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Journal of Applied Ecology

Sean C Hackett, Michael B Bonsall
The evolution of resistance to pesticides by insect pests is a significant challenge for sustainable agriculture. For transgenic crops expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), crystalline (Cry) toxins resistance evolution may be delayed by the high-dose/refuge strategy in which a non-toxic refuge is planted to promote the survival of susceptible insects. The high-dose/refuge strategy may interact with fitness costs associated with resistance alleles to further delay resistance. However, while a diverse range of fitness costs are reported in the field, they are typically represented as a fixed reduction in survival or viability which is insensitive to ecological conditions such as competition...
October 2016: Journal of Applied Ecology
Job Aben, Greta Bocedi, Stephen C F Palmer, Petri Pellikka, Diederik Strubbe, Caspar Hallmann, Justin M J Travis, Luc Lens, Erik Matthysen
As biodiversity hotspots are often characterized by high human population densities, implementation of conservation management practices that focus only on the protection and enlargement of pristine habitats is potentially unrealistic. An alternative approach to curb species extinction risk involves improving connectivity among existing habitat patches. However, evaluation of spatially explicit management strategies is challenging, as predictive models must account for the process of dispersal, which is difficult in terms of both empirical data collection and modelling...
August 2016: Journal of Applied Ecology
Daniel G Streicker, Jacob E Allgeier
In Latin America, the common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus is the primary reservoir of rabies, a zoonotic virus that kills thousands of livestock annually and causes sporadic and lethal human rabies outbreaks. The proliferation of livestock provides an abundant food resource for this obligate blood-feeding species that could alter its foraging behaviour and rabies transmission, but poor understanding of the dietary plasticity of vampire bats limits understanding of how livestock influences rabies risk.We analysed individual- and population-level foraging behaviour by applying δ(13)C and δ(15)N stable isotope analysis to hair samples from 183 vampire bats captured from nine colonies in Peru...
August 2016: Journal of Applied Ecology
Katherine A Orford, Phil J Murray, Ian P Vaughan, Jane Memmott
Grassland for livestock production is a major form of land use throughout Europe and its intensive management threatens biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in agricultural landscapes. Modest increases to conventional grassland biodiversity could have considerable positive impacts on the provision of ecosystem services, such as pollination, to surrounding habitats.Using a field-scale experiment in which grassland seed mixes and sward management were manipulated, complemented by surveys on working farms and phytometer experiments, the impact of conventional grassland diversity and management on the functional diversity and ecosystem service provision of pollinator communities were investigated...
June 2016: Journal of Applied Ecology
Owen Greenwood, Hannah L Mossman, Andrew J Suggitt, Robin J Curtis, Ilya M D Maclean
Successful conservation will increasingly depend on our ability to help species cope with climate change. While there has been much attention on accommodating or assisting range shifts, less has been given to the alternative strategy of helping species survive climate change through in situ management.Here we provide a synthesis of published evidence examining whether habitat management can be used to offset the adverse impacts on biodiversity of changes in temperature, water availability and sea-level rise...
June 2016: Journal of Applied Ecology
Julann A Spromberg, David H Baldwin, Steven E Damm, Jenifer K McIntyre, Michael Huff, Catherine A Sloan, Bernadita F Anulacion, Jay W Davis, Nathaniel L Scholz
Adult coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch return each autumn to freshwater spawning habitats throughout western North America. The migration coincides with increasing seasonal rainfall, which in turn increases storm water run-off, particularly in urban watersheds with extensive impervious land cover. Previous field assessments in urban stream networks have shown that adult coho are dying prematurely at high rates (>50%). Despite significant management concerns for the long-term conservation of threatened wild coho populations, a causal role for toxic run-off in the mortality syndrome has not been demonstrated...
April 2016: Journal of Applied Ecology
Natalie Z Kerr, Peter W J Baxter, Roberto Salguero-Gómez, Glenda M Wardle, Yvonne M Buckley
Management of invasive populations is typically investigated case-by-case. Comparative approaches have been applied to single aspects of management, such as demography, with cost or efficacy rarely incorporated.We present an analysis of the ranks of management actions for 14 species in five countries that extends beyond the use of demography alone to include multiple metrics for ranking management actions, which integrate cost, efficacy and demography (cost-effectiveness) and managers' expert opinion of ranks...
April 2016: Journal of Applied Ecology
Jennifer A H Koop, Peter S Kim, Sarah A Knutie, Fred Adler, Dale H Clayton
Introduced pathogens and other parasites are often implicated in host population level declines and extinctions. However, such claims are rarely supported by rigorous real-time data. Indeed, the threat of introduced parasites often goes unnoticed until after host populations have declined severely. The recent introduction of the parasitic nest fly, Philornis downsi, to the Galápagos Islands provides an opportunity to monitor the current impact of an invasive parasite on endemic land bird populations, including Darwin's finches...
April 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Ecology
Chloe J Hardman, Dominic P G Harrison, Pete J Shaw, Tim D Nevard, Brin Hughes, Simon G Potts, Ken Norris
Restoration and maintenance of habitat diversity have been suggested as conservation priorities in farmed landscapes, but how this should be achieved and at what scale are unclear. This study makes a novel comparison of the effectiveness of three wildlife-friendly farming schemes for supporting local habitat diversity and species richness on 12 farms in England.The schemes were: (i) Conservation Grade (Conservation Grade: a prescriptive, non-organic, biodiversity-focused scheme), (ii) organic agriculture and (iii) a baseline of Entry Level Stewardship (Entry Level Stewardship: a flexible widespread government scheme)...
