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Experimental Gerontology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216413/does-neuromuscular-electrical-stimulation-training-of-the-lower-limb-have-functional-effects-on-the-elderly-a-systematic-review
#1
REVIEW
Antoine Langeard, Lucile Bigot, Nathalie Chastan, Antoine Gauthier
The lower limb muscle functions of the elderly are known to be preferentially altered by ageing. Traditional training effectively counteracts some of these functional declines but is not always accessible due to its cost and to the accessibility of the training centers and to the incapacities of some seniors to practice some exercises. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) could provide an interesting alternative muscle training technique because it is inexpensive and transportable. The aim of this systematic review was to summarize the current evidence on the effect of the use of lower limb NMES as a training technique for healthy elderly rehabilitation...
February 16, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216412/sex-impacts-the-flow-mediated-dilation-response-to-acute-aerobic-exercise-in-older-adults
#2
Jeung-Ki Yoo, Michelle M Pinto, Han-Kyul Kim, Chueh-Lung Hwang, Jisok Lim, Eileen M Handberg, Demetra D Christou
There is growing evidence of sex differences in the chronic effect of aerobic exercise on endothelial function (flow-mediated dilation; FMD) in older adults, but whether there are sex differences also in the acute effect of aerobic exercise on FMD in older adults is unknown. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that sex modulates the FMD response to acute aerobic exercise in older adults. Thirteen older men and fifteen postmenopausal women (67±1 vs. 65±2years, means±SE, P=0.6), non-smokers, free of major clinical disease, participated in this randomized crossover study...
February 16, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216411/a-summary-of-the-proceedings-of-the-thirteenth-international-symposium-on-the-neurobiology-and-neuroendocrinology-of-aging-bregenz-austria-july-17-22-2016
#3
EDITORIAL
Holly M Brown-Borg, Kurt E Borg
A summary of the Thirteenth International Symposium on the Neurobiology and Neuroendocrinology of Aging that was held July 17-22, 2016 in Bregenz, Austria, is presented. Twenty-one of the speakers that presented at the conference submitted review papers covering the topic of their presentation as well as an overview of their respective fields and are included in this special issue. The abstracts from each poster presentation as well as twenty-two of the speaker abstracts are also included at the end of the preface to the special issue...
February 16, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213052/n-3-fatty-acids-mediterranean-diet-and-cognitive-function-in-normal-aging-a-systematic-review
#4
REVIEW
Maria F Masana, Ai Koyanagi, Josep Maria Haro, Stefanos Tyrovolas
BACKGROUND: Intake of n-3 fatty acids and adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) have been shown to slow the progression of age-related cognitive decline, but the results are mixed. We summarized and evaluated the effect of n-3 fatty acids and MedDiet on cognitive outcomes in a cognitively healthy aged population. METHODS: Relevant published studies from January 2000 to May 2015 were identified by searching three electronic databases: Pubmed, Web of Science/MEDLINE, and CINHAL...
February 14, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213051/spontaneous-experimental-atherosclerosis-in-hypercholesterolemic-mice-advances-with-ageing-and-correlates-with-mitochondrial-reactive-oxygen-species
#5
Gabriel G Dorighello, Bruno A Paim, Ana Catarina Leite, Anibal E Vercesi, Helena C F Oliveira
Ageing and atherosclerosis are associated with oxidative stress. Mitochondrial redox function declines with ageing. Here we tested whether ageing LDL receptor knockout mice (LDLr(-/-)) develop spontaneous atherosclerosis and whether mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) correlate with atherosclerosis. Compared with young mice, aged LDLr(-/-) mice exhibited 20-fold larger aortic lesion size, although the plasma cholesterol levels did not vary between age groups. The lesion sizes increased exponentially from 3 to 24months of age (r=0...
