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Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology

Mustafa Nakipoğlu, Fadime Yilmaz, Bulent Icgen
Untreated wastewaters and treated effluents even after final disinfection contain antibiotic resistant bacteria and resistance genes before they are released into surface waters. A correlation between resistant bacteria and antibiotics in surface waters has been found, as have antibiotic resistance genes. Of particular interest are vancomycin-resistant enterococci harboring vanA gene that confers high level of resistance to glycopeptide antibiotics including teicoplanin. Therefore, in this study, river water samples were analysed to investigate vancomycin- and teicoplanin-resistant bacterial isolates harboring vanA gene...
October 21, 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Prachi S Shenai-Tirodkar, Mangesh U Gauns, Zakir A Ansari
The major beds of oyster along the central-west coast of India are exposed to different anthropogenic activities and are severely exploited for human consumption. In this viewpoint, tissues of oyster Crassostrea madrasensis, C. gryphoides and Saccostrea cucullata were analyzed for Cu, Ni, Cd and Pb concentrations (dry weight) from Chicalim Bay, Nerul Creek and Chapora Bay in pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. A higher concentration of Cu (134.4-2167.9 mg kg(-1)) and Cd (7.1-88.5 mg kg(-1)) was found, which is greater than the recommended limits in all the three species (and sites)...
October 21, 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Deliang Li, Jie Pi, Jianping Wang, Pengfei Zhu, Liuping Lei, Ting Zhang, Deming Liu
Discovering cost effective strategies to reduce cadmium (Cd) uptake is of great concern for consumer food safety in the aquaculture industry. This study investigated the protective effects of calcium (Ca) on Cd uptake in co-cultured silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and triangle sail mussel (Hyriopsis cumingii). The results show that Ca-depending on its applied concentration-caused a significant decrease in the Cd uptake into muscle (by 48 %-72 %), gills (by 51 %-57 %), liver (by 52 %-81 %) and kidney (by 54 %-81 %) of silver carp (p < 0...
October 19, 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Alžbeta Hegedűsová, Ondrej Hegedűs, Tomáš Tóth, Alena Vollmannová, Alena Andrejiová, Miroslav Šlosár, Ivana Mezeyová, Tímea Pernyeszi
The adsorption of contaminants plays an important role in the process of their elimination from a polluted environment. This work describes the issue of loading environment with lead Pb(II) and the resulting negative impact it has on plants and living organisms. It also focuses on bentonite as a natural adsorbent and on the adsorption process of Pb(II) ions on the mixture of bentonite and bottom sediment from the water reservoir in Kolíňany (SR). The equilibrium and kinetic experimental data were evaluated using Langmuir isotherm kinetic pseudo-first and pseudo-second-order rate equations the intraparticle and surface diffusion models...
October 17, 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Papiya Mandal, R Sarkar, A Mandal, P Patel, N Kamal
This study assessed the concentrations of airborne heavy metals (HMs) in particulate matter with a cutoff size of 10 µm (i.e., PM10) in an industrialized urban area (Naraina Industrial Area) of New Delhi, India. The samples were collected from January to December, 2011. The annual mean concentrations of selected HMs were as follows As (0.002 ± 0.002), Cd (0.030 ± 0.020), Co (0.003 ± 0.002), Cr (0.170 ± 0.081), Cu (0.183 ± 0.120), Fe (4.774 ± 1.889), Mn (0.258 ± 0.145), Ni (0...
October 14, 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Esmarie Boyles, Clayton K Nielsen
Organohalogenated compounds (OHCs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are of global concern due to their environmental persistence, bioaccumulative potential, and adverse effects on humans and wildlife. We investigated the concentrations of PCBs in the liver tissues of bobcats (Lynx rufus) sampled in Illinois during 2013. Concentrations of ∑PCBs ranged from 76.4 to 3782 ng/g lw (median 562.97 ng/g lw). Male bobcats had significantly greater concentrations of PCBs than females (p = 0.04). Ours is one of the first studies to report PCBs in a wild North American felid...