February 2016: Journal of Applied Ecology
Paul O'Donoghue, Christian Rutz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2016: Journal of Applied Ecology
Rupert Seidl, Thomas A Spies, David L Peterson, Scott L Stephens, Jeffrey A Hicke
1. The provisioning of ecosystem services to society is increasingly under pressure from global change. Changing disturbance regimes are of particular concern in this context due to their high potential impact on ecosystem structure, function and composition. Resilience-based stewardship is advocated to address these changes in ecosystem management, but its operational implementation has remained challenging. 2. We review observed and expected changes in disturbance regimes and their potential impacts on provisioning, regulating, cultural and supporting ecosystem services, concentrating on temperate and boreal forests...
February 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Ecology
Atte Moilanen, Jussi Laitila
Biodiversity offsetting has quickly gained political support all around the world. Avoided loss (averted risk) offsetting means compensation for ecological damage via averted loss of anticipated impacts through the removal of threatening processes in compensation areas.Leakage means the phenomenon of environmentally damaging activity relocating elsewhere after being stopped locally by avoided loss offsetting. Indirect leakage means that locally avoided losses displace to other administrative areas or spread around diffusely via market effects...
February 2016: Journal of Applied Ecology
Peter S Coates, Michael L Casazza, Mark A Ricca, Brianne E Brussee, Erik J Blomberg, K Benjamin Gustafson, Cory T Overton, Dawn M Davis, Lara E Niell, Shawn P Espinosa, Scott C Gardner, David J Delehanty
Predictive species distributional models are a cornerstone of wildlife conservation planning. Constructing such models requires robust underpinning science that integrates formerly disparate data types to achieve effective species management.Greater sage-grouse Centrocercus urophasianus, hereafter 'sage-grouse' populations are declining throughout sagebrush-steppe ecosystems in North America, particularly within the Great Basin, which heightens the need for novel management tools that maximize the use of available information...
February 2016: Journal of Applied Ecology
Angela Brennan, Paul C Cross, Scott Creel
Animal group size distributions are often right-skewed, whereby most groups are small, but most individuals occur in larger groups that may also disproportionately affect ecology and policy. In this case, examining covariates associated with upper quantiles of the group size distribution could facilitate better understanding and management of large animal groups.We studied wintering elk groups in Wyoming, where group sizes span several orders of magnitude, and issues of disease, predation and property damage are affected by larger group sizes...
December 2015: Journal of Applied Ecology
Richard A Griffiths, Jim Foster, John W Wilkinson, David Sewell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2015: Journal of Applied Ecology
Adriana De Palma, Michael Kuhlmann, Stuart P M Roberts, Simon G Potts, Luca Börger, Lawrence N Hudson, Igor Lysenko, Tim Newbold, Andy Purvis
Bees are a functionally important and economically valuable group, but are threatened by land-use conversion and intensification. Such pressures are not expected to affect all species identically; rather, they are likely to be mediated by the species' ecological traits.Understanding which types of species are most vulnerable under which land uses is an important step towards effective conservation planning.We collated occurrence and abundance data for 257 bee species at 1584 European sites from surveys reported in 30 published papers (70 056 records) and combined them with species-level ecological trait data...
December 2015: Journal of Applied Ecology
R L Heinig, Krijn P Paaijmans, Penelope A Hancock, Matthew B Thomas
The effectiveness of conventional malaria vector control is being threatened by the spread of insecticide resistance. One promising alternative to chemicals is the use of naturally-occurring insect-killing fungi. Numerous laboratory studies have shown that isolates of fungal pathogens such as Beauveria bassiana can infect and kill adult mosquitoes, including those resistant to chemical insecticides.Unlike chemical insecticides, fungi may take up to a week or more to kill mosquitoes following exposure. This slow kill speed can still reduce malaria transmission because the malaria parasite itself takes at least eight days to complete its development within the mosquito...
December 1, 2015: Journal of Applied Ecology
Rupert Seidl, Jörg Müller, Torsten Hothorn, Claus Bässler, Marco Heurich, Markus Kautz
1. Unprecedented bark beetle outbreaks have been observed for a variety of forest ecosystems recently, and damage is expected to further intensify as a consequence of climate change. In Central Europe, the response of ecosystem management to increasing infestation risk has hitherto focused largely on the stand level, while the contingency of outbreak dynamics on large-scale drivers remains poorly understood. 2. To investigate how factors beyond the local scale contribute to the infestation risk from Ips typographus (Col...
October 14, 2015: Journal of Applied Ecology
Nicola McHugh, Jill L Edmondson, Kevin J Gaston, Jonathan R Leake, Odhran S O'Sullivan
The capacity of urban areas to deliver provisioning ecosystem services is commonly overlooked and underutilized. Urban populations have globally increased fivefold since 1950, and they disproportionately consume ecosystem services and contribute to carbon emissions, highlighting the need to increase urban sustainability and reduce environmental impacts of urban dwellers. Here, we investigated the potential for increasing carbon sequestration, and biomass fuel production, by planting trees and short-rotation coppice (SRC), respectively, in a mid-sized UK city as a contribution to meeting national commitments to reduce CO 2 emissions...
October 2015: Journal of Applied Ecology
Andrea Santangeli, Beatriz Arroyo, Alexandre Millon, Vincent Bretagnolle
1. Modern farming practices threaten wildlife in different ways, and failure to identify the complexity of multiple threats acting in synergy may result in ineffective management. To protect ground-nesting birds in farmland, monitoring and mitigating impacts of mechanical harvesting is crucial. 2. Here, we use 6 years of data from a nationwide volunteer-based monitoring scheme of the Montagu's harrier, a ground-nesting raptor, in French farmlands. We assess the effectiveness of alternative nest protection measures and map their potential benefit to the species...
August 2015: Journal of Applied Ecology
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