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Experimental Gerontology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315788/does-baseline-innate-immunity-change-with-age-a-multi-year-study-in-great-tits
#1
Anke Vermeulen, Marcel Eens, Stefan Van Dongen, Wendt Müller
Throughout their life animals progressively accumulate mostly detrimental changes in cells, tissues and their functions, causing a decrease in individual performance and ultimately an increased risk of death. The latter may be amplified if it also leads to a deterioration of the immune system which forms the most important protection against the permanent threat of pathogens and infectious diseases. Here, we investigated how four baseline innate immune parameters (natural antibodies, complement activity, concentrations of haptoglobin and concentrations of nitric oxide) changed with age in free-living great tits (Parus major)...
March 15, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315394/physical-activity-and-dietary-habits-related-to-cardiovascular-risk-in-independent-community-living-older-women
#2
A B Fraile-Bermúdez, M Kortajarena, I Zarrazquin, A Irazusta, A Fernandez-Atutxa, F Ruiz-Litago, J J Yanguas, J Gil-Goikouria, J Irazusta
A side effect of increased life expectancy is a surge in sequelae of diseases and injuries, which in turn increase the duration of life with disability among the elderly. The aim of this study was to ascertain the physical activity and nutritional parameters that better predict cardiovascular risk in a cohort of older women. A cross-sectional study was designed including 65 women able to independently perform basic activities of daily life. Data collection included anthropometric measurement, blood pressure measurement, blood analytics, objectively measurement of physical activity, and dietary assessment...
March 14, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300627/serum-uric-acid-is-associated-with-better-executive-function-in-men-but-not-in-women-baseline-assessment-of-the-elsa-brasil-study
#3
Cristina Pellegrino Baena, Claudia Kimie Suemoto, Sandhi Barreto, Paulo Lotufo, Isabela Benseñor
BACKGROUND: Serum uric acid (SUA) may protect against free radical stress damage and was previously linked to cognitive impairment in older adults, but evidence in middle-aged adults is scarce. PURPOSE: We sought to analyze whether SUA is associated with cognitive performance in apparently healthy middle-aged participants in the ELSA-Brasil cohort study. METHODS: We excluded participants older than age 65, those taking allopurinol, benzbromarone, or medications that could impair cognitive performance, those with previous stroke, and those with incomplete data on cognitive tests or SUA...
March 11, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288810/cognitive-behavior-and-sensory-function-were-significantly-influenced-by-restoration-of-active-ovarian-function-in-postreproductive-mice
#4
Kate C Parkinson, Rhett L Peterson, Jeffrey B Mason
In mammals, the relationship between reproductive function and health has been particularly difficult to define. Previously, in old, postreproductive-aged mice, replacement of senescent ovaries with new ovaries from young, actively cycling mice increased life span. We hypothesized that the same factors that increased life span would also influence health span. In the current experiments, we tested two of the seven domains of function/health, sensory function and cognition to determine if exposure of postreproductive female mice to young transplanted ovaries influenced health span...
March 10, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286250/change-in-muscle-strength-and-muscle-mass-in-older-hospitalized-patients-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
Jeanine M Van Ancum, Kira Scheerman, Nini H Jonkman, Hanne E Smeenk, Roeliene C Kruizinga, Carel G M Meskers, Andrea B Maier
Hospitalization may induce a decrease of muscle strength and muscle mass in older patients due to physical inactivity, malnutrition and diseases, negatively affecting health outcome. We aimed to examine the literature on change in muscle strength and muscle mass in older patients during hospitalization. A literature search was performed in major electronic databases from inception to March 2016. Studies including hospitalized patients with a mean age≥65years, describing change of hand grip strength and/or muscle mass were found eligible...
