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Experimental Gerontology

Wahyu Wulaningsih, Rebecca Hardy, Andrew Wong, Diana Kuh
BACKGROUND: There is evidence that paternal age may influence offspring telomere length, but the joint effects of father's and mother's age are unclear. We evaluated whether parental ages, individually and jointly, were associated with offspring telomere length and shortening. METHODS: We included 2305 British birth cohort participants with measured leukocyte telomere length (LTL) at age 53, among whom 941 had a second measurement at age 60-64. Linear regressions were performed to assess the associations of father's and mother's age at birth and the parental age gap, i...
September 14, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Robertina Giacconi, Fabrizio Maggi, Lisa Macera, Mauro Pistello, Mauro Provinciali, Simone Giannecchini, Francesco Martelli, Pietro Giorgio Spezia, Erminia Mariani, Roberta Galeazzi, Laura Costarelli, Lorenzo Iovino, Sara Galimberti, Lorenzo Nisi, Francesco Piacenza, Marco Malavolta
An age-related dysregulation of immune response, known as immunosenescence, contributes to increased susceptibility to infections, frailty and high risk of mortality in the elderly. Torquetenovirus (TTV), a circular, single-stranded DNA virus, is highly prevalent in the general population and it may persist in the organism, also in association with other viruses such as cytomegalovirus (CMV), causing chronic viremia. The relationship that TTV establishes with the immune system of infected hosts is not clear...
September 14, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Nicholas Cherup, Kirk Roberson, Melanie Potiaumpai, Kayla Widdowson, Ann-Marie Jaghab, Sean Chowdhari, Catherine Armitage, Afton Seeley, Joseph Signorile
OBJECTIVES: Cognition, along with aerobic and muscular fitness, declines with age. Although research has shown that resistance and aerobic exercise may improve cognition, no consensus exists supporting the use of one approach over the other. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of steady-state, moderate-intensity treadmill training (TM) and high-velocity circuit resistance training (HVCRT) on cognition, and to examine its relationships to aerobic fitness and neuromuscular power...
September 14, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Jinhua Shan, Xiaojuan Bai, Lulu Han, Yuan Yuan, Jun Yang, Xuefeng Sun
BACKGROUND: Studies have suggested that Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection is associated with atherosclerotic process, while the relationship between pepsinogens, gastrin and atherosclerosis is unknown. AIM: The aim of the study was to observe association of Hp infection on atherosclerotic parameters and blood pressure, and explore the relationship between atherosclerotic parameters, blood pressure and gastric biomarkers in a healthy population. METHODS: 395 subjects were chosen and received physical examinations, carotid artery ultrasound, peripheral atherosclerosis measurement, and testing of serum pepsinogen (PG) I and II, Hp antibody, and gastrin-17 (G-17) levels...
September 13, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
K Rewiuk, B Wizner, A Klich-Rączka, A Więcek, M Mossakowska, J Chudek, A Szybalska, K Broczek, T Zdrojewski, T Grodzicki
BACKGROUND: Depression is a frequently observed comorbid condition in patients with cardiovascular diseases. In contrast to coronary heart disease and heart failure there is a limited amount of published data concerning the increased prevalence of depression among patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Therefore, we decided to assess the prevalence of depression in Polish community-dwelling older patients with a history of AF. METHODS: The data were collected as part of the nationwide PolSenior project (2007-2012)...
September 13, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Yusuke Osawa, Stephanie A Studenski, Luigi Ferrucci
PURPOSE: Acceleration capacity affects physical function, but whether it differentially affects men versus women or weak versus strong individuals is less known. We investigated whether knee extension rate of velocity development (RVD, a measure of acceleration) is associated with walking performance independent of peak torque and whether the relationships differ in men versus women and in weak versus strong individuals. METHODS: Relationships of RVD with walking performance were assessed in 326 women and 365 men aged 26-96 years enrolled in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging...
September 12, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
C P McDowell, R K Dishman, M Hallgren, C MacDonncha, M P Herring
Physical activity (PA) can protect against depression, but few studies have assessed whether meeting PA guidelines is sufficient, or if benefits can be derived from greater volumes of PA. The present study examines cross-sectional and prospective associations between different volumes of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and walking, and depressive symptoms and status. Participants (n = 4556; 56.7% female) aged ≥ 50 years completed the International PA Questionnaire (IPAQ) at baseline and the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale at baseline and two years later...
