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Journal of Applied Ecology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30449900/pathogen-dynamics-under-both-bottom-up-host-resistance-and-top-down-hyperparasite-attack
#1
Steven R Parratt, Anna-Liisa Laine
The relative importance of bottom-up versus top-down control of population dynamics has been the focus of much debate. In infectious disease biology, research is typically focused on the bottom-up process of host resistance, wherein the direction of control flows from the lower to the higher trophic level to impact on pathogen population size and epidemiology. However, the importance of top-down control by a pathogen's natural enemies has been mostly overlooked.Here, we explore the effects of, and interaction between, host genotype (i...
November 2018: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30449899/quantifying-the-impact-of-pesticides-on-learning-and-memory-in-bees
#2
Harry Siviter, Julia Koricheva, Mark J F Brown, Ellouise Leadbeater
Most insecticides are insect neurotoxins. Evidence is emerging that sublethal doses of these neurotoxins are affecting the learning and memory of both wild and managed bee colonies, exacerbating the negative effects of pesticide exposure and reducing individual foraging efficiency.Variation in methodologies and interpretation of results across studies has precluded the quantitative evaluation of these impacts that is needed to make recommendations for policy change. It is not clear whether robust effects occur under acute exposure regimes (often argued to be more field-realistic than the chronic regimes upon which many studies are based), for field-realistic dosages, and for pesticides other than neonicotinoids...
November 2018: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30449898/-bumble-beehave-a-systems-model-for-exploring-multifactorial-causes-of-bumblebee-decline-at-individual-colony-population-and-community-level
#3
Matthias A Becher, Grace Twiston-Davies, Tim D Penny, Dave Goulson, Ellen L Rotheray, Juliet L Osborne
World-wide declines in pollinators, including bumblebees, are attributed to a multitude of stressors such as habitat loss, resource availability, emerging viruses and parasites, exposure to pesticides, and climate change, operating at various spatial and temporal scales. Disentangling individual and interacting effects of these stressors, and understanding their impact at the individual, colony and population level are a challenge for systems ecology. Empirical testing of all combinations and contexts is not feasible...
November 2018: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30337766/the-roles-of-migratory-and-resident-birds-in-local-avian-influenza-infection-dynamics
#4
Simeon Lisovski, Jacintha G B van Dijk, Don Klinkenberg, Bart A Nolet, Ron A M Fouchier, Marcel Klaassen
Migratory birds are an increasing focus of interest when it comes to infection dynamics and the spread of avian influenza viruses (AIV). However, we lack detailed understanding migratory birds' contribution to local AIV prevalence levels and their downstream socio-economic costs and threats.To explain the potential differential roles of migratory and resident birds in local AIV infection dynamics, we used a susceptible-infectious-recovered (SIR) model. We investigated five (mutually non- exclusive) mechanisms potentially driving observed prevalence patterns: 1) a pronounced birth pulse (e...
November 2018: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30147143/effects-of-vegetation-management-intensity-on-biodiversity-and-ecosystem-services-in-vineyards-a-meta-analysis
#5
REVIEW
Silvia Winter, Thomas Bauer, Peter Strauss, Sophie Kratschmer, Daniel Paredes, Daniela Popescu, Blanca Landa, Gema Guzmán, José A Gómez, Muriel Guernion, Johann G Zaller, Péter Batáry
At the global scale, vineyards are usually managed intensively to optimize wine production without considering possible negative impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem services (ES) such as high soil erosion rates, degradation of soil fertility or contamination of groundwater. Winegrowers regulate competition for water and nutrients between the vines and inter-row vegetation by tilling, mulching and/or herbicide application. Strategies for more sustainable viticulture recommend maintaining vegetation cover in inter-rows, however, there is a lack of knowledge as to what extent this less intensive inter-row management affects biodiversity and associated ES...
September 2018: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30147142/nature-extent-and-ecological-implications-of-night-time-light-from-road-vehicles
#6
REVIEW
Kevin J Gaston, Lauren A Holt
The erosion of night-time by the introduction of artificial lighting constitutes a profound pressure on the natural environment. It has altered what had for millennia been reliable signals from natural light cycles used for regulating a host of biological processes, with impacts ranging from changes in gene expression to ecosystem processes.Studies of these impacts have focused almost exclusively on those resulting from stationary sources of light emissions, and particularly streetlights. However, mobile sources, especially road vehicle headlights, contribute substantial additional emissions...
