journal
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Journal of Cell Science

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325759/predicting-the-targeting-of-tail-anchored-proteins-to-subcellular-compartments-in-mammalian-cells
#1
Joseph L Costello, Inês G Castro, Fátima Camões, Tina A Schrader, Doug McNeall, Jing Yang, Evdokia-Anastasia Giannopoulou, Sílvia Gomes, Vivian Pogenberg, Nina A Bonekamp, Daniela Ribeiro, Matthias Wilmanns, Gregory Jedd, Markus Islinger, Michael Schrader
Tail-anchored (TA) proteins contain a single transmembrane domain (TMD) at the C-terminus which anchors them to the membranes of organelles where they mediate critical cellular processes. Accordingly, mutations in genes encoding TA proteins have been identified in a number of severe inherited disorders. Despite the importance of correctly targeting a TA protein to its appropriate membrane, the mechanisms and signals involved are not fully understood. In this study we identify additional peroxisomal TA proteins, discover more proteins which are shared by multiple organelles and reveal that a combination of TMD hydrophobicity and tail charge determines targeting to distinct organelle locations in mammals...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325758/the-tubulin-code-at-a-glance
#2
REVIEW
Sudarshan Gadadhar, Satish Bodakuntla, Kathiresan Natarajan, Carsten Janke
Microtubules are key cytoskeletal elements of all eukaryotic cells and are assembled of evolutionarily conserved α-tubulin-β-tubulin heterodimers. Despite their uniform structure, microtubules fulfill a large diversity of functions. A regulatory mechanism to control the specialization of the microtubule cytoskeleton is the 'tubulin code', which is generated by (i) expression of different α- and β-tubulin isotypes, and by (ii) post-translational modifications of tubulin. In this Cell Science at a Glance article and the accompanying poster, we provide a comprehensive overview of the molecular components of the tubulin code, and discuss the mechanisms by which these components contribute to the generation of functionally specialized microtubules...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320822/characterization-of-e3-ligases-involved-in-lysosomal-sorting-of-the-hiv-1-restriction-factor-bst2
#3
Nicolas Roy, Grégory Pacini, Clarisse Berlioz-Torrent, Katy Janvier
The cellular protein BST2/ Tetherin acts as a major intrinsic antiviral protein that prevents the release of enveloped viruses by trapping nascent viral particles at the surface of infected cells. Viruses have evolved specific strategies to displace BST2 from viral budding sites in order to promote virus egress. In HIV-1, the accessory protein Vpu counters BST2 antiviral activity and promotes sorting of BST2 for lysosomal degradation. Vpu increases poly-ubiquitination of BST2 through recruitment of the E3 ligase complex SCF adaptor β-TrCP, a post translation modification required for Vpu-induced BST2 down-regulation...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320821/pavement-cell-chloroplast-behaviour-and-interactions-with-other-organelles-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#4
Kiah A Barton, Michael R Wozny, Neeta Mathur, Erica-Ashley Jaipargas, Jaideep Mathur
Chloroplasts are a characteristic feature of green plants. Mesophyll cells possess the majority of chloroplasts and it is widely believed that with the exception of guard cells, the epidermal layer in most higher plants does not contain chloroplasts. However, recent observations on Arabidopsis have shown a population of chloroplasts in pavement cells that are smaller than mesophyll chloroplasts and have a high stroma to grana ratio. Here using stable transgenic lines expressing fluorescent proteins targeted to the plastid stroma, plasma membrane, endoplasmic reticulum, tonoplast, nucleus, mitochondria, peroxisomes, F-actin and microtubules we characterize the spatiotemporal relationships between the pavement cell chloroplasts (PCC) and their subcellular environment...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302912/intraflagellar-transport-protein-ift52-recruits-ift46-to-the-basal-body-and-flagella
#5
Bo Lv, Lei Wan, Michael Taschner, Xi Cheng, Esben Lorentzen, Kaiyao Huang