March 10, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286170/depletion-of-oxaloacetate-decarboxylase-fahd1-inhibits-mitochondrial-electron-transport-and-induces-cellular-senescence-in-human-endothelial-cells
#6
Michele Petit, Rafal Koziel, Solmaz Etemad, Haymo Pircher, Pidder Jansen-Dürr
In this study we report the identification of FAH domain containing protein 1 (FAHD1), a recently described member of the fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (FAH) superfamily of metabolic enzymes, as a novel player in the regulation of cellular senescence. FAHD1 was found in a proteomic screen searching for mitochondrial proteins, which are differentially regulated in mitochondria from young and senescent human endothelial cells, and subsequently identified as oxaloacetate decarboxylase. We report here that depletion of FAHD1 from human endothelial cells inhibited mitochondrial energy metabolism and subsequently induced premature senescence...
March 8, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285147/protective-roles-of-nanomelatonin-in-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-of-aged-brain-matrixmetalloproteinases-as-regulators
#7
Sibani Sarkar, Abhishek Mukherjee, Nirmalendu Das, Snehasikta Swarnakar
Cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (CIR) injury occurs as a result of oxygen occlusion in the carotid artery through embolus or thrombus formation or cerebrovascular hemorrhage. The oxygen thrust during reperfusion causes the generation of reactive oxidative species (ROS) which exert a potential threat to neuronal survival. ROS may possibly be arrested by antioxidants. After CIR, extracellular matrix remodeling takes place, which is governed by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Augmentation of lipid per oxidation, perturbation of antioxidant enzyme activities and the loss of pyramidal neuronal cells in rat brain were attributed to CIR injury...
March 8, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285146/lifespan-differences-between-queens-and-workers-are-not-explained-by-rates-of-molecular-damage
#8
Eric R Lucas, Maria Augustyniak, Andrzej Kędziorski, Laurent Keller
The biological processes that underlie senescence are of universal biological importance, yet they remain poorly understood. A popular theory proposes that senescence is the result of limited investment into mechanisms involved in the prevention and repair of molecular damage, leading to an accumulation of molecular damage with age. In ants, queen and worker lifespans differ by an order of magnitude, and this remarkable difference in lifespan has been shown to be associated with differences in the expression of genes involved in DNA and protein repair...
March 8, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285145/treatment-effects-of-cardiotrophin-1-ct-1-on-streptozotocin-induced-memory-deficits-in-mice
#9
Dongmei Wang, Xiaozhuan Liu, Yumei Liu, Guomin Shen, Xiaoying Zhu, Sanqiang Li
Increasing evidence has shown that diabetes-associated cognitive impairment is correlated with mitochondrial dysfunction and resultant synaptic injury as well as brain insulin resistance. Cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1), a regulator of energy metabolism, has been shown to exhibit impressive neuroprotective effects. In this study, we evaluated the effects of CT-1 on brain pathological features in intracerebroventrical-streptozotocin (ICV-STZ)-treated mouse model, and explored its potential mechanisms. STZ was injected twice (3mg/kg, ICV) on alternate days (day 1 and day 3) in mice...
March 8, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286172/age-related-changes-in-skeletal-muscle-composition-a-pilot-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-study-in-mice
#10
Anatoly P Sobolev, Luisa Mannina, Manuela Costanzo, Barbara Cisterna, Manuela Malatesta, Carlo Zancanaro
The composition of skeletal muscle was investigated in the quadriceps and gastrocnemius muscle of 13-month-old (n=15) and 23-month-old (n=19) mice by means of high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Muscle specimens were dissected out, frozen in liquid nitrogen and extracted in chloroform/methanol, and proton NMR spectra of the resulting aqueous and organic fractions were obtained at 600MHz. Several metabolites were unambiguously identified and quantified. Multivariate ANOVA (factor: age, muscle, age×muscle) showed a significant main effect of age (P=0...
