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Experimental Gerontology

R L Mildren, M C Yip, C R Lowery, C Harpur, S H M Brown, L R Bent
Cutaneous mechanoreceptors in the anterior lower leg and foot dorsum provide important information about contact with objects and movement at the knee and ankle. This cutaneous feedback contributes to static and dynamic balance control. We conducted experiment 1 to determine the effects of ageing on anterior lower leg cutaneous feedback. We measured light touch (monofilament) perceptual thresholds (MPT) at seven skin sites across the anterior lower leg and foot dorsum in 12 young (5 male, aged 21-28) and 13 older adults (8 male, aged 73-92)...
September 15, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
Hamizah Shahirah Hamezah, Lina Wati Durani, Nor Faeizah Ibrahim, Daijiro Yanagisawa, Tomoko Kato, Akihiko Shiino, Sachiko Tanaka, Hanafi Ahmad Damanhuri, Wan Zurinah Wan Ngah, Ikuo Tooyama
Impairments in cognitive and locomotor functions usually occur with advanced age, as do changes in brain volume. This study was conducted to assess changes in brain volume, cognitive and locomotor functions, and oxidative stress levels in middle- to late-aged rats. Forty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: 14, 18, 23, and 27months of age. (1)H magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed using a 7.0-Tesla MR scanner system. The volumes of the lateral ventricles, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), hippocampus, striatum, cerebellum, and whole brain were measured...
September 13, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
Marco Malavolta, Laura Costarelli, Robertina Giacconi, Andrea Basso, Francesco Piacenza, Elisa Pierpaoli, Mauro Provinciali, Ogo A Ogo, Dianne Ford
Endothelial cell senescence and Zn nutritional status influence cardiovascular disease. The influence of Zn appears dichotomous, hence it is imperative to understand the relationship with cellular senescence to improve knowledge about the molecular and cellular basis of the disease. Here we aimed to determine: 1) the impact of chronic exposure to a moderately high dose of Zn on senescence of endothelial cells; 2) the changes in Zn homeostasis during the lifespan of primary cultured endothelial cells; and 3) the susceptibility of proliferating and senescent endothelial cells to cell death after short term exposure to increasing doses of Zn and of the Zn chelator TPEN...
September 13, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
Matheus de Siqueira Mendes Barbalho, Paulo Gentil, Mikel Izquierdo, James Fisher, James Steele, Rodolfo de Azevedo Raiol
OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of non-responders to different tests and to compare the effects of different resistance training (RT) volumes on muscle strength, anthropometric and functional performance of older women. METHODS: Three hundred seventy six women performed 12weeks of RT with either low or high volume (LV, 71.29±5.77years and HV 69.73±5.88years, respectively). Both groups performed the same exercises, and all parameters were held constant except for the number of sets performed per week...
September 13, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
Wenjuan Wang, Guangyan Cai, Xiangmei Chen
Dietary restriction (DR) has multiple and essential effects in protecting against DNA damage in model organisms. Persistent DNA damage plays a central role in the process of aging. Senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), as a product of cellular aging, can accelerate the process of cellular senescence as a feedback. In this study, we directly observed whether a DR of 30% for 6months in aged rats could retard SASP by delaying the progression of DNA damage and also found the specific mechanism. The results revealed that a 30% DR could significantly improve renal pathology and some metabolic characteristics...
September 12, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
Akito Yoshiko, Takashi Kaji, Hiroki Sugiyama, Teruhiko Koike, Yoshiharu Oshida, Hiroshi Akima
Older adults requiring long-term care will experience age-associated deterioration of the quality and quantity of skeletal muscle if no interventions are performed. Long-term training is considered a typical intervention method and is effective for improvement of both muscle quantity and physical function. However, how such training affects muscle quality [i.e., fat-to-muscle ratio as determined by echo intensity (EI)] in older adults requiring long-term care remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a 12-month physical training intervention on the quality and quantity of skeletal muscle, physical function, and blood chemistry in older adults requiring long-term care...
