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Journal of Cell Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096475/stress-specific-differences-in-assembly-and-composition-of-stress-granules-and-related-foci
#1
Anaïs Aulas, Marta M Fay, Shawn M Lyons, Christopher A Achorn, Nancy Kedersha, Paul Anderson, Pavel Ivanov
Cells have developed different mechanisms to respond to stress, including the formation of cytoplasmic foci known as stress granules (SGs). SGs are dynamic and formed as a result of stress-induced inhibition of translation. Despite enormous interest in SGs due to their contribution to the pathogenesis of several human diseases, many aspects of SG formation are poorly understood. SGs induced by different stresses are generally assumed to be uniform, although some studies suggest that different SG subtypes and SG-like cytoplasmic foci exist...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096474/junb-regulates-angiogenesis-and-neurovascular-parallel-alignment-in-mouse-embryonic-skin
#2
Yasuo Yoshitomi, Takayuki Ikeda, Hidehito Saito, Yoshino Yoshitake, Yasuhito Ishigaki, Toshihisa Hatta, Nobuo Kato, Hideto Yonekura
Blood vessels and nerve fibers are often closely arranged in parallel throughout the body. Therefore, neurovascular interactions have been suggested to be important for the development of vascular networks. However, the molecular mechanisms and genes regulating this process remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated the genes that are activated in endothelial cells (ECs) following interactions with neurons during vascular development. Microarray analyses of human primary microvascular ECs co-cultured with mouse primary dorsal root ganglion cells showed that JunB is strongly upregulated in ECs by neurovascular interactions...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096473/vimentin-intermediate-filaments-control-actin-stress-fiber-assembly-through-gef-h1-and-rhoa
#3
Yaming Jiu, Johan Peränen, Niccole Schaible, Fang Cheng, John E Eriksson, Ramaswamy Krishnan, Pekka Lappalainen
The actin and intermediate filament cytoskeleltons contribute to numerous cellular processes, including morphogenesis, cytokinesis, and migration. These two cytoskeletal systems associate with each other, but the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Here,we show that inactivation of vimentin leads to increased actin stress fiber assembly and contractility, and consequent elevation of myosin light chain phosphorylation and stabilization of tropomyosin-4.2. The vimentin knockout phenotypes can be rescued by re-expression of wild-type vimentin, but not by the non-filamentous 'unit length form' vimentin, demonstrating that intact vimentin intermediate filaments are required to facilitate the effects on the actin cytoskeleton...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096472/myosin-vi-facilitates-connexin-43-gap-junction-accretion
#4
Bennett Waxse, Prabuddha Sengupta, Geoffrey G Hesketh, Jennifer Lippincott-Schwartz, Folma Buss
In this study, we demonstrate myosin VI enrichment at Cx43 gap junctions in heart tissue, primary cardiomyocytes and cell culture models. The loss of myosin VI via siRNA-mediated knock down or isolation of primary cardiac tissue and fibroblasts from the myosin VI-null mouse results in reduced GJ plaque size with a concomitant reduction in intercellular communication as shown by FRAP and a new method of selective calcein administration. Analysis of the molecular role of myosin VI in Cx43 trafficking indicates that myosin VI is dispensable in the delivery of Cx43 to the cell surface and connexon movement in the plasma membrane...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28082424/accumulation-of-nuclear-adar2-regulates-a-to-i-rna-editing-during-neuronal-development
#5
Mikaela Behm, Helene Wahlstedt, Albin Widmark, Maria Eriksson, Marie Öhman
Adenosine to inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing is important for a functional brain and most known sites of selective RNA editing has been found to diversify the number of protein isoforms involved in neurotransmission. In absence of the active editing enzymes, ADAR1 or ADAR2, mice fail to survive until adulthood. Nuclear A-to-I editing of neuronal transcripts is regulated during brain development with low levels in the embryo and a dramatic increase after birth. Yet, little is known about the mechanisms that regulate editing during development...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28082423/facile-manipulation-of-protein-localization-in-fission-yeast-through-gbp-gfp-binding
