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Multivariate Behavioral Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111788/sem-based-carma-time-series-modeling-for-arbitrary-n
#1
Johan H L Oud, Manuel C Voelkle, Charles C Driver
This article explains in detail the state space specification and estimation of first and higher-order autoregressive moving-average models in continuous time (CARMA) in an extended structural equation modeling (SEM) context for N = 1 as well as N > 1. To illustrate the approach, simulations will be presented in which a single panel model (T = 41 time points) is estimated for a sample of N = 1,000 individuals as well as for samples of N = 100 and N = 50 individuals, followed by estimating 100 separate models for each of the one-hundred N = 1 cases in the N = 100 sample...
November 7, 2017: Multivariate Behavioral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111774/an-introduction-to-network-psychometrics-relating-ising-network-models-to-item-response-theory-models
#2
M Marsman, D Borsboom, J Kruis, S Epskamp, R van Bork, L J Waldorp, H L J van der Maas, G Maris
In recent years, network models have been proposed as an alternative representation of psychometric constructs such as depression. In such models, the covariance between observables (e.g., symptoms like depressed mood, feelings of worthlessness, and guilt) is explained in terms of a pattern of causal interactions between these observables, which contrasts with classical interpretations in which the observables are conceptualized as the effects of a reflective latent variable. However, few investigations have been directed at the question how these different models relate to each other...
November 7, 2017: Multivariate Behavioral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967790/experimental-power-for-indirect-effects-in-group-randomized-studies-with-group-level-mediators
#3
Ben Kelcey, Nianbo Dong, Jessaca Spybrook, Zuchao Shen
Mediation analyses have provided a critical platform to assess the validity of theories of action across a wide range of disciplines. Despite widespread interest and development in these analyses, literature guiding the design of mediation studies has been largely unavailable. Like studies focused on the detection of a total or main effect, an important design consideration is the statistical power to detect indirect effects if they exist. Understanding the sensitivity to detect indirect effects is exceptionally important because it directly influences the scale of data collection and ultimately governs the types of evidence group-randomized studies can bring to bear on theories of action...
October 2, 2017: Multivariate Behavioral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956618/on-the-use-of-mixed-markov-models-for-intensive-longitudinal-data
#4
S de Haan-Rietdijk, P Kuppens, C S Bergeman, L B Sheeber, N B Allen, E L Hamaker
Markov modeling presents an attractive analytical framework for researchers who are interested in state-switching processes occurring within a person, dyad, family, group, or other system over time. Markov modeling is flexible and can be used with various types of data to study observed or latent state-switching processes, and can include subject-specific random effects to account for heterogeneity. We focus on the application of mixed Markov models to intensive longitudinal data sets in psychology, which are becoming ever more common and provide a rich description of each subject's process...
September 28, 2017: Multivariate Behavioral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952787/on-the-multilevel-nature-of-meta-analysis-a-tutorial-comparison-of-software-programs-and-discussion-of-analytic-choices
#5
Dena A Pastor, Rory A Lazowski
The term "multilevel meta-analysis" is encountered not only in applied research studies, but in multilevel resources comparing traditional meta-analysis to multilevel meta-analysis. In this tutorial, we argue that the term "multilevel meta-analysis" is redundant since all meta-analysis can be formulated as a special kind of multilevel model. To clarify the multilevel nature of meta-analysis the four standard meta-analytic models are presented using multilevel equations and fit to an example data set using four software programs: two specific to meta-analysis (metafor in R and SPSS macros) and two specific to multilevel modeling (PROC MIXED in SAS and HLM)...
September 27, 2017: Multivariate Behavioral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952786/multiple-local-solutions-and-geomin-rotation
#6
Minami Hattori, Guangjian Zhang, Kristopher J Preacher
In exploratory factor analysis, factor rotation is conducted to improve model interpretability. A promising and increasingly popular factor rotation method is geomin rotation. Geomin rotation, however, frequently encounters multiple local solutions. We report a simulation study that explores the frequency of local solutions in geomin rotation and the implications of such phenomena. The findings include: (1) multiple local solutions exist for geomin rotation in a variety of situations; (2) ϵ = .01 provides satisfactory rotated factor loadings in most situations; (3) 100 random starts appear sufficient to examine the multiple solution phenomenon; and (4) a population global solution may correspond to a sample local solution rather than the sample global solution...
