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Experimental Gerontology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916702/chronic-kidney-disease-accelerates-cognitive-impairment-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease-through-angiotensin-ii
#1
Takashi Nakagawa, Yu Hasegawa, Ken Uekawa, Shokei Kim-Mitsuyama
Epidemiological studies suggest that chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a significant risk factor in the development of cognitive decline. However, the exact role of CKD in cognitive impairment or dementia is unclear. This work was performed to examine the potential impact of CKD on cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease (AD), focusing on angiotensin II. (1) CKD was induced in 5XFAD mice, an AD model mouse, and wild-type mice by feeding adenine-containing diet and the effect on cognitive function was compared between both strains...
December 1, 2016: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894939/intranasal-cerebrolysin-attenuates-learning-and-memory-impairments-in-d-galactose-induced-senescence-in-mice
#2
Ehsan Pourmemar, Alireza Majdi, Morteza Haramshahi, Mahnaz Talebi, Pouran Karimi, Saeed Sadigh-Eteghad
Neurotrophic factors are currently being considered as pro-cognitive therapeutic approaches for management of cognitive deficits. This study aims to evaluate the effects of intranasal (i.n.) or intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of Cerebrolysin (CBL) (as a mixture of neurotrophic factors) on the d-galactose-induced oxidative stress, apoptosis and memory as well as learning impairment in mice. For this purpose, CBL (1, 2.5, 5 ml/kg/i.p.) or (1 ml/kg/i.n.), were administrated daily in d-galactose-received (100 mg/kg/subcutaneous (s...
November 25, 2016: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887984/impact-of-%C3%AE-hydroxy-%C3%AE-methylbutyrate-hmb-on-age-related-functional-deficits-in-mice
#3
Michael Munroe, Yair Pincu, Jennifer Merritt, Adam Cobert, Ryan Brander, Tor Jensen, Justin Rhodes, Marni D Boppart
β-Hydroxy β-methylbutyrate (HMB) is a metabolite of the essential amino acid leucine. Recent studies demonstrate a decline in plasma HMB concentrations in humans across the lifespan, and HMB supplementation may be able to preserve muscle mass and strength in older adults. However, the impact of HMB supplementation on hippocampal neurogenesis and cognition remains largely unexplored. The purpose of this study was to simultaneously evaluate the impact of HMB on muscle strength, neurogenesis and cognition in young and aged mice...
November 23, 2016: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887985/insulin-like-growth-factor-1-protects-sh-sy5y-cells-against-%C3%AE-amyloid-induced-apoptosis-via-the-pi3k-akt-nrf2-pathway
#4
Zigao Wang, Lu Xiong, Guanqun Wang, Wenbin Wan, Chunjiu Zhong, Hengbing Zu
Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) shows protective effect against Aβ-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly characterized. The present study was conducted to explore the mechanisms involved in the beneficial effect of IGF-1 against Aβ-induced apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells. We found that pretreatment with IGF-1 attenuated Aβ25-35-induced loss of cell viability and apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, IGF-1 inhibited the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increased the antioxidant activity in Aβ25-35-treated cells...
November 22, 2016: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871822/geroscience-addressing-the-mismatch-between-its-exciting-research-opportunities-its-economic-imperative-and-its-current-funding-crisis
#5
REVIEW
George M Martin
There is at present a huge disconnect between levels of funding for basic research on fundamental mechanisms of biological aging and, given demographic projections, the anticipated enormous social and economic impacts of a litany of chronic diseases for which aging is by far the major risk factor: One valuable approach, recently instigated by Felipe Sierra & colleagues at the US National Institute on Aging, is the development of a Geroscience Interest Group among virtually all of the NIH institutes. A complementary approach would be to seek major escalations of private funding...
November 18, 2016: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871821/redox-changes-in-the-brains-of-reproductive-female-rats-during-aging
#6
Fernanda Maciel Heemann, Ana Carolina Almeida da Silva, Tiago Boeira Salomon, Jordana Salete Putti, Vanessa Krüger Engers, Fernanda Schäfer Hackenhaar, Mara Silveira Benfato
Reproduction is a critical and demanding phase of an animal's life. In mammals, females usually invest much more in parental care than males, and lactation is the most energetically demanding period of a female's life. Here, we tested whether oxidative stress is a consequence of reproduction in the brains of female Wistar rats. We evaluated the activities of glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase, and superoxide dismutase; H2O2 consumption; protein carbonylation; NO2 & NO3 levels; and total glutathione, as well as sex hormone levels in brain tissue of animals at 3, 6, 12, and 24months of age...
November 18, 2016: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867091/development-and-aging-of-a-brain-neural-stem-cell-niche
#7
Joanne C Conover, Krysti L Todd
In the anterior forebrain, along the lateral wall of the lateral ventricles, a neurogenic stem cell niche is found in a region referred to as the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ). In rodents, robust V-SVZ neurogenesis provides new neurons to the olfactory bulb throughout adulthood; however, with increasing age stem cell numbers are reduced and neurogenic capacity is significantly diminished, but new olfactory bulb neurons continue to be produced even in old age. Humans, in contrast, show little to no new neurogenesis after two years of age and whether V-SVZ neural stem cells persist in the adult human brain remains unclear...
