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Journal of Cell Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209780/microtubule-associated-protein-4-map4-controls-nanovesicle-dynamics-and-t-cell-activation
#1
Eugenio Bustos-Morán, Noelia Blas-Rus, Noa Martin-Cófreces, Francisco Sánchez-Madrid
The Immune Synapse (IS) is a specialized structure formed at the contact area between T lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells (APC), essential for the adaptive immune response. Proper T cell activation requires its polarization towards the APC, which is highly dependent on the tubulin cytoskeleton. Microtubule associated protein-4 (MAP4) is a microtubule (MT)-stabilizing protein that controls MTs in physiological processes such as cell division, migration, vesicular transport or primary cilia formation. In this study, we have assessed the role of MAP4 in T cell activation...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202692/localization-of-phosphorylated-connexin-43-by-serial-section-immunogold-electron-microscopy
#2
Rachael P Norris, Valentina Baena, Mark Terasaki
Gap junction turnover occurs by the internalization of both plasma membranes of a gap junction plaque to form a double membrane-enclosed vesicle, or connexosome. Phosphorylation has a key role in regulation, but further progress requires clearly distinguishing gap junctions and connexosomes and precisely localizing proteins to them. We examined by electron microscopy serial sections of mouse preovulatory ovarian follicles collected with an automated tape collecting ultramicrotome (ATUM). We found connexosomes may form from adjacent cell bodies, from thin cell processes, or from the same cell...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202691/attenuation-of-n-glycosylation-causes-polarity-and-adhesion-defects-in-the-c-elegans-embryo
#3
Julia Stevens, Anne Spang
The C. elegans early embryo is highly polarized, requiring sequestration of cytoplasmic polarity factors at the plasma membrane. This compartmentalization aids asymmetric distribution of lipids and proteins, which is partially responsible for the fates of the daughter cells. Since most plasma membrane proteins are glycosylated, we determined the effect of N-glycosylation attenuation on cell polarity. While polarity establishment was not perturbed, the AB/P1 size ratio was more variable in embryos with reduced N-glycosylation than in the mock-treated ones...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202690/a-rhog-mediated-signaling-pathway-that-modulates-invadopodia-dynamics-in-breast-cancer-cells
#4
Silvia M Goicoechea, Ashtyn Zinn, Sahezeel S Awadia, Kyle Snyder, Rafael Garcia-Mata
One of the hallmarks of cancer is the ability of tumor cells to invade surrounding tissues and metastasize. During metastasis, cancer cells degrade the extracellular matrix, which acts as a physical barrier, by developing a specialized actin-rich membrane protrusion structure called invadopodia. The formation of invadopodia is regulated by Rho GTPases, a family of proteins that regulates the actin cytoskeleton. Here, we describe a novel role for RhoG in the regulation of invadopodia disassembly in human breast cancer cells...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202689/corneal-epithelial-stem-cells-and-their-niche-at-a-glance
#5
REVIEW
Craig S Nowell, Freddy Radtke
The corneal epithelium acts as a protective barrier on the anterior ocular surface and is essential for maintaining transparency of the cornea and thus visual acuity. During both homeostasis and repair, the corneal epithelium is maintained by self-renewing stem cells, which persist throughout the lifetime of the organism. Importantly, as in other self-renewing tissues, the functional activity of corneal epithelial stem cells (CSCEs) is tightly regulated by the surrounding microenvironment, or niche, which provides a range of cues that maintain the stem cell population...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202688/super-resolution-mapping-of-scaffold-nucleoporins-in-the-nuclear-pore-complex
#6
Jiong Ma, Joseph M Kelich, Samuel L Junod, Weidong Yang
The nuclear pore complex (NPC), composed of ∼30 different nucleoporins (Nups), is one of the largest supramolecular structures in eukaryotic cells. Its octagonal ring-scaffold perforates the nuclear envelope and features a unique molecular machinery that regulates nucleocytoplasmic transport. However, the precise copy number and the spatial location of each Nup in the native NPC remain obscure due to the inherent difficulty of counting and localizing proteins inside the sub-micrometer supramolecular complex...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202687/oxidized-phagosomal-nox2-is-replenished-from-lysosomes
#7
Ilse Dingjan, Peter T A Linders, Luuk van den Bekerom, Maksim V Baranov, Partho Halder, Martin Ter Beest, Geert van den Bogaart
In dendritic cells, the NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) is recruited to the phagosomal membrane during antigen uptake. NOX2 produces reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the lumen of the phagosome which kill ingested pathogens, delay antigen breakdown and alter the peptide repertoire for presentation to T cells. How the integral membrane component of NOX2, cytochrome b558, traffics to phagosomes is incompletely understood. In this study, we show in dendritic cells derived from human blood-isolated monocytes that cytochrome b558 is initially recruited to the phagosome from the plasma membrane during phagosome formation...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193734/mitochondrial-depolarization-in-yeast-zygotes-inhibits-clonal-expansion-of-selfish-mtdna