September 27, 2017: Multivariate Behavioral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952784/evaluation-of-student-performance-through-a-multidimensional-finite-mixture-irt-model
#7
Silvia Bacci, Francesco Bartolucci, Leonardo Grilli, Carla Rampichini
In the Italian academic system, a student can enroll for an exam immediately after the end of the teaching period or can postpone it; in this second case the exam result is missing. We propose an approach for the evaluation of a student performance throughout the course of study, accounting also for nonattempted exams. The approach is based on an item response theory model that includes two discrete latent variables representing student performance and priority in selecting the exams to take. We explicitly account for nonignorable missing observations as the indicators of attempted exams also contribute to measure the performance (within-item multidimensionality)...
September 27, 2017: Multivariate Behavioral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891688/double-decomposition-of-level-1-variables-in-multilevel-models-an-analysis-of-the-flynn-effect-in-the-nsly-data
#8
Patrick O'Keefe, Joseph Lee Rodgers
This paper introduces an extension of cluster mean centering (also called group mean centering) for multilevel models, which we call "double decomposition (DD)." This centering method separates between-level variance, as in cluster mean centering, but also decomposes within-level variance of the same variable. This process retains the benefits of cluster mean centering but allows for context variables derived from lower level variables, other than the cluster mean, to be incorporated into the model. A brief simulation study is presented, demonstrating the potential advantage (or even necessity) for DD in certain circumstances...
September 11, 2017: Multivariate Behavioral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891682/empirically-corrected-rescaled-statistics-for-sem-with-small-n-and-large-p
#9
Ke-Hai Yuan, Miao Yang, Ge Jiang
Survey data often contain many variables. Structural equation modeling (SEM) is commonly used in analyzing such data. With typical nonnormally distributed data in practice, a rescaled statistic Trml proposed by Satorra and Bentler was recommended in the literature of SEM. However, Trml has been shown to be problematic when the sample size N is small and/or the number of variables p is large. There does not exist a reliable test statistic for SEM with small N or large p, especially with nonnormally distributed data...
September 11, 2017: Multivariate Behavioral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853951/corrigenda
#10
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 30, 2017: Multivariate Behavioral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846050/a-hierarchical-rater-model-for-longitudinal-data
#11
Jodi M Casabianca, Brian W Junker, Ricardo Nieto, Mark A Bond
Research studies in psychology and education often seek to detect changes or growth in an outcome over a duration of time. This research provides a solution to those interested in estimating latent traits from psychological measures that rely on human raters. Rater effects potentially degrade the quality of scores in constructed response and performance assessments. We develop an extension of the hierarchical rater model (HRM), which yields estimates of latent traits that have been corrected for individual rater bias and variability, for ratings that come from longitudinal designs...
August 28, 2017: Multivariate Behavioral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846032/the-graded-response-differential-discrimination-model-accounting-for-extreme-response-style
#12
Dirk Lubbe, Christof Schuster
Extreme response style or, more generally, individual differences in response spacing have been shown to be an influential bias when analyzing questionnaire data. Recently a promising model adjusting for this bias - the differential discrimination model - has been proposed. An advantage to other related approaches is that the model can be fitted using standard structural equation modeling software. However, the model is designed for analyzing continuous item responses, whereas graded response formats are certainly more prominent in behavioral sciences...
August 28, 2017: Multivariate Behavioral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594582/profile-likelihood-confidence-intervals-in-item-response-theory-models
#13
R Philip Chalmers, Jolynn Pek, Yang Liu
Confidence intervals (CIs) are fundamental inferential devices which quantify the sampling variability of parameter estimates. In item response theory, CIs have been primarily obtained from large-sample Wald-type approaches based on standard error estimates, derived from the observed or expected information matrix, after parameters have been estimated via maximum likelihood. An alternative approach to constructing CIs is to quantify sampling variability directly from the likelihood function with a technique known as profile-likelihood confidence intervals (PL CIs)...
September 2017: Multivariate Behavioral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715259/teaching-principal-components-using-correlations
#14
Peter H Westfall, Andrea L Arias, Larry V Fulton
Introducing principal components (PCs) to students is difficult. First, the matrix algebra and mathematical maximization lemmas are daunting, especially for students in the social and behavioral sciences. Second, the standard motivation involving variance maximization subject to unit length constraint does not directly connect to the "variance explained" interpretation. Third, the unit length and uncorrelatedness constraints of the standard motivation do not allow re-scaling or oblique rotations, which are common in practice...
