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Journal of Cell Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526784/trpv4-mediates-the-calcium-influx-required-for-flightless-non-muscle-myosin-interaction-and-collagen-remodeling
#1
P D Arora, M Di Gregorio, P He, C A McCulloch
Collagen remodeling by phagocytosis requires cell extension formation, which in turn involves interaction of the actin binding protein Flightless I (FliI) with non-muscle myosin IIA (NMMIIA) at cell-matrix adhesion sites. As Ca(2+) plays a central role in controlling actomyosin-dependent functions, we examined how Ca(2+) controls the generation of cell extensions and collagen remodeling. Ratio fluorimetry demonstrated localized Ca(2+) influx at extensions of fibroblasts. Western Blotting and qPCR showed high expression levels of the Ca(2+)-permeable, Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid-4 (TRPV4) channel, which co-immunoprecipitated with β1 integrin and localized to adhesions...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515233/wntless-sec12-complex-on-er-membrane-regulates-early-wnt-secretory-vesicle-assembly-and-mature-ligand-export
#2
Jiaxin Sun, Shiyan Yu, Xiao Zhang, Catherine Capac, Onyedikachi Aligbe, Timothy Daudelin, Edward M Bonder, Nan Gao
Wntless (Wls) transports Wnt molecules for secretion, however the cellular mechanism underlying the initial assembly of Wnt secretory vesicles is still not fully defined. Using proteomic and mutagenic analyses of the mammalian Wls, we report a mechanism for formation of early Wnt secretory vesicle on ER membrane. Wls forms a complex with SEC12, an ER membrane-localized GEF activator of SAR1 small GTPase. Compared to palmitoylation-deficient Wnt molecules, binding of mature Wnt to Wls increases Wls-SEC12 interaction and promotes Wls association with SAR1, the key activator of the COPII machinery...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515232/the-nuclear-export-factor-crm1-controls-juxta-nuclear-microtubule-dependent-virus-transport
#3
I-Hsuan Wang, Christoph J Burckhardt, Artur Yakimovich, Matthias K Morf, Urs F Greber
Transport of large cargo through the cytoplasm requires motor proteins and polarized filaments. Viruses that replicate in the nucleus of post-mitotic cells use microtubules and the dynein/dynactin motor to traffic to the nuclear membrane, and deliver their genome through nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) into the nucleus. How virus particles (virions) or cellular cargo are transferred from microtubules to the NPC is unknown. Here, we analyzed trafficking of incoming cytoplasmic adenoviruses by single particle tracking and super-resolution microscopy...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515231/dual-phenotype-of-mda-mb-468-cancer-cells-reveals-mutual-regulation-of-tensin3-and-adhesion-plasticity
#4
Astrid Veß, Ulrich Blache, Laura Leitner, Angela R M Kurz, Anja Ehrenpfordt, Michael Sixt, Guido Posern
Plasticity between adhesive and less-adhesive states is important for mammalian cell behaviour. To investigate adhesion plasticity, we have selected a stable isogenic subpopulation of MDA-MB-468 breast carcinoma cells which grows in suspension. These suspension cells are unable to re-adhere to various matrices or to contract three-dimensional collagen lattices. By transcriptome analysis, we identified the focal adhesion protein tensin3 (Tns3) as a determinant of adhesion plasticity. Tns3 is strongly reduced on mRNA and protein level in suspension cells...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515230/crosstalk-from-camp-to-erk1-2-emerges-during-postnatal-maturation-of-nociceptive-neurons-and-is-maintained-during-aging
#5
Joerg Isensee, Cosimo Schild, Frank Schwede, Tim Hucho
Maturation of nociceptive neurons depends on changes of transcription factors, ion channels, and neuropeptides. Mature nociceptors initiate pain in part by drastically reducing the activation threshold via intracellular sensitization signaling. If sensitization signaling also changes during development and aging remains so far unknown.Using a novel automated microscopy approach, we quantified changes of intracellular signaling protein expression, of their signaling dynamics, as well as of intracellular signaling cascade wiring in sensory neurons from newborn to senescent rats...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515229/unique-cell-biological-profiles-of-retinal-disease-causing-missense-mutations-in-the-polarity-protein-crumbs
#6
Milena Pellikka, Ulrich Tepass
Mutations in human CRB1 are a major cause of retinal disease that lead to blindness. CRB1 is a transmembrane protein found in the inner segment of photoreceptor cells (PRCs) and the apical membrane of Müller glia. The function of the extracellular region of CRB1 is poorly understood although more than 80 disease-causing missense mutations have been mapped to it. We have recreated four mutations in Drosophila Crumbs (Crb) that affect different extracellular domains. Crb regulates epithelial polarity and growth, and contributes to PRC differentiation and survival...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507272/phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate-4-kinase-regulates-early-endosomal-dynamics-during-clathrin-mediated-endocytosis
#7
Kumari Kamalesh, Deepti Trivedi, Sarah Toscano, Sanjeev Sharma, Sourav Kolay, Padinjat Raghu