September 11, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
Rabeb Laatar, Hiba Kachouri, Rihab Borji, Haithem Rebai, Sonia Sahli
Physical-cognitive interventions seem promising to improve balance and gait performances and prevent falls in the elderly. Although these beneficial effects, it is still not clear whether these physical-cognitive training modalities leads to more general non-specific adaptations that can be transferred to some measures reflecting every day abilities. This randomized controlled trial examined postural (center of pressure oscillations), physical (lower body strength, gait speed, functional mobility, dynamic balance) and cognitive performances (reaction time) and postural performance during daily life tasks (walking while conversing on a phone and maintaining an upright standing posture while buttoning a shirt) in older adults (66...
September 9, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
Kazuhide Takahashi, Ikuroh Ohsawa, Takuji Shirasawa, Mayumi Takahashi
The oxygen consumption rate (OCR) in brain mitochondria is significantly lower in aged mice than in young mice, and the reduced OCR is rescued by administration of water-solubilized CoQ10 to aged mice via drinking water. However, the mechanism behind this remains unclear. Here, we show that the activity of respiratory complex IV (CIV) in brain mitochondria declined in aged mice than in young mice, with no significant change in individual respiratory complex levels and their supercomplex assembly. Reduced CIV activity in the aged mice coincided with reduced binding of optic atrophy 1 (OPA1) to CIV...
September 7, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
Lisa M Krehbiel, Nyeonju Kang, James H Cauraugh
BACKGROUND: With increasing age motor functions decline. The additional challenges of executing bimanual movements further hinder motor functions in older adults. The current systematic review and meta-analysis determined the effects of healthy aging on performance in bimanual movements as compared to younger adults. METHODS: Our comprehensive search identified 27 studies that reported bimanual movement performance measures. Each study included a between groups comparison of older (mean age=68...
September 7, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
Ashley Gluchowski, Deborah Dulson, Fabrice Merien, Lindsay Plank, Nigel Harris
BACKGROUND: The effects of eccentric resistance exercise are of interest in the older adult cohort, but to our knowledge, there is no research on the relative effects of different eccentric modalities on a range of outcomes in higher functioning, resistance trained older adults. METHODS: 33 resistance-trained older adults (aged 67±4.5years) were randomized into one of three supervised training groups: traditional (TRE), eccentric only (ERE) or eccentrically biased resistance exercise (EBRE) on a 45°, plate-loaded leg press machine...
September 5, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
Theodore G Papaioannou, Krystallenia I Alexandraki, Marianna Karamanou, Christina Piperi, Dimitris Tousoulis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 4, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
L De Dobbeleer, I Beyer, R Njemini, S Pleck, N Zonnekein, T Mets, I Bautmans
BACKGROUND: Muscle fatigue, a prominent symptom in older patients, can be assessed by sustained maximal handgrip testing. The force decline during sustained maximal contraction is described for young adults, but data for elderly persons are scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate force-time characteristics during a sustained maximal handgrip effort according to age and clinical condition. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Force-time data were continuously recorded during sustained maximal grip effort in 91 elderly patients (aged 83±5years), 100 elderly controls (aged 74±5years) and 100 young controls (aged 23±3years)...
August 31, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
Miguel Germán Borda, Daniela Patino-Hernandez
Frailty is a clinical state that increases an individual's vulnerability. It is an outcome marker in several medical scenarios. However, there is a lack of recognition in the medical field. Frailty should not be regarded as a condition superimposed to disease. Contrarily, it should be noticed as a state frequently found either as a component of diseases themselves or as their outcome. The work of a geriatrician is focused on the best possible approximation to the medical and psychosocial issues that an elder has, and must join the treatment team when the person has a considerable number of conditions that makes him/her frail...
August 30, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
Zhi-Yin Liao, Jin-Liang Chen, Ming-Han Xiao, Yue Sun, Yu-Xing Zhao, Die Pu, An-Kang Lv, Mei-Li Wang, Jing Zhou, Shi-Yu Zhu, Ke-Xiang Zhao, Qian Xiao
Sarcopenia is an age-related syndrome characterized by progressive loss of muscle mass and function. Exercise is an important strategy to prolong life and increase muscle mass, and resveratrol has been shown a variety beneficial effects on skeletal muscle. In the present study, we investigated the potential efficacy of using short-term exercise (six weeks), resveratrol (150mg/kg/day), or combined exercise+resveratrol (150mg/kg/day) on gastrocnemius muscle mass, grip strength, cross-sectional area and microscopic morphology in aged rats, and explored the potential mechanism at the apoptosis level...