#8
Iuliia E Karavaeva, Sergey A Golyshev, Ekaterina A Smirnova, Svyatoslav S Sokolov, Fedor F Severin, Dmitry A Knorre
Non-identical copies of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) compete with each other within a cell and the result depends on their replication rates. Using yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells as a model, we studied the effects of mitochondrial inhibitors on the competition between wild type mtDNA and mutant selfish mtDNA in heteroplasmic zygotes. We found that decreasing mitochondrial transmembrane potential by adding uncouplers or valinomycin changes the competition outcomes in favor of the wild type mtDNA. This effect was significantly lower in the cells with disrupted mitochondria fission or repressed autophagy-related genes ATG8, ATG32 or ATG33 implying that heteroplasmic zygotes activate mitochondrial degradation in response to the depolarization...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193733/giant-faz10-is-required-for-flagellum-attachment-zone-stabilization-and-furrow-positioning-in-trypanosoma-brucei
#9
Bernardo Pereira Moreira, Carol Kobori Da Fonseca, Tansy C Hammarton, Munira Muhammad Abdel Baqui
The flagellum and flagellum attachment zone (FAZ) are important cytoskeletal structures in trypanosomatids, being required for motility, cell division and cell morphogenesis. Trypanosomatid cytoskeletons contain abundant high molecular weight proteins (HMWPs), but many of their biological functions are still unclear. Here, we report the characterization of the giant FAZ protein, FAZ10, in Trypanosoma brucei, which we show using immuno-electron microscopy, localises to the intermembrane staples in the FAZ intracellular domain...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193732/error-prone-meiotic-division-and-subfertility-in-mice-with-oocyte-conditional-knockdown-of-pericentrin
#10
Claudia Baumann, Xiaotian Wang, Luhan Yang, Maria M Viveiros
Mouse oocytes lack canonical centrosomes and instead contain unique acentriolar microtubule-organizing centers (aMTOCs). To test the function of these distinct aMTOCs in meiotic spindle formation -Pericentrin (Pcnt), an essential centrosome/MTOC protein, was knocked down exclusively in oocytes using transgenic RNAi. Here we provide evidence that disruption of aMTOC function in oocytes promotes spindle instability and severe meiotic errors that lead to pronounced female subfertility. Pcnt-depleted oocytes from transgenic (Tg) mice are ovulated at metaphase-II, but show significant chromosome misalignment, aneuploidy and premature sister chromatid separation...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193731/selective-transport-of-neurotransmitters-and-modulators-by-distinct-volume-regulated-lrrc8-anion-channels
#11
Darius Lutter, Florian Ullrich, Jennifer C Lueck, Stefan Kempa, Thomas J Jentsch
In response to swelling, mammalian cells release chloride and organic osmolytes through VRAC volume-regulated anion channels. VRACs are heteromers of LRRC8A and other LRRC8 isoforms (B-E) which are co-expressed in HEK293 and most other cells. The spectrum of VRAC substrates and its dependence on particular LRRC8 isoforms remains largely unknown. We show that besides the osmolytes taurine and myo-inositol, LRRC8 channels transport the neurotransmitters glutamate, aspartate and GABA and the co-activator D-serine...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183730/calmodulin-cam-antagonist-affects-peroxisomal-functionality-by-disrupting-both-peroxisomal-ca-2-and-protein-import
#12
Francisco J Corpas, Juan B Barroso
Calcium (Ca(2+)) is a second messenger in many physiological and phyto-pathological processes. Peroxisomes are subcellular compartments with an active oxidative and nitrosative metabolism. Previous studies have demonstrated that peroxisomal nitric oxide (NO) generation is dependent on calcium and calmodulin (CaM). We used Arabidopsis thaliana transgenic seedlings expressing cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) through the addition of peroxisomal targeting signal 1 (PTS1), which enables peroxisomes to be visualized in vivo, and also used a cell-permeable fluorescent probe for Ca(2+) Analysis by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) enabled us to visualize the presence of endogenous Ca(2+) in the peroxisomes of both roots and guard cells...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183729/organelles-understanding-noise-and-heterogeneity-in-cell-biology-at-an-intermediate-scale
#13
REVIEW
Amy Y Chang, Wallace F Marshall
Many studies over the years have shown that non-genetic mechanisms for producing cell-to-cell variation can lead to highly variable behaviors across genetically identical populations of cells. Most work to date has focused on gene expression noise as the primary source of phenotypic heterogeneity, yet other sources may also contribute. In this Commentary, we explore organelle-level heterogeneity as a potential secondary source of cellular 'noise' that contributes to phenotypic heterogeneity. We explore mechanisms for generating organelle heterogeneity and present evidence of functional links between organelle morphology and cellular behavior...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167682/the-rap1-cofilin-pathway-coordinates-actin-reorganization-and-mtoc-polarization-at-the-b-cell-immune-synapse
#14
Jia C Wang, Jeff Y-J Lee, Sonja Christian, May Dang-Lawson, Caitlin Pritchard, Spencer A Freeman, Michael R Gold
