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Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology

Ahmad Reza Mokhtari, Sadat Feiznia, Mohammad Jafari, Ali Tavili, Mohammad-Javad Ghaneei-Bafghi, Farah Rahmany, Ruth Kerry
The Kushk Pb-Zn mine is located in Central Iran and it has been in operation for the last 75 years. To investigate the role of wind dispersion of heavy metal pollutants from the mine area, dust samples were collected during 1 year and topsoil samples were collected around the mine. Results showed that the topsoil is polluted with Pb and Zn to about 1500 m away from the mine. It was also found that there was not a significant difference between the metal concentrations in topsoil and dust samples. The Pb and Zn concentrations in the dust samples exceeded 200 mg kg-1 and their lateral dispersion via wind was estimated to be about 4 km away from the mine...
March 16, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
L A Thompson, Y Ikenaka, Y B Yohannes, T Ichise, G Ito, N Bortey-Sam, J J van Vuren, V Wepener, N J Smit, W S Darwish, S M M Nakayama, H Mizukawa, M Ishizuka
Many countries with incidence of malaria, including those surrounding Maputo Bay, use dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) to reduce mosquitoes. This study is the first to estimate the human health risk associated with consumption of marine fish from Maputo Bay contaminated with DDTs. The median for ∑DDTs was 3.8 ng/g ww (maximum 280.9 ng/g ww). The overall hazard ratio for samples was 1.5 at the 75th percentile concentration and 28.2 at the 95th percentile. These calculations show increased potential cancer risks due to contamination by DDTs, data which will help policy makers perform a risk-benefit analysis of DDT use in malaria control programs in the region...
March 15, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Maolan Wang, Ronghao Liu, Xiuying Lu, Ziyi Zhu, Hailin Wang, Lei Jiang, Jingjing Liu, Zhihua Wu
Heavy metal are often added to animal fodder and accumulate in the soils with swine manure. In this study, heavy metal (Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, As and Cr) concentrations were determined in agricultural soils irrigated with swine manure in Jiangxi Province, China. Results showed that the average concentrations of Cu, Zn, As and Cr (32.8, 93.7, 21.3 and 75.8 mg/kg, respectively) were higher than the background values, while Pb and Cd (15.2 and 0.090 mg/kg, respectively) were lower than the background values. Contamination factors [Formula: see text] indicated that they were generally moderate for Cu, Zn, As and Cr and generally low for Pb and Cd...
March 15, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Mandeep Kaur, Rajinder Jindal
Present investigation aimed to assess the alterations in branchial architecture of Ctenopharyngodon idellus exposed to chlorpyrifos. 96 h LC50 of chlorpyrifos to C. idellus was found to be 7.24 µg/L. Fish were exposed chronically to 2.41 and 1.44 µg/L sublethal concentrations (ecologically relevant concentrations) of chlorpyrifos for 15, 30 and 60 days. The gills of the CPF exposed fish showed partially affected secondary lamellae with shortening and curling, increased inter-lamellar space, sloughed off epithelium, hyperplasia and necrosis of pavement cells...
March 14, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
María de Jesús González-Guadarrama, Ma Aurora Armienta-Hernández, André H Rosa
Aiming to determine the relationship between source and complexing capacity, humic substances obtained from three sites (Sorocaba and Itapanhau Brasilian rivers, and Xochimilco Lake in Mexico) were studied. Copper, manganese, zinc and arsenic complexing capacity were determined for the three substances under various pH conditions. Results showed similar complexing capacity for the three elements depending on the chemistry of each one and on the physico-chemical conditions. Speciation diagrams showed that these conditions affect both, the humic substances, and the transition metals and arsenic...
March 14, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Zequn Li, Tongjun Ren, Yuzhe Han, Zhiqiang Jiang, Yanan Hu, Zhuoan Bai, Lianshun Wang, Jingyun Ding
Triplicate groups of sea cucumbers (4.83 ± 0.15 g) were exposed to one of the four nominal concentrations of dietary mercury [0 (control), 67.6, 338, and 676 mg/kg dry weight, and actually total mercury were 17.55, 87.00, 275.50, 468.50 mg/kg, respectively; Table 3] for 21 days. Mercury accumulation in the intestine showed the greatest mercury burden (77.96 ± 1.20 mg Hg/kg tissue wet weight basis). However, survival rate (SR) was not affected. Body weight gain after the 676 mg Hg/kg treatment was significantly lower than the control group...