November 17, 2016: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865886/social-regulation-of-ageing-by-young-workers-in-the-honey-bee-apis-mellifera
#8
Michael Eyer, Benjamin Dainat, Peter Neumann, Vincent Dietemann
Organisms' lifespans are modulated by both genetic and environmental factors. The lifespan of eusocial insects is determined by features of the division of labor, which itself is influenced by social regulatory mechanisms. In the honey bee, Apis mellifera, the presence of brood and of old workers carrying out foraging tasks are important social drivers of ageing, but the influence of young adult workers is unknown, as it has not been experimentally teased apart from that of brood. In this study, we test the role of young workers in the ageing of their nestmates...
November 16, 2016: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864047/apoe%C3%AE%C2%B54-impacts-up-regulation-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-after-a-six-month-stretch-and-aerobic-exercise-intervention-in-mild-cognitively-impaired-elderly-african-americans-a-pilot-study
#9
Joanne S Allard, Oyonumo Ntekim, Steven P Johnson, Julius S Ngwa, Vernon Bond, Dynell Pinder, Richard F Gillum, Thomas V Fungwe, John Kwagyan, Thomas O Obisesan
Possession of the Apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene ε4 allele is the most prevalent genetic risk factor for late onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent evidence suggests that APOE genotype differentially affects the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Notably, aerobic exercise-induced upregulation of BDNF is well documented; and exercise has been shown to improve cognitive function. As BDNF is known for its role in neuroplasticity and survival, its upregulation is a proposed mechanism for the neuroprotective effects of physical exercise...
November 15, 2016: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856335/examining-the-impact-of-grape-consumption-on-brain-metabolism-and-cognitive-function-in-patients-with-mild-decline-in-cognition-adouble-blinded-placebo-controlled-pilot-study
#10
Jooyeon Lee, Nare Torosyan, Daniel H Silverman
BACKGROUND: Natural compounds in grapes such as resveratrol are known for their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Some studies have shown a potential role for grapes or wine in slowing cognitive decline and other effects of aging. However, well-controlled experimental data obtained in human subjects are still in need of further development. Here we aimed to systemically assess effects of grapes on regional cerebral metabolism. METHODS: Ten subjects with mild decline in cognition (mean, 72...
November 14, 2016: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847330/altered-mitochondrial-quality-control-signaling-in-muscle-of-old-gastric-cancer-patients-with-cachexia
#11
Emanuele Marzetti, Maria Lorenzi, Francesco Landi, Anna Picca, Fausto Rosa, Fabiana Tanganelli, Marco Galli, Giovanni Battista Doglietto, Fabio Pacelli, Matteo Cesari, Roberto Bernabei, Riccardo Calvani, Maurizio Bossola
Mitochondrial dysfunction is involved in the loss of muscle featuring both aging and cancer cachexia (CC). Whether mitochondrial quality control (MQC) is altered in skeletal myocytes of old patients with CC is unclear. The present investigation therefore sought to preliminarily characterize MQC pathways in muscle of old gastric cancer patients with cachexia. The study followed a case-control cross-sectional design. Intraoperative biopsies of the rectus abdominis muscle were obtained from 18 patients with gastric adenocarcinoma (nine with CC and nine non-cachectic) and nine controls, and assayed for the expression of a set of MQC mediators...
November 12, 2016: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845201/impaired-neurovascular-coupling-in-aging-and-alzheimer-s-disease-contribution-of-astrocyte-dysfunction-and-endothelial-impairment-to-cognitive-decline
#12
REVIEW
Stefano Tarantini, Cam Ha T Tran, Grant R Gordon, Zoltan Ungvari, Anna Csiszar
The importance of (micro)vascular contributions to cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) in aging cannot be overemphasized, and the pathogenesis and prevention of age-related cerebromicrovascular pathologies are a subject of intensive research. In particular, aging impairs the increase in cerebral blood flow triggered by neural activation (termed neurovascular coupling or functional hyperemia), a critical mechanism that matches oxygen and nutrient delivery with the increased demands in active brain regions...
November 12, 2016: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845200/a-combination-of-korean-mistletoe-extract-and-resistance-exercise-retarded-the-decline-in-muscle-mass-and-strength-in-the-elderly-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
Nam Ju Lim, Jun Ho Shin, Hye Jin Kim, Yeni Lim, Ji Yeon Kim, Won Jun Lee, Soo Jeong Han, Oran Kwon
Given the increased concerns about the degenerative decline in the physical performance of the elderly, there is a need for developing effective strategies to suppress the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and functional capacity through a lifestyle intervention. This randomized controlled trial examined whether a combination of Korean mistletoe extract (KME) supplement and exercise affected muscle mass, muscle function, and targeted molecular expressions. Sixty-seven subjects aged 55-75years were assigned to placebo, low-dose (1g/d), or high-dose (2g/d) of KME for 12weeks...
