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Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology

Deliang Li, Jie Pi, Jianping Wang, Pengfei Zhu, Deming Liu, Ting Zhang
Effects of cadmium (Cd) exposure on metal accumulation and energy metabolism of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) were studied during 14 days. The results showed that Cd accumulated in tissues of silver carp significantly with time and Cd concentration, as the order: liver > kidney > gill > muscle. The levels of muscle glycogen, triglyceride, and plasma triglyceride decreased significantly (p < 0.05). The levels of muscle protein, plasma glucose and lactate significantly increased during the first 8 days, and then all significantly decreased (p < 0...
September 16, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Tianye Zheng, Nora B Sutton, Pim de Jager, Richard Grosshans, Sirajum Munira, Annemieke Farenhorst
Wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region of North America are integrated with farmland and contain mixtures of herbicide contaminants. Passive nonfacilitated diffusion is how most herbicides can move across plant membranes, making this perhaps an important process by which herbicide contaminants are absorbed by wetland vegetation. Prairie wetlands are dominated by native cattail (Typha latifolia) and hybrid cattail (Typha x glauca). The objective of this batch equilibrium study was to compare glyphosate absorption by the shoots and rhizomes of native versus hybrid cattails...
September 14, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Li-Ping Hou, Yang Yang, Hu Shu, Guang-Guo Ying, Jian-Liang Zhao, Yi-Bing Chen, Yong-Heng Chen, Gui-Zhen Fang, Xin Li, Ji-Sheng Liu
Thallium is a rare-earth element, but widely distributed in water environments, posing a potential risk to our health. This study was designed to investigate the chronic effects of thallium based on physiological responses, gene expression, and changes in the activity of relevant enzymes in adult zebra fish exposed to thallium at low doses. The endpoints assessed include mRNA expression of metallothionein (MT)2 and heat shock protein HSP70; enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase; and the histopathology of gill, gonad, and liver tissues...
September 14, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Rachelle M Belanger, Kendra R Evans, Noor K Abraham, Kaldoun M Barawi
The presence of agricultural contaminants has been shown to disrupt olfactory-mediated behaviors in aquatic animals. We assessed the effects of atrazine on the ability of reproductively active (form I), male crayfish (Orconectes rusticus) to identify and respond to conspecific chemical signals involved in mating. Male crayfish were exposed to atrazine (80 ppb) and water (control) for 96 h. We analyzed odor localization and locomotor behaviors of herbicide-treated and control male crayfish to two different odor sources: female odor or water (control) delivered from the proximal end of a test arena...
September 11, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Sheng Xu, Wei Fu, Xingyuan He, Wei Chen, Weiwei Zhang, Bo Li, Yanqing Huang
Open top chambers were used to study the changes in photosynthesis, physiology and stomata characteristics in 1-year-old Lonicera maackii seedlings exposed to drought (DT, 30%-35% soil saturated water content) or/and elevated ozone (EO, 80 ppb). The results showed that DT or/and EO significantly decreased net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (gs), maximum photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), but increased the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), and malondialdehyde content (p < 0.05). Compared with EO alone, the combination of EO and DT caused higher values in Pn, Fv/Fm, SOD activity (p < 0...
September 11, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Vassanda Coumar Mounissamy, Samaresh Kundu, Rajendiran Selladurai, Jayanta Kumar Saha, Ashish Kumar Biswas, Tapan Adhikari, Ashok Kumar Patra
An incubation study was undertaken to study microbial resilience capacity of acid soil amended with farmyard manure (FYM), charcoal and lime under copper (Cu) perturbation. Copper stress significantly reduced enzymatic activities and microbial biomass carbon (MBC) in soil. Percent reduction in microbial activity of soil due to Cu stress was 74.7% in dehydrogenase activity, 59.9% in MBC, 48.2% in alkaline phosphatase activity and 15.1% in acid phosphatase activity. Soil treated with FYM + charcoal showed highest resistance index for enzymatic activities and MBC...
September 9, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Wen-Tao Yang, Hang Zhou, Jiao-Feng Gu, Qing-Ru Zeng, Bo-Han Liao
A soil spiking experiment at two Cd levels (0.72 and 5.20 mg kg(-1)) was conducted to investigate the effects of rapeseed cake (RSC) at application rates of 0%, 0.75%, 1.5%, and 3.0% (w/w) on iron plaque formation and Cd uptake by rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings. The use of RSC did result in a sharp decrease in soil bioavailability of Cd and a significant increase in rice growth, soil pH and organic matter. Application of RSC increased the amount of iron plaque formation and this effectively inhibited the uptake and translocation of Cd into the rice seedlings...
