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Nutrition Today

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795585/the-gut-microbiome-and-its-role-in-obesity
#1
Cindy D Davis
The human body is host to a vast number of microbes, including bacterial, fungal and protozoal microoganisms, which together constitute our microbiota. Evidence is emerging that the intestinal microbiome is intrinsically linked with overall health, including obesity risk. Obesity and obesity-related metabolic disorders are characterized by specific alterations in the composition and function of the human gut microbiome. Mechanistic studies have indicated that the gastrointestinal microbiota can influence both sides of the energy balance equation; namely, as a factor influencing energy utilization from the diet and as a factor that influences host genes that regulate energy expenditure and storage...
July 2016: Nutrition Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773946/the-hospital-community-benefit-program-implications-for-food-and-nutrition-professionals
#2
Sheila Fleischhacker, Gowri Ramachandran
This article briefly explains the food and nutrition implications of the new standards, tax penalties and reporting requirements for non-profit hospitals and healthcare systems to maintain a tax-exempt or charitable status under section 501(c)(3) of the Federal Internal Revenue Code set forth in The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (P.L. 111-148, Sec. 9007). The newly created 501(r) of the Internal Revenue Code requires, beginning with the first tax year on or after March 23, 2012, that such hospitals demonstrate community benefit by conducting a community health needs assessment (CHNA) at least once every three years and annually file information by means of a Schedule H (Form 990) regarding progress towards addressing identified needs...
July 2016: Nutrition Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27340302/pistachios-for-health-what-do-we-know-about-this-multifaceted-nut
#3
Pablo Hernández-Alonso, Mònica Bulló, Jordi Salas-Salvadó
Human beings have known about pistachio nuts since 6000 bc. Since then, pistachios have been systematically incorporated into the diet of various cultures. They are nutrient-dense nuts with a healthy nutritional profile that contains fiber, unsaturated fatty acids and antioxidant compounds.
May 2016: Nutrition Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27340301/defining-protein-foods
#4
Julie Hess, Joanne Slavin
Changing the name of the "protein foods" group on the US Department of Agriculture's visual food guide, MyPlate, back to the "meat & beans" group would provide important clarification regarding US Department of Agriculture recommendations for a balanced diet. Previous iterations of the food guide named the protein group after its constituent foods (ie, the "meat & beans" group on the 2005 MyPyramid), and the reasons for renaming the entire group with MyPlate are unclear. The exclusion of dairy foods from the "protein foods" group of the 2010 MyPlate illustrates the shortcomings of this group's name...
May 2016: Nutrition Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27003950/historical-overview-of-transitional-feeding-recommendations-and-vegetable-feeding-practices-for-infants-and-young-children
#5
Ronald E Kleinman, Frances A Coletta
Although recommendations for introducing solid foods to infants and young children have changed significantly since the beginning of the 20th century, vegetable consumption recommendations have always been an important part of the child-feeding repertoire. In 1958, the first report of the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) Committee on Nutrition stated that developmental maturity of the gut and neuromuscular system, growth rate, and activity level were good indicators for determining when to introduce solid foods to infants than age...
January 2016: Nutrition Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26941468/is-vitamin-d-inadequacy-in-early-life-an-instance-of-the-barker-hypothesis
#6
Robert P Heaney
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Nutrition Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26823624/use-of-highly-fortified-products-among-us-adults
#7
Rebecca B Costello, Johanna T Dwyer, Regan L Bailey, Leila Saldanha, Steven French
It is complicated to ascertain the composition and prevalence of the use of highly fortified food and supplement products (HFPs) because HFP foods and HFP supplements have different labeling requirements. However, HFPs (energy bars, energy drinks, sports drinks, protein bars, energy shots, and fortified foods/beverages) are popular in the United States. A web-based survey balanced to reflect US census data was used to describe their use in a sample of 2,355 US adults >18 yr in 2011 and trends in their use from 2005...