Cilia are microtubule based organelles and perform motile, sensing and signaling functions. The assembly and maintenance of cilia depend on intraflagellar transport. Besides ciliary localization, most IFT proteins accumulate at basal bodies. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism of basal body targeting of IFT proteins. We first identified the possible basal body targeting sequence of IFT46 by expressing IFT46 truncations in ift46-1 mutant. The C-terminal sequence 246-321 aa, termed BBTS3, was sufficient to target YFPs to basal bodies in ift46-1 Interestingly, BBTS3 is also responsible for the ciliary targeting of IFT46...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302911/real-time-insights-into-regulated-exocytosis
#6
REVIEW
Duy T Tran, Kelly G Ten Hagen
Real-time imaging of regulated exocytosis in secreting organs can provide unprecedented temporal and spatial detail. Here, we highlight recent advances in 3D time-lapse imaging in Drosophila salivary glands at single-granule resolution. Using fluorescently labeled proteins expressed in the fly, it is now possible to image the dynamics of vesicle biogenesis and the cytoskeletal factors involved in secretion. 3D imaging over time allows one to visualize and define the temporal sequence of events, including clearance of cortical actin, fusion pore formation, mixing of the vesicular and plasma membranes and recruitment of components of the cytoskeleton...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302910/new-insights-into-autophagosome-lysosome-fusion
#7
REVIEW
Shuhei Nakamura, Tamotsu Yoshimori
Macroautophagy (autophagy) is a highly conserved intracellular degradation system that is essential for homeostasis in eukaryotic cells. Due to the wide variety of the cytoplasmic targets of autophagy, its dysregulation is associated with many diseases in humans, such as neurodegenerative diseases, heart disease and cancer. During autophagy, cytoplasmic materials are sequestered by the autophagosome - a double-membraned structure - and transported to the lysosome for digestion. The specific stages of autophagy are induction, formation of the isolation membrane (phagophore), formation and maturation of the autophagosome and, finally, fusion with a late endosome or lysosome...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302909/ppn2-a-novel-zn-2-dependent-polyphosphatase-in-the-acidocalcisome-like-yeast-vacuole
#8
Rūta Gerasimaitė, Andreas Mayer
Acidocalcisome-like organelles are found in all kingdoms of life. Many of their functions, such as the accumulation and storage of metal ions, nitrogen and phosphate, the activation of blood clotting and inflammation, depend on the controlled synthesis and turnover of polyphosphate (polyP), a polymer of inorganic phosphate linked by phosphoric anhydride bonds. The exploration of the role of acidocalcisomes in metabolism and physiology requires manipulation of polyP turnover, yet the complete set of proteins responsible for this turnover is unknown...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302908/tubulin-isotype-substitution-revealed-that-isotype-composition-modulates-microtubule-dynamics-in-c-elegans-embryos
#9
Yu Honda, Kenta Tsuchiya, Eisuke Sumiyoshi, Nami Haruta, Asako Sugimoto
Microtubules (MTs) are polymers composed of α- and β-tubulin heterodimers, which are generally encoded by multiple gene loci. Despite implications of distinct properties of isotypes, how they contribute to diverse MT dynamics in vivo remains unclear. Here, using genome editing and RNAi depletion of tubulin isotypes, we demonstrate that four tubulin isotypes (hereafter α1, α2, β1 and β2) cooperatively confer distinct MT properties in Caenorhabditis elegans early embryos. GFP insertion into each isotype locus reveals their distinct expression levels and MT incorporation rates...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302907/skip-controls-lysosome-positioning-using-a-composite-kinesin-1-heavy-and-light-chain-binding-domain
#10
Anneri Sanger, Yan Y Yip, Thomas S Randall, Stefano Pernigo, Roberto A Steiner, Mark P Dodding
The molecular interplay between cargo recognition and regulation of the activity of the kinesin-1 microtubule motor is not well understood. Using the lysosome adaptor SKIP as model cargo, we show that the heavy chains (KHCs), in addition to the light chains (KLCs), can recognize tryptophan-acidic binding determinants on the cargo when presented in the context of an extended KHC interacting domain. Mutational separation of KHC and KLC binding shows that both interactions are important for SKIP-kinesin-1 interaction in vitro and that KHC binding is important for lysosome transport in vivo...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302906/distinct-focal-adhesion-protein-modules-control-different-aspects-of-mechanotransduction