September 9, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Jia Xie, Dinglong Yang, Xiyan Sun, Ruiwen Cao, Lizhu Chen, Qing Wang, Fei Li, Huifeng Wu, Chenglong Ji, Ming Cong, Jianmin Zhao
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are ubiquitous and coexisted in the aquatic environment. Individual and combined toxic effects of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) on embryogenesis, and larval survival of the Pacific oyster were investigated. The EC50 values of BaP, BDE-47 and their mixture on embryogenesis were 18.4, 203.3 and 72.0 µg/L respectively, while the LC50 values for 96 h larval mortality were 26.8, 244.5 and 108.9 µg/L respectively. The Marking-Dawson additive toxicity indices were -0...
September 9, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Natsima Tokhun, Chuleemas Boonthai Iwai, Barry N Noller
Pulp and paper mills (PPM) may discharge insufficiently treated waste into rivers and give rise to serious effects with aquatic life. This study investigated the biological response of the chironomid (Chironomus javanus, Kieffer) when exposed to PPM effluent. Effluent concentrations of BOD, COD, TKN, TS, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn were high. Cd and Cr concentrations in chironomid were the most accumulated. Whole effluent toxicity on the chironomid test organism was significant as expressed by the percent survival and decreased with increasing concentration...
September 8, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Lilia Corona, Luc Dendooven, Anaí Chicken, Omar Hernández, Rosario Iturbe
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as benz[a]anthracene (BA) and dibenz[a,h]anthracene (DBA), which are considered toxic, are frequently found in contaminated soils in Mexico. A laboratory-scale study monitored the degradation of the mixture of these two PAHs in three soils from different Mexican states (Tabasco, Morelos and Veracruz), each with different organic matter content, particle size distribution and incubated under different water content conditions. The hydrocarbons were extracted using microwave digestion and quantified by GC/MS...
September 8, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
J B Richardson, J H Görres, A J Friedland
Exotic earthworms are present in the forests of northeastern USA, yet few studies have documented their effects on pollutant metals in soil. The objective of this study was to identify if Cd, Hg, and Pb strong-acid extractable concentrations and pools (bulk inventories) in forest soils decreased with the presence of exotic earthworms. We compared 'Low Earthworm Abundance' (LEA) sites (≤10 g m(-2) earthworms, n = 13) and 'High Earthworm Abundance' (HEA) (>10 g m(-2) earthworms, n = 17) sites at five watersheds across Vermont and New Hampshire...
September 7, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Xian-Ling Xiang, Ying-Ying Chen, Qiu-Lei Xu, Ling-Yun Zhu, Xin-Li Wen, Yi-Long Xi
The aim of this study was to investigate the responses in filtration and grazing rates of five rotifer strains of the species Brachionus calyciflorus under different temperatures and MC-LR concentrations. The results showed that strain identity, MC-LR concentration, temperature, and the interactions of these factors significantly affected both response variables, with the exception of the interaction of strain and MC-LR on the grazing rates. At low MC-LR concentrations and for the control group, the filtration and grazing rates increased with increasing temperature...
September 5, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Monika, Anjana Srivastava, Archana Suyal, Prakash C Srivastava
Penoxsulam, a new post emergence herbicide is suspected to be toxic to aquatic organisms, crop plants and also to soil microbial community even at low concentrations. Laboratory studies were therefore performed to examine the persistence of, penoxsulam in two different soils at two application rates (0.5 and 1.0 µg g(-1)). The study revealed that the dissipation followed the first order kinetics with a half life of 3.48 and 3.57 days at 0.5 µg g(-1) and 4.1 and 4.17 days at 1.0 µg g(-1) fortification rate...
