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Journal of Applied Ecology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780172/a-spatially-integrated-framework-for-assessing-socioecological-drivers-of-carnivore-decline
#1
Nicolás Gálvez, Gurutzeta Guillera-Arroita, Freya A V St John, Elke Schüttler, David W Macdonald, Zoe G Davies
Habitat loss, fragmentation and degradation are key threats to the long-term persistence of carnivores, which are also susceptible to direct persecution by people. Integrating natural and social science methods to examine how habitat configuration/quality and human-predator relations may interact in space and time to effect carnivore populations within human-dominated landscapes will help prioritise conservation investment and action effectively.We propose a socioecological modelling framework to evaluate drivers of carnivore decline in landscapes where predators and people coexist...
May 2018: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780171/is-saltmarsh-restoration-success-constrained-by-matching-natural-environments-or-altered-succession-a-test-using-niche-models
#2
Martin J P Sullivan, Anthony J Davy, Alastair Grant, Hannah L Mossman
Restored habitats, such as saltmarsh created through managed realignment, sometimes fail to meet targets for biological equivalence with natural reference sites. Understanding why this happens is important in order to improve restoration outcomes.Elevation in the tidal frame and sediment redox potential are major controls on the distribution of saltmarsh plants. We use niche models to characterize 10 species' responses to these, and test whether differences in species occurrence between restored and natural saltmarshes in the UK result from failure to recreate adequate environmental conditions...
May 2018: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551835/alteration-of-plant-species-assemblages-can-decrease-the-transmission-potential-of-malaria-mosquitoes
#3
Babak Ebrahimi, Bryan T Jackson, Julie L Guseman, Colin M Przybylowicz, Christopher M Stone, Woodbridge A Foster
Knowledge of the link between a vector population's pathogen-transmission potential and its biotic environment can generate more realistic forecasts of disease risk due to environmental change. It also can promote more effective vector control by both conventional and novel means.This study assessed the effect of particular plant species assemblages differing in nectar production on components of the vectorial capacity of the mosquito Anopheles gambiae s.s. , an important vector of African malaria.We followed cohorts of mosquitoes for three weeks in greenhouse mesocosms holding nectar-poor and nectar-rich plant species by tracking daily mortalities and estimating daily biting rates and fecundities...
March 2018: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540935/weed-suppression-greatly-increased-by-plant-diversity-in-intensively-managed-grasslands-a-continental-scale-experiment
#4
John Connolly, Maria-Teresa Sebastià, Laura Kirwan, John Anthony Finn, Rosa Llurba, Matthias Suter, Rosemary P Collins, Claudio Porqueddu, Áslaug Helgadóttir, Ole H Baadshaug, Gilles Bélanger, Alistair Black, Caroline Brophy, Jure Čop, Sigridur Dalmannsdóttir, Ignacio Delgado, Anjo Elgersma, Michael Fothergill, Bodil E Frankow-Lindberg, An Ghesquiere, Piotr Golinski, Philippe Grieu, Anne-Maj Gustavsson, Mats Höglind, Olivier Huguenin-Elie, Marit Jørgensen, Zydre Kadziuliene, Tor Lunnan, Paivi Nykanen-Kurki, Angela Ribas, Friedhelm Taube, Ulrich Thumm, Alex De Vliegher, Andreas Lüscher
Grassland diversity can support sustainable intensification of grassland production through increased yields, reduced inputs and limited weed invasion. We report the effects of diversity on weed suppression from 3 years of a 31-site continental-scale field experiment.At each site, 15 grassland communities comprising four monocultures and 11 four-species mixtures based on a wide range of species' proportions were sown at two densities and managed by cutting. Forage species were selected according to two crossed functional traits, "method of nitrogen acquisition" and "pattern of temporal development"...
March 2018: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681651/flow-intermittence-and-ecosystem-services-in-rivers-of-the-anthropocene
#5
Thibault Datry, Andrew J Boulton, Núria Bonada, Ken Fritz, Catherine Leigh, Eric Sauquet, Klement Tockner, Bernard Hugueny, Clifford N Dahm
Intermittent rivers and ephemeral streams (IRES) are watercourses that cease flow at some point in time and space. Arguably Earth's most widespread type of flowing water, IRES are expanding where Anthropocenic climates grow drier and human demands for water escalate.However, IRES have attracted far less research than perennial rivers and are undervalued by society, jeopardizing their restoration or protection. Provision of ecosystem services by IRES is especially poorly understood, hindering their integration into management plans in most countries...