September 12, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
M J Henstra, C M Houbolt, L J Seppala, S E de Rooij, D Rhebergen, M L Stek, N van der Velde
Apathy, a common and disabling behavioural syndrome in older persons, has been associated with impaired physical performance and executive dysfunction. Both are fall risk factors and they share pathophysiological pathway. We cross-sectionally examined the association between apathy and recurrent falling (≥2 falls in the past 12 months) and number of falls in the past 12 months in 243 outpatients aged ≥65 years with ≥3 fall risk-factors visiting a fall-clinic after a fall. We calculated Odds Ratio's (ORs), Incidence Rate Ratio's (IRRs) and their 95% Confidential Intervals (CI95) using multivariable regression and negative binomial regression analyses...
September 11, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Ji-Young Lee, Il-Young Paik, Joo Young Kim
Excessive oxidative stress leads to aging due to persistent damage to the cells, tissues, and the entire organism. Immunosenescence is also a devastating consequence of oxidative stress, but there is a lack of research on effective ways to overcome it. In this study, we used physiologic and immunological aging mouse models that had sustained oxidative stress to investigate whether voluntary exercise and/or antioxidant treatment could overcome oxidative damage as well as aging. We established an aging model induced by continuously administering d-galactose (d-gal) to 6-week-old female C57BL/6J mice...
September 4, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
P F Almaida-Pagán, C Ortega-Sabater, A Lucas-Sánchez, A Martinez-Nicolas, C Espinosa, M A Esteban, J A Madrid, M Rol, P Mendiola, J de Costa
Adult Nothobranchius furzeri of the MZM-04/10 strain were individually kept and subjected to a "5 + 2" shifting lighting schedule (SHIFT) for 8 weeks in order to evaluate the desynchronizing effects of a simulated human-like shift-work schedule on the functioning of the circadian system (CS). With this aim, sixteen 21-week-old N. furzeri were placed into a Morning, Night and Evening schedule (lights on from 08:00 to 16:00, 00:00 to 08:00 and 16:00 to 00:00 h, respectively) and fed once a day in the middle of the corresponding photophase (12:00, 04:00 and 20:00 h, respectively)...
September 2, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Yun Huang, Wen Dai, Yan Li
The present study aimed to examine associations of the testosterone/estradiol ratio, human leukocyte telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) expression and telomerase activity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with aging and the presence of coronary artery disease (CAD). Telomeres in leukocytes are shorter in individuals with CAD than in healthy individuals of the same age. Levels of sex hormones are related to aging, and the ratio of testosterone to estradiol has been linked to CAD in men. Here we compared younger men (22 ± 2 yr, n = 26), middle-aged men (31 ± 5 yr, n = 35), older men without CAD (60 ± 10 yr, n = 30) and older men with CAD (63 ± 8 yr, n = 30) in terms of testosterone/estradiol ratio, leukocyte telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) expression, activity of telomerase in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and length of PBMC telomeres...
September 1, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Julian Alcazar, Jose Losa-Reyna, Carlos Rodriguez-Lopez, Ana Alfaro-Acha, Leocadio Rodriguez-Mañas, Ignacio Ara, Francisco J García-García, Luis M Alegre
INTRODUCTION: Skeletal muscle power has been demonstrated to be a stronger predictor of functional limitations than any other physical capability. However, no validated alternatives exist to the usually expensive instruments and/or time-consuming methods to evaluate muscle power in older populations. Our aim was to validate an easily applicable procedure to assess muscle power in large cohort studies and the clinical setting and to assess its association with other age-related outcomes...
September 1, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Cinthia D Barbosa, Juliene G Costa, Jéssica S Giolo, Luana T Rossato, Paula C Nahas, Igor M Mariano, Jaqueline P Batista, Guilherme M Puga, Erick P de Oliveira
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of isoflavone supplementation plus combined exercise protocol on phase angle (PhA) values in postmenopausal women. METHODS: Thirty postmenopausal women were randomly assigned in a double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial divided into two groups: 100 mg/day of isoflavone supplementation (n = 16) and 100 mg/day of starch (placebo; n = 14). In addition, both groups performed a combined aerobic and resistance exercise during 10 weeks...