November 2015: Nutrition Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26663955/systematic-review-of-pears-and-health
#8
Holly Reiland, Joanne Slavin
Fruit consumption is universally promoted, yet consumption of fruit remains low in the United States. We conducted a systematic review on pear consumption and health outcomes searching both PubMed and Agricola from 1970 to present. The genus Pyrus L. consists of species of pears cultivated in Europe, parts of Asia, South America, and North America. Like most fruit, pears are concentrated in water and sugar. Pears are high in dietary fiber, containing 6 g per serving. Pears, similar to apples, are concentrated in fructose, and the high fiber and fructose in pears probably explain the laxative properties...
November 2015: Nutrition Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26663954/perceptions-of-a-healthy-diet-insights-from-a-3-country-survey
#9
Regan L Bailey, Nigel Denby, Bryan Haycock, Katherine Sherif, Suzanne Steinbaum, Clemens von Schacky
Limited data exist on consumer beliefs and practices on the role of omega-3 fatty acid and vitamin D dietary supplements and health. For this reason, the Global Health and Nutrition Alliance conducted an online survey in 3 countries (n = 3030; United States = 1022, Germany = 1002, United Kingdom = 1006) of a convenience sample of adults (aged 18-66 years) who represented the age, gender, and geographic composition within each country. More than half of the sample (52%) believed they consume all the key nutrients needed for optimal nutrition through food sources alone; fewer women (48%) than men (57%), and fewer middle-aged adults (48%) than younger (18-34 years [56%]) and older (≥55 years [54%]) adults agreed an optimal diet could be achieved through diet alone...
November 2015: Nutrition Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26594063/desire-resistance-and-desire-reduction-in-public-health-approaches-to-obesity
#10
Gareth R Dutton, Kevin R Fontaine, David B Allison
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2015: Nutrition Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27340300/raw-milk-consumption-risks-and-benefits
#11
John A Lucey
There continues to be considerable public debate on the possible benefits regarding the growing popularity of the consumption of raw milk. However, there are significant concerns by regulatory, or public health, organizations like the Food and Drug Administration and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention because of risk of contracting milkborne illnesses if the raw milk is contaminated with human pathogens. This review describes why pasteurization of milk was introduced more than 100 years ago, how pasteurization helped to reduce the incidence of illnesses associated with raw milk consumption, and the prevalence of pathogens in raw milk...
July 2015: Nutrition Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27471327/stevia-nature-s-zero-calorie-sustainable-sweetener-a-new-player-in-the-fight-against-obesity
#12
Margaret Ashwell
Stevia is a plant native to South America that has been used as a sweetener for hundreds of years. Today, zero-calorie stevia, as high-purity stevia leaf extract, is being used globally to reduce energy and added sugar content in foods and beverages. This article introduces stevia, explaining its sustainable production, metabolism in the body, safety assessment, and use in foods and drinks to assist with energy reduction. The article also summarizes current thinking of the evidence for the role of nonnutritive sweeteners in energy reduction...
May 2015: Nutrition Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27340299/body-mass-index-obesity-bmi-and-health-a-critical-review
#13
Frank Q Nuttall
The body mass index (BMI) is the metric currently in use for defining anthropometric height/weight characteristics in adults and for classifying (categorizing) them into groups. The common interpretation is that it represents an index of an individual's fatness. It also is widely used as a risk factor for the development of or the prevalence of several health issues. In addition, it is widely used in determining public health policies.The BMI has been useful in population-based studies by virtue of its wide acceptance in defining specific categories of body mass as a health issue...
May 2015: Nutrition Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26028778/commentary-on-making-sense-of-the-science-of-sodium
#14
Cheryl A M Anderson, Rachel K Johnson, Penny M Kris-Etherton, Emily Ann Miller
Sodium reduction is an important component of a healthy dietary pattern to reduce cardiovascular disease risk. Numerous authoritative scientific bodies and professional health organizations have issued population sodium intake recommendations, all of which are at least 1000 mg/d lower than the current average American sodium intake of nearly 3500 mg/d. Recent research has called these recommendations into question, but a number of methodological issues may account for the inconsistency of results in observational studies examining the relationship between sodium intake and health outcomes...