2018: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610540/determinants-of-pseudogymnoascus-destructans-within-bat-hibernacula-implications-for-surveillance-and-management-of-white-nose-syndrome
#6
Michelle L Verant, Elizabeth A Bohuski, Katherine L D Richgels, Kevin J Olival, Jonathan H Epstein, David S Blehert
1. Fungal diseases are an emerging global problem affecting human health, food security and biodiversity. Ability of many fungal pathogens to persist within environmental reservoirs can increase extinction risks for host species and presents challenges for disease control. Understanding factors that regulate pathogen spread and persistence in these reservoirs is critical for effective disease management. 2. White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a disease of hibernating bats caused by Pseudogymnoascus destructans ( Pd ), a fungus that establishes persistent environmental reservoirs within bat hibernacula, which contribute to seasonal disease transmission dynamics in bats...
2018: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276308/impacts-of-salvage-logging-on-biodiversity-a-meta-analysis
#7
Simon Thorn, Claus Bässler, Roland Brandl, Philip J Burton, Rebecca Cahall, John L Campbell, Jorge Castro, Chang-Yong Choi, Tyler Cobb, Daniel C Donato, Ewa Durska, Joseph B Fontaine, Sylvie Gauthier, Christian Hebert, Torsten Hothorn, Richard L Hutto, Eun-Jae Lee, Alexandro B Leverkus, David B Lindenmayer, Martin K Obrist, Josep Rost, Sebastian Seibold, Rupert Seidl, Dominik Thom, Kaysandra Waldron, Beat Wermelinger, Maria-Barbara Winter, Michal Zmihorski, Jörg Müller
Logging to "salvage" economic returns from forests affected by natural disturbances has become increasingly prevalent globally. Despite potential negative effects on biodiversity, salvage logging is often conducted, even in areas otherwise excluded from logging and reserved for nature conservation, inter alia because strategic priorities for post-disturbance management are widely lacking.A review of the existing literature revealed that most studies investigating the effects of salvage logging on biodiversity have been conducted less than 5 years following natural disturbances, and focused on non-saproxylic organisms...
January 2018: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225369/embracing-uncertainty-in-applied-ecology
#8
E J Milner-Gulland, K Shea
Applied ecologists often face uncertainty that hinders effective decision-making.Common traps that may catch the unwary are: ignoring uncertainty, acknowledging uncertainty but ploughing on, focussing on trivial uncertainties, believing your models, and unclear objectives.We integrate research insights and examples from a wide range of applied ecological fields to illustrate advances that are generally underused, but could facilitate ecologists' ability to plan and execute research to support management.Recommended approaches to avoid uncertainty traps are: embracing models, using decision theory, using models more effectively, thinking experimentally, and being realistic about uncertainty...
December 2017: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200497/sweat-bees-on-hot-chillies-provision-of-pollination-services-by-native-bees-in-traditional-slash-and-burn-agriculture-in-the-yucat%C3%A3-n-peninsula-of-tropical-mexico
#9
Patricia Landaverde-González, José Javier G Quezada-Euán, Panagiotis Theodorou, Tomás E Murray, Martin Husemann, Ricardo Ayala, Humberto Moo-Valle, Rémy Vandame, Robert J Paxton
Traditional tropical agriculture often entails a form of slash-and-burn land management that may adversely affect ecosystem services such as pollination, which are required for successful crop yields. The Yucatán Peninsula of Mexico has a >4000 year history of traditional slash-and-burn agriculture, termed 'milpa'. Hot 'Habanero' chilli is a major pollinator-dependent crop that nowadays is often grown in monoculture within the milpa system.We studied 37 local farmers' chilli fields (sites) to evaluate the effects of landscape composition on bee communities...