September 1, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Jonas Scheffler, Kaya Bork, Veronika Bezold, Philip Rosenstock, Vinayaga S Gnanapragassam, Rüdiger Horstkorte
Ascorbic acid better known as vitamin C, is a reducing carbohydrate needed for a variety of functions in the human body. The most important characteristic of ascorbic acid is the ability to donate two electrons, predestining it as a major player in balancing the physiological redox state and as a necessary cofactor in multiple enzymatic hydroxylation processes. Ascorbic acid can be reversibly oxidized in two steps, leading to semidehydroascorbic acid and dehydroascorbic acid, respectively. Further degradation is irreversible and generates highly reactive carbonyl-intermediates...
August 24, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Kejie Wang, Sixi Chen, Congjie Zhang, Jiatao Huang, Jia Wu, Huaibin Zhou, Liqin Jin, Xu Qian, Jinlong Jin, Jianxin Lyu
Growing evidence shows that enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production is an important contributor to obesity and its co-morbidities, but the functional link between ROS and obesity remains elusive. In this study we used the model animal Caenorhabditis elegans to explore the role of ROS in obesity. Initially, when ROS production was enhanced by treatment with low concentration of paraquat or juglone, both abnormal high fat accumulation and fatty acid composition were observed in wild type worms. We found that the abnormal fat accumulation was associated with increased expression of fat-5, which encodes an isoform of stearoyl-CoA synthetase, and which is regulated by daf-16 encoding the forkhead transcription factor and being activated by downregulation daf-2...
August 16, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
K E Brown, J L Neva, S J Feldman, W R Staines, L A Boyd
Sensorimotor integration is the process through which somatosensory information is incorporated to inform motor output. Given its important behavioural implications, understanding the influence of healthy aging on the underlying neurophysiology of sensorimotor integration and whether it is modifiable through intervention is important. The aims of the current work were to: 1) profile aging-related differences in sensorimotor integration, and 2) to determine if sensorimotor integration in older adults can be modulated in response to sensory training...
August 13, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Carly Cooper, Anne Gross, Chad Brinkman, Ryan Pope, Kelli Allen, Susan Hastings, Bard E Bogen, Adam P Goode
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Physical activity provides substantial health benefits. Older adults are less physically active than the rest of the population, and interventions that promote physical activity are needed. In this meta-analysis, we investigate how different wearable activity trackers (pedometers and accelerometers) may impact physical activity levels in older adults. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Embase and CINAHL for randomized controlled trials including participants that were ≥65 years, using wearable activity trackers with the intent of increasing physical activity...
August 10, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Bianca Hutter-Schmid, Christian Humpel
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by amyloid-β plaques, tau pathology and vascular impairment including pericyte damage. Pericytes are perivascular cells of the blood-brain barrier and can differentiate into different cell types in vitro including microglia. The aim of the present study is to explore if primary mouse brain pericytes isolated and cultured from transgenic AD (APP_SweDI) mice can differentiate into CD11b+ (integrin alpha M) microglia in vitro. We show that primary pericytes (passage 5) isolated from wildtype C57BL6 mice differentiated into CD11b+ microglia (Type B, >90%), when exposed to a differentiation factor mix of FGF-2, cAMP and fibronectin...
August 10, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
David W Russ, Sean M Garvey, Clay Densmore, Trevor Hawks, Stephanie Herman, Katherine Pardi
AIM: Contusion injury in aging muscle has not been studied in detail, but older adults are at risk for such injuries due to increased risk of falls. As falls in older populations are unlikely to be eliminated, interventions to minimize the negative impact of falls, including contusion injury should be pursued. Dietary fish oil (FO) is a common often supplement in older adults, which is associated with factors that might reduce or worsen the negative impact of contusion. METHODS: Here, we investigate whether 8 weeks of FO can blunt the impact of contusion injury in adult (n = 14) and aged (n = 12) rats...
October 1, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Mayelín Domínguez-González, Meritxell Puigpinós, Mariona Jové, Alba Naudi, Manuel Portero-Otín, Reinald Pamplona, Isidro Ferrer
Oxidative damage and inflammation coexist in healthy human brain aging. The present study analyzes levels of protein adduction by lipid peroxidation (LP) end-products neuroketal (NKT) and malondialdehyde (MDA), as markers of protein oxidative damage, cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2) levels, as a marker of inflammation, and cytochrome P450 2J2 (CYP2J2), responsible of generation of neuroprotective products, in twelve brain regions in normal middle-aged individuals (MA) and old-aged (OA) individuals. In addition, levels of these markers were evaluated as a function of age as a continuous variable and correction for multiple comparisons...
October 1, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
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