, Greta Bocedi, Stephen C F Palmer, Petri Pellikka, Diederik Strubbe, Caspar Hallmann, Justin M J Travis, Luc Lens, Erik Matthysen
As biodiversity hotspots are often characterized by high human population densities, implementation of conservation management practices that focus only on the protection and enlargement of pristine habitats is potentially unrealistic. An alternative approach to curb species extinction risk involves improving connectivity among existing habitat patches. However, evaluation of spatially explicit management strategies is challenging, as predictive models must account for the process of dispersal, which is difficult in terms of both empirical data collection and modelling...
August 2016: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27499553/foraging-choices-of-vampire-bats-in-diverse-landscapes-potential-implications-for-land-use-change-and-disease-transmission
#5
Daniel G Streicker, Jacob E Allgeier
In Latin America, the common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus is the primary reservoir of rabies, a zoonotic virus that kills thousands of livestock annually and causes sporadic and lethal human rabies outbreaks. The proliferation of livestock provides an abundant food resource for this obligate blood-feeding species that could alter its foraging behaviour and rabies transmission, but poor understanding of the dietary plasticity of vampire bats limits understanding of how livestock influences rabies risk.We analysed individual- and population-level foraging behaviour by applying δ(13)C and δ(15)N stable isotope analysis to hair samples from 183 vampire bats captured from nine colonies in Peru...
August 2016: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773942/environmental-dna-edna-detects-the-invasive-rusty-crayfish-orconectes-rusticus-at-low-abundances
#6
Matthew M Dougherty, Eric R Larson, Mark A Renshaw, Crysta A Gantz, Scott P Egan, Daniel M Erickson, David M Lodge
Early detection is invaluable for the cost-effective control and eradication of invasive species, yet many traditional sampling techniques are ineffective at the low population abundances found at the onset of the invasion process. Environmental DNA (eDNA) is a promising and sensitive tool for early detection of some invasive species, but its efficacy has not yet been evaluated for many taxonomic groups and habitat types.We evaluated the ability of eDNA to detect the invasive rusty crayfish Orconectes rusticus and to reflect patterns of its relative abundance, in upper Midwest, USA, inland lakes...
June 2016: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27609988/modest-enhancements-to-conventional-grassland-diversity-improve-the-provision-of-pollination-services
#7
Katherine A Orford, Phil J Murray, Ian P Vaughan, Jane Memmott
Grassland for livestock production is a major form of land use throughout Europe and its intensive management threatens biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in agricultural landscapes. Modest increases to conventional grassland biodiversity could have considerable positive impacts on the provision of ecosystem services, such as pollination, to surrounding habitats.Using a field-scale experiment in which grassland seed mixes and sward management were manipulated, complemented by surveys on working farms and phytometer experiments, the impact of conventional grassland diversity and management on the functional diversity and ecosystem service provision of pollinator communities were investigated...
June 2016: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27609987/using-in%C3%A2-situ-management-to-conserve-biodiversity-under-climate-change
#8
Owen Greenwood, Hannah L Mossman, Andrew J Suggitt, Robin J Curtis, Ilya M D Maclean
Successful conservation will increasingly depend on our ability to help species cope with climate change. While there has been much attention on accommodating or assisting range shifts, less has been given to the alternative strategy of helping species survive climate change through in situ management.Here we provide a synthesis of published evidence examining whether habitat management can be used to offset the adverse impacts on biodiversity of changes in temperature, water availability and sea-level rise...
June 2016: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867215/resolving-large-scale-pressures-on-species-and-ecosystems-propensity-modelling-identifies-agricultural-effects-on-streams
#9
Caitlin E Pearson, Steve J Ormerod, William O C Symondson, Ian P Vaughan
Although agriculture is amongst the world's most widespread land uses, studies of its effects on stream ecosystems are often limited in spatial extent. National monitoring data could extend spatial coverage and increase statistical power, but present analytical challenges where covarying environmental variables confound relationships of interest.Propensity modelling is used widely outside ecology to control for confounding variables in observational data. Here, monitoring data from over 3000 English and Welsh river reaches are used to assess the effects of intensive agricultural land cover (arable and pastoral) on stream habitat, water chemistry and invertebrates, using propensity scores to control for potential confounding factors (e...
April 2016: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27667853/coho-salmon-spawner-mortality-in-western-us-urban-watersheds-bioinfiltration-prevents-lethal-storm-water-impacts
#10
Julann A Spromberg, David H Baldwin, Steven E Damm, Jenifer K McIntyre, Michael Huff, Catherine A Sloan, Bernadita F Anulacion, Jay W Davis, Nathaniel L Scholz
Adult coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch return each autumn to freshwater spawning habitats throughout western North America. The migration coincides with increasing seasonal rainfall, which in turn increases storm water run-off, particularly in urban watersheds with extensive impervious land cover. Previous field assessments in urban stream networks have shown that adult coho are dying prematurely at high rates (>50%). Despite significant management concerns for the long-term conservation of threatened wild coho populations, a causal role for toxic run-off in the mortality syndrome has not been demonstrated...
April 2016: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27478205/prioritizing-management-actions-for-invasive-populations-using-cost-efficacy-demography-and-expert-opinion-for-14-plant-species-world-wide
#11
Natalie Z Kerr, Peter W J Baxter, Roberto Salguero-Gómez, Glenda M Wardle, Yvonne M Buckley
Management of invasive populations is typically investigated case-by-case. Comparative approaches have been applied to single aspects of management, such as demography, with cost or efficacy rarely incorporated.We present an analysis of the ranks of management actions for 14 species in five countries that extends beyond the use of demography alone to include multiple metrics for ranking management actions, which integrate cost, efficacy and demography (cost-effectiveness) and managers' expert opinion of ranks...