#6
Ying-Hui Chen, Gao-Yuan Wang, Hao-Chao Hao, Chun-Jiang Chao, Yamei Wang, Quan-Wen Jin
GFP-binding protein (or GBP) has been recently developed in various systems and organisms as an efficient tool to purify GFP fusion proteins. Due to the high affinity between GBP and GFP or GFP variants, this GBP-based approach is also ideally suited to alter the localization of functional proteins in live cells. To promote GBP-targeting approach to be more widely and easily used in fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, we developed a set of pFA6a-, pJK148-, and pUC119-based vectors containing GBP or GBP-mCherry coding sequences and inducible nmt or constitutive adh promoters with different strength...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28082422/suppression-of-intestinal-tumorigenesis-in-apc-mutant-mice-by-musashi-1-deletion
#7
Andy R Wolfe, Amanda Ernlund, William McGuinness, Carl Lehmann, Kaitlyn Carl, Nicole Balmaceda, Kristi L Neufeld
Therapeutic strategies based on a specific oncogenic target are better justified when elimination of that particular oncogene reduces tumorigenesis in a model organism. One such oncogene, Musashi 1 (Msi-1), regulates translation of target mRNAs and is implicated in promoting tumorigenesis in colon and other tissues. Msi-1 targets include the tumor suppressor Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (Apc), a Wnt pathway antagonist lost in ∼80% of all colorectal cancers. Cell culture experiments have established that Msi-1 is a Wnt target, thus positioning Msi-1 and Apc as mutual antagonists in a double negative feedback loop...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28082421/role-of-phagosomal-redox-sensitive-trp-channel-trpm2-in-regulating-bactericidal-activity-of-macrophages
#8
Anke Di, Tomohiro Kiya, Haixia Gong, Xiaopei Gao, Asrar B Malik
Acidification of macrophage (MΦ) phagosomes serves an important bactericidal function. We show here that the redox-sensitive trp cation channel TRPM2 expressed in the phagosomal membrane regulates MΦ bactericidal activity through the activation of phagosomal acidification. Measurement of TRPM2 current in phagosomes identified TRPM2 as a functional redox-sensitive cation channel localized in phagosomal membrane. Simultaneous measurements of phagosomal Ca(2+) changes and phagosome acidification in MΦs undergoing phagocytosis demonstrated the requisite role of TRPM2 in mediating efflux of cations and phagosomal acidification during the process of phagosome maturation...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28082420/actin-visualization-at-a-glance
#9
REVIEW
Michael Melak, Matthias Plessner, Robert Grosse
Actin functions in a multitude of cellular processes owing to its ability to polymerize into filaments, which can be further organized into higher-order structures by an array of actin-binding and regulatory proteins. Therefore, research on actin and actin-related functions relies on the visualization of actin structures without interfering with the cycles of actin polymerization and depolymerization that underlie cellular actin dynamics. In this Cell Science at a Glance and the accompanying poster, we briefly evaluate the different techniques and approaches currently applied to analyze and visualize cellular actin structures, including in the nuclear compartment...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069834/possible-physiological-role-for-bi-directional-motility-and-motor-clustering-of-the-mitotic-kinesin-5-cin8
#10
Ofer Shapira, Alina Goldstein, Jawdat Al-Bassam, Larisa Gheber
The bipolar kinesin-5 Cin8 switches from minus- to plus-end-directed motility under various conditions in vitro The mechanism and physiological significance of this switch remain unknown. Here we show that under high ionic strength conditions, Cin8 moves towards and concentrates in clusters at the minus ends of stable and dynamic microtubules. Clustering of Cin8 induces a switch from fast minus- to slow plus-end-directed motility and forms sites that capture antiparallel MTs and induces their sliding-apart by plus-end-directed motility...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069833/clasp2-ensures-mitotic-fidelity-and-prevents-differentiation-of-epidermal-keratinocytes