September 5, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
M Moslen, C A Miebaka
Heavy metal bioconcentration in crabs from an estuarine creek in the Niger Delta was examined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Health risk via human exposure to metal toxicity was evaluated. Mean metal levels (µg/g) were Cr 2.32 ± 0.71, Ni 2.76 ± 0.48, Cu 12.94 ± 3.53, Pb 5.67 ± 1.03, Ag 1.83 ± 0.71 and Cd 0.73 ± 0.14 with significant difference (p < 0.001) between periods. Ni, Pb and Cd had values above FAO/WHO recommended limits. Estimated daily intake values were below the reference oral doses and the target hazard quotient was <1 for each metal examined while hazard index for all metals was also <1...
September 4, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
J X Sui, M X Wen, L L Jia, Y J Chen, C H Li, L Zhang
In this study, impacts of O3 on four cultivars ('Rose', 'Pink', 'Blush' and 'White') of the polka dot plant with variegated leaves were investigated for the first time. Ozone fumigation [(120 ± 20 ppb) for 14 days (8 h day(-1), from 8:30 to 16:30)] resulted in visible foliar injuries, decreased contents of pigments (chlorophyll a and b, and carotenoid), the inhibition of photosynthesis, the increase of quantum yield of non-regulated heat dissipation and fluorescence emission (Y(NO)), and the damage of cell membrane...
August 31, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Aastha Pandey, Chhatra Mani Sharma, Shichang Kang, Qianggong Zhang, Lekhendra Tripathee, Junming Guo, Xiaofei Li, Shiwei Sun, Rukumesh Paudyal, Prakash Acharya, Mika Sillanpää
This study quantified concentrations of mercury (Hg) and its trophic transfer along the fish community in the Indrawati River, Nepal. Stable isotope ratios of nitrogen (δ(15)N) and carbon (δ(13)C), complemented by stomach contents data were used to assess the food web structure and trophic transfer of Hg in 54 fishes; 43 Shizothorax richardsonii and 11 Barilius spp. [B. bendelisis (1), B. vagra (3) and B. barila (7)]. Sixty-one muscle samples (including six replicates) were used for the analysis of total mercury (THg) and stable isotopes...
August 24, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Bibhab Mahapatra, Totan Adak, Naveen K B Patil, G Guru P Pandi, G Basana Gowda, Manoj Kumar Yadav, S D Mohapatra, P C Rath, Sushmita Munda, Mayabini Jena
The role of soil moisture, light and pH on imidacloprid dissipation was investigated. A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) based method was developed to quantify imidacloprid present in soil with a recovery of more than 82%. Rate of dissipation of imidacloprid from soil was faster in submerged condition compared to field capacity and air dried condition. Imidacloprid dissipated non-significantly between sterile and non-sterile soils, but at field capacity, the dissipation was faster in non-sterile soil compared to sterile soil after 60 days of incubation...
August 24, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Ines Kovačić, Maja Fafanđel, Lorena Perić, Iris Batel
Acid DNase activity in marine organisms displays a sensitive response to pollutants. In the present study, ex situ effect of toxic seawater organic extracts (Rijeka, Vranjic, Ploče) and in situ impact of environmental factors at referent (St. Andrew) and a polluted site (ACI Rovinj) on acid DNase in the digestive gland and gills of mussels was investigated. In the digestive gland, enzyme activity was related to potential toxicity of seawater organic extracts. Seawater organic extracts showed an increase of the enzyme activity in digestive gland following exposure...
August 24, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Mirela Jukić, Lidija Ćurković, Jasenka Šabarić, Mihone Kerolli-Mustafa
The aim of this study was to extract the wood biomass fly ash fractions by a three-stage sequential extraction method for acetic acid and ion exchangeable (BCR 1), hydroxylamine hydrochloride reduction (BCR 2), and hydrogen peroxide oxidation (BCR 3) fractions in order to access the leaching behavior of this residue. The fly ash was collected as a by-product from the processing of mixed wood biomass in Udbina combustion facility, Croatia. Concentrations of several elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in all extracts were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry...
August 20, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Jiraporn Yongpisanphop, Sandhya Babel, Maleeya Kruatrachue, Prayad Pokethitiyook
Using trees as phytoremediators has become a powerful tool to remediate lead from contaminated environments. This study aims to identify potential candidates among fast-growing trees by comparing their ability to tolerate and accumulate Pb. Cuttings from Acacia mangium, Azadirachta indica, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, and Senna siamea were cultured in 25% modified Hoagland's solutions supplemented with 10, 30, and 50 mg/L Pb for 15 days. Lead concentrations were determined by a flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer...
August 20, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
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