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Experimental Gerontology

Bartolomeu Fagundes de Lima Filho, Vanessa da Nóbrega Dias, Adriana Guedes Carlos, Fabieli Pereira Fontes, André Gustavo Pires de Sousa, Juliana Maria Gazzola
BACKGROUND: The association of type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM2) with depressive symptoms may affect the quality of life of older adults and increase their risk of morbidity and deterioration in functional activities. This study aimed to investigate the variables related to depressive symptoms in older adult patients with DM2. METHODS: This cross-sectional, descriptive, analytical study included 102 older adult patients with DM2, treated in northeastern Brazil. We evaluated demographic, clinical, and functional variables [Timed Up and Go (TUG) test, a scale to assess performance (WHO Disability Assessment Schedule), and psycho-cognitive variables (using the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS))...
November 7, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Compté Nathalie, Dumont Laura, Bron Dominique, De Breucker Sandra, Praet Jean-Philippe, Bautmans Ivan, Pepersack Thierry
INTRODUCTION: Older people suffer more often and from more severe infections than do younger people. Several studies have shown a correlation between higher white blood cell count (WBCC) and the presence of infection. The usefulness of increased WBCC to assess the presence of infection in geriatric patients is debated. To answer this question, we investigated the correlation between the total and differential WBCC and documented infection in hospitalized geriatric individuals. POPULATION AND METHODS: Clinical data (medical history, comorbidities, treatments, geriatric syndromes) and biological parameters were collected from 166 hospitalized geriatric patients (67-106 yrs) presenting with acute inflammation (C-reactive protein (CRP) > 10 mg/L) and were compared according to the presence/absence of infection...
November 6, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Kristin E Gribble, Benjamin M Moran, Shannon Jones, Emily L Corey, David B Mark Welch
Lifespan extension under low temperature is well conserved across both endothermic and exothermic taxa, but the mechanism underlying this change in aging is poorly understood. Low temperature is thought to decrease metabolic rate, thus slowing the accumulation of cellular damage from reactive oxygen species, although recent evidence suggests involvement of specific cold-sensing biochemical pathways. We tested the effect of low temperature on aging in 11 strains of Brachionus rotifers, with the hypothesis that if the mechanism of lifespan extension is purely thermodynamic, all strains should have a similar increase in lifespan...
November 3, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Ai Hamasaki, Nobuhiko Akazawa, Toru Yoshikawa, Kanae Myoenzono, Kaname Tagawa, Yuriko Sawano, Makoto Nishimura, Seiji Maeda
Age-related decreases in cognitive function, cerebral perfusion, and vascular function increase the risk of dementia. However, the effects of central artery stiffness on cerebral oxygenation hemodynamics during executive function tasks and executive function remain unclear. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the relationships among central artery stiffness, cerebral oxygenation hemodynamics during executive function tasks, and executive function in middle-aged and older adults. Sixty-two middle-aged and older adults (age range: 51-79 years) were recruited for this study...
November 3, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Shicong Song, Saizhu Wu, Yuyan Wang, Zhiwei Wang, Changxiong Ye, Rui Song, Dongqing Song, Yunjun Ruan
Vascular endothelial cell (VEC) senescence is an initiating factor in numerous cardiovascular diseases. Recent studies showed that 17β-estradiol (17β-E2), an estrogen with numerous biological activities such as inhibition of atherosclerosis, protects VECs from senescence. However, the effects of 17β-E2 on human umbilical VECs (HUVECs) remain unknown. This study investigated the anti-senescent effect of 17β-E2 on HUVECs and explored the underlying mechanism with respect to autophagy and p53 activity. First, rapamycin and 3-methyladenine were used to clarify the relationship between autophagy and senescence in HUVECs, and an inverse relationship was demonstrated...
