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Experimental Gerontology

Saliu Balogun, Tania Winzenberg, Karen Wills, David Scott, Graeme Jones, Michele L Callisaya, Dawn Aitken
AIMS: This study aims to describe the associations of low muscle mass, handgrip (HGS) and lower-limb muscle strength (LMS) with health-related quality of life (HRQoL) over 10 years in community-dwelling older adults. METHODS: Participants (N = 1002; 51% women; mean age 63 ± 7.4 years) were prospectively followed for 10 years. HRQoL was measured using the validated assessment of quality of life (AQoL) instrument. Appendicular lean mass (ALM) was assessed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and normalized to body mass index (BMI)...
January 11, 2019: Experimental Gerontology
Mathieu Maltais, Philipe de Souto Barreto, So Young Moon, Yves Rolland, Bruno Vellas
BACKGROUND: Frailty is a prevalent geriatric condition and its association with brain health is still weakly investigated. The objective of this study was to examine whether brain white matter hyperintensities (WMH) were related to longitudinal changes in frailty severity in community-dwelling older adults. METHODS: 113 community-dwelling older adults, aged 70 years and over, enrolled in the placebo group from the 3-year Multidomain Alzheimer's Preventive Trial (MAPT)...
January 10, 2019: Experimental Gerontology
Xia Zhang, Chun Liu, Congcong Liu, Yan Wang, Wenhua Zhang, Yanqiu Xing
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the effects of trimetazidine and l‑carnitine on heart aging and cardiac metabolism in the natural aging rats and explore the possible mechanism regarding the regulation of cardiac metabolic substrates. METHODS: A total of 28 young (2-month-old) and 28 aged (14-month-old) male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated to the following groups: young control (YC, n = 8), young trimetazidine (YT, n = 10), young l‑carnitine (YL, n = 10), aging control (AC, n = 8), aging trimetazidine (AT, n = 10), and aging l‑carnitine (AL, n = 10)...
January 8, 2019: Experimental Gerontology
Heidi Kletzien, Miranda J Cullins, Nadine P Connor
BACKGROUND: Aging rodent models allow for the discovery of underlying mechanisms of cranial muscle dysfunction. Methods are needed to allow quantification of complex, multivariate biomechanical movements during swallowing. Videofluoroscopic swallow studies (VSS) are the standard of care in assessment of swallowing disorders in patients and validated quantitative, kinematic, and morphometric analysis methods have been developed. Our purpose was to adapt validated morphometric techniques to the rodent to computationally analyze swallowing dysfunction in the aging rodent...
January 8, 2019: Experimental Gerontology
Gregory W King, Eduardo L Abreu, Patricia J Kelly, Marco Brotto
Age-related changes in postural sway are well-established, and studied from a control perspective using an inverted pendulum model. The purpose of the present work was to expand previous research in this area by investigating relationships between sway-related control parameters and musculoskeletal measures of muscle function and health. Eleven female older adults and eight female young adults completed blood draw, grip, leg extension, and balance tests. Serum levels of skeletal muscle-specific troponin T (sTnT), a biomarker for muscle health, were obtained from blood samples...
January 7, 2019: Experimental Gerontology
Namiki Fujii, Seira Uta, Masaki Kobayashi, Tsugumichi Sato, Naoyuki Okita, Yoshikazu Higami
Caloric restriction (CR) suppresses age-related pathophysiology and extends lifespan. We recently reported that metabolic remodeling of white adipose tissue (WAT) plays an important role in the beneficial actions of CR; however, the detailed molecular mechanisms of this remodeling remain to be established. In the present study, we aimed to identify CR-induced alterations in the expression of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), a regulator of lipid and glucose metabolism, and of its downstream signaling mediators in liver and WAT, across the lifespan of rats...
January 5, 2019: Experimental Gerontology
Felipe C K Duarte, Mark Hurtig, Andrea Clark, Jeremy Simpson, John Z Srbely
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the association between naturally occurring spinal osteoarthritis (OA) (L3-L5), the expression of substance P (SP) centrally (L4-L5) and the presence of neurogenic inflammation within the neurosegmentally linked quadriceps (L2-L5) in elderly rats versus young controls. DESIGN: Eight aged (27 ± 3.2 months) and six young (4 ± 0.0 months) male Wistar Kyoto rats were euthanized and submitted to micro-computerized tomography for determination of spine OA...
