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Experimental Gerontology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811140/divergent-effects-of-resistance-training-and-anabolic-steroid-on-the-postsynaptic-region-of-different-skeletal-muscles-of-aged-rats
#1
Walter Krause Neto, Wellington de Assis Silva, Adriano Polican Ciena, Carlos Alberto Anaruma, Eliane Florencio Gama
This study aimed to analyze the effects of resistance training associated with testosterone administration in the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) postsynaptic region of different skeletal muscle types of aged rats. Wistar rats were divided into: SEI - 20-months-old control, SEF - 24-months-old control, T - 20-months-old with testosterone, S - 20-months-old resistance trained and ST - 20-months-old with resistance training associated with testosterone propionate. All groups were submitted to familiarization and maximum load carrying testing (MLCT)...
August 12, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811139/metabonomics-approach-to-assessing-the-metabolism-variation-and-gender-gap-of-drosophila-melanogaster-in-aging-process
#2
Yu-Zhi Zhou, Ming-Liang Yan, Li Gao, Jian-Qin Zhang, Xue-Mei Qin, Xiang Zhang, Guan-Hua Du
Drosophila melanogaster is increasingly used for study aging mechanism and evaluating anti-aging drugs, but the changes of metabolites and differences of metabolites change between male and female during the aging process are not well known. Metabolomics technology, a massive information provider, has promoted the understanding of metabolic profile and overall changes of metabolites in organism. In this study, (1)H NMR based metabonomics was employed to investigate the dynamic changes of metabolites in whole bodies of male and female Drosophila melanogaster at 3, 15, 30, 45days and to research the gender gap of metabolites changes in aging process...
August 12, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807824/flavan-3-ol-delays-the-progression-of-disuse-atrophy-induced-by-hindlimb-suspension-in-mice
#3
Mao Ito, Naoto Kudo, Yuji Miyake, Tatsuya Imai, Tomoki Unno, Yoko Yamashita, Yoshihisa Hirota, Hitoshi Ashida, Naomi Osakabe
Periods of skeletal muscle disuse, for example due to a sedentary lifestyle or bed rest, are associated with aging and can lead to muscle atrophy. We previously found that the flavan 3-ol fraction derived from cocoa (FL) enhanced energy expenditure with metabolic changes in skeletal muscle. In the present study, we examined the effect of FL on disuse muscle atrophy induced by hindlimb suspension in mice. Male C57BL/6J mice were assigned to four groups as follows: unsuspended-vehicle, unsuspended-FL, suspended-vehicle, and suspended-FL...
August 11, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807823/dietary-supplementation-with-acetyl-l-carnitine-counteracts-age-related-alterations-of-mitochondrial-biogenesis-dynamics-and-antioxidant-defenses-in-brain-of-old-rats
#4
Luigi Nicassio, Flavio Fracasso, Giuseppe Sirago, Clara Musicco, Anna Picca, Emanuele Marzetti, Riccardo Calvani, Palmiro Cantatore, Maria Nicola Gadaleta, Vito Pesce
We previously reported the ability of dietary supplementation with acetyl-l-carnitine (ALCAR) to prevent age-related decreases of mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle and liver of old rats. Here, we investigate the effects of ALCAR supplementation in cerebral hemispheres and cerebellum of old rats by analyzing several parameters linked to mitochondrial biogenesis, mitochondrial dynamics and antioxidant defenses. We measured the level of the coactivators PGC-1α and PGC-1β and of the factors regulating mitochondrial biogenesis, finding an age-related decrease of PGC-1β, whereas PGC-1α level was unvaried...
August 11, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807822/does-long-term-androgen-deficiency-lead-to-metabolic-syndrome-in-middle-aged-rats
#5
Veronika Borbélyová, Emese Domonkos, Janka Bábíčková, Ľubomíra Tóthová, Mária Kačmárová, Oľga Uličná, Daniela Ostatníková, Július Hodosy, Peter Celec
Evidence from clinical observational studies and animal experiments suggests that hypogonadism is associated with the metabolic syndrome. In most of the experiments, androgen deficiency is induced by gonadectomy in the adulthood and relatively short-term effects of hypogonadism on metabolic parameters are usually observed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the metabolic effects of long-term androgen deficiency starting before puberty in middle-aged male rats. The components of the metabolic syndrome were examined in male, female and gonadectomized male rats at the age of 18months...