December 2017: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200496/a-national-scale-model-of-linear-features-improves-predictions-of-farmland-biodiversity
#10
Martin J P Sullivan, James W Pearce-Higgins, Stuart E Newson, Paul Scholefield, Tom Brereton, Tom H Oliver
Modelling species distribution and abundance is important for many conservation applications, but it is typically performed using relatively coarse-scale environmental variables such as the area of broad land-cover types. Fine-scale environmental data capturing the most biologically relevant variables have the potential to improve these models. For example, field studies have demonstrated the importance of linear features, such as hedgerows, for multiple taxa, but the absence of large-scale datasets of their extent prevents their inclusion in large-scale modelling studies...
December 2017: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104309/quantification-of-within-and-between-farm-dispersal-of-culicoides-biting-midges-using-an-immunomarking-technique
#11
Christopher J Sanders, Lara E Harrup, Laura A Tugwell, Victor A Brugman, Marion England, Simon Carpenter
Culicoides biting midges (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae) are vectors of arboviruses that cause significant economic and welfare impact. Local-scale spread of Culicoides -borne arboviruses is largely determined by the between-farm movement of infected Culicoides .Study of the dispersal behaviour of Culicoides by capture-mark-recapture (CMR) is problematic due to the likelihood of mortality and changes in behaviour upon capture caused by the small size and fragility of these insects, evidenced by low recapture rates...
October 2017: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081540/harvesting-wildlife-affected-by-climate-change-a-modelling-and-management-approach-for-polar-bears
#12
Eric V Regehr, Ryan R Wilson, Karyn D Rode, Michael C Runge, Harry L Stern
The conservation of many wildlife species requires understanding the demographic effects of climate change, including interactions between climate change and harvest, which can provide cultural, nutritional or economic value to humans.We present a demographic model that is based on the polar bear Ursus maritimus life cycle and includes density-dependent relationships linking vital rates to environmental carrying capacity ( K ). Using this model, we develop a state-dependent management framework to calculate a harvest level that (i) maintains a population above its maximum net productivity level (MNPL; the population size that produces the greatest net increment in abundance) relative to a changing K , and (ii) has a limited negative effect on population persistence...
October 2017: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081539/seasonal-variation-in-the-biocontrol-efficiency-of-bacterial-wilt-is-driven-by-temperature-mediated-changes-in-bacterial-competitive-interactions
#13
Zhong Wei, Jianfeng Huang, Tianjie Yang, Alexandre Jousset, Yangchun Xu, Qirong Shen, Ville-Petri Friman
Microbe-based biocontrol applications hold the potential to become an efficient way to control plant pathogen disease outbreaks in the future. However, their efficiency is still very variable, which could be due to their sensitivity to the abiotic environmental conditions.Here, we assessed how environmental temperature variation correlates with ability of Ralstonia pickettii , an endophytic bacterial biocontrol agent, to suppress the Ralstonia solanacearum pathogen during different tomato crop seasons in China...
October 2017: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717255/sequential-stable-isotope-analysis-reveals-differences-in-multi-year-dietary-history-of-three-sympatric-equid-species-in-sw-mongolia
#14
Martina Burnik Šturm, Oyunsaikhan Ganbaatar, Christian C Voigt, Petra Kaczensky
1. Competition among sympatric wild herbivores is reduced by different physiological, morphological, and behavioral traits resulting in different dietary niches. Wild equids are a rather uniform group of large herbivores which have dramatically declined in numbers and range. Correlative evidence suggests that pasture competition with livestock is one of the key factors for this decline, and the situation may be aggravated in areas where different equid species overlap. 2. The Dzungarian Gobi is currently the only place where two wild equid species coexist and share the range with the domesticated form of a third equid species...
August 2017: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670002/extreme-climate-events-counteract-the-effects-of-climate-and-land-use-changes-in-alpine-treelines
#15
Ceres Barros, Maya Guéguen, Rolland Douzet, Marta Carboni, Isabelle Boulangeat, Niklaus E Zimmermann, Tamara Münkemüller, Wilfried Thuiller
1. Climate change and extreme events, such as drought, threaten ecosystems worldwide and in particular mountain ecosystems, where species often live at their environmental tolerance limits. In the European Alps, plant communities are also influenced by land-use abandonment leading to woody encroachment of subalpine and alpine grasslands. 2. In this study, we explored how the forest-grassland ecotone of Alpine treelines will respond to gradual climate warming, drought events and land-use change in terms of forest expansion rates, taxonomic diversity and functional composition...