#11
Marta N Shahbazi, Daniel Peña-Jimenez, Francesca Antonucci, Matthias Drosten, Mirna Perez-Moreno
Epidermal homeostasis is tightly controlled by a balancing act of self-renewal or terminal differentiation of proliferating basal keratinocytes. An increase in DNA content as a consequence of a mitotic block is a recognized mechanism underlying keratinocyte differentiation, but the molecular mechanisms involved in this process are not yet fully understood. Using cultured primary keratinocytes, here we report that the expression of the mammalian Microtubule and Kinetochore-associated protein Clasp2 is intimately associated to the basal proliferative makeup of keratinocytes, and its deficiency leads to premature differentiation...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062852/a-proteomic-approach-to-identify-endosomal-cargoes-controlling-cancer-invasiveness
#12
Jesica Diaz-Vera, Sarah Palmer, Juan Ramon Hernandez-Fernaud, Emmanuel Dornier, Louise E Mitchell, Iain Macpherson, Joanne Edwards, Sara Zanivan, Jim C Norman
We have previously shown that Rab17 - a small GTPase associated with epithelial polarity - is specifically suppressed by ERK2 signalling to promote an invasive phenotype. However, the mechanisms through which Rab17 loss permits invasiveness, and the endosomal cargoes that are responsible for mediating this are not known. Using quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomics, we have found that knockdown of Rab17 leads to highly selective reduction in the cellular levels of a v-SNARE (Vamp8). Moreover, proteomics and immunofluorescence indicate that Vamp-8 is associated with Rab17 at late endosomes...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062851/human-cactin-interacts-with-dhx8-and-srrm2-to-assure-efficient-pre-mrna-splicing-and-sister-chromatid-cohesion
#13
Isabella M Y Zanini, Charlotte Soneson, Luca E Lorenzi, Claus M Azzalin
Cactins constitute a family of eukaryotic proteins broadly conserved from yeast to human and required for fundamental processes such as cell proliferation, genome stability maintenance, organismal development and immune response. Cactin proteins have been found to associate with the spliceosome in several model organisms, nevertheless their molecular functions await elucidation. Here we show that depletion of human Cactin (hCactin) leads to premature sister chromatid separation, genome instability and cell proliferation arrest...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062850/cellular-strain-avoidance-is-mediated-by-a-functional-actin-cap-observations-in-an-lmna-deficient-cell-model
#14
Chiara Tamiello, Maurice Halder, Miriam A F Kamps, Frank P T Baaijens, Jos L V Broers, Carlijn V C Bouten
In adherent cells the relevance of a physical mechanotransduction pathway provided by the perinuclear actin cap stress fibers has recently emerged. Here, we investigate the impact of a functional actin cap on the cellular adaptive response to topographical cues and uniaxial cyclic strain. Lmna-deficient fibroblasts are used as a model system because they do not develop an intact actin cap, but predominantly form a basal layer of actin stress fibers underneath the nucleus. We observe that topographical cues induce alignment in both normal and lmna-deficient fibroblasts, suggesting that topographical signal transmission occurs independently of the integrity of the actin cap...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062849/interplay-between-a-cytosolic-and-a-cell-surface-carbonic-anhydrase-in-ph-homeostasis-and-acid-tolerance-of-leishmania
#15
Dhiman Sankar Pal, Mazharul Abbasi, Dipon Kumar Mondal, Binitha Anu Varghese, Ritama Paul, Shalini Singh, Rupak Datta
Leishmania parasites have evolved to endure the acidic phagolysosomal environment within host macrophages. How Leishmania cells maintain near-neutral intracellular pH and proliferate in such proton-rich milieu remains poorly understood. We report here that for thriving in acidic condition Leishmania major relies on a cytosolic and a cell surface carbonic anhydrase viz. LmCA1 and LmCA2. Upon exposure to acidic medium, intracellular pH of the LmCA1(+/-), LmCA2(+/-) and LmCA1(+/-): LmCA2(+/-) mutant strains dropped by varying extents that led to cell cycle delay, growth retardation and morphological abnormalities...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062848/the-spectraplakin-short-stop-is-an-essential-microtubule-regulator-involved-in-epithelial-closure-in-drosophila