July 17, 2017: Multivariate Behavioral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715244/small-sample-methods-for-multilevel-modeling-a-colloquial-elucidation-of-reml-and-the-kenward-roger-correction
#15
Daniel McNeish
Studies on small sample properties of multilevel models have become increasingly prominent in the methodological literature in response to the frequency with which small sample data appear in empirical studies. Simulation results generally recommend that empirical researchers employ restricted maximum likelihood estimation (REML) with a Kenward-Roger correction with small samples in frequentist contexts to minimize small sample bias in estimation and to prevent inflation of Type-I error rates. However, simulation studies focus on recommendations for best practice, and there is little to no explanation of why traditional maximum likelihood (ML) breaks down with smaller samples, what differentiates REML from ML, or how the Kenward-Roger correction remedies lingering small sample issues...
July 17, 2017: Multivariate Behavioral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715231/bayesian-estimation-for-item-factor-analysis-models-with-sparse-categorical-indicators
#16
Sierra A Bainter
Psychometric models for item-level data are broadly useful in psychology. A recurring issue for estimating item factor analysis (IFA) models is low-item endorsement (item sparseness), due to limited sample sizes or extreme items such as rare symptoms or behaviors. In this paper, I demonstrate that under conditions characterized by sparseness, currently available estimation methods, including maximum likelihood (ML), are likely to fail to converge or lead to extreme estimates and low empirical power. Bayesian estimation incorporating prior information is a promising alternative to ML estimation for IFA models with item sparseness...
July 17, 2017: Multivariate Behavioral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715230/nonparametric-calibration-of-item-by-attribute-matrix-in-cognitive-diagnosis
#17
Youn Seon Lim, Fritz Drasgow
A nonparametric technique based on the Hamming distance is proposed in this research by recognizing that once the attribute vector is known, or correctly estimated with high probability, one can determine the item-by-attribute vectors for new items undergoing calibration. We consider the setting where Q is known for a large item bank, and the q-vectors of additional items are estimated. The method is studied in simulation under a wide variety of conditions, and is illustrated with the Tatsuoka fraction subtraction data...
July 17, 2017: Multivariate Behavioral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622056/two-part-predictors-in-regression-models
#18
John J Dziak, Kimberly L Henry
Researchers often build regression models to relate a response to a set of predictor variables. In some cases, there are predictors that apply to some participants, or to some measurement occasions, but not others. For example, a romantic partner's substance use may be a key predictor of one's own substance use. However, not all participants have a partner, and in a longitudinal study, participants may have a partner during only some occasions. This could be viewed as missing data, but of a very distinctive type: the values are not just unknown but also undefined...
June 16, 2017: Multivariate Behavioral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532179/capturing-context-related-change-in-emotional-dynamics-via-fixed-moderated-time-series-analysis
#19
Janne K Adolf, Manuel C Voelkle, Annette Brose, Florian Schmiedek
Much of recent affect research relies on intensive longitudinal studies to assess daily emotional experiences. The resulting data are analyzed with dynamic models to capture regulatory processes involved in emotional functioning. Daily contexts, however, are commonly ignored. This may not only result in biased parameter estimates and wrong conclusions, but also ignores the opportunity to investigate contextual effects on emotional dynamics. With fixed moderated time series analysis, we present an approach that resolves this problem by estimating context-dependent change in dynamic parameters in single-subject time series models...
May 22, 2017: Multivariate Behavioral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463014/tests-of-simple-slopes-in-multiple-regression-models-with-an-interaction-comparison-of-four-approaches
#20
Yu Liu, Stephen G West, Roy Levy, Leona S Aiken
In multiple regression researchers often follow up significant tests of the interaction between continuous predictors X and Z with tests of the simple slope of Y on X at different sample-estimated values of the moderator Z (e.g., ±1 SD from the mean of Z). We show analytically that when X and Z are randomly sampled from the population, the variance expression of the simple slope at sample-estimated values of Z differs from the traditional variance expression obtained when the values of X and Z are fixed. A simulation study using randomly sampled predictors compared four approaches: (a) the Aiken and West ( 1991 ) test of simple slopes at fixed population values of Z, (b) the Aiken and West test at sample-estimated values of Z, (c) a 95% percentile bootstrap confidence interval approach, and (d) a fully Bayesian approach with diffuse priors...
May 2, 2017: Multivariate Behavioral Research
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