March 2015: Nutrition Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25972619/evidence-based-approach-to-fiber-supplements-and-clinically-meaningful-health-benefits-part-2-what-to-look-for-and-how-to-recommend-an-effective-fiber-therapy
#15
Johnson W McRorie
Dietary fiber that is intrinsic and intact in fiber-rich foods (eg, fruits, vegetables, legumes, whole grains) is widely recognized to have beneficial effects on health when consumed at recommended levels (25 g/d for adult women, 38 g/d for adult men). Most (90%) of the US population does not consume this level of dietary fiber, averaging only 15 g/d. In an attempt to bridge this "fiber gap," many consumers are turning to fiber supplements, which are typically isolated from a single source. Fiber supplements cannot be presumed to provide the health benefits that are associated with dietary fiber from whole foods...
March 2015: Nutrition Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25972618/evidence-based-approach-to-fiber-supplements-and-clinically-meaningful-health-benefits-part-1-what-to-look-for-and-how-to-recommend-an-effective-fiber-therapy
#16
Johnson W McRorie
Dietary fiber that is intrinsic and intact in fiber-rich foods (eg, fruits, vegetables, legumes, whole grains) is widely recognized to have beneficial effects on health when consumed at recommended levels (25 g/d for adult women, 38 g/d for adult men). Most (90%) of the US population does not consume this level of dietary fiber, averaging only 15 g/d. In an attempt to bridge this "fiber gap," many consumers are turning to fiber supplements, which are typically isolated from a single source. Fiber supplements cannot be presumed to provide the health benefits that are associated with dietary fiber from whole foods...
March 2015: Nutrition Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25972617/making-sense-of-the-science-of-sodium
#17
Robert P Heaney
Despite the Institute of Medicine's commitment to base its nutrient intake recommendations in evidence, the 2004/2005 Dietary Reference Intakes for sodium were not supported by evidence, as the subsequent 2013 Institute of Medicine review admitted. In this review, I suggest an approach to setting nutrient intake requirements based in physiology. Briefly, the requirement of a given nutrient can best be said to be the intake that calls for the least adaptation or compensation by the intact organism. For sodium, evidence indicates that such an intake is typically between 3000 and 5000 mg/d...
March 2015: Nutrition Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26549893/food-based-complementary-feeding-strategies-for-breastfed-infants-what-s-the-evidence-that-it-matters
#18
Nancy F Krebs
The period of complementary feeding represents a major portion of the 1000 day critical window and thus impacts a period of substantial and dynamic infant development. This review highlights and synthesizes findings of several recent studies conducted to evaluate food based strategies on outcomes related to micronutrient status, growth and neurocognitive development. Particular emphasis is placed on interventions using meat or fortified products to impact iron and zinc intakes, due to the dependence of breastfed infants on complementary food choices to meet requirements for these two critical micronutrients...
November 2014: Nutrition Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25435595/mushrooms-biologically-distinct-and-nutritionally-unique-exploring-a-third-food-kingdom
#19
Mary Jo Feeney, Amy Myrdal Miller, Peter Roupas
Mushrooms are fungi, biologically distinct from plant- and animal-derived foods (fruits, vegetables, grains, dairy, protein [meat, fish, poultry, legumes, nuts, and seeds]) that comprise the US Department of Agriculture food patterns operationalized by consumer-focused MyPlate messages. Although mushrooms provide nutrients found in these food groups, they also have a unique nutrient profile. Classified into food grouping systems by their use as a vegetable, mushrooms' increasing use in main entrées in plant-based diets is growing, supporting consumers' efforts to follow dietary guidance recommendations...
November 2014: Nutrition Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26594062/can-food-processing-enhance-cancer-protection
#20
John W Erdman, Elizabeth Jeffery, Marc Hendrickx, Amanda J Cross, Johanna W Lampe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2014: Nutrition Today
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