August 26, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
Yew Y Ding, Jouni Kuha, Michael Murphy
Physical frailty increases the risk of future activity limitation, which in turn, compromises independent living of older people and limits their healthspan. Thus, we seek to identify moderators and mediators of the effect of physical frailty on activity limitation change in older people, including gender- and age-specific effects. In a longitudinal study using data from waves 2, 4, and 6 of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, unique physical frailty factor scores of 4638 respondents aged 65 to 89years are obtained from confirmatory factor analysis of physical frailty, which is specified by three indicators, namely slowness, weakness, and exhaustion...
August 26, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
Yasuyuki Gondo, Nobuyoshi Hirose, Saori Yasumoto, Yasumichi Arai, Yasuhiko Saito
Identifying the correct length of life for long-lived individuals is highly important for the social and natural sciences, as well as for policymaking. The purposes of this paper are to propose a standardized age verification procedure and to report on the age verification case of Jiroemon Kimura (J.K.), who is assumed to be the longest lived man in the world. We propose two verification processes that we have named face validity and concurrent validity. We collected official documents, and non-official records to check face validity...
August 25, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
Andrew D Rutenberg, Arnold B Mitnitski, Spencer Farrell, Kenneth Rockwood
To explore the mechanistic relationships between aging, frailty and mortality, we developed a computational model in which possible health attributes are represented by the nodes of a complex network, with the connections showing a scale-free distribution. Each node can be either damaged (i.e. a deficit) or undamaged. Damage of connected nodes facilitates local damage and makes local recovery more difficult. Our model demonstrates the known patterns of frailty and mortality without any assumption of programmed aging...
August 25, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
Annamaria Zsakai, Rita Sipos, Krisztina Takacs-Vellai, Attila Szabo, Eva B Bodzsar
The biochemical ageing status of women in the menopausal transition was studied using quantitative analysis of age- and autophagy-related gene activities (CDC42 and MAP1LC3 genes were selected as target genes). Free estradiol and progesterone levels in saliva were estimated. General linear models were used to determine the relationship between lifestyle, health status, socioeconomic factors and CDC42 and MAP1LC3 gene expression levels. Gene expression analysis revealed (1) an increasing expression of CDC42 gene after 45years in women, (2) expression level of CDC42 gene associated with menopausal status, (3) while endocrine status was found to associate with the expression of both of the studied age-related genes, (4) the "never used hormonal contraceptives" and "obese nutritional status" were the strongest factors for increased level of age-related gene expressions, and (5) changes in gene expression levels by ageing should be studied by considering not only chronological, but also biological ages...
August 24, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
Yenisel Cruz-Almeida, Josue Cardoso, Joseph L Riley, Burel Goodin, Christopher D King, Megan Petrov, Emily J Bartley, Kimberly T Sibille, Toni L Glover, Matthew S Herbert, Hailey W Bulls, Adriana Addison, Roland Staud, David Redden, Laurence A Bradley, Roger B Fillingim
BACKGROUND: Knee pain associated with osteoarthritis is a significant contributor to decreased physical function. Recent evidence supports the inter-individual heterogeneity associated with knee pain presentation, but whether there is similar heterogeneity in physical performance among these individuals has not been previously examined. The aim of the present study was to characterize the variability in physical performance profiles and the pain evoked by their performance (i.e., movement-evoked pain)...
August 24, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
Hung-Wen Liu, Yin-Ching Chan, Chu-Chun Wei, Yun-An Chen, Ming-Fu Wang, Sue-Joan Chang
Rodent animal models take at least 18months to develop aging phenotypes for researchers to investigate the mechanism of age-related metabolic complications. Senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) shortens the process of aging and may facilitate an alternative model for studying age-related insulin resistance. The short-lived strain SAMP8 and two long-lived strains SAM resistant 1 (SAMR1) mice and C57BL/6 mice at 12 (young) and 40weeks old (old) were used in the present study. Glucose tolerance test, histology and signaling pathways involved in lipid metabolism in adipose tissue and liver and key components of insulin signaling pathway in the skeletal muscle were determined in these three strains...
August 23, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
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