March 7, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286171/epigallocatechin-3-gallate-increases-autophagy-signaling-in-resting-and-unloaded-plantaris-muscles-but-selectively-suppresses-autophagy-protein-abundance-in-reloaded-muscles-of-aged-rats
#11
Hideyuki Takahashi, Yutaka Suzuki, Junaith S Mohamed, Takafumi Gotoh, Suzette L Pereira, Stephen E Alway
We have previously found that Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCg), an abundant catechin in green tea, reduced apoptotic signaling and improved muscle recovery in response to reloading after hindlimb suspension (HS). In this study, we investigated if EGCg altered autophagy signaling in skeletal muscle of old rats in response to HS or reloading after HS. Fischer 344×Brown Norway inbred rats (age 34months) were given 1ml/day of purified EGCg (50mg/kg body weight), or the same sample volume of the vehicle by gavage...
March 7, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263868/accelerometer-assessed-light-physical-activity-is-protective-of-future-cognitive-ability-a-longitudinal-study-among-community-dwelling-older-adults
#12
Brendon Stubbs, Li-Jung Chen, Chun-Yi Chang, Wen-Jung Sun, Po-Wen Ku
OBJECTIVE: Physical activity (PA), especially moderate-to-vigorous intensity, could protect older adults from cognitive impairment. However, most literature is based on self-reported PA which is limited by recall bias. Light PA is popular among older adults, but a paucity of objective longitudinal data has considered the relationship between light PA and cognitive ability. We examined if a higher level of objectively measured light PA, independent of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), was prospectively associated with better cognitive ability in older adults...
March 3, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263869/does-aging-alter-the-molecular-substrate-of-ionotropic-neurotransmitter-receptors-in-the-rostral-ventral-lateral-medulla-a-short-communication
#13
Hitesh N Pawar, Sivasai Balivada, Michael J Kenney
Aging alters sympathetic nervous system (SNS) regulation, although central mechanisms are not well understood. In young rats the rostral ventral lateral medulla (RVLM) is critically involved in central SNS regulation and RVLM neuronal activity is mediated by a balance of excitatory and inhibitory ionotropic neurotransmitters and receptors, providing the foundation for hypothesizing that with advanced age the molecular substrate of RVLM ionotropic receptors is characterized by upregulated excitatory and downregulated inhibitory receptor subunits...
March 2, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263867/mutation-and-catastrophe-in-the-aging-genome
#14
Brandon Milholland, Yousin Suh, Jan Vijg
In the 1960s, Leslie Orgel proposed what is now known as the error catastrophe theory of aging, arguing that errors in protein translation that reduce the fidelity of the protein-translating enzymes would lead to a feedback loop of increasingly inaccurate protein synthesis, terminating in the death of the organism. This mechanism of aging would be consistent with the exponential increase of mortality observed in humans, but the error catastrophe theory of aging has been generally disregarded by researchers due to a lack of evidence for an age-related increase in protein errors...
March 2, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257931/the-protective-properties-of-act-belong-commit-indicators-against-incident-depression-anxiety-and-cognitive-impairment-among-older-irish-adults-findings-from-a-prospective-community-based-study
#15
Ziggi Ivan Santini, Ai Koyanagi, Stefanos Tyrovolas, Josep Maria Haro, Robert J Donovan, Line Nielsen, Vibeke Koushede
The Act-Belong-Commit campaign is the world's first comprehensive, population-wide, community-based program designed to promote mental health. The campaign targets individuals to engage in mentally healthy activities, while at the same time, encouraging community organizations that offer such activities, to increase participation in their activities. Using nationally-representative data from Ireland, the aim of this study was to prospectively assess the association between indicators of the Act-Belong-Commit behavioral domains and incident depression, anxiety, and cognitive impairment...
