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Experimental Gerontology

Daina L Sturnieks, Sin Lin Yak, Mayna Ratanapongleka, Stephen R Lord, Jasmine C Menant
Fatigue is a common complaint in older people. Laboratory-induced muscle fatigue has been found to affect physical functions in older populations but these protocols are rigorous and are unlikely to accurately reflect daily activities. This study used an ecological approach to determine the effects of a busy day on self-reported fatigue and fall-related measures of physical and cognitive function in older people. Fifty community-dwelling adult volunteers, aged 60-88 (mean 73) years participated in this randomised crossover trial...
March 12, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Arjun Paudyal, Mark Slevin, Huub Maas, Hans Degens
Denervation leads to significant muscle atrophy, but it is less clear whether 1) loss of capillaries, fibre size and oxidative capacity decline in parallel and 2) the time course of these changes differs between young and old animals. To investigate this, we denervated the left gastrocnemius muscle for 1, 2 or 4 weeks, while the right muscle served as an internal control, in rats that were 5- or 25 months old at the end of the experiment. In the fast part of the gastrocnemius muscle, almost all atrophy had occurred after two weeks (42%) of denervation...
March 12, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Lucas Bet da Rosa Orssatto, Bruno Monteiro de Moura, Ewertton de Souza Bezerra, Lars Louis Andersen, Silas Nery de Oliveira, Fernando Diefenthaeler
Understanding the influence of strength training intensity on subsequent recovery in elderly is important to avoid reductions in physical function during the days following training. Twenty-two elderly were randomized in two groups: G70 (65.9 ± 4.8 years, n = 11) and G95 (66.9 ± 5.1, n = 11). Baseline tests included maximum voluntary isometric contraction (peak torque and rate of torque development - RTD), countermovement jump, and functional capacity (timed up and go, stairs ascent and descent)...
March 11, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Paul Hendrickse, Magdalena Galinska, Emma Hodson-Tole, Hans Degens
A large part of age-related muscle wasting is due to incomplete reinnervation of fibres that have become denervated following motoneuron loss. Neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and sodium channel NaV1.5 are considered markers for denervation, but the time course of changes in their expression following denervation has never been systematically evaluated in young-adult and old muscle. To assess the time course of denervation-induced changes in their expression, the left gastrocnemius muscle in 15 young-adult (5-month) and 10 old (25-month) male Wistar rats was denervated for 1, 2 or 4 weeks, while the right muscle served as an internal control...
March 7, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Hassina Belblidia, Marianne Leger, Abdelouadoud Abdelmalek, Anne Quiedeville, Floriane Calocer, Michel Boulouard, Christelle Jozet-Alves, Thomas Freret, Pascale Schumann-Bard
Episodic memory decline is one of the earlier deficits occurring during normal aging in humans. The question of spatial versus non-spatial sensitivity to age-related memory decline is of importance for a full understanding of these changes. Here, we characterized the effect of normal aging on both non-spatial (object) and spatial (object location) memory performances as well as on associated neuronal activation in mice. Novel-object (NOR) and object-location (OLR) recognition tests, respectively assessing the identity and spatial features of object memory, were examined at different ages...
March 7, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Soon-Young Kim, Dong-Il Kim
Aging is associated with increased body fat and lower lean body mass, which leads to increased prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome. This study aimed to investigate the association of regular participation in walking and body mass index (BMI) with metabolic syndrome and its 5 criteria in elderly Koreans. A total of 3554 (male = 1581, female = 1973) elderly subjects (age ≥ 65 years), who participated in the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V) were analyzed in this cross-sectional study...
March 6, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Jianghua Zhou, Jiang Wang, Yanjiao Shen, Ying Yang, Pan Huang, Shanping Chen, Chuan Zou, Birong Dong
BACKGROUND: Several studies have examined the association between telomere length and frailty, but results from these studies are contradictory. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the association between telomere length and frailty. METHODS: We searched the literature in Ovid (MEDLINE), Embase, PubMed, Web of Knowledge and Cochrane databases in July 2017 for studies evaluating the association of telomere length and the risk of frailty...