#11
Ben Stutchbury, Paul Atherton, Ricky Tsang, De-Yao Wang, Christoph Ballestrem
Focal adhesions (FAs) are macromolecular complexes that regulate cell adhesion and mechanotransduction. Using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and fluorescence loss after photoactivation (FLAP), we found that the mobility of core FA proteins correlates with protein function. Structural proteins such as tensin, talin and vinculin are significantly less mobile in FAs than signaling proteins such as FAK and paxillin. The mobilities of the structural proteins are directly influenced by substrate stiffness, suggesting they are involved in sensing the rigidity of the extracellular environment...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302905/protein-kinase-a-regulates-the-ras-rap1-and-torc2-pathways-in-response-to-the-chemoattractant-camp-in-dictyostelium
#12
Margarethakay Scavello, Alexandra R Petlick, Ramya Ramesh, Valery F Thompson, Pouya Lotfi, Pascale G Charest
Efficient directed migration requires tight regulation of chemoattractant signal transduction pathways in both space and time, but the mechanisms involved in such regulation are not well understood. Here, we investigated the role of Protein Kinase A (PKA) in controlling signaling of the chemoattractant cAMP in Dictyostelium We found that cells lacking PKA display severe chemotaxis defects, including impaired directional sensing. Although PKA is an important regulator of developmental gene expression, including the cAMP receptor cAR1, our studies using exogenously expressed cAR1 in cells lacking PKA, cells lacking adenylyl cyclase A (ACA), and cells treated with the PKA-selective pharmacological inhibitor H89, suggest that PKA controls chemoattractant signal transduction, in part, through the regulation of RasG, Rap1, and TORC2...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302904/pharmacological-inhibition-of-the-spliceosome-subunit-sf3b-triggers-ejc-independent-nmd
#13
Teresa Carvalho, Sandra Martins, José Rino, Sérgio Marinho, Maria Carmo-Fonseca
Spliceostatin A, meayamycin, and pladienolide B are small molecules that target the SF3b subunit of spliceosomal U2 snRNP. These compounds are attracting much attention as tools to manipulate splicing and potential anti-cancer drugs. We investigated the effects of these inhibitors on mRNA transport and stability in human cells. Upon splicing inhibition unspliced pre-mRNAs accumulated in the nucleus, particularly within enlarged nuclear speckles. Yet, a small fraction of the pre-mRNA molecules were exported to the cytoplasm...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289267/dual-role-of-pericyte-%C3%AE-6%C3%AE-1-integrin-in-tumour-blood-vessels
#14
Louise E Reynolds, Gabriela D'Amico, Tanguy Lechertier, Alexandros Papachristodoulou, José M Muñoz-Félix, Adèle De Arcangelis, Marianne Baker, Bryan Serrels, Kairbaan M Hodivala-Dilke
The integrin α6β1 is a major laminin receptor, and formation of a laminin-rich basement membrane is a key feature in tumour blood vessel stabilisation and pericyte recruitment; processes that are important in the growth and maturation of tumour blood vessels. However, the role of pericyte α6β1-integrin in angiogenesis is largely unknown. We developed mice where the α6-integrin subunit is deleted in pericytes and examined tumour angiogenesis and growth. These mice had: i) reduced pericyte coverage of tumour blood vessels; ii) reduced tumour blood vessel stability; iii) increased blood vessel diameter; iv) enhanced leakiness and, v) abnormal blood vessel basement membrane architecture...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289266/wnts-synergize-to-activate-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling
#15
Anshula Alok, Zhengdeng Lei, N Suhas Jagannathan, Simran Kaur, Steven G Rozen, Lisa Tucker-Kellogg, David M Virshup
Wnt ligands regulate diverse signaling pathways during development, maintenance of tissue homeostasis, and in various disease states. While signaling regulated by individual Wnts has been extensively studied, Wnts are rarely expressed alone, and the consequences of Wnt gene co-expression are not well understood. We studied the effect of co-expression of Wnts on the β-catenin signaling pathway. While some Wnts are deemed 'non-canonical' due to their limited ability to activate β-catenin when expressed alone, unexpectedly, we find that multiple Wnt combinations can synergistically activate β-catenin signaling in multiple cell types...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283545/macroh2a-histone-variants-maintain-nuclear-organization-and-heterochromatin-architecture
