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Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology

Roberto Vázquez-Euán, Karla S Escalante-Herrera, Gabriela Rodríguez-Fuentes
Ground characteristics in the Yucatan Peninsula make recovery and treatment of wastewater very expensive. This situation has contributed to an increase of pollutants in the aquifer. Unfortunately, studies related to the effects of those pollutants in native organisms are scarce. The aim of this work was to obtain partial sequences of widely known genes used as biomarkers of pollutant effect in Gambusia yucatana and Gambusia sexradiata. The studied genes were: cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A); vitellogenin (VTG); metallothionein (MT), and two housekeeping genes, 18S and β-actin...
December 2, 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Meng Xu, Yue Zheng, Weiwei Chen, Na Mao, Ping Guo
Soil column leaching experiments were conducted to study the effects of multiple freeze-thaw cycles on the vertical migration of cadmium (Cd). Three Cd-spiked leaching solutions of different properties were derived from snowmelt, sludge, and straw, designated as B, W and J, respectively. The leaching solutions varied in dissolved organic matter (DOM) concentrations in the order of J > W > B. Changes in leachate properties and Cd concentration were observed. The results showed that pH values of all the leachate solutions through freeze-thaw treated soil columns were higher than those of leachates through unfrozen soils...
December 1, 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Tatiana Miura Pereira, Lívia Pôncio Mattar, Edgar Rocha Pereira, Julia Merçon, Ary Gomes da Silva, Zilma Maria Almeida Cruz
This study evaluated the effect of tin exposure on enzyme activity in the sea cucumber (Holothuria grisea Selenka, 1867). After exposure to 0 (control), 0.04, 0.08, or 0.12 mg L(-1) tin, we tested the activities of total cholinesterase in longitudinal muscles, acid phosphatase in gonads and the respiratory tree, as well as alkaline phosphatase in the intestines during a 96-h bioassay. Regression analyses showed that all enzyme activities declined with increasing tin concentrations, except for acid phosphatase in the respiratory tree, which were similarly, inhibited at all tin concentrations...
November 30, 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Jordan A Pitt, Ken G Drouillard, Gordon Paterson
Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations were quantified in lower trophic level consumers of the Lake Erie western basin food web to assess the capacity of PCBs to discriminate among trophically similar species inhabiting different compartments of the same ecosystem. Zooplankton were characterized by higher proportions of less chlorinated and hydrophobic homologs relative to zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha), mayfly (Hexagenia limbata) and emerald shiner (Notropis atherinoides) samples. PCB biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAF) differed significantly among species with zebra mussels and emerald shiners having the highest BSAFs...
November 30, 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Rupshikha Patowary, Kaustuvmani Patowary, Arundhuti Devi, Mohan Chandra Kalita, Suresh Deka
The purpose of this study was to determine whether total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in crude oil contaminated sites are transferred to roots, shoots and finally the grains of rice crops (Oryza sativa L.) grown in those sites. Soil was artificially contaminated with crude oil at concentrations of 0, 1000, 5000, 10,000, and 15,000 mg/kg, followed by planting of rice seedlings. After harvest, TPH in plant samples were measured, and it was determined that the uptake of TPH by the plants gradually increased as the concentration of oil in soil increased...
November 28, 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Wangcang Su, Hongdan Hao, Renhai Wu, Hongle Xu, Fei Xue, Chuantao Lu
With the widespread use of mesotrione, its residues have become increasingly serious and caused a series of environmental problems in northern China. To reduce the harm of these residues, we investigated the degradation effect of mesotrione in typical soils in northern China at different temperatures, soil moisture, pH values and initial concentrations. We also examined the influence of soil type, microorganisms and the use of organic matter and biogas slurry as soil amendments. Mesotrione degradation rates increased as the temperature, soil moisture, soil pH and the content of biogas slurry increased; and decreased as the organic content and the initial concentration of mesotrione increased...
November 28, 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Inga Zinicovscaia, Constantin Hramco, Octavian G Duliu, Konstantin Vergel, Otilia A Culicov, Marina V Frontasyeva, Gheorghe Duca
Moss biomonitoring using the species Hypnum cupressiforme (Hedw.) and Pleurocarpous sp was applied to study air pollution in the Republic of Moldova. A total of 41 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr, Cd, Sb, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Tm, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Pb, Th, and U) were determined by instrumental epithermal neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry. Principal component analysis was used to identify and characterize different pollution sources...