B cells that bind antigens displayed on antigen-presenting cells (APCs) form an immune synapse, a polarized cellular structure that optimizes the dual functions of the B-cell receptor (BCR), signal transduction and antigen internalization. Immune synapse formation involves polarization of the microtubule-organizing center (MTOC) towards the APC. We now show that BCR-induced MTOC polarization requires the Rap1 GTPase, an evolutionarily conserved regulator of cell polarity, as well as cofilin, an actin-severing protein that is regulated by Rap1...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167681/mir-450a-5p-within-rat-adipose-tissue-exosome-like-vesicles-promotes-adipogenic-differentiation-by-targeting-wisp2
#15
Yan Zhang, Mei Yu, Minjia Dai, Chang Chen, Qi Tang, Wei Jing, Hang Wang, Weidong Tian
Adipose tissue is an active endocrine organ that could secrete a wide number of factors to regulate adipogenesis via paracrine signals. In addition to soluble proteins in adipose tissue, microRNAs (miRNAs) enriched in extracellular vesicles (EVs), such as exosomes or microvesicles, could modulate intercellular communications. In this study, we demonstrated that exosome-like vesicles derived from adipose tissue (Exo-AT) were internalized by adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs), then induced adipogenesis...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167680/aurora-a-twist1-axis-promotes-highly-aggressive-phenotypes-in-pancreatic-carcinoma
#16
Jing Wang, Kumar Nikhil, Keith Viccaro, Lei Chang, Max Jacobsen, George Sandusky, Kavita Shah
We uncovered a crucial role of Aurora kinase A (AURKA)-Twist1 axis in promoting epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and chemoresistance in pancreatic cancer. Twist1 is the first EMT-specific target of AURKA that was identified using an innovative screen. AURKA phosphorylates Twist1 at three sites, which results in its multifaceted regulation- AURKA inhibits its ubiquitylation, increases transcriptional activity, and favors homodimerization. Twist1 reciprocates and prevents AURKA degradation, thereby triggering a feedback loop...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167679/independent-mechanisms-recruit-the-cohesin-loader-protein-nipbl-to-sites-of-dna-damage
#17
Christopher Bot, Annika Pfeiffer, Fosco Giordano, Dharani Manjeera Edara, Nico P Dantuma, Lena Ström
NIPBL is required to load the cohesin complex on to DNA. While the canonical role of cohesin is to couple replicated sister chromatids together until the onset of mitosis, it also promotes tolerance to DNA damage. Here we show that NIPBL is recruited to DNA damage throughout the cell cycle via independent mechanisms, influenced by type of damage. Firstly, the heterochromatin protein HP1γ recruits NIPBL to DSBs through the corresponding HP1-binding motif within the N-terminus. In contrast, the C-terminal HEAT repeat domain is unable to recruit NIPBL to DSBs but independently targets NIPBL to laser microirradiation induced DNA damage...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167678/ypk1-ypk2-kinases-maintain-rho1-at-the-plasma-membrane-by-flippase-dependent-lipid-remodelling-after-membrane-stresses
#18
Riko Hatakeyama, Keiko Kono, Satoshi Yoshida
The plasma membrane (PM) is frequently challenged by mechanical stresses. In budding yeast, TORC2-Ypk1/Ypk2 kinase cascade plays a critical role in PM stress responses by reorganizing the actin cytoskeleton via Rho1 GTPase. However, the molecular mechanism by which TORC2-Ypk1/Ypk2 regulates Rho1 is not well defined. Here, we found that Ypk1/Ypk2 maintain PM localization of Rho1 under PM stress via spatial reorganization of the lipids including phosphatidylserine (PS). Genetic evidence suggests that this process is mediated by the Lem3-containing lipid flippase...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154159/the-t-cell-ift20-interactome-reveals-new-players-in-immune-synapse-assembly
#19
Donatella Galgano, Anna Onnis, Elisa Pappalardo, Federico Galvagni, Oreste Acuto, Cosima T Baldari
Sustained signalling at the immune synapse (IS) requires the synaptic delivery of recycling endosome-associated TCRs. IFT20, a component of the intraflagellar transport system, controls TCR recycling to the IS as a complex with IFT57 and IFT88. Here, we used quantitative mass spectrometry to identify additional interaction partners of IFT20 in Jurkat T cells. In addition to IFT57 and IFT88, the analysis revealed new binding partners, including IFT54, GMAP-210, Arp2/3 complex subunit-3 (ARPC3), COP9 signalosome subunit-1 (CSN1), and ERGIC-53...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154158/caveolae-provide-a-specialized-membrane-environment-for-respiratory-syncytial-virus-assembly
#20
Alexander Ludwig, Tra Huong Nguyen, Daniel Leong, Laxmi Iyer Ravi, Tan Boon Huan, Sara Sandin, Richard J Sugrue
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an enveloped virus that assembles into filamentous virus particles on the surface of infected cells. Morphogenesis of RSV is dependent upon cholesterol-rich (lipid raft) membrane microdomains, but the specific role of individual raft molecules in RSV assembly is not well defined. Here we show that RSV morphogenesis occurs within caveolar membranes and that both caveolin-1 and cavin-1, the two major structural and functional components of caveolae, are actively recruited to and incorporated into the RSV envelope...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
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