August 11, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803135/effects-of-aging-on-basement-membrane-of-the-soleus-muscle-during-recovery-following-disuse-atrophy-in-rats
#6
Yuji Kanazawa, Keisuke Ikegami, Mitsugu Sujino, Satoshi Koinuma, Mamoru Nagano, Yuki Oi, Tomoya Onishi, Shinichi Sugiyo, Isao Takeda, Hiroshi Kaji, Yasufumi Shigeyoshi
Aging is known to lead to the impaired recovery of muscle after disuse as well as the increased susceptibility of the muscle to damage. Here, we show that, in the older rats, reloading after disuse atrophy, causes the damage of the muscle fibers and the basement membrane (BM) that structurally support the muscle fibers. Male Wistar rats of 3-(young) and 20-(older) months of age were subjected to hindlimb-unloading for 2weeks followed by reloading for a week. In the older rats, the soleus muscles showed necrosis and central nuclei fiber indicating the regeneration of muscle fibers...
August 9, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803134/age-related-changes-of-physiological-performance-and-survivorship-of-bank-voles-selected-for-high-aerobic-capacity
#7
Agata Marta Rudolf, Maciej Jan Dańko, Edyta Teresa Sadowska, Geoffrey Dheyongera, Paweł Koteja
Variation in lifespans is an intriguing phenomenon, but how metabolic rate influence this variation remains unclear. High aerobic capacity can result in health benefits, but also in increased oxidative damage and accelerated ageing. We tested these contradictory predictions using bank voles (Myodes=Clethrionomys glareolus) from lines selected for high swim-induced aerobic metabolism (A), which had about 50% higher maximum metabolic rate and a higher basal and routine metabolic rates, than those from unselected control lines (C)...
August 9, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803133/predictive-value-of-multiple-cytokines-and-chemokines-for-mortality-in-an-admixed-population-15-year-follow-up-of-the-bambui-epigen-brazil-cohort-study-of-aging
#8
Maria Fernanda Lima-Costa, Juliana Vaz de Melo Mambrini, Karen Cecília de Lima Torres, Sérgio Viana Peixoto, Cesar de Oliveira, Eduardo Tarazona-Santos, Andréa Teixeira-Carvalho, Olindo Assis Martins-Filho
Inflammation, particularly elevated IL-6 serum levels, has been associated with increased mortality risk, mostly in Caucasians. The influence of genetic ethno-racial background on this association is unknown. We examined associations between baseline serum levels of Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and other cytokines (IL1-2, TNF, IL-10, and IL1β) and chemokines (CCL2, CCL5, CXCL8, CXCL9 and CXCL10) with 15-year mortality in 1,191 admixed Brazilians aged 60years and over. Elevated IL6 level (but not other biomarkers) was associated with increased risk of deaths with fully adjusted hazard ratios of 1...
August 9, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801170/pgc-1%C3%AE-in-aging-and-lifelong-exercise-training-mediated-regulation-of-upr-in-mouse-liver
#9
Caroline M Kristensen, Christina T Brandt, Stine Ringholm, Henriette Pilegaard
Aging is associated with changes in several metabolic pathways affecting liver function including the adaptive unfolded protein response (UPR). On the other hand, exercise training has been shown to exert beneficial effects on metabolism including the liver and exercise training has been reported to affect hepatic UPR. PGC-1α is a transcriptional coactivator involved in exercise training-induced adaptations in skeletal muscle and liver. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the impact of PGC-1α in aging and lifelong exercise training-induced hepatic UPR in mice...
