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Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology

Mohamed R Berber, Inas H Hafez
The current study shows an advanced synesthetic technique of a nitrate-fertilizer with a controlled release behavior into different soils (normal and acidic agriculture soils solutions) at different climate temperatures. The environmentally friendly and the biocompatible layered double hydroxide (LDH) clay material was used as a host to accommodate the nitrate anion into its interlayer gallery by applying a reconstruction-incorporation technique (the memory effect property of LDH that allows calcined LDH to memorize its original structure)...
September 22, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
D Tomašević Pilipović, Dj Kerkez, B Dalmacija, N Slijepčević, D Krčmar, D Rađenović, M Bečelić-Tomin
Due to nZVI effectiveness in the removal of toxic metals as well as low-cost regarding its production, kaolinite, bentonite and carboxymethyl cellulose supported nZVI were chosen for in-situ remediation of river sediment. Small-scale laboratory studies have shown that the percentage of removed metal (Ni, Zn and Pb) ranged up to 80% depending on the nanomaterial used. The metal mobility in sediments was investigated using single extraction, which is proved to be better for quick estimation of metal mobility, and for highly contaminated sites both single and sequential extraction needs to be used...
September 22, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Madison R Kelly, Risa A Cohen
Widespread use of agrochemicals increases their likelihood of entering aquatic systems in mixture. Despite different modes of action, atrazine (herbicide) and tetracycline (antibiotic) adversely affect non-target photosynthetic organisms individually, but the effects of simultaneous exposure to both contaminants are untested. We created microcosms containing microalgae (Chlorella sp.), floating macrophytes (Lemna minor), and a zooplankton grazer (Daphnia magna). Microcosms were exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of atrazine and tetracycline, alone and together, for 10 days...
September 22, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Dalal Al Mahrouqi, Sumaya Al Riyami, Michael J Barry
Under natural conditions pollutants rarely affect only a single trophic level. This study investigated the effects of titanium dioxide (Ti-NPs) and zinc oxide (Zn-NPs) nanoparticles on survival and growth of Sclerophrys arabica tadpoles exposed directly in water, indirectly through their food source (decomposing leaves), or a combination of both. Zn-NPs did not cause significant mortality. The LC50 for tadpoles exposed to Ti-NPs directly was 74.9 µg/L (95% CI 16.6-338.7 µg/L) and 18.3 µg/L (95% CI 6.5-51...
September 20, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Long Wang, Ying Liu, Fan Pu, Wen Zhang, Zhongmu Zhou
To clarify the influence of water bath temperature on the decompression and concentration efficiency of a rotary evaporator, accurate control of the water bath temperature is required. Therefore, the water bath temperature control system of a rotary evaporator was studied using the recovery rate of phthalate esters (PAEs) as the indicator. The results showed that when the temperature of the rotary evaporator was set at 40°C, the actual temperature range of the concentrated liquid would change from 26-41 to 39-41°C...
September 19, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Nefertiti T Roldán-Wong, Karen A Kidd, Bertha P Ceballos-Vázquez, Marcial Arellano-Martínez
Although octopuses are in high-demand globally and can bioaccumulate high concentrations of metals, the risk associated to its consumption is poorly understood. We compiled literature data from eight locations in Europe, North America and Northern Africa with different environmental levels of metals to evaluate: (1) the risk to human health through consumption of muscle tissues and digestive glands of Octopus hubbsorum, O. vulgaris and Eledone cirrhosa, and (2) the maximum allowable consumption rates (CRlim )...
September 19, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Karen A Ghazaryan, Hasmik S Movsesyan, Hrant E Khachatryan, Naira P Ghazaryan
Research was carried out to determine and asses the influence of mining industries on soil contamination with application of various pollution indices. For soil sampling 13 points were selected. Soil samples were analyzed for heavy metals by AAS. Eleven elements were determined and the greater quantities were generally observed in case of Mo and Cu. During the testing of soil pollution level pollution load index, degree of contamination (Cd) and geoaccumulation index were used. The correlation analysis revealed the strongest positive correlation between molybdenum and copper and that the high content of mentioned elements in soil was caused by mining industry...