#16
Julien Douet, David Corujo, Roberto Malinverni, Justine Renauld, Viola Sansoni, Melanija Posavec Marjanović, Neus Cantari'o, Vanesa Valero, Fabien Mongelard, Philippe Bouvet, Axel Imhof, Marc Thiry, Marcus Buschbeck
Genetic loss-of-function studies in development, cancer and somatic cell reprogramming have suggested that the group of macroH2A histone variants might function through stabilizing the differentiated state by a yet unknown mechanism. Here, we present results demonstrating that macroH2A variants have a major function in maintaining nuclear organization and heterochromatin architecture. Specifically, we find that a substantial amount of macroH2A is associated with heterochromatic repeat sequences. We further identify macroH2A on sites of interstitial heterochromatin decorated by H3K9me3...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264927/missing-in-metastasis-protein-downregulates-cxcr4-by-promoting-ubiquitination-and-interaction-with-small-rab-gtpases
#17
Lushen Li, Shaneen S Baxter, Ning Gu, Min Ji, Xi Zhan
Surface expression of chemokine receptor CXCR4 is downregulated by MIM, a member of the inverse BAR (I-BAR) domain protein family that recognizes and generates membranes with negative curvatures. Yet, the mechanism for the regulation is unknown. Here, we showed that MIM formed a complex with CXCR4 via binding to E3 ubiquitin ligase AIP4 in response to SDF-1. Overexpression of MIM promoted CXCR4 ubiquitination, inhibited cellular response to SDF-1, caused accumulation and aggregation of MVBs in the cytoplasm, and promoted CXCR4 sorting into MVBs in a manner depending on binding to AIP4...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264926/proline-dehydrogenase-promotes-senescence-through-the-generation-of-reactive-oxygen-species
#18
Taiki Nagano, Akio Nakashima, Kengo Onishi, Kosuke Kawai, Yuto Awai, Mizuki Kinugasa, Tetsushi Iwasaki, Ushio Kikkawa, Shinji Kamada
Cellular senescence is a complex stress response characterized by permanent loss of proliferative capacity and is implicated in age-related disorders. Although the transcriptional activity of p53 is known to be vital for senescence induction, the downstream effector genes critical for senescence remain unsolved. Recently, we have identified Proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) to be upregulated specifically in senescent cells in a p53-dependent manner, whose functional relevance to senescence is yet to be defined...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264925/plant-i-aaa-protease-controls-the-turnover-of-the-essential-mitochondrial-protein-import-component
#19
Magdalena Opalińska, Katarzyna Parys, Monika W Murcha, Hanna Jańska
Mitochondria are multifunctional organelles that play a central role in energy metabolism. Due to life-essential functions of these organelles, mitochondrial content, quality, and dynamics are tightly controlled. Across the species, highly conserved ATP - dependent proteases prevent malfunction of mitochondria through versatile activities. This study focuses on a molecular function of plant mitochondrial inner membrane-embedded i - AAA protease, FTSH4, providing its first bona fide substrate. Here, we report that the abundance of Tim17-2 protein, the essential component of the TIM17:23 translocase, is directly controlled by the proteolytic activity of FTSH4...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254886/tex19-paralogs-are-new-members-of-the-pirna-pathway-controlling-retrotransposon-suppression
#20
Yara Tarabay, Mayada Achour, Marius Teletin, Tao Ye, Aurélie Teissandier, Manuel Mark, Déborah Bourc'his, Stéphane Viville
Tex19 genes are mammalian specific and duplicated in Tex19.1 and Tex19.2 in some species, such as the mouse and rat. It has been demonstrated that mutant Tex19.1 males display a variable degree of infertility whereas they all upregulate MMERVK10C transposons in their germ line. In order to study the function of both paralogs in the mouse, we generated and studied double knockout (Tex19DKO) mutant mice. Adult Tex19DKO males exhibited a fully penetrant phenotype, similar to the most severe phenotype observed in single Tex19...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
journal
journal
21391
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"