August 8, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801169/a-single-high-dose-of-dexamethasone-increases-gap-43-and-synaptophysin-in-the-hippocampus-of-aged-rats
#10
Vesna Tesic, Milka Perovic, Ivan Zaletel, Mirna Jovanovic, Nela Puskas, Sabera Ruzdijic, Selma Kanazir
The administration of dexamethasone, a synthetic glucocorticoid receptor agonist, has been reported to modulate cognitive performance in both animals and humans. In the present study, we demonstrate the effects of a single high dose of dexamethasone on the expression and distribution of synaptic plasticity-related proteins, growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43) and synaptophysin, in the hippocampus of 6-, 12-, 18- and 24-month-old rats. Acute dexamethasone treatment significantly altered the expression of GAP-43 at the posttranslational level by modulating the levels of phosphorylated GAP-43 and proteolytic GAP-43-3 fragment...
August 8, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797827/interaction-between-mtor-pathway-inhibition-and-autophagy-induction-attenuates-adriamycin-induced-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-senescence-through-decreased-expressions-of-p53-p21-p16
#11
Jin Young Sung, Kyung Young Lee, Jae-Ryong Kim, Hyoung Chul Choi
Cellular senescence is related to aging and extremely stable proliferative arrest with active metabolism. Senescent cells can activate mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, which plays a crucial role in the regulation of cell metabolism, cellular growth, and autophagy in senescence-associated cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, we examined whether mTOR pathway could induce cellular senescence by inhibition of autophagy in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). We found that adriamycin-induced VSMC senescence is accompanied by increased activity of mTOR, a major controller of cell growth and a negative regulator of autophagy...
August 7, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797826/knee-extensor-power-asymmetry-is-unrelated-to-functional-mobility-of-older-adults
#12
Dain P LaRoche, Michelle R Villa, Colin W Bond, Summer B Cook
PURPOSE: To determine whether knee extensor power asymmetry limits functional mobility of older adults who possess muscle weakness. METHODS: Knee extensor power was measured in 36 older men and women (76.0±7.6yr), for each leg, on an isokinetic dynamometer at 60, 180, and 300degs(-1) and power asymmetry was calculated as the percent difference in power between strong and weak legs, at each isokinetic velocity. 400-m walk, stair ascent, and five-repetition chair rise tests were performed to assess functional mobility...
August 7, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797825/mechanisms-underlying-longevity-a-genetic-switch-model-of-aging
#13
REVIEW
Jeremy M Van Raamsdonk
While the questions of "What causes aging?" and "Why do we age?" and "How can we stop it?" remain unanswered, recent advances in aging research have continued to increase our understanding of the aging process. Until the last couple of decades, aging was viewed as an inevitable process of damage accumulation and not a subject for scientific pursuit. This view changed when it was demonstrated that the aging process is in fact malleable and genetically determined: mutations in single genes can have dramatic effects on longevity...
August 7, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782593/the-subsequent-course-of-disability-in-older-persons-discharged-to-a-skilled-nursing-facility-after-an-acute-hospitalization
#14
Zuyun Liu, Ling Han, Linda Leo-Summers, Evelyne A Gahbauer, Heather G Allore, Thomas M Gill
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the association between the type of acute hospitalization and subsequent course of disability in older persons discharged to a skilled nursing facility (SNF). DESIGN: Longitudinal study of 754 community-living persons aged 70 or older. PARTICIPANTS: The analytical sample included 365 participants who had one or more admissions to a SNF after an acute hospitalization (n=520 index admissions). MEASUREMENTS: Information on hospitalizations, SNF admissions, and disability was ascertained over 15years...
August 4, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780050/hesperidin-reverses-perivascular-adipose-mediated-aortic-stiffness-with-aging
#15
An Ouyang, Tyler B Garner, Bradley S Fleenor
We tested the hypothesis that hesperidin would reverse age-related aortic stiffness, perivascular adipose (PVAT) mediated-arterial stiffening and PVAT advanced glycation end-products (AGE) accumulation. Aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV) and intrinsic mechanical stiffness, two measures of arterial stiffness, were assessed in C57BL/6 mice that were young (6months), old (27-29months), or old treated with hesperidin for 4weeks. Old compared with young mice had increased aPWV (444±10 vs. 358±8cm/s, P<0.05) and mechanical stiffness (6506±369 vs...