September 18, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Karin Mandl, Clemens Cantelmo, Edith Gruber, Florian Faber, Barbara Friedrich, Johann G Zaller
In a vineyard we examined the effects of broad-spectrum herbicides with three different active ingredients (glyphosate, glufosinate, flazasulfuron) on soil microorganisms. Mechanical weeding served as control treatment. Treatments were applied within grapevine rows and soil samples taken from there in 10-20 cm depth 77 days after application. Fungi were analyzed using classical sequencing technology and bacteria using next-generation sequencing. The number of colony-forming units (CFU) comprising bacteria, yeasts and molds was higher under flazasulfuron compared to all other treatments which had similar CFU levels...
September 18, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Mauricio González-Piana, Andrea Piccardo, Carolina Ferrer, Beatriz Brena, Macarena Pírez, Daniel Fabián, Guillermo Chalar
We analyzed the effects of stratification changes due to wind on the vertical cyanobacteria distribution and microcystin-LR concentrations in a reservoir and assessed the implications for water management. Under stratified conditions, the highest microcystin concentrations (up to 4.16 µg/L) and toxic cyanobacteria biovolume occurred in the epilimnion (~ 1 m). The lowest microcystin concentrations were between 0.02 and 1.28 µg/L and occurred in the hypolimnion (~ 20 m). A cold front passage associated with high wind velocities induced water column mixing, promoting the redistribution of microcystin-LR and cyanobacteria throughout the water column and increasing their concentrations in deeper zones...
September 18, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Haifeng Qian, Mingjing Ke, Qian Qu, Xingxing Li, Benben Du, Tao Lu, Liwei Sun, Xiangliang Pan
The manufacturers of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are continuously expanding their manufacturing and commercial markets, indicating that the environmental release and accumulation of SWCNTs in soil is inevitable. However, little is known about the effects of SWCNTs on soil physicochemical properties and soil microbial communities. Our results showed that treatment with SWCNTs resulted in an enhancement of microorganism metabolism related to soil organic compound degradation and a change in the structure of soil microbial communities, but the diversity of soil microorganisms was not significantly affected...
September 12, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Haihai Zhuang, Shaohui Xu, Maosheng Gao, Jia Zhang, Guohua Hou, Sen Liu, Xueyong Huang
The particle size distribution characteristics of sediments and the concentrations of heavy metals in Jiaozhou Bay were investigated in this study. The average concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Cd, Hg and As were 36.88, 29.60, 82.08, 77.48, 0.083, 0.048 and 11.00 mg/kg, respectively. The heavy metal concentrations were highest in the eastern sediments, followed by those at the top of the bay, and the lowest concentrations were observed in the central region. Overall, a decreasing trend from the center of the bay to the periphery was observed...
September 12, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Grzegorz Kosior, Aleksandra Samecka-Cymerman, Anna Brudzińska-Kosior
Concentrations of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, K, Fe, Mn, Pb, V and Zn in transplants of Hylocomium splendens (Hedw.) Schimp. were compared with bulk deposition and dust samples from three different categories of sites: industrial, residential and their surroundings and rural (15 in total). Mosses were transplanted for 90 days to severely polluted areas of Upper Silesia, and samples of precipitation and dust were collected during the same period. Most of the significant correlations between element concentrations in mosses and bulk deposition (Cd, Ni, Pb and Zn) were found for industrial sites...
September 11, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
L Sakellariou, N Papassiopi
The present study examines electroremediation's efficiency on Cr(VI) contaminated samples. Electrokinetic experiments were performed applying a DC voltage of 30 V to a cylindrical sample of 30 cm length and 4 cm diameter, using Na2 SO4 as background electrolyte solution. The first two experiments, one with kaolin and one with soil, were carried out without applying any pH adjustment in the anode or the cathode compartment, using 0.01 M Na2 SO4 . Further experiments were carried out increasing the electrolyte's concentration and using Mg(OH)2 to neutralize the generated acidity in the anode...
September 11, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Aikaterini Toli, Alexia Varouxaki, Christiana Mystrioti, Anthimos Xenidis, Nymphodora Papassiopi
In this study the fixation of nano zero valent iron (nZVI) on a polymeric matrix applying an environmentally friendly technique and the performance of this material for the treatment of Cr(VI) contaminated groundwater were evaluated. The investigated method could be applied in a pump & treat groundwater remediation system. A macroreticular cationic resin was selected as porous host material. It was found that green tea polyphenols were able to penetrate within the macroporous resin matrix and obtain the reduction of Fe(III) to the elemental state...