January 4, 2019: Experimental Gerontology
Anderson Rech, Cíntia Ehrles Botton, Pedro Lopez, André Quincozes-Santos, Daniel Umpierre, Ronei Silveira Pinto
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of 12-weeks of strength training on endothelial function and inflammatory markers in elderly individuals with T2DM. METHODS: Forty-four elderly patients with T2DM were screened for participation. After completion of the baseline assessment, participants were randomly assigned to either the resistance training group (RT) or an active control group (AC). Inflammatory (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, IL-10 and CRP) and blood lipid profiles, glycated hemoglobin, basal artery diameter and flow mediated dilation were evaluated before and after the intervention...
January 3, 2019: Experimental Gerontology
Sunghee Lee, Eun Young Kim, Chol Shin
OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between brain structural changes and gait speed in a four-year longitudinal prospective cohort study. MEASUREMENTS: A total of 767 well-functioning community-dwelling participants, free of arthritis, silent infarct, stroke, dementia, head injury, and cancer, completed baseline brain magnetic resonance imaging scan and gait speed tests between 2011 and 2014, and follow-up tests between 2015 and 2017. The gait test consisted of measuring the elapsed time to walk four meters at usual speed...
January 3, 2019: Experimental Gerontology
Pei Cao, Jingjing Zhang, Yuyan Huang, Yujia Fang, Jianxin Lyu, Yao Shen
Previously, we successfully established a d-galactose (d-gal)-induced astrocyte aging model in vitro. However, whether the changes in the aged astrocytes induced by d-gal are similar to those occurred in naturally are unknown. Therefore, in current study, we simultaneously established d-gal-induced and naturally aged astrocyte aging models in vitro to explore the age-related changes and to compare the differences in these two astrocyte aging models. The Seahorse Extracellular Flux Analyzer was used to examine the mitochondrial metabolism and glycolysis activities of the young and senescent astrocytes...
January 2, 2019: Experimental Gerontology
Bianca Hemmeryckx, Liesbeth Frederix, H Roger Lijnen
BACKGROUND: Mice deficient in the circadian clock gene BMAL1 (Brain and Muscle ARNT-like protein-1) exhibit a hypercoagulable state and an enhanced arterial and venous thrombogenicity, which aggravates with age. We investigated the effect of BMAL1 deficiency in mice at a different age on the diurnal rhythm of factors involved in coagulation and fibrinolysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Hepatic, cardiac and brain tissues were isolated from 10- and 25-weeks-old Bmal1-deficient (BMAL1-/- ) and wild-type (BMAL1+/+ ) mice at ZT2 and at ZT14 to analyze the mRNA expression level of genes involved in coagulation and fibrinolysis...
January 2, 2019: Experimental Gerontology
Eiji Fujita, Dennis R Taaffe, Yasuhide Yoshitake, Hiroaki Kanehisa
PURPOSE: To examine the effect of a conditioning program consisting of repeated sit-to-stand exercise on knee extensor strength and muscular activities during body mass-based squat movement in physically frail elders. METHODS: Fourteen men and women aged 75 to 88 years who used the long-term care insurance system participated in the 12-week training program (48 reps/session, 3 sessions/week). Isometric knee extension torque (KET) during a maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) and electromyogram (EMG) activities of the rectus femoris and vastus lateralis muscles during the MVC and a body mass-based squat task were determined at baseline, and following 4 and 12 weeks training...
December 27, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Yao-Hua Gu, Jin-Bing Bai, Xiao-Li Chen, Wen-Wen Wu, Xiang-Xiang Liu, Xiao-Dong Tan
Due to dramatic growth of the aging population worldwide, there has been an urgent call for a public health strategy to manage healthy aging, with the ultimate goal being advancement of aging research. Considerable progress has been made in uncovering the mystery of aging process using multidisciplinary methods. There is a growing consensus in the field that aging traits which were originally thought to be disparate are likely to be interconnected. Thus, emerging research is needed to incorporate current findings of aging by building multiscale network models...