April 2016: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26980922/an-introduced-parasitic-fly-may-lead-to-local-extinction-of-darwin-s-finch-populations
#12
Jennifer A H Koop, Peter S Kim, Sarah A Knutie, Fred Adler, Dale H Clayton
Introduced pathogens and other parasites are often implicated in host population level declines and extinctions. However, such claims are rarely supported by rigorous real-time data. Indeed, the threat of introduced parasites often goes unnoticed until after host populations have declined severely. The recent introduction of the parasitic nest fly, Philornis downsi, to the Galápagos Islands provides an opportunity to monitor the current impact of an invasive parasite on endemic land bird populations, including Darwin's finches...
April 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27570258/supporting-local-diversity-of-habitats-and-species-on-farmland-a-comparison-of-three-wildlife-friendly-schemes
#13
Chloe J Hardman, Dominic P G Harrison, Pete J Shaw, Tim D Nevard, Brin Hughes, Simon G Potts, Ken Norris
Restoration and maintenance of habitat diversity have been suggested as conservation priorities in farmed landscapes, but how this should be achieved and at what scale are unclear. This study makes a novel comparison of the effectiveness of three wildlife-friendly farming schemes for supporting local habitat diversity and species richness on 12 farms in England.The schemes were: (i) Conservation Grade (Conservation Grade: a prescriptive, non-organic, biodiversity-focused scheme), (ii) organic agriculture and (iii) a baseline of Entry Level Stewardship (Entry Level Stewardship: a flexible widespread government scheme)...
February 2016: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27478204/real-time-anti-poaching-tags-could-help-prevent-imminent-species-extinctions
#14
Paul O'Donoghue, Christian Rutz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2016: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26966320/searching-for-resilience-addressing-the-impacts-of-changing-disturbance-regimes-on-forest-ecosystem-services
#15
Rupert Seidl, Thomas A Spies, David L Peterson, Scott L Stephens, Jeffrey A Hicke
1. The provisioning of ecosystem services to society is increasingly under pressure from global change. Changing disturbance regimes are of particular concern in this context due to their high potential impact on ecosystem structure, function and composition. Resilience-based stewardship is advocated to address these changes in ecosystem management, but its operational implementation has remained challenging. 2. We review observed and expected changes in disturbance regimes and their potential impacts on provisioning, regulating, cultural and supporting ecosystem services, concentrating on temperate and boreal forests...
February 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26877546/forum-indirect-leakage-leads-to-a-failure-of-avoided-loss-biodiversity-offsetting
#16
Atte Moilanen, Jussi Laitila
Biodiversity offsetting has quickly gained political support all around the world. Avoided loss (averted risk) offsetting means compensation for ecological damage via averted loss of anticipated impacts through the removal of threatening processes in compensation areas.Leakage means the phenomenon of environmentally damaging activity relocating elsewhere after being stopped locally by avoided loss offsetting. Indirect leakage means that locally avoided losses displace to other administrative areas or spread around diffusely via market effects...
February 2016: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26877545/integrating-spatially-explicit-indices-of-abundance-and-habitat-quality-an-applied-example-for-greater-sage-grouse-management
#17
Peter S Coates, Michael L Casazza, Mark A Ricca, Brianne E Brussee, Erik J Blomberg, K Benjamin Gustafson, Cory T Overton, Dawn M Davis, Lara E Niell, Shawn P Espinosa, Scott C Gardner, David J Delehanty
Predictive species distributional models are a cornerstone of wildlife conservation planning. Constructing such models requires robust underpinning science that integrates formerly disparate data types to achieve effective species management.Greater sage-grouse Centrocercus urophasianus, hereafter 'sage-grouse' populations are declining throughout sagebrush-steppe ecosystems in North America, particularly within the Great Basin, which heightens the need for novel management tools that maximize the use of available information...
February 2016: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660373/managing-more-than-the-mean-using-quantile-regression-to-identify-factors-related-to-large-elk-groups
#18
Angela Brennan, Paul C Cross, Scott Creel
Animal group size distributions are often right-skewed, whereby most groups are small, but most individuals occur in larger groups that may also disproportionately affect ecology and policy. In this case, examining covariates associated with upper quantiles of the group size distribution could facilitate better understanding and management of large animal groups.We studied wintering elk groups in Wyoming, where group sizes span several orders of magnitude, and issues of disease, predation and property damage are affected by larger group sizes...
December 2015: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27594710/science-statistics-and-surveys-a-herpetological-perspective
#19
Richard A Griffiths, Jim Foster, John W Wilkinson, David Sewell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2015: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27546902/ecological-traits-affect-the-sensitivity-of-bees-to-land-use-pressures-in-european-agricultural-landscapes
#20
Adriana De Palma, Michael Kuhlmann, Stuart P M Roberts, Simon G Potts, Luca Börger, Lawrence N Hudson, Igor Lysenko, Tim Newbold, Andy Purvis
Bees are a functionally important and economically valuable group, but are threatened by land-use conversion and intensification. Such pressures are not expected to affect all species identically; rather, they are likely to be mediated by the species' ecological traits.Understanding which types of species are most vulnerable under which land uses is an important step towards effective conservation planning.We collated occurrence and abundance data for 257 bee species at 1584 European sites from surveys reported in 30 published papers (70 056 records) and combined them with species-level ecological trait data...
December 2015: Journal of Applied Ecology
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