November 11, 2016: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27838369/effects-of-home-based-tele-exercise-on-sarcopenia-among-community-dwelling-elderly-adults-body-composition-and-functional-fitness
#14
Jeeyoung Hong, Jeongeun Kim, Suk Wha Kim, Hyoun-Joong Kong
OBJECTIVES: This study aims to develop a form of tele-exercise that would enable real-time interactions between exercise instructors and community-dwelling elderly people and to investigate its effects on improvement of sarcopenia-related factors of body composition and functional fitness among the elderly. DESIGN: Randomized, controlled trial, with a 12-week intervention period. SETTING: Community-dwelling senior citizens in Gangseo-gu, Seoul, South Korea...
November 9, 2016: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825839/cognitive-reserve-is-associated-with-quality-of-life-a-population-based-study
#15
Elvira Lara, Ai Koyanagi, Félix Caballero, Joan Domènech-Abella, Marta Miret, Beatriz Olaya, Laura Rico-Uribe, Jose Luis Ayuso-Mateos, Josep Maria Haro
OBJECTIVES: To assess the association between cognitive reserve (CR) and quality of life (QoL), as well as the role of depression, cognitive functioning, and disability in this association. METHODS: Nationally-representative cross-sectional population-based data on 1973 individuals aged ≥50years from the Spanish sample of the Collaborative Research on Ageing in Europe (COURAGE) study were analysed. CR was a composite score ranging from 0 to 25 obtained from the Cognitive Reserve Questionnaire, which is composed of items on training courses, occupation, musical training, languages, reading activities, intellectual games, and level of education of the participants and their parents...
November 5, 2016: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818250/a-novel-mechanism-of-non-feminizing-estrogens-in-neuroprotection
#16
Elizabeth B Engler-Chiurazzi, Douglas F Covey, James W Simpkins
Estrogens are potent and efficacious neuroprotectants both in vitro and in vivo in a variety of models of neurotoxicity. We determined the structural requirements for neuroprotection in an in vitro assay using a panel of >70 novel estratrienes, synthesized to reduce or eliminate estrogen receptor (ER) binding. We observed that neuroprotection could be enhanced by as much as 200-fold through modifications that positioned a large bulky group at the C2 or C4 position of the phenolic A ring of the estratriene...
November 3, 2016: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794458/myosin-content-of-single-muscle-fibers-following-short-term-disuse-and-active-recovery-in-young-and-old-healthy-men
#17
Lars G Hvid, Lorenza Brocca, Niels Ørtenblad, Charlotte Suetta, Per Aagaard, Michael Kjaer, Roberto Bottinelli, Maria Antonietta Pellegrino
Short-term disuse and subsequent recovery affect whole muscle and single myofiber contractile function in young and old. While the loss and recovery of single myofiber specific force (SF) following disuse and rehabilitation has been shown to correlate with alterations in myosin concentrations in young, it is unknown whether similar relationships exist in old. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of 14days lower limb disuse followed by 28days of active recovery on single muscle fiber myosin content in old (68yrs) and young (24yrs) recreationally physically active healthy men...
October 26, 2016: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794457/perspectives-in-aging-nutritional-and-energetic-interventions
#18
EDITORIAL
Steven N Austad, David B Allison
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 25, 2016: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780783/age-related-changes-in-acute-central-leptin-effects-on-energy-balance-are-promoted-by-obesity
#19
I Rostás, J Tenk, A Mikó, N Füredi, S Soós, M Solymár, A Lengyel, M Székely, B Gaszner, D Feller, E Pétervári, M Balaskó
Leptin is a key catabolic regulator of food intake (FI) and energy expenditure. Both aging and obesity have been shown to induce leptin-resistance. The present study aimed to analyze age-related changes in the anorexigenic and hypermetabolic responsiveness to acute intracerebroventricular leptin administration in different age-groups of normally fed male Wistar rats (adult and old rats from 3 to 24months of age, NF3 to NF24, respectively). The expressions of the long form of the leptin receptor (Ob-Rb) and inhibitory SOCS3 genes were also assessed by quantitative RT-PCR in the arcuate nucleus (ARC)...
October 22, 2016: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756630/strain-dependent-response-to-stimulation-in-middle-aged-rat-macrophages-a-quest-after-a-useful-indicator-of-healthy-aging
#20
Stanislava Stanojević, Ivana Ćuruvija, Veljko Blagojević, Raisa Petrović, Vesna Vujić, Mirjana Dimitrijević
Rats of Albino Oxford (AO) strain in our animal facility exhibit a longer average healthy life span than rats of Dark Agouit (DA) strain. Since chronic activation of macrophages contributes to chronic low level inflammation common in older age, elucidation of the changes in middle-aged rats could be useful in prevention of unbalanced inflammatory response in advanced age. We have analysed the phenotype of unelicited and thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal macrophages from young and middle-aged DA and AO rats and tested functions of these cells following stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in vitro...
October 15, 2016: Experimental Gerontology
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