November 26, 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Dimitris Dermatas, Iraklis Panagiotakis, Thanasis Mpouras, Kostas Tettas
Two different cases of Cr(VI) contaminated ophiolitic aquifers are presented herein. The first is located at Vergina (Northern Greece), where the maximum Cr(VI) concentration measured was 64 μg/L, being one of the highest geogenic concentrations recorded globally in areas with similar geological background. The second case is located at Inofyta (Central Greece), a makeshift industrial area, where the maximum detected Cr(VI) concentration exceeds 10,000 μg/L, indicating clearly anthropogenic activities as the main source...
November 26, 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Giorgi Dal Pont, Fabíola Xochilt Valdez Domingos, Marisa Fernandes-de-Castilho, Adalberto Luis Val
In this study, we evaluated the capacity of the Biotic Ligand Model (BLM) to predict copper toxicity in white-waters of the Solimões-Amazon River. LC50 tests using the species Otocinclus vittatus (Regan, 1904) were performed with Solimões-Amazon river water (100%) at 20%, 40%, 60%, and 80% dilutions. A sevenfold decrease in both dissolved and total Cu toxicity was observed in the experiment conducted with 100% when compared to 20% white-water, indicating that physicochemical characteristics of white-water attenuate Cu toxicity...
November 26, 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Minbale Aschale, Yilma Sileshi, Mary Kelly-Quinn, Dereje Hailu
Due to the significantly fast urban expansion and increased industrial activities, the soils in the farms in Addis Ababa are contaminated by some toxic and potentially toxic elements (As, V, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, B, Ba, Sr, Zn, Mn, Pb and Cd) in varying degrees. The mean concentrations of Cr, Ni, As and B in most of the soil farms were found to be higher than the maximum recommended limits. The mean concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, Co, Ni and Mn were found to be higher than the background soil concentrations given for uncontaminated soils...
November 25, 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Ana Alebic-Juretic, Boris Mifka
Samples of PM10 were collected over a 12 month period at two sites approximately 5 km apart. Site 1 was an urban site in the center of the city of Rijeka, Croatia, and Site 2 was an industrial site in the proximity of a shipyard, located in the southeastwards direction from the city. No significant differences in airborne concentrations of PM10 or secondary inorganic ions were found between the two sites. Therefore, the sampling continued only at Site 1. The dominant airborne compound was ammonium sulfate, being approximately six times more abundant in the summer (S) months than ammonium nitrate...
November 25, 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Delia Rodríguez-Oroz, Esther Lasheras, David Elustondo, Jordi Garrigó
The objective of the present work was to verify and compare the performance of different geochemical indices employed to identify the anthropogenic origin of selected heavy metals and other trace elements in soils. To that end, two background values, the upper continental crust and the metal content in the bed rock, were used and obtained from a forested basin of the western Pyrenees. The enrichment factor (EF), geo-accumulation index (Igeo), and contamination factor (C(i)f) were finally evaluated for their ability to determine anthropogenic contamination: Results indicate that an in-depth knowledge of the bed rock geochemistry and the geological background content is essential to distinguish between the natural variability of soils and any anthropogenic contribution of heavy metals...
November 24, 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Elżbieta Malinowska
The aim of this paper is to assess the effect of liming and low doses of municipal sewage sludge (5%, 10%, 15% of the soil mass) on lead, chromium and nickel speciation in soil. The 420-day experiment was carried out in laboratory conditions. In all the samples lead, chromium and nickel concentration was determined with the ICP-AES method, while the content of those metals in different fractions was measured with the seven-step Zeien and Brümmer method, on the 30th and 420th days of the experiment. Sewage sludge doses significantly diversified lead, chromium and nickel amounts in the soil...