August 31, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Pavel Coufalík, Lukáš Krmíček, Ondřej Zvěřina, Natália Meszarosová, Jindřich Hladil, Josef Komárek
Volcanic activity is one of the primary sources of mercury in the earth's ecosystem. In this work, volcanic rocks from four geotectonically distinct localities (the Czech Republic - intraplate, rift-related alkaline basaltic rocks; Iceland - hotspot/rift-related tholeiitic basaltic rocks; Japan - island arc calc-alkaline andesites; and Alaska - continental arc calc-alkaline dacites) were studied. Ultra-trace Hg contents in all samples ranged from 0.3 up to 6 µg/kg. The highest Hg content was determined for volcanic ash from Mount Redoubt (Alaska, USA)...
August 30, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Chan Zhang, Shengchun Wu, Jin Zhang, Peter Christie, Minghung Wong, Peng Liang
The role of bamboo forest in soil Hg accumulation and emissions was evaluated by analyzing Hg concentration in soil and plant samples as well as Hg flux between soil and air. THg concentrations in soil samples ranged widely from 28.5 to 860 ng g-1 with a mean value of 153 ± 17.3 ng g-1 . Methylmercury concentrations in soil samples from forest soil (FS, 0.94 ± 0.20 ng g-1 ) were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than from bare soil (BS, 0.54 ± 0.07 ng g-1 ). The mean foliar THg concentration (178 ± 16...
August 24, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Christiana Mystrioti, Aikaterini Toli, Nymphodora Papasiopi, Dimitris Dermatas, Sofia Thimi
Nano zero valent iron (nZVI) is highly reactive, targets a wide range of contaminants and is considered as a promising material for the in situ remediation of contaminated aquifers. Injection of nZVI suspension is a remedial option for the in-situ reduction and immobilization of pollutants in aquifers. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of iron nanoparticles (GT-nZVI), synthesised by a green synthesis route, for Cr(VI) removal in a pilot scale application. A tank with dimensions 2...
August 22, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Pei Lei, Ke Pan, Hong Zhang, Jianlin Bi
Concentrations, sources and risk of 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in surface sediments from 19 representative tributaries in a regional scale of Chongqing City. The total concentration of 16 PAHs (ΣPAHs) ranged from 221 to 3205 ng g-1 with a mean of 1055 ng g-1 . Most tributaries of the Jialing River exhibited significantly higher ΣPAHs concentrations (mean 1864 ng g-1 ) compared to those flowing into the Yangtze River (mean 787 ng g-1 ). Isomeric ratio and hierarchical clustering analysis showed combustion may impact sedimentary PAHs at most center sites of the City, while PAHs at most sites were mixed of petrogenic and pyrogenic sources...
August 11, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Haibo Zhang, Bianying Zhou, Jingfen Ren, Lei Zhang, Yongming Luo
The chromate ore process residues (COPR) polluted soil was physically separated into coarse sand (2.000-0.425 mm), fine sand (0.425-0.053 mm) and silt to clay (< 0.053 mm) fractions. The Cr speciation was characterized by synchrotron based micro X-ray fluorescence (µ-XRF) and micro X-ray absorption near-edge spectra (µ-XANES). The results indicated that Cr was bearing both in COPR parent minerals and hydrated products and was dominated by Cr(III) in three size-fractions. The synchrotron results indicated that Cr(III) was dominated by chromite, organic matter bound Cr(III) and particle adsorbed Cr3+ in the selected hotspots from the coarse sand, fine sand and silt to clay sized fraction, respectively...
July 18, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Peng Liu, Carol J Ptacek, David W Blowes
Previous studies show mercury (Hg) can be effectively removed from solution by biochar, but limited attention was paid on the complexation between Hg and components released from biochars, e.g. dissolved organic matter (DOM). Here, aqueous data from batch-style experiments were modeled using PHREEQC, incorporating thermodynamic constants between Hg and DOM, which was assumed to be composed of thiol, carboxylic, and phenolic functional groups. Modelling results suggest that > 99% Hg complexed with thiol groups in DOM...
July 14, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
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