#16
Zsanett Takács, Ferenc Jankovics, Péter Vilmos, Péter Lénárt, Katja Röper, Miklós Erdélyi
Dorsal closure of the Drosophila embryonic epithelium provides an excellent model system for the in vivo analysis of molecular mechanisms regulating cytoskeletal rearrangements. We investigated the function of the Drosophila spectraplakin Short stop (Shot), a conserved cytoskeletal structural protein, during closure of the dorsal embryonic epithelium.In this study, we show that Shot is essential for the efficient final zippering of the opposing epithelial margins. Using isoform-specific mutant alleles and genetic rescue experiments with truncated Shot variants, we demonstrate that Shot functions as an actin-microtubule cross-linker in mediating zippering...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062847/the-mucosal-barrier-at-a-glance
#17
REVIEW
Marion M France, Jerrold R Turner
Mucosal barriers separate self from non-self and are essential for life. These barriers, which are the first line of defense against external pathogens, are formed by epithelial cells and the substances they secrete. Rather than an absolute barrier, epithelia at mucosal surfaces must allow selective paracellular flux that discriminates between solutes and water while preventing the passage of bacteria and toxins. In vertebrates, tight junctions seal the paracellular space; flux across the tight junction can occur through two distinct routes that differ in selectivity, capacity, molecular composition and regulation...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049723/defective-signaling-osteoblastogenesis-and-bone-remodeling-in-a-mouse-model-of-connexin43-c-terminal-truncation
#18
Megan C Moorer, Carla Hebert, Ryan E Tomlinson, Shama R Iyer, Max Chason, Joseph P Stains
In skeletal tissue, loss or mutation of the gap junction protein, connexin43 (Cx43), in cells of the osteoblast-lineage leads to a profound cortical bone phenotype and defective tissue remodeling. There is mounting evidence in bone cells that the C-terminus (CT) of Cx43 is a docking platform for signaling effectors and is required for efficient downstream signaling. Here, we examined this function, using a mouse model of Cx43 CT-truncation (Gja1 K258Stop). Relative to Gja1(+/-) controls, male Gja1(-/K258stop) mice have a cortical bone phenotype that is remarkably similar to those reported for deletion of the entire Cx43 gene in osteoblasts...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049722/the-linc-complex-contributes-to-heterochromatin-organisation-and-transcriptional-gene-silencing-in-plants
#19
Axel Poulet, Céline Duc, Maxime Voisin, Sophie Desset, Sylvie Tutois, Emmanuel Vanrobays, Matthias Benoit, David E Evans, Aline V Probst, Christophe Tatout
The LInker of Nucleoskeleton and Cytoskeleton (LINC) complex is an evolutionary well-conserved protein bridge connecting the cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments across the nuclear membrane. While recent data support its function in nuclear morphology and meiosis, its implication in chromatin organisation has not been studied in plants. Here 3D imaging methods have been used to investigate nuclear morphology and chromatin organisation in interphase nuclei of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, in which heterochromatin cluster in conspicuous chromatin domains called chromocentres...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049721/pex35-is-a-regulator-of-peroxisome-abundance
#20
Ido Yofe, Kareem Soliman, Silvia G Chuartzman, Bruce Morgan, Uri Weill, Eden Yifrach, Tobias P Dick, Sara J Cooper, Christer S Ejsing, Maya Schuldiner, Einat Zalckvar, Sven Thoms
Peroxisomes are cellular organelles with vital functions in lipid, amino acid, and redox metabolism. The cellular formation and dynamics of peroxisomes are governed by PEX genes, however, the regulation of peroxisome abundance is yet poorly understood. Here we use a high-content microscopy screen to identify novel regulators of peroxisome size and abundance. Our screen led to the identification of a previously uncharacterized gene, which we term PEX35, which affects peroxisome abundance. PEX35 encodes a peroxisomal membrane protein, a remote homolog to several curvature generating human proteins...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
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