September 2018: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30008483/geostatistical-models-using-remotely-sensed-data-predict-savanna-tsetse-decline-across-the-interface-between-protected-and-unprotected-areas-in-serengeti-tanzania
#7
Jennifer S Lord, Stephen J Torr, Harriet K Auty, Paddy M Brock, Mechtilda Byamungu, John W Hargrove, Liam J Morrison, Furaha Mramba, Glyn A Vale, Michelle C Stanton
Monitoring abundance is essential for vector management, but it is often only possible in a fraction of managed areas. For vector control programmes, sampling to estimate abundance is usually carried out at a local-scale (10s km2 ), while interventions often extend across 100s km2 . Geostatistical models have been used to interpolate between points where data are available, but this still requires costly sampling across the entire area of interest. Instead, we used geostatistical models to predict local-scale spatial variation in the abundance of tsetse-vectors of human and animal African trypanosomes-beyond the spatial extent of data to which models were fitted, in Serengeti, Tanzania...
July 2018: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30008482/prediction-and-attenuation-of-seasonal-spillover-of-parasites-between-wild-and-domestic-ungulates-in-an-arid-mixed-use-system
#8
Josephine G Walker, Kate E Evans, Hannah Rose Vineer, Jan A van Wyk, Eric R Morgan
Transmission of parasites between host species affects host population dynamics, interspecific competition, and ecosystem structure and function. In areas where wild and domestic herbivores share grazing land, management of parasites in livestock may affect or be affected by sympatric wildlife due to cross-species transmission.We develop a novel method for simulating transmission potential based on both biotic and abiotic factors in a semi-arid system in Botswana. Optimal timing of antiparasitic treatment in livestock is then compared under a variety of alternative host scenarios, including seasonally migrating wild hosts...
July 2018: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30089931/density-trends-and-demographic-signals-uncover-the-long-term-impact-of-transmissible-cancer-in-tasmanian-devils
#9
Billie T Lazenby, Mathias W Tobler, William E Brown, Clare E Hawkins, Greg J Hocking, Fiona Hume, Stewart Huxtable, Philip Iles, Menna E Jones, Clare Lawrence, Sam Thalmann, Phil Wise, Howel Williams, Samantha Fox, David Pemberton
1. Monitoring the response of wild mammal populations to threatening processes is fundamental to effective conservation management. This is especially true for infectious diseases, which may have dynamic and therefore unpredictable interactions with their host. 2. We investigate the long-term impact of a transmissible cancer, devil facial tumour disease (DFTD), on the endemic Tasmanian devil. We analyse trends in devil spot-light counts and density across the area impacted by the disease. We investigate the demographic parameters which might be driving these trends, and use spatial capture-recapture models to examine whether DFTD has affected home range size...
May 2018: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780172/a-spatially-integrated-framework-for-assessing-socioecological-drivers-of-carnivore-decline
#10
Nicolás Gálvez, Gurutzeta Guillera-Arroita, Freya A V St John, Elke Schüttler, David W Macdonald, Zoe G Davies
Habitat loss, fragmentation and degradation are key threats to the long-term persistence of carnivores, which are also susceptible to direct persecution by people. Integrating natural and social science methods to examine how habitat configuration/quality and human-predator relations may interact in space and time to effect carnivore populations within human-dominated landscapes will help prioritise conservation investment and action effectively.We propose a socioecological modelling framework to evaluate drivers of carnivore decline in landscapes where predators and people coexist...
May 2018: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780171/is-saltmarsh-restoration-success-constrained-by-matching-natural-environments-or-altered-succession-a-test-using-niche-models
#11
Martin J P Sullivan, Anthony J Davy, Alastair Grant, Hannah L Mossman
Restored habitats, such as saltmarsh created through managed realignment, sometimes fail to meet targets for biological equivalence with natural reference sites. Understanding why this happens is important in order to improve restoration outcomes.Elevation in the tidal frame and sediment redox potential are major controls on the distribution of saltmarsh plants. We use niche models to characterize 10 species' responses to these, and test whether differences in species occurrence between restored and natural saltmarshes in the UK result from failure to recreate adequate environmental conditions...