March 5, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Setor K Kunutsor, Jari A Laukkanen, Stephen Burgess
Observational epidemiological evidence supports a linear and independent association between serum gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) concentrations and the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the causality of this association has not been previously investigated. We sought to assess the causal nature of this association using a Mendelian randomization (MR) approach. Using inverse-variance weighted MR analysis, we assessed the association between GGT and AD using summary statistics for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-AD associations obtained from the International Genomics of Alzheimer's Project of 17,008 individuals with AD and 37,154 controls...
March 2, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Bláithín Ní Bhuachalla, Christine A McGarrigle, Neil O'Leary, Kwadwo Owusu Akuffo, Tunde Peto, Stephen Beatty, Rose Anne Kenny
PURPOSE: Age related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of irreversible visual loss in developed countries. It is associated with vascular risk factors including hypertension. Dysregulated blood pressure (BP) behaviour including orthostatic hypertension (OHTN), hypotension (OH) and BP variability (BPV) are associated with end-organ damage, particularly in the brain. We investigated if abnormal orthostatic BP (OBP) was a risk factor for AMD, for which a vascular aetiology is implicated...
February 28, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Seul A Seo, Bom Park, Eunson Hwang, Yu-Kyong Shin, Sang-Yong Park, Mengyang Zhang, Tae-Hoo Yi
Ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation is regarded as the main cause of skin photodamage. After exposure to UVB irradiation, collagen degradation is accelerated by upregulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and collagen synthesis is decreased via downregulation of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 signaling. Borage officinalis L. (BO) is an annual herb with medicinal and culinary applications. Although BO has been demonstrated to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, its potential anti-photoaging effects have not been examined...
February 27, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Cun-Fei Liu, Wei-Ning Zhou, Zheng Lu, Xue-Ting Wang, Zhao-Hui Qiu
BACKGROUND: Studies have demonstrated that liver enzymes are associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, little information is available regarding these relationships in elderly populations. Our present study aimed to explore the associations between liver enzymes and the risk of MetS in elderly populations. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 1444 elder participants (970 men and 474 women) who attended annual physical examinations. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed to estimate the associations between liver enzymes and the risk of MetS and its components according to quartiles of the concentration of each liver enzyme...
February 27, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Stefanos Tyrovolas, Noe Garin Escriva, Jose Luis Ayuso-Mateos, Somnath Chatterji, Ai Koyanagi, Marta Miret, Moneta Victoria, Beatriz Olaya, Beata Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Seppo Koskinen, Matilde Leonardi, Josep Maria Haro
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Frailty is characterized by several deficits in multiple health related domains. Although cognition is among the important components of frailty, there is lack of evidence on the role of specific neuro-cognitive dimensions. The primary aim of the present work was to evaluate the multidimensional definition of frailty, and to assess whether neuro-cognitive function is a constituent of the frailty syndrome among adults aged ≥50 years living in three European countries...
February 27, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Miji Kim, Junghoon Kim, Chang Won Won
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship between involuntary weight loss with low muscle mass and health-related quality of life in a large representative sample of older adults. METHODS: A nationwide cross-sectional study based on data from the Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey, 2008 to 2011. Study participants included 2249 individuals aged ≥70 years. The participants reported an unintentional weight loss >3 kg in the past year...
February 27, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Amanda Hempel Zinglersen, Malte Bjørn Halsteen, Michael Kjær, Anders Karlsen
BACKGROUND: Hospitalization of older medical patients may lead to functional decline. This study investigated whether simultaneously applied neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) can enhance the effects of a functional training program in hospitalized geriatric patients. METHOD: This was a quasi-randomized controlled trial in geriatric hospitalized patients (N = 16, age = 83.1 ± 8.1 years, mean ± SD). The patients performed a simple and time efficient chair-stand based functional exercise program daily, either with (FT + NMES, N = 8) or without (FT, N = 8) simultaneous NMES to the knee extensor muscles...