February 14, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189700/csf-protein-changes-associated-with-hippocampal-sclerosis-risk-gene-variants-highlight-impact-of-grn-pgrn
#6
David W Fardo, Yuriko Katsumata, John S K Kauwe, Yuetiva Deming, Oscar Harari, Carlos Cruchaga, Peter T Nelson
OBJECTIVE: Hippocampal sclerosis of aging (HS-Aging) is a common cause of dementia in older adults.We tested the variability in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) proteins associated with previously identified HS-Aging risk single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). METHODS: Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative cohort (ADNI; n=237) data, combining both multiplexed proteomics CSF and genotype data, were used to assess the association between CSF analytes and risk SNPs in four genes (SNPs): GRN (rs5848), TMEM106B (rs1990622), ABCC9 (rs704180), and KCNMB2 (rs9637454)...
February 9, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189701/self-motivated-and-stress-response-performance-assays-in-mice-are-age-dependent
#7
Xuan Ge, Marcia A Ciol, Christina Pettan-Brewer, Jorming Goh, Peter Rabinovitch, Warren Ladiges
Chronic health conditions of the elderly lead to limitations in physical activity with disability, anxiety, and increased need for medical care and assisted living conditions. Physical performance tests are used to screen for pending loss of mobility and can serve as endpoints to monitor the effectiveness of intervention measures. Since limited mobility is associated with the physical and mental health of a person, evaluation of this in preclinical aging studies in mice will provide a translational approach for testing new intervention strategies...
February 8, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189699/skin-autofluorescence-is-associated-with-arterial-stiffness-and-insulin-level-in-endurance-runners-and-healthy-controls-effects-of-aging-and-endurance-exercise
#8
Christian Couppé, Christian Have Dall, Rene Brüggebusch Svensson, Rasmus Huan Olsen, Anders Karlsen, Stephan Praet, Eva Prescott, S Peter Magnusson
BACKGROUND: Life-long regular endurance exercise yields positive effects on cardiovascular and metabolic function, disease and mortality rate. Glycation may be a major mechanism behind age-related diseases. However, it remains unknown if skin autofluorescence (SAF), which reflects glycation, is related to arterial and metabolic function in life-long endurance runners and sedentary controls. METHODS: Healthy elderly men: 15 life-long endurance runners (OT) (64±4years) and 12 old untrained (OU) (66±4years), and healthy young men; ten young athletes (YT) (26±4years) matched to OT for running distance, and 12 young untrained (YU) (24±3years) were recruited...
February 8, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188813/glutathione-metabolic-status-in-the-aged-rabbit-aorta
#9
Domenico Lapenna, Giuliano Ciofani, Maria Adele Giamberardino
It is not known whether aging alters glutathione metabolic status of the mammalian arterial tissue favoring vascular oxidative stress and dysfunction. Thus we assessed total, reduced and oxidized glutathione (TG, GSH and GSSG, respectively), the glutathione redox ratio (GRR, namely [GSSG]/[GSH+2GSSG]×100), and the activities of the glutathione status-regulating enzymes glutathione reductase (GSSG-Red), γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCS) and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GT) in the aortic tissue of 9 young adult control rabbits (YACR, about 4months old) and 9 aged rabbits (AR, about 4...
February 8, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167236/rapamycin-and-the-inhibition-of-the-secretory-phenotype
#10
Rong Wang, Bharath Sunchu, Viviana I Perez
Senescent cells contribute to age-related pathology and loss of function, and their selective removal improves physiological function and extends longevity. Cell senescence is a complex process that can be triggered by multiple challenges. Recently it has been observed that the composition of the secretory phenotype or SASP depends on the insult that triggers cell senescence. Rapamycin, an inhibitor of mTOR that increases longevity in several species, inhibits cell senescence in vitro, while silencing the Nrf2 gene induces premature senescence...