May 2018: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551835/alteration-of-plant-species-assemblages-can-decrease-the-transmission-potential-of-malaria-mosquitoes
#12
Babak Ebrahimi, Bryan T Jackson, Julie L Guseman, Colin M Przybylowicz, Christopher M Stone, Woodbridge A Foster
Knowledge of the link between a vector population's pathogen-transmission potential and its biotic environment can generate more realistic forecasts of disease risk due to environmental change. It also can promote more effective vector control by both conventional and novel means.This study assessed the effect of particular plant species assemblages differing in nectar production on components of the vectorial capacity of the mosquito Anopheles gambiae s.s. , an important vector of African malaria.We followed cohorts of mosquitoes for three weeks in greenhouse mesocosms holding nectar-poor and nectar-rich plant species by tracking daily mortalities and estimating daily biting rates and fecundities...
March 2018: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540935/weed-suppression-greatly-increased-by-plant-diversity-in-intensively-managed-grasslands-a-continental-scale-experiment
#13
John Connolly, Maria-Teresa Sebastià, Laura Kirwan, John Anthony Finn, Rosa Llurba, Matthias Suter, Rosemary P Collins, Claudio Porqueddu, Áslaug Helgadóttir, Ole H Baadshaug, Gilles Bélanger, Alistair Black, Caroline Brophy, Jure Čop, Sigridur Dalmannsdóttir, Ignacio Delgado, Anjo Elgersma, Michael Fothergill, Bodil E Frankow-Lindberg, An Ghesquiere, Piotr Golinski, Philippe Grieu, Anne-Maj Gustavsson, Mats Höglind, Olivier Huguenin-Elie, Marit Jørgensen, Zydre Kadziuliene, Tor Lunnan, Paivi Nykanen-Kurki, Angela Ribas, Friedhelm Taube, Ulrich Thumm, Alex De Vliegher, Andreas Lüscher
Grassland diversity can support sustainable intensification of grassland production through increased yields, reduced inputs and limited weed invasion. We report the effects of diversity on weed suppression from 3 years of a 31-site continental-scale field experiment.At each site, 15 grassland communities comprising four monocultures and 11 four-species mixtures based on a wide range of species' proportions were sown at two densities and managed by cutting. Forage species were selected according to two crossed functional traits, "method of nitrogen acquisition" and "pattern of temporal development"...
March 2018: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681651/flow-intermittence-and-ecosystem-services-in-rivers-of-the-anthropocene
#14
Thibault Datry, Andrew J Boulton, Núria Bonada, Ken Fritz, Catherine Leigh, Eric Sauquet, Klement Tockner, Bernard Hugueny, Clifford N Dahm
Intermittent rivers and ephemeral streams (IRES) are watercourses that cease flow at some point in time and space. Arguably Earth's most widespread type of flowing water, IRES are expanding where Anthropocenic climates grow drier and human demands for water escalate.However, IRES have attracted far less research than perennial rivers and are undervalued by society, jeopardizing their restoration or protection. Provision of ecosystem services by IRES is especially poorly understood, hindering their integration into management plans in most countries...
2018: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610540/determinants-of-pseudogymnoascus-destructans-within-bat-hibernacula-implications-for-surveillance-and-management-of-white-nose-syndrome
#15
Michelle L Verant, Elizabeth A Bohuski, Katherine L D Richgels, Kevin J Olival, Jonathan H Epstein, David S Blehert
1. Fungal diseases are an emerging global problem affecting human health, food security and biodiversity. Ability of many fungal pathogens to persist within environmental reservoirs can increase extinction risks for host species and presents challenges for disease control. Understanding factors that regulate pathogen spread and persistence in these reservoirs is critical for effective disease management. 2. White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a disease of hibernating bats caused by Pseudogymnoascus destructans ( Pd ), a fungus that establishes persistent environmental reservoirs within bat hibernacula, which contribute to seasonal disease transmission dynamics in bats...