August 3, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778748/the-clinical-value-of-inflammatory-biomarkers-in-coronary-artery-disease-ptx3-as-a-new-inflammatory-marker
#16
Tangmeng Guo, Lili Huang, Cunfei Liu, Shengshuai Shan, Qing Li, Li Ke, Bei Cheng
OBJECTIVE: Previous experiments have demonstrated that several inflammatory biomarkers, including pentraxin 3 (PTX3), matrix metalloprotein 9 (MMP9), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), are differentially elevated in coronary artery disease (CAD). This study aims to compare the associations between plasma levels of these biomarkers and CAD, identifying the best biomarker that has the most powerful association with CAD. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 64 patients admitted to the Department of Cardiology, 31 of whom had CAD and 33 of whom were CAD-free...
August 1, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778747/training-load-does-not-affect-detraining-s-effect-on-muscle-volume-muscle-strength-and-functional-capacity-among-older-adults
#17
Evelien Van Roie, Simon Walker, Stijn Van Driessche, Remco Baggen, Walter Coudyzer, Ivan Bautmans, Christophe Delecluse
Research underlines the potential of low-load resistance exercise in older adults. However, while the effects of detraining from high-load protocols have been established, it is not known whether gains from low-load training would be better/worse maintained. The current study evaluated the effects of 24weeks of detraining that followed 12weeks of high- and low-load resistance exercise in older adults. Fifty-six older adults (68.0±5.0years) were randomly assigned to leg press and leg extension training at either HIGH load (2×10-15 repetitions at 80% of one-repetition maximum (1-RM)), LOW load (1×80-100 repetitions at 20% of 1-RM), or LOW+ load (1×60 repetitions at 20% of 1-RM, immediately followed by 1×10-20 repetitions at 40% 1-RM)...
August 1, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774724/human-endogenous-retrovirus-herv-k-hml-2-env-expression-is-not-associated-with-markers-of-immunosenescence
#18
Saara Marttila, Tapio Nevalainen, Juulia Jylhävä, Laura Kananen, Marja Jylhä, Antti Hervonen, Mikko Hurme
Ageing of the human immune system, or immunosenescence, is characterised by distinct changes in the proportion of the various cell types, e.g., increase of the CD14+ monocytic cells, decrease of CD19+ B lymphocytes, and changes in T cell subpopulations, namely increase of CD4+ and CD8+ cells which have lost the costimulatory CD28 antigen. Currently, it is believed that the lifelong antigenic burden may be one of the inducers of immunosenescence. Thus far, only one exogenous stimulus, cytomegalovirus infection, has shown to be a major factor in this respect...
August 1, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760705/adaptation-to-metabolic-dysfunction-during-aging-making-the-best-of-a-bad-situation
#19
REVIEW
S Michal Jazwinski, James C Jiang, Sangkyu Kim
Mitochondria play a central role in energy metabolism in the process of oxidative phosphorylation. As importantly, they are key in several anabolic processes, including amino acid biosynthesis, nucleotide biosynthesis, heme biosynthesis, and the formation of iron‑sulfur clusters. Mitochondria are also engaged in waste removal in the urea cycle. Their activity can lead to the formation of reactive oxygen species which have damaging effects in the cell. These organelles are dynamic, undergoing cycles of fission and fusion which can be coupled to their removal by mitophagy...
July 29, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757113/cardiovascular-risk-and-the-effect-of-nitric-oxide-synthase-inhibition-in-female-rats-the-role-of-estrogen
#20
Jaqueline C Castardo-de-Paula, Blenda H de Campos, Eric D T Amorim, Rosiane V da Silva, Carine C de Farias, Luciana Higachi, Phileno Pinge-Filho, Décio S Barbosa, Marli C Martins-Pinge
It is known that autonomic modulation is responsive to ovarian hormone levels and that estrogen increases nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. However, little is known about the interaction of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms with autonomic modulation, oxidative stress and cardiovascular risk in females. This study aimed to investigate cardiovascular, autonomic and oxidative parameters after selective NOS inhibition. A spectral analysis of systolic arterial pressure (SAP) and heart rate variability (HRV) was performed...
July 28, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
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