February 4, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167238/serum-from-postmenopausal-women-treated-with-a-by-product-of-olive-oil-extraction-process-stimulates-osteoblastogenesis-and-inhibits-adipogenesis-in-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-msc
#11
Antonio Casado-Díaz, Isaac Túnez-Fiñana, José María Mata-Granados, María Victoria Ruiz-Méndez, Gabriel Dorado, María Concepción Romero-Sánchez, Cristina Navarro-Valverde, José Manuel Quesada-Gómez
Aging may enhance both oxidative stress and bone-marrow mesenchymal stem-cell (MSC) differentiation into adipocytes. That reduces osteoblastogenesis, thus favoring bone-mass loss and fracture, representing an important worldwide health-issue, mainly in countries with aging populations. Intake of antioxidant products may help to retain bone-mass density. Interestingly, a novel olive-pomace physical treatment to generate olive oil also yields by-products rich in functional antioxidants. Thus, diet of postmenopausal women was supplemented for two months with one of such by-products (distillate 6; D6), being rich in squalene...
February 3, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167237/does-high-dose-vitamin-d-supplementation-enhance-cognition-a-randomized-trial-in-healthy-adults
#12
Jacqueline A Pettersen
BACKGROUND: Insufficiency of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] has been associated with dementia and cognitive decline. However, the effects of vitamin D supplementation on cognition are unclear. It was hypothesized that high dose vitamin D3 supplementation would result in enhanced cognitive functioning, particularly among adults whose 25(OH)D levels were insufficient (<75nmol/L) at baseline. METHODS: Healthy adults (n=82) from northern British Columbia, Canada (54° north latitude) with baseline 25(OH)D levels ≤100nmol/L were randomized and blinded to High Dose (4000IU/d) versus Low Dose (400IU/d) vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) for 18weeks...
February 3, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163132/aging-leads-to-altered-microglial-function-that-reduces-brain-resiliency-increasing-vulnerability-to-neurodegenerative-diseases
#13
Paula C Bickford, Antwoine Flowers, Bethany Grimmig
Aging is the primary risk factor for many neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, understanding the basic biological changes that take place with aging that lead to the brain being less resilient to disease progression of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease or Alzheimer's disease or insults to the brain such as stroke or traumatic brain injuries. Clearly this will not cure the disease per se, yet increasing the ability of the brain to respond to injury could improve long term outcomes. The focus of this review is examining changes in microglia with age and possible therapeutic interventions involving the use of polyphenol rich dietary supplements...
February 2, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132871/effects-of-a-chronic-l-arginine-supplementation-on-the-arginase-pathway-in-aged-rats
#14
Johnny Moretto, Anne-Sophie Guglielmetti, Maude Tournier-Nappey, Hélène Martin, Anne Prigent-Tessier, Christine Marie, Céline Demougeot
While ageing is frequently associated with l-arginine deficiency, clinical and experimental studies provided controversial data on the interest of a chronic l-arginine supplementation with beneficial, no or even deleterious effects. It was hypothesized that these discrepancies might relate to a deviation of l-arginine metabolism towards production of l-ornithine rather than nitric oxide as a result of age-induced increase in arginase activity. This study investigated the effect of ageing on arginase activity/expression in target tissues and determined whether l-arginine supplementation modulated the effect of ageing on arginase activity...
January 26, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131881/ageing-is-not-associated-with-an-altered-immune-response-during-trypanosoma-cruzi-infection-ageing-and-trypanosoma-cruzi-infection
#15
Rafaela Pravato Colato, Vânia Brazão, Fabricia Helena Santello, Míriam Paula Alonso Toldo, Gabriel Tavares do Vale, Carlos Renato Tirapelli, Gabriela Pereira-da-Silva, José Clóvis do Prado
The aims of this work were to evaluate the influence of ageing on the magnitude of the immune response in male Wistar rats infected with the Y strain of Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi). Infected young animals displayed enhanced CD4(+) T cells as compared to uninfected counterparts. Ageing also triggered a significant reduction in CD8(+) T cells compared to young and uninfected groups. The percentage of spleen NKT cells was reduced for all groups, regardless of the infection status. Significant decreased B-cells was noted in aged controls and infected animals as compared to young counterparts...