December 24, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Emiel O Hoogendijk, Maaike van der Noordt, Bregje D Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Dorly J H Deeg, Martijn Huisman, Linda Enroth, Marja Jylhä
OBJECTIVES: Little is known about sex differences in healthy life expectancy among the oldest old, the fastest growing segment of the older population. This study examines sex differences in total, healthy and unhealthy life expectancy among nonagenarians. METHODS: Longitudinal data of 884 older adults aged 90 and over participating in the Vitality 90+ study (Tampere, Finland) were used, including 2501 observations (health or death states) from 5 measurement waves between 2001 and 2014...
December 24, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Charlotte Jones, Milos Markovic, Sarah Charman, Nduka Okwose, Srdjan Ivkovic, Robert Ropret, Branka Markovic, Sanja Mandaric, Miljan Grbovic, Guy A MacGowan, Djordje G Jakovljevic
The present study evaluated the effect of age on glucose tolerance and cardiac function and assessed the relationship between metabolic control and cardiac function and performance. Thirty-four healthy women aged 40 to 81 years were divided into two age groups: younger (≤50 years of age, N = 19) and older (≥60 years of age, N = 15). Participants performed an oral glucose tolerance test and a graded cardiopulmonary exercise test with non-invasive haemodynamic measurements. Compared to younger, older women demonstrated significantly higher 2-hour glucose (4...
December 20, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Johnny Moretto, Corine Girard, Céline Demougeot
Aging is a normal, progressive and multi-step degeneration in the physiological functions and metabolic processes of living organisms until death. It represents the main risk factor for many diseases (e.g. cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases) and contributes to increase in mortality. Aging results, at least partially, from an accumulation of cell and tissue damage related to inherited and environmental factors, leading to biological and biochemical dysregulations. Arginase is a ubiquitous L-arginine-metabolizing enzyme involved in some fundamental mechanisms such as the urea cycle or polyamines synthesis...
December 19, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Chueh-Lung Hwang, Jisok Lim, Jeung-Ki Yoo, Han-Kyul Kim, Moon-Hyon Hwang, Eileen M Handberg, John W Petersen, Brady J Holmer, Julio A Leey Casella, Kenneth Cusi, Demetra D Christou
Aging and diabetes are associated with decreased aerobic fitness, an independent predictor of mortality. Aerobic exercise is prescribed to improve aerobic fitness; however, middle-aged/older diabetic patients often suffer from mobility limitations which restrict walking. Non-weight-bearing/low-impact exercise is recommended but the optimal exercise prescription is uncertain. The goal of this randomized controlled trial was twofold: 1) to test if high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT), implemented on a non-weight-bearing all-extremity ergometer, are feasible, well-tolerated and safe in middle-aged/older adults with type 2 diabetes; and 2) to test whether all-extremity HIIT is more effective in improving aerobic fitness than MICT...
December 18, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Sevag Kaladchibachi, Micah A Secor, David C Negelspach, Fabian Fernandez
Mistiming of circadian rhythms impairs quality of life. The sleep fragmentation that results can lead to fatigue, mood alteration, and short-term memory problems. Unfortunately, this suite occurs in humans as we age. In the current study, we used high-resolution monitors to track how circadian patterns of locomotor activity change in female Drosophila ananassae as they enter mid-to-late life. This equipment is a more recent addition to the fly circadian field and has not been previously used for long-term activity tracking...
December 17, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Christopher S Walter, Caitlin R Hengge, Bergen E Lindauer, Sydney Y Schaefer
BACKGROUND: Age-related declines in function can limit older adults' independence with activities of daily living (ADLs). While task-specific training maybe a viable approach to improve function, limited clinical resources prevent extensive training on wide ranges of skills and contexts. Thus, training on one task for the benefit of another (i.e., transfer) is important in geriatric physical rehabilitation. The purpose of this study was to test whether motor transfer would occur between two functionally different upper extremity tasks that simulate ADLs in a sample of older adults following task-specific training...
December 15, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Ryo Ohta, Hideo Ohmukai
We investigated the effects of pregnancy experience on ovarian senescence and longevity using two inbred strains of Hatano rats. These strains have been selectively bred for high- and low-avoidance animals (HAA and LAA, respectively), but the HAA line has a slower onset of ovarian senescence and a shorter lifespan compared with the LAA line. The onset of abnormal estrous cycles and survival curves were compared between nulliparous and parous rats in each line. In the HAA line, pregnancy experience did not change the onset of ovarian senescence but increased longevity...
December 13, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
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