March 14, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
M S Maboeta, O G Oladipo, S M Botha
Earthworms are bioindicators of soil pollution. The ecotoxicity of tailings from selected gold mines in South Africa was investigated utilizing Eisenia andrei bioassays and biomarkers. Samples were obtained from unrehabilitated, rehabilitated and naturally vegetated sites. Biomass, neutral red retention time (NRRT), survival and reproduction were assessed using standardized protocols. Earthworm biomass, NRRT and reproductive success in rehabilitated tailings (comparable to naturally vegetated site) were significantly higher (p < 0...
March 13, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Shamsollah Ayoubi, Zeynab Soltani, Hossein Khademi
This study was conducted to explore the relationships between magnetic susceptibility and some soil heavy metals concentrations in various particle sizes in an industrial site, central Iran. Soils were partitioned into five fractions (< 28, 28-75, 75-150, 150-300, and 300-2000 µm). Heavy metals concentrations including Zn, Pb, Fe, Cu, Ni and Mn and magnetic susceptibility were determined in bulk soil samples and all fractions in 60 soil samples collected from the depth of 0-5 cm. The studied heavy metals except for Pb and Fe displayed a substantial enrichment in the < 28 µm...
March 13, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
J L Clausen, T Georgian, K H Gardner, T A Douglas
Military ranges are unlike many waste sites because the contaminants, both energetics and metals, are heterogeneously distributed in soil during explosive detonation or ballistic impact and cannot be readily characterized using conventional grab sampling. The Incremental Sampling Methodology (ISM) has been successful for characterization of energetic contamination in soils, but no published ISM processing studies for soils with small arms range metals such as Pb, Cu, Sb, and Zn exists. This study evaluated several ISM sample-processing steps: (1) field splitting to reduce the sample mass shipped to the analytical laboratory, (2) necessity of milling, and (3) processing a larger subsample mass for digestion in lieu of milling...
March 12, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
K A Bawa-Allah, J K Saliu, A A Otitoloju
This comparative analysis was carried out to monitor heavy metal concentrations in the Lagos Lagoon over the last 2 decades. Surface water and sediment samples were collected from stations on the Lagos Lagoon based on their suitability for comparative analysis and future monitoring. Heavy metal content in samples was determined using Flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (FAAS). The concentrations in the samples were compared to those obtained by Don-Pedro et al. (West African Journal of Applied Ecology 5:103-114, 2004) in previous studies from the same sampling zones...
March 8, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Saqib Bashir, Muhammad Shahid Rizwan, Abdus Salam, Qingling Fu, Jun Zhu, Muhammad Shaaban, Hongqing Hu
Heavy metal contamination in agricultural soils has become a serious environmental concern due to their generally high mobility and toxic effects on plants and food security. An incubation study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of biochar (BC), zeolite (ZE) and rock phosphate (RP) stabilizers on the immobilization of cadmium (Cd) in contaminated soils. Various extraction techniques were carried out: a sequential extraction procedure, the European Community Bureau of Reference (BCR), the toxicity characteristics leaching procedure (TCLP) and extraction with ammonium nitrate...
March 7, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
S K Sharma, T K Mandal, A Sharma, Srishti Jain, Saraswati
Organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) in PM2.5 were estimated to study the seasonal and inter-annual variability of atmospheric total carbonaceous aerosols (TCA) at an urban site of megacity Delhi, India for 5 years from January, 2012 to December, 2016. The annual average (± standard deviation) concentrations of PM2.5 , OC, EC and TCA were 128 ± 81, 16.6 ± 12.2, 8.4 ± 5.8 and 34.5 ± 25.2 µg m-3 , respectively. During the study, significant seasonal variations in mass concentrations of PM2...
March 7, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Zainol Maznah, Muhamad Halimah, B Sahid Ismail
The residual levels and persistence of thiram in the soil, water and oil palm seedling leaves were investigated under field conditions. The experimental plots were carried out on a clay loam soil and applied with three treatments namely; manufacturer's recommended dosage (25.6 g a.i. plot-1 ), manufacturer's double recommended dosage (51.2 g a.i. plot-1 ), and control (water) were applied. Thiram residues were detected in the soil from day 0 to day 3 in the range of 0.22-27.04 mg kg-1 . Low concentrations of thiram were observed in the water and leave samples in the range of 0...
March 7, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Wen Zheng, Zheng-Yan Zhong, Hong-Bin Wang, Hai-Juan Wang, Dong-Mo Wu
A hydroponic experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of oxalic acid (OA) on arsenic (As) uptake and the physiological responses of Hydrilla verticillata exposed to 3 mg L-1 of As in different forms. Plant As(III) uptake was significantly increased by 200-2000 µg L-1 OA. However, an increase of As(V) uptake was only shown with 1000 µg L-1 OA, and no significant difference was observed with dimethylarsinate treatment. Peroxidase and catalase activities, and the contents of photosynthetic pigments, soluble sugar and proline, were significantly increased by 1000 µg L-1 OA during As(III) treatment...