Endocytic turnover is essential to regulate the protein composition and function of the plasma membrane thus regulating the plasma membrane levels of many receptors. In Drosophila photoreceptors, photon absorption by the GPCR rhodopsin 1 (Rh1) triggers its endocytosis by clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME). We find that CME of Rh1 is regulated by phosphatidylinositol 5 phosphate 4-kinase (PIP4K). Flies lacking PIP4K show mislocalization of Rh1 on expanded endomembranes within the cell body. This mislocalization of Rh1 was dependent on the formation of an expanded Rab5 compartment...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490438/deficiency-in-kinesin-1-recruitment-to-melanosomes-precludes-it-from-facilitating-their-centrifugal-transport
#8
Christopher L Robinson, Richard D Evans, Deborah A Briggs, Jose S Ramalho, Alistair N Hume
Microtubules and F-actin, and associated motor proteins, are considered to play complementary roles in long- and short-range organelle transport. However, there is growing appreciation that myosin/F-actin networks can drive long-range transport. In melanocytes myosin-Va and kinesin-1 have both been proposed as long-range centrifugal melanosome transporters. Here we investigated the role of kinesin-1 heavy chain (Kif5b) and its suggested targeting factor Rab1a in transport. Using confocal microscopy and sub-cellular fractionation we did not detect Kif5b or Rab1a on melanosomes...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483825/replication-of-ribosomal-dna-in-arabidopsis-occurs-both-inside-and-outside-of-the-nucleolus-during-s-phase-progression
#9
Martina Dvořáčková, Berta Raposo, Petr Matula, Joerg Fuchs, Veit Schubert, Vratislav Peška, Bénédicte Desvoyes, Crisanto Gutierrez, Jiří Fajkus
Ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) have been used as valuable experimental systems in numerous studies. Here we focus on elucidating the spatio-temporal organisation of rDNA replication in Arabidopsis thaliana. To determine the subnuclear distribution of rDNA and the progression of its replication during S phase, we apply a 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) labelling, fluorescence-activated cell sorting, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and structured illumination microscopy. We show that rDNA is replicated inside and outside the nucleolus where active transcription occurs at the same time...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476940/mechanisms-of-regulation-and-diversification-of-deubiquitylating-enzyme-function
#10
REVIEW
Pawel Leznicki, Yogesh Kulathu
Deubiquitylating (or deubiquitinating) enzymes (DUBs) are proteases that reverse protein ubiquitylation and therefore modulate the outcome of this post-translational modification. DUBs regulate a variety of intracellular processes, including protein turnover, signalling pathways and the DNA damage response. They have also been linked to a number of human diseases, such as cancer, and inflammatory and neurodegenerative disorders. Although we are beginning to better appreciate the role of DUBs in basic cell biology and their importance for human health, there are still many unknowns...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476939/exploitation-of-the-host-cell-ubiquitin-machinery-by-microbial-effector-proteins
#11
REVIEW
Yi-Han Lin, Matthias P Machner
Pathogenic bacteria are in a constant battle for survival with their host. In order to gain a competitive edge, they employ a variety of sophisticated strategies that allow them to modify conserved host cell processes in ways that favor bacterial survival and growth. Ubiquitylation, the covalent attachment of the small modifier ubiquitin to target proteins, is such a pathway. Ubiquitylation profoundly alters the fate of a myriad of cellular proteins by inducing changes in their stability or function, subcellular localization or interaction with other proteins...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476938/chromatin-organization-at-the-nuclear-periphery-as-revealed-by-image-analysis-of-structured-illumination-microscopy-data
#12
Jindřiška Fišerová, Michaela Efenberková, Tomáš Sieger, Miloslava Maninová, Jana Uhlířová, Pavel Hozák
Nuclear periphery (NP) plays substantial role in chromatin organization. Heterochromatin at the NP is intermitted with active chromatin surrounding nuclear pore complexes (NPCs), however, details of the peripheral chromatin organization are missing. To discern the distributions of epigenetic marks at the NP of HeLa nuclei, we used structured illumination microscopy combined with a new MATLAB software tool for an automatic NP and NPC detection, measurements of fluorescent intensity and statistical analysis of measured data...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476937/caught-in-the-act-protein-adaptation-and-the-expanding-roles-of-the-pacs-proteins-in-tissue-homeostasis-and-disease
#13
REVIEW
Gary Thomas, Joseph E Aslan, Laurel Thomas, Pushkar Shinde, Ujwal Shinde, Thomas Simmen
Vertebrate proteins that fulfill multiple and seemingly disparate functions are increasingly recognized as vital solutions to maintaining homeostasis in the face of the complex cell and tissue physiology of higher metazoans. However, the molecular adaptations that underpin this increased functionality remain elusive. In this Commentary, we review the PACS proteins - which first appeared in lower metazoans as protein traffic modulators and evolved in vertebrates to integrate cytoplasmic protein traffic and interorganellar communication with nuclear gene expression - as examples of protein adaptation 'caught in the act'...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476936/genome-wide-screen-for-cell-growth-regulators-in-fission-yeast
#14
Louise Weston, Jessica Greenwood, Paul Nurse