November 24, 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Clissiane Soares Viana Pacheco, Erik Galvão Paranhos da Silva, Rachel Ann Hauser-Davis, Fábio Dias, Fábio Alan Carqueija Amorim, Raildo Mota de Jesus, Cleber Galvão Novaes, Ana Maria Pinto Dos Santos, Tatiana Dillenburg Saint'Pierre
To assess environmental contamination, studies have been increasingly carried out using biomarkers to diagnose the effects of toxic metal exposure, such as metallothionein (MT). In this context, the aims of the present study were to determine Cd, Cu, Ni and Pb concentrations, by ICP-MS, in liver samples from Mugil cephalus from the municipality of Ilhéus, located in North-Southeastern Brazil, in the state of Bahia, which has been increasingly suffering from anthropogenic pressure, and to quantify total MT in liver and gills...
November 23, 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Richard E Lizotte, Matthew T Moore
Hydraulically connected wetland microcosms vegetated with either Typha latifolia or Myriophyllum aquaticum were amended with an NH4NO3 and permethrin mixture to assess the effectiveness of both plant species in mitigating effects of the pollutant mixture on phytoplankton (as chlorophyll a) and Hyalella azteca. Phytoplankton grew in response to increased NH4NO3 in the presence of all plant species, but was unaffected by exposure to permethrin. H. azteca responses occurred rapidly (0.17 days), was mitigated within 1-2 days, and aqueous toxicity was unaffected by plant species type...
November 22, 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
M L Dotaniya, V D Meena, S Rajendiran, M Vassanda Coumar, J K Saha, S Kundu, A K Patra
Soil and groundwater from long-term (>50 years) tannery effluent irrigated areas of Kanpur were analyzed and significant buildup of heavy metals such as Cr, Ni, Cd, Pb, Zn, and As in the range of 252-972, 23-30, 2.3-14.1, 23.7-58.8, 138-338 and 6.8-11 mg kg(-1), respectively in soil was found. Few groundwater samples in the effluent irrigated areas also exhibited high Cr concentration above the permissible limit of United States Environmental Protection Agency. The tannery effluents contained 1.53-57.3 ppm Cr, 0-0...
November 22, 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Honglian Ge, Fuli Zhang
The objective of this study was to investigate effects of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) on soybean seedlings. Growth and physiological parameters of soybean seedlings were measured by exposing seedlings to different concentrations of TBBPA (0, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80, and 100 mg kg(-1) dry weight soil) in a greenhouse. Results showed 5 to 100 mg kg(-1) TBBPA treatment reduced the shoot height, stem diameter, dry weight, and fresh weight, while 5 to 100 mg kg(-1) TBBPA treatment reduced the chlorophyll content and induced production of malondialdehyde (MDA) in soybean leaves after 7 and 14 days of exposure...
November 22, 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
M Stauffer, A Pignolet, J A Corcho Alvarado
Mercury (Hg) compounds were used in the past in primers for rifle and handgun ammunition. Despite its toxicity, little is known about the contamination of shooting-range soils with this metal. We present new data about the Hg contamination of surface soils from numerous shooting ranges of Switzerland. Our study demonstrates that Hg is measurable at high levels in surface soils from the shooting ranges. In three of the investigated ranges, concentrations above the maximum Swiss guidance value of Hg in soil of 500 µg kg(-1) were measured...
November 21, 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Xin Cheng, Yi Huang, Zhijie Long, Shijun Ni, Zeming Shi, Chengjiang Zhang
Ambient PM10 air samples were collected at two industrial sites and one urban residential site in the mining city of Panzhihua, China, from April, 2014, to January, 2015. Mass concentrations of ten trace metals (As, Cd, Cr, Ni, Co, V, Mn, Cu, Pb, and Zn) in PM10 were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The results showed Zn, Pb, Cu, Mn and V were the most abundant elements from the industrial sites. Concentrations for Cd, Cr, Co, Ni, Mn and Cu at industrial sites greatly exceeded the air quality standards of the World Health Organization and the Chinese Ministry of Environmental Protection...
November 21, 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Rafał Strachel, Jadwiga Wyszkowska, Małgorzata Baćmaga
This study analyzed the relationship between nitrogen fertilization and the biological properties of soil contaminated with zinc. The influence of various concentrations of zinc and nitrogen on the microbiological and biochemical activity of soil was investigated. In a laboratory experiment, loamy sand with pHKCl 5.6 was contaminated with zinc (ZnCl2) and fertilized with urea as a source of nitrogen. The activity of acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, urease and β-glucosidase, and microbial counts were determined in soil samples after 2 and 20 weeks of incubation...
November 21, 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
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