March 6, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
F Arcega-Cabrera, L Fargher, M Quesadas-Rojas, R Moo-Puc, I Oceguera-Vargas, E Noreña-Barroso, L Yáñez-Estrada, J Alvarado, L González, N Pérez-Herrera, S Pérez-Medina
Merida is the largest urban center in the Mexican State of Yucatan. Here domestic sewage is deposited in poorly built septic tanks and is not adequately treated. Because of contamination from such waste, water from the top 20 m of the aquifer is unsuitable for human consumption. Given this situation and because children are highly vulnerable to environmental pollution, including exposure to toxic trace elements, this study focused on evaluating the exposure of children to arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), and mercury (Hg) in water...
March 5, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Maria Gravina, Giovanni Pagano, Rahime Oral, Marco Guida, Maria Toscanesi, Antonietta Siciliano, Aldo Di Nunzio, Petra Burić, Daniel M Lyons, Philippe J Thomas, Marco Trifuoggi
Heavy rare earth elements (HREEs) were tested for adverse effects to early life stages of the sea urchin Sphaerechinus granularis. Embryos were exposed to analytically measured HREE concentrations ranging from 10-7 to 10-5  M. No significant developmental defect (DD) increases were observed in embryos exposed to 10-7  M HREEs, whereas 10-5  M HREEs resulted in significant DD increase up to 96% for HoCl3 versus 14% in controls. Embryos exposed to 10-6  M HREEs showed the highest DD frequency in embryos exposed to 10-6  M DyCl3 and HoCl3 ...
March 2, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Debjit Das, Mahammed Moniruzzaman, Soumalya Mukhopadhyay, Samya Karan, Adity Sarbajna, Suman Bhusan Chakraborty
Present study investigates the effect of metal accumulation on antioxidant level and mitochondrial enzymes function in muscle of Oreochromis mossambicus. Metal accumulation in muscle upregulated stress marker malondialdehyde and the activity of different antioxidant enzymes with no significant alteration in glutathione system. Metal exposure to fish muscle decreased the activity of mitochondrial enzymes. AMP deaminase, aldolase, cytochrome C oxidase and lipoamide reductase showed positive correlation with acetylcholinesterase, glutathione reductase, reduced glutathione and glutathione peroxidase, but negative correlation with superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione S-transferase and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance...
March 2, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Thanamegam Kaviarasan, Murugaiah Santhosh Gokul, Santhaseelan Henciya, Krishnan Muthukumar, Hans-Uwe Dahms, Rathinam Arthur James
Trace metals concentrations were studied for three different seasons on four seaweed species (Halimeda gracilis, Padina pavonica, Sargassum swartzii and Turbinaria ornata) from Wandoor area of southern Andaman Island. Though diversified seaweed population records in the study area, the studied four species were predominantly present in all the seasons. The observed average levels on trace metals concentrations were Cd 0-0.311 µg/g, Cr 0.002-0.334 µg/g, Cu 0.003-0.291 µg/g, Mn 0.118-7.736 µg/g, Pb 0-0...
March 1, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Anil K Tyor, Kanika Pahwa
River Yamuna is under constant menace due to pollution levels beyond limit, ensuing chronic poisoning of aquatic biota. Induction of oxidative stress and cellular deformities is a common effect in fish. The present study aimed in assessing impact of environmental pollutants on gonad (testis) of Clarias gariepinus from Wazirabad barrage (entry site) and Okhla barrage (exit site) of river Yamuna in Delhi segment. Antioxidant enzymes assays viz. Super oxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP); thiobarbituric acid reactive substance assay (TBARS) for determining level of lipid peroxidation and histology for analysis of degenerative changes were employed as biomarkers...
March 1, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Chang Liu, Lei Wang, Jiang Yin, Lipan Qi, Yan Feng
The toxicity of cadmium (Cd) has posed major public health concern in crops grown in the Cd-contaminated soils. The effects of five amendments, nano-hydroxyapatite (n-HA) and it combined with lime, zeolite, bone mill and fly ash on Cd immobilization in soils and uptake in potatoes, were investigated in a contaminated soil by pot experiments. The result showed that the applications of combined amendments significantly decreased the bioavailable Cd concentrations extracted by TCLP, DTPA-TEA and MgCl2 in the contaminated soils, and changed the soluble and exchangeable and specifically sorbed fractions to oxide-bound and organic-bound fractions...
March 1, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
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