November 3, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Rubens Vinícius Letieri, Ana Maria Teixeira, Guilherme Eustáquio Furtado, Carminda Goersch Lamboglia, Jordan L Rees, Beatriz Branquinho Gomes
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare the effect of 16 weeks of resistance training using different occlusion pressures, followed by 6 weeks of detraining on the muscular strength levels of older women. METHODS: This randomized-controlled trial included 56 recreationally active women (68.8 ± 5.09 years), randomized into 5 groups: 1) Low-intensity with blood flow restriction "High" (LI + BFR_H): with higher occlusion pressure, 2) Low-intensity with blood flow restriction "Low" (LI + BFR_L): with lower occlusion pressure, 3) High-intensity (HI), 4) Low-intensity (LI), and 5) Control Group (CG)...
November 1, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Josianne Rodrigues-Krause, Juliano Boufleur Farinha, Thiago Ronzales Ramis, Rodrigo Cauduro Oliveira Macedo, Francesco Pinto Boeno, Gabriela Cristina Dos Santos, João Vargas, Pedro Lopez, Rafael Grazioli, Rochelle Rocha Costa, Ronei Silveira Pinto, Mauricio Krause, Alvaro Reischak-Oliveira
INTRODUCTION: Aging is characterized by reductions in lean mass simultaneously to increases in visceral adipose tissue, elevating cardiovascular risk (CVR) and physical dependence. Dancing has been recommended for improving fall-risk and CVR, however, comparisons with traditional exercises are limited. This study aimed to compare the effects of dancing with walking on CVR and functionality of older women. METHODS: Thirty sedentary women (65 ± 5 years, BMI 27 ± 4 kg/m2 ) were randomized into three groups (n = 10/group): dancing, walking or stretching (active control)...
October 31, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Morag E Taylor, Annie A Butler, Stephen R Lord, Kim Delbaere, Susan E Kurrle, A Stefanie Mikolaizak, Jacqueline C T Close
BACKGROUND: Awareness of physical ability may impact fall risk during everyday tasks. Therefore, we investigated perceived reach (PR; estimation of furthest reach distance), maximal reach (MR) and reach judgement error (RJE), and their relationships with neuropsychological and physical performance, and falls in older people with cognitive impairment (CI). METHODS: Prospective cohort study of 110 (mean age = 82 ± 7 years; female = 52%) older people with mild-moderate CI (MMSE 11-23; Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R) < 83)...
October 30, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Tomoyuki Kawada
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 25, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Azusa Uematsu, Kazushi Tsuchiya, Shuji Suzuki, Tibor Hortobágyi
There is currently no test to directly and easily measure dynamic balance during walking in old adults. We examined the idea that distance of beam walking with and without cognitive dual-tasking could detect age differences in dynamic balance. Healthy old (n = 16, 71.2 y) and young (n = 20, 22.0 y) volunteers walked 3 times on 4-m long beams first without (single-tasking) then with a calculation task (dual-tasking) in order of decreasing beam width (12, 8, 4 cm). There was a Group (old, young) by Beam width (4, 8, 12 cm) by Task (single-, dual-tasking) interaction (F = 4...
October 25, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Mohammad Alturki, Ingo Beyer, Tony Mets, Ivan Bautmans
BACKGROUND: Ageing-related low-grade inflammation is suggested to aggravate sarcopenia and frailty. This systematic review investigates the influence that drugs with anti-inflammatory effects (AIDs) have on inflammation and skeletal muscle. METHODS: PubMed and Web of Science were systematically screened for articles reporting the effects of AIDs on inflammation on one hand and on muscle mass and/or performance on the other. RESULTS: Twenty-eight articles were included...
October 25, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Carmen Noguera, Rubén Sánchez-Horcajo, Dolores Álvarez-Cazorla, José Manuel Cimadevilla
Aerobic exercise is associated with changes in brain morphology and improvement of cognitive functions. Physical activity may be especially important after age 60 when cognitive decline is more pronounced. In this paper, the effect of chronic practice of aerobic sports was studied in old adults by assessing their executive and mnesic functions, supported by frontal and temporal brain structures. Two groups were formed according to their age (60-69 and 70-79 years-old) including sportsmen (n = 23) and sedentary men (n = 24)...