February 26, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Jason Bielas, Allen Herbst, Kevin Widjaja, Jessica Hui, Judd M Aiken, Debbie McKenzie, Richard A Miller, Susan V Brooks, Jonathan Wanagat
Age-induced mitochondrial DNA deletion mutations may underlie cell loss and tissue aging. Rapamycin extends mouse lifespan and modulates mitochondrial quality control. We hypothesized that reduced deletion mutation abundance may contribute to rapamycin's life extension effects. To test this hypothesis, genetically heterogeneous male and female mice were treated with rapamycin, compounded in chow at 14 or 42 ppm, from 9 months to 22 months of age. Mice under a 40% dietary restriction were included as a control known to protect mtDNA quality...
February 24, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Florence Gaillardin, Stéphane Baudry
This study assessed the influence of attention division, working memory and executive function on stair ascent and descent in young and older adults. Twenty young (25.5 ± 2.1 yrs) and 20 older adults (68.4 ± 5.4 yrs) ascended and descended a 3-step staircase with no simultaneous cognitive task (single-motor task) or while performing a cognitive task (dual-task condition). The cognitive task involved either 1) recalling a word list of the subject's word-span minus 2 words (SPAN-2) to assess the attention division effect, 2) a word list of subject's word-span (SPAN-O) to assess the working memory effect, or 3) recalling in alphabetical order, a word list of the subject's word-span (SPAN-A) to assess the executive function effect...
February 24, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Achille Tchalla, Gregory A Wellenius, Sophie Boyer, Thomas G Travison, Daniel Habtemariam, Margaret Gagnon, Ikechukwu Iloputaife, Farzaneh A Sorond, Thierry Dantoine, Lewis A Lipsitz
We investigated the association between elevated plasma concentrations of circulating soluble Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) and injurious falls and mortality over a 5-year period. We studied the prospective relationship between levels of circulating adhesion molecules and falls in 680 community-dwelling participants in the MOBILIZE Boston Study. The mean sVCAM-1 (±SD) concentration was 1192 ± 428 ng/mL. Over 5-years of follow-up, 10.2% of participants died. The baseline sVCAM-1 (±SD) concentration was 1434 ± 511 ng/mL in those who died vs...
February 23, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Brandon M Roberts, Kaleen M Lavin, Gina M Many, Anna Thalacker-Mercer, Edward K Merritt, C Scott Bickel, David L Mayhew, S Craig Tuggle, James M Cross, David J Kosek, John K Petrella, Cynthia J Brown, Gary R Hunter, Samuel T Windham, Richard M Allman, Marcas M Bamman
Age-related muscle loss (sarcopenia) is a major clinical problem affecting both men and women - accompanied by muscle weakness, dysfunction, disability, and impaired quality of life. Current definitions of sarcopenia do not fully encompass the age-related changes in skeletal muscle. We therefore examined the influence of aging and sex on elements of skeletal muscle health using a thorough histopathological analysis of myocellular aging and assessments of neuromuscular performance. Two-hundred and twenty-one untrained males and females were separated into four age cohorts [mean age 25 y (n = 47), 37 y (n = 79), 61 y (n = 51), and 72 y (n = 44)]...
February 23, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Tae Kawahara, Tomomi Kita, Yukako Ueno, Shojiro Yamasaki, Goh Kimura, Miki Nakanishi, Toshiyuki Hosokawa, Masaaki Kurasaki, Tajuddin Sikder, Takeshi Saito
Senescence-accelerated mice are known to display a variety of deficits and signs of accelerated aging, but the specific mechanisms involved in this process are still unclear. In this study, we examined the expression levels of antioxidant enzymes, transcription factors responsible for the regulation of expression of these enzymes, and mitochondrial proteins in the liver of SAMP10 and SAMR1 mice at 3 and 12 months of age using western blotting analysis. To investigate the amount of oxidative damage to DNA, levels of 8-OHdG were measured in the liver of these mice...
February 22, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
L G Hvid, P Aagaard, N Ørtenblad, M Kjaer, C Suetta
While short-term disuse negatively affects mechanical muscle function (e.g. isometric muscle strength) little is known of the relative contribution of adaptions in central neural drive and peripheral muscle contractility. The present study investigated the relative contribution of adaptations in central neural drive and peripheral muscle contractility on changes in isometric muscle strength following short-term unilateral disuse (4 days, knee brace) and subsequent active recovery (7 days, one session of resistance training) in young (n = 11, 24 yrs) and old healthy men (n = 11, 67 yrs)...
February 21, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
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