March 1, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257932/association-between-muscular-strength-and-intrarenal-vascular-resistance-in-middle-aged-and-older-individuals
#16
Keisei Kosaki, Atsuko Kamijo-Ikemori, Takeshi Sugaya, Koichiro Tanahashi, Hiroshi Kumagai, Yuriko Sawano, Yosuke Osuka, Kiyoji Tanaka, Kenjiro Kimura, Yugo Shibagaki, Seiji Maeda
A strategy for the preservation of intrarenal vasculature conditions remains obscure in middle-aged and older individuals without the renal disease. In the present study, we sought to identify whether the maintenance of muscular strength is an effective method of preserving the intrarenal vasculature condition of middle-aged and older individuals. Therefore, we applied a cross-sectional approach for investigating the relationship between muscular strength and the condition of the intrarenal vasculature. In 169 middle-aged and older individuals without renal disease, handgrip strength (HGS) and the renal resistive index (RRI) were measured as the parameters of muscular strength and intrarenal vascular resistance, respectively...
February 28, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237604/resistance-training-performed-at-distinct-angular-velocities-elicits-velocity-specific-alterations-in-muscle-strength-and-mobility-status-in-older-adults
#17
Davis A Englund, Rick L Sharp, Joshua T Selsby, Shanthi S Ganesan, Warren D Franke
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of high and low velocity knee extension training on changes in muscle strength and mobility status in high-functioning older adults. METHODS: Twenty-six (16 female, 10 male) older adults (mean age of 65) were randomized to either 6weeks of low velocity resistance training (LVRT) performed at 75°/s or high velocity resistance training (HVRT) performed at 240°/s. Both groups performed 3 sets of knee extension exercises at maximal effort, 3 times a week...
February 22, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28232199/impact-of-maximal-strength-training-on-work-efficiency-and-muscle-fiber-type-in-the-elderly-implications-for-physical-function-and-fall-prevention
#18
Eivind Wang, Stian Kwak Nyberg, Jan Hoff, Jia Zhao, Gunnar Leivseth, Tom Tørhaug, Otto Schnell Husby, Jan Helgerud, Russell S Richardson
Although aging is typically associated with a decreased efficiency of locomotion, somewhat surprisingly, there is also a reduction in the proportion of less efficient fast-twitch Type II skeletal muscle fibers and subsequently a greater propensity for falls. Maximal strength training (MST), with an emphasis on velocity in the concentric phase, improves maximal strength, the rate of force development (RFD), and work efficiency, but the impact on muscle morphology in the elderly is unknown. Therefore we evaluated force production, walking work efficiency, and muscle morphology in 11 old (72±3years) subjects before and after MST of the legs...
February 21, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223223/berberine-improves-cognitive-impairment-by-promoting-autophagic-clearance-and-inhibiting-production-of-%C3%AE-amyloid-in-app-tau-ps1-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
Min Huang, Xin Jiang, Yubin Liang, Qiong Liu, Siyan Chen, Yi Guo
This study investigates the neuroprotective properties of berberine (a natural isoquinoline alkaloid isolated from the Rhizoma coptidis) and finds that berberine could promote β-amyloid (Aβ) clearance and inhibit Aβ production in the triple-transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (3×Tg-AD). During the study, berberine was first administrated to treat 3×Tg-AD mice and primary neurons. Morris water maze assay, western blotting, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunofluorescence staining and histological analysis, transmission electron microscopic analysis were then used to evaluate the effects of the berberine administration...
February 20, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219672/changes-in-cardiovascular-function-based-on-adrenalin-and-norepinephrine-metabolism-in-ovariectomized-rats
#20
Hai Jiang, Wenpei Bai, Wenjuan Wang, Jing Zhang, Ke Wang, Yao Liu, Shuya Liu, Jing Jia, Lihua Qin
Menopause is a cardiovascular risk factor in women, and cardiovascular changes during perimenopause can increase the risk. We observed the influence of plasma adrenalin and norepinephrine and their metabolites on the cardiovascular system and the rectification effect of estrogen in ovariectomized rats. Fifty-four adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham (Sham), ovariectomized (OVX), or ovariectomized+estrogen treatment groups (OVX+E), with 18 rats in each. The Sham and OVX groups were given normal saline and the OVX+E group was given estradiol valerate beginning 2weeks after ovariectomy and continuing for 4weeks...
February 17, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
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