Cellular growth control is important for all living organisms but experimental investigation into this problem is difficult because of the complex range of growth regulatory mechanisms. We have used the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe to identify potential master regulators of growth. The S. pombe pat1(ts)mei4Δ strain enters the meiotic developmental program at restrictive temperature, but arrests in meiotic G2 phase as mei4(+) is essential for meiotic progression. These cells do not grow, even in an abundance of nutrients...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473470/time-lapse-reveals-that-osteoclasts-can-move-across-the-bone-surface-while-resorbing
#15
Kent Søe, Jean-Marie Delaissé
Bone erosion both demands that the osteoclast resorbs bone matrix and moves over the bone surface. It is widely accepted that these two activities alternate, because they are considered mutually exclusive since resorption is believed to involve an immobilizing seal to the bone surface. However, clear real-time observations are still lacking. Herein, we used specific markers and time-lapse to monitor live the spatiotemporal generation of resorption events by osteoclasts cultured on bone slices. In accordance with the current view, we found alternations of resorption and migration resulting in the formation of clusters of round pits...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468990/multiple-activities-of-arl1-gtpase-in-the-trans-golgi-network
#16
REVIEW
Chia-Jung Yu, Fang-Jen S Lee
ADP-ribosylation factors (Arfs) and ADP-ribosylation factor-like proteins (Arls) are highly conserved small GTPases that function as main regulators of vesicular trafficking and cytoskeletal reorganization. Arl1, the first identified member of the large Arl family, is an important regulator of Golgi complex structure and function in organisms ranging from yeast to mammals. Together with its effectors, Arl1 has been shown to be involved in several cellular processes, including endosomal trans-Golgi network and secretory trafficking, lipid droplet and salivary granule formation, innate immunity and neuronal development, stress tolerance, as well as the response of the unfolded protein...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468989/citron-kinase-renaissance-of-a-neglected-mitotic-kinase
#17
REVIEW
Pier Paolo D'Avino
Cell division controls the faithful segregation of genomic and cytoplasmic materials between the two nascent daughter cells. Members of the Aurora, Polo and cyclin-dependent (Cdk) kinase families are known to regulate multiple events throughout cell division, whereas another kinase, citron kinase (CIT-K), for a long time has been considered to function solely during cytokinesis, the last phase of cell division. CIT-K was originally proposed to regulate the ingression of the cleavage furrow that forms at the equatorial cortex of the dividing cell after chromosome segregation...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468988/adam12-induction-by-twist1-promotes-tumor-invasion-and-metastasis-via-regulation-of-invadopodia-and-focal-adhesions
#18
Mark A Eckert, Miguel Santiago-Medina, Thinzar M Lwin, Jihoon Kim, Sara A Courtneidge, Jing Yang
The Twist1 transcription factor promotes tumor invasion and metastasis by inducing Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) and invadopodia-mediated extracellular matrix degradation. The critical transcription targets of Twist1 in mediating these events remain to be uncovered. Here, we report that Twist1 strongly induces expression of a disintegrin and metalloprotease 12 (ADAM12). Expression levels of Twist1 and ADAM12 are tightly correlated in human breast tumors. Knocking down ADAM12 blocked cell invasion in the 3D mammary organoid culture...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455413/pseudostratified-epithelia-cell-biology-diversity-and-roles-in-organ-formation-at-a-glance
#19
REVIEW
Caren Norden
Pseudostratified epithelia (PSE) are widespread and diverse tissue arrangements, and many PSE are organ precursors in a variety of organisms. While cells in PSE, like other epithelial cells, feature apico-basal polarity, they generally are more elongated and their nuclei are more densely packed within the tissue. In addition, nuclei in PSE undergo interkinetic nuclear migration (IKNM, also referred to as INM), whereby all mitotic events occur at the apical surface of the elongated epithelium. Previous reviews have focused on the links between IKNM and the cell cycle, as well as the relationship between IKNM and neurogenesis, which will not be elaborated on here...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455412/in-vivo-reprogramming-of-non-mammary-cells-to-an-epithelial-cell-fate-is-independent-of-amphiregulin-signaling
#20
Andrea L George, Corinne A Boulanger, Lisa H Anderson, Stéphanie Cagnet, Cathrin Brisken, Gilbert H Smith
AREG-/- mice demonstrate impaired mammary development and form only rudimentary ductal epithelial trees, however, AREG-/- glands are still capable of undergoing alveologenesis and lactogenesis during pregnancy. Transplantation of AREG-/- mammary epithelial cells into cleared mouse mammary fat pads results in a diminished capacity for epithelial growth (∼15%) as compared to wild type mammary epithelial cells. To determine whether ERα and/or AREG signaling were necessary for non-mammary cell redirection, we inoculated either ERα-/- or AREG-/- mammary cells with non-mammary progenitor cells (WapCre/Rosa26LacZ+ male testicular cells or GFP+ embryonic neuronal stem cells)...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
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