January 25, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130161/protective-effect-of-resveratrol-against-inflammation-oxidative-stress-and-apoptosis-in-pancreas-of-aged-samp8-mice
#16
Cristina Ginés, Sara Cuesta, Roman Kireev, Cruz García, Lisa Rancan, Sergio D Paredes, Elena Vara, Jesús A F Tresguerres
Aging is a physiological state in which a progressive decline in organ functions is accompanied by the development of age-related diseases. Resveratrol supplementation has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects in various mammalian models of aging. Senescence-accelerated mice (SAM) are commonly used as animal models to investigate the aging process. In the present study, the effects of inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis in pancreas of two different types of SAM (SAMR1 or resistant to aging, and SAMP8 or prone to aging) have been analysed, as well as the effect of resveratrol administration (5mg/kg/day) on these parameters in the SAMP8 strain...
January 24, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126553/korean-red-ginseng-improves-testicular-ineffectiveness-in-aging-rats-by-modulating-spermatogenesis-related-molecules
#17
Spandana Rajendra Kopalli, Kyu-Min Cha, Ji-Hoon Ryu, Sang-Ho Lee, Min-Sik Jeong, Seock-Yeon Hwang, Young-Joo Lee, Hee-Won Song, Su-Nam Kim, Jin-Chul Kim, Si-Kwan Kim
Korean red ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) is known to rejuvenate testicular effectiveness and the sperm maturation process by regulating redox proteins in aged rats. This study was performed to investigate the effect of Korean red ginseng water extract (KRG-WE) on the expression level of spermatogenesis-related key biomolecules and sex hormone receptors as well as enzymes regulating oxidation, histone deacetylation, and growth-related activities in aged rat testis. KRG-WE (200mg/kg) mixed with a regular pellet diet was administered to 12-month-old rats for 6months (KRG-AC), whereas the young (YC, 2months) and aged (AC, 12months) controls received the vehicle only...
January 23, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122252/growing-more-positive-with-age-the-relationship-between-reproduction-and-survival-in-aging-flies
#18
Joost van den Heuvel, Jelle Zandveld, Paul M Brakefield, Thomas B L Kirkwood, Daryl P Shanley, Bas J Zwaan
Populations of laboratory animals that are selected for increased lifespan often show negative correlated responses in early fecundity. However, late fecundity and/or total lifetime fecundity can be higher in the populations selected for increased lifespan. This has been interpreted by some as being at odds with the disposable soma theory, which predicts decreased lifespan to increase total reproductive output. Alternatively, the Y-model explores the effects of variation in resource allocation and acquisition on life histories...
January 22, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122251/early-life-stress-affects-mortality-rate-more-than-social-behavior-gene-expression-or-oxidative-damage-in-honey-bee-workers
#19
Olav Rueppell, Babak Yousefi, Juan Collazo, Daniel Smith
Early life stressors can affect aging and life expectancy in positive or negative ways. Individuals can adjust their behavior and molecular physiology based on early life experiences but relatively few studies have connected such mechanisms to demographic patterns in social organisms. Sociality buffers individuals from environmental influences and it is unclear how much early life stress affects later life history. Workers of the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) were exposed to two stressors, Varroa parasitism and Paraquat exposure, early in life...
January 22, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119053/rapamycin-additively-extends-lifespan-in-short-and-long-lived-lines-of-the-nematode-caenorhabditis-remanei
#20
Martin I Lind, Hwei-Yen Chen, Maria Cortazar-Chinarro, Alexei A Maklakov
Despite tremendous progress in finding genes that, when manipulated, affects lifespan, little is known about the genetics underlying natural variation in lifespan. While segregating genetic variants for lifespan has been notoriously difficult to find in genome-wide association studies (GWAS), a complementary approach is to manipulate key genetic pathways in lines that differ in lifespan. If these candidate pathways are down regulated in long-lived lines, these lines can be predicted to respond less to pharmaceutical down-regulation of these pathways than short-lived lines...
January 21, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
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