2018: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276308/impacts-of-salvage-logging-on-biodiversity-a-meta-analysis
#16
Simon Thorn, Claus Bässler, Roland Brandl, Philip J Burton, Rebecca Cahall, John L Campbell, Jorge Castro, Chang-Yong Choi, Tyler Cobb, Daniel C Donato, Ewa Durska, Joseph B Fontaine, Sylvie Gauthier, Christian Hebert, Torsten Hothorn, Richard L Hutto, Eun-Jae Lee, Alexandro B Leverkus, David B Lindenmayer, Martin K Obrist, Josep Rost, Sebastian Seibold, Rupert Seidl, Dominik Thom, Kaysandra Waldron, Beat Wermelinger, Maria-Barbara Winter, Michal Zmihorski, Jörg Müller
Logging to "salvage" economic returns from forests affected by natural disturbances has become increasingly prevalent globally. Despite potential negative effects on biodiversity, salvage logging is often conducted, even in areas otherwise excluded from logging and reserved for nature conservation, inter alia because strategic priorities for post-disturbance management are widely lacking.A review of the existing literature revealed that most studies investigating the effects of salvage logging on biodiversity have been conducted less than 5 years following natural disturbances, and focused on non-saproxylic organisms...
January 2018: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225369/embracing-uncertainty-in-applied-ecology
#17
E J Milner-Gulland, K Shea
Applied ecologists often face uncertainty that hinders effective decision-making.Common traps that may catch the unwary are: ignoring uncertainty, acknowledging uncertainty but ploughing on, focussing on trivial uncertainties, believing your models, and unclear objectives.We integrate research insights and examples from a wide range of applied ecological fields to illustrate advances that are generally underused, but could facilitate ecologists' ability to plan and execute research to support management.Recommended approaches to avoid uncertainty traps are: embracing models, using decision theory, using models more effectively, thinking experimentally, and being realistic about uncertainty...
December 2017: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200497/sweat-bees-on-hot-chillies-provision-of-pollination-services-by-native-bees-in-traditional-slash-and-burn-agriculture-in-the-yucat%C3%A3-n-peninsula-of-tropical-mexico
#18
Patricia Landaverde-González, José Javier G Quezada-Euán, Panagiotis Theodorou, Tomás E Murray, Martin Husemann, Ricardo Ayala, Humberto Moo-Valle, Rémy Vandame, Robert J Paxton
Traditional tropical agriculture often entails a form of slash-and-burn land management that may adversely affect ecosystem services such as pollination, which are required for successful crop yields. The Yucatán Peninsula of Mexico has a >4000 year history of traditional slash-and-burn agriculture, termed 'milpa'. Hot 'Habanero' chilli is a major pollinator-dependent crop that nowadays is often grown in monoculture within the milpa system.We studied 37 local farmers' chilli fields (sites) to evaluate the effects of landscape composition on bee communities...
December 2017: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200496/a-national-scale-model-of-linear-features-improves-predictions-of-farmland-biodiversity
#19
Martin J P Sullivan, James W Pearce-Higgins, Stuart E Newson, Paul Scholefield, Tom Brereton, Tom H Oliver
Modelling species distribution and abundance is important for many conservation applications, but it is typically performed using relatively coarse-scale environmental variables such as the area of broad land-cover types. Fine-scale environmental data capturing the most biologically relevant variables have the potential to improve these models. For example, field studies have demonstrated the importance of linear features, such as hedgerows, for multiple taxa, but the absence of large-scale datasets of their extent prevents their inclusion in large-scale modelling studies...
December 2017: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104309/quantification-of-within-and-between-farm-dispersal-of-culicoides-biting-midges-using-an-immunomarking-technique
#20
Christopher J Sanders, Lara E Harrup, Laura A Tugwell, Victor A Brugman, Marion England, Simon Carpenter
Culicoides biting midges (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae) are vectors of arboviruses that cause significant economic and welfare impact. Local-scale spread of Culicoides -borne arboviruses is largely determined by the between-farm movement of infected Culicoides .Study of the dispersal behaviour of Culicoides by capture-mark-recapture (CMR) is problematic due to the likelihood of mortality and changes in behaviour upon capture caused by the small size and fragility of these insects, evidenced by low recapture rates...
October 2017: Journal of Applied Ecology
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