February 2017: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111479/the-impacts-of-climate-change-and-disturbance-on-spatio-temporal-trajectories-of-biodiversity-in-a-temperate-forest-landscape
#16
Dominik Thom, Werner Rammer, Thomas Dirnböck, Jörg Müller, Johannes Kobler, Klaus Katzensteiner, Norbert Helm, Rupert Seidl
1. The ongoing changes to climate challenge the conservation of forest biodiversity. Yet, in thermally limited systems, such as temperate forests, not all species groups might be affected negatively. Furthermore, simultaneous changes in the disturbance regime have the potential to mitigate climate-related impacts on forest species. Here, we (i) investigated the potential long-term effect of climate change on biodiversity in a mountain forest landscape, (ii) assessed the effects of different disturbance frequencies, severities and sizes and (iii) identified biodiversity hotspots at the landscape scale to facilitate conservation management...
February 2017: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867217/avoidance-of-wind-farms-by-harbour-seals-is-limited-to-pile-driving-activities
#17
Debbie J F Russell, Gordon D Hastie, David Thompson, Vincent M Janik, Philip S Hammond, Lindesay A S Scott-Hayward, Jason Matthiopoulos, Esther L Jones, Bernie J McConnell
As part of global efforts to reduce dependence on carbon-based energy sources there has been a rapid increase in the installation of renewable energy devices. The installation and operation of these devices can result in conflicts with wildlife. In the marine environment, mammals may avoid wind farms that are under construction or operating. Such avoidance may lead to more time spent travelling or displacement from key habitats. A paucity of data on at-sea movements of marine mammals around wind farms limits our understanding of the nature of their potential impacts...
December 2016: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867216/investigating-the-impacts-of-field-realistic-exposure-to-a-neonicotinoid-pesticide-on-bumblebee-foraging-homing-ability-and-colony-growth
#18
Dara A Stanley, Avery L Russell, Sarah J Morrison, Catherine Rogers, Nigel E Raine
The ability to forage and return home is essential to the success of bees as both foragers and pollinators. Pesticide exposure may cause behavioural changes that interfere with these processes, with consequences for colony persistence and delivery of pollination services.We investigated the impact of chronic exposure (5-43 days) to field-realistic levels of a neonicotinoid insecticide (2·4 ppb thiamethoxam) on foraging ability, homing success and colony size using radio frequency identification (RFID) technology in free-flying bumblebee colonies...
October 2016: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708457/type-of-fitness-cost-influences-the-rate-of-evolution-of-resistance-to-transgenic-bt-crops
#19
Sean C Hackett, Michael B Bonsall
The evolution of resistance to pesticides by insect pests is a significant challenge for sustainable agriculture. For transgenic crops expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), crystalline (Cry) toxins resistance evolution may be delayed by the high-dose/refuge strategy in which a non-toxic refuge is planted to promote the survival of susceptible insects. The high-dose/refuge strategy may interact with fitness costs associated with resistance alleles to further delay resistance. However, while a diverse range of fitness costs are reported in the field, they are typically represented as a fixed reduction in survival or viability which is insensitive to ecological conditions such as competition...
October 2016: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708456/the-importance-of-realistic-dispersal-models-in-conservation-planning-application-of-a-novel-modelling-platform-to-evaluate-management-scenarios-in-an-afrotropical-biodiversity-hotspot
#20
Job Aben, Greta Bocedi, Stephen C F Palmer, Petri Pellikka, Diederik Strubbe, Caspar Hallmann, Justin M J Travis, Luc Lens, Erik Matthysen
As biodiversity hotspots are often characterized by high human population densities, implementation of conservation management practices that focus only on the protection and enlargement of pristine habitats is potentially unrealistic. An alternative approach to curb species extinction risk involves improving connectivity among existing habitat patches. However, evaluation of spatially explicit management strategies is challenging, as predictive models must account for the process of dispersal, which is difficult in terms of both empirical data collection and modelling...
August 2016: Journal of Applied Ecology
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