October 24, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Raquel Fernando, Cathleen Drescher, Stefanie Deubel, Tobias Jung, Mario Ost, Susanne Klaus, Tilman Grune, José Pedro Castro
The skeletal muscle is a crucial tissue for maintaining whole body homeostasis. Aging seems to have a disruptive effect on skeletal muscle homeostasis including proteostasis. However, how aging specifically impacts slow and fast twitch fiber types remains elusive. Muscle proteostasis is largely maintained by the proteasomal system. Here we characterized the proteasomal system in two different fiber types, using a non-sarcopenic aging model. By analyzing the proteasomal activity and amount, as well as the polyubiquitinated proteins and the level of protein oxidation in Musculus soleus (Sol) and Musculus extensor digitorum longus (EDL), we found that the slow twitch Sol muscle shows an overall higher respiratory and proteasomal activity in young and old animals...
October 24, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Emmanuel Guivier, François Criscuolo, Sandrine Zahn, Jérôme Bellenger, Maxime Galan, Bruno Faivre, Gabriele Sorci
Advanced age is often associated with a chronic inflammatory status and inflammatory diseases. It has been suggested that exposure to infectious agents that stimulate the inflammatory response at early ages might have carry over effects in terms of accelerated senescence and increased mortality at late ages. However, not all pathogens and parasites have pro-inflammatory effects. In particular, parasitic nematodes have been shown to dampen the inflammatory response and to prevent or alleviate the symptoms of inflammatory diseases...
October 23, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Min-Seong Ha, Won-Mok Son
BACKGROUND: The functional decline of the endocrine and immune systems with aging causes changes in the regulation of the body's metabolism and defense functions. Although it is impossible to stop aging artificially, regular exercises reportedly delay aging and have positive effects on senile diseases. The improvements in insulin resistance values and aging-related hormones in elderly women after combined exercises have not been effectively elucidated. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to examine the impact of combined exercise on insulin resistance and aging-related hormones in elderly women...
October 22, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
D Scott Kehler, Jacqueline L Hay, Andrew N Stammers, Naomi C Hamm, Dustin E Kimber, Annette S H Schultz, Andrea Szwajcer, Rakesh C Arora, Navdeep Tangri, Todd A Duhamel
OBJECTIVE: Lifestyle factors such as physical activity are known to reduce the risk of frailty. However, less is known about the frailty-sedentary behavior relationship. A systematic review was conducted to synthesize the available evidence concerning associations between sedentary behaviors and frailty levels in adults. METHOD: MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, Scopus, and the World Health Organization Clinical Trials Registry were searched up to August 2017 for observational studies in adults >18 years for cohort studies...
October 22, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Giulia Bano, Sabrina Pigozzo, Francesca Piovesan, Mattia Mazzochin, Marta Dianin, Marco Bedogni, Martina Zaninotto, Sandro Giannini, Egle Perissinotto, Enzo Manzato, Mario Plebani, Giuseppe Sergi
PURPOSE: The association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) levels and cortical/trabecular bone parameters has been explored in the elderly, but less so in younger adults; body composition may also influence bone parameters across the life span. We aimed to investigate, with peripheral quantitative computerized tomography (pQCT), the relationship between serum 25-OHD levels and bone geometry and strength and, at the same time, to explore the influence of fat mass and fat-free mass on bone parameters, for the tibia and radius, in healthy young and elderly adults...
October 12, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Matthew J Heck, John D Hatle
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 11, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Andrew Buskard, Brian Zalma, Nicholes Cherup, Catherine Armitage, Craig Dent, Joseph F Signorile
BACKGROUND: Periodization is a systematic training calendar designed to provide variations in performance targeting, while maximizing results and reducing the potential for overtraining. When provided across multiple weeks, termed a mesocycle, it may also incorporate active recovery periods using specified drills designed to translate neuromuscular gains into targeted functional abilities. There are a number of models that can be used when applying periodization to resistance training (RT)...
October 11, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
M Hill, S Oxford, M Duncan, M Price
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 10, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
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