October 14, 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Mouna Necibi, Laurent Lanceleur, Nadia Mzoughi, Mathilde Monperrus
A new analytical method for the simultaneous determination of eight synthetic musks compounds (SMs) including five polycyclic musks (PCMs) and three nitro musks (NMs) was validated for sediment samples based on a simple QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) sample preparation procedure followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Good analytical performances were obtained for all the target compounds. For the validation of the method, internal calibration (IC) and internal calibration with QuEChERS (ICQ) were compared...
October 14, 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Cleyton Martins da Silva, Luane Lima da Silva, Sergio Machado Corrêa, Graciela Arbilla
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play a central role in atmospheric chemistry. In this work, the kinetic and mechanistic reactivities of VOCs are analyzed, and the contribution of the organic compounds emitted by anthropogenic and natural sources is estimated. VOCs react with hydroxyl radicals and other photochemical oxidants, such as ozone and nitrate radicals, which cause the conversion of NO to NO2 in various potential reaction paths, including photolysis, to form oxygen atoms, which generate ozone. The kinetic reactivity was evaluated based on the reaction coefficients for hydroxyl radicals with VOCs...
October 13, 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
S-H Zhang, P-Y Xu, J-J Chang
The algal growth and physiological characters of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae were studied under the stress of Sagittaria sagittifolia extract. The results showed that the growth of A. flos-aquae was significantly inhibited by S. sagittifolia extract. The exopolysaccharide (EPS), total soluble protein, intracellular phosphorus (o-PO4-P) contents and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in A. flos-aquae cells increased significantly. These results suggested that A. flos-aquae can adapt to stress by increasing its normal metabolic activity...
October 13, 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Lekhendra Tripathee, Shichang Kang, Chhatra Mani Sharma, Dipesh Rupakheti, Rukumesh Paudyal, Jie Huang, Mika Sillanpää
This study investigates the contamination levels and risk assessments of 14 elements (Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Pb, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Sb, Sr, V and Zn) in three sub-basins of Himalayan rivers. Water samples were collected and the hazard quotient (HQ), hazard index (HI), and water quality index (WQI) were calculated. Total average concentrations of the metals were 135.03, 80.10 and 98.34 µg/L in Gandaki, Indrawati and Dudh Koshi rivers, respectively. The results of HQ and HI were less than unity, suggesting a low risk of metals in the region...
October 12, 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Gabriela Rodríguez-Fuentes, Valeria Marín-López, Esperanza Hernández-Márquez
Since several reports have indicated that cholinesterases (ChE) type and distribution is species specific and that in some species there is a relationship among gender, size and ChE activities, characterization has been suggested. The aim of the present study was to characterize the ChE present in head and muscle of Gambusia yucatana (using selective substrates and inhibitors) and to find its relationship with total length or gender. Results indicated that the ChE present in G. yucatana is an acetylcholinesterase (AChE) with high sensitivity to BW284C51 and an atypical smaller Km with butyrylthiocholine...
October 11, 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Fabrício Martins Dutra, Carolina Arruda Freire, André Martins Vaz Dos Santos, Sandra Carla Forneck, Claudia Caramelo Brazão, Eduardo Luis Cupertino Ballester
This study determined the effects of nitrite on different life stages of the Amazon river prawn Macrobrachium amazonicum. Prawns of each life stage (postlarvae, juveniles and adults) were stocked in 24 experimental units (n = 10 prawns), under a complete randomized design. Individuals were exposed to nitrite (0, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16 mg L(-1)). The median lethal concentration after 96 h (96 h LC50) was calculated through the Weibull I. The mortality results showed that M. amazonicum is slightly less tolerant to nitrite than other species of Macrobrachium...
October 11, 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Erin Bennett
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 8, 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Laura Pacholski, Peter Chapman, Alexandra Hood, Michelle Peters
An inter-laboratory comparison of the three-brood survival and reproduction Ceriodaphnia dubia toxicity test was conducted involving three toxicity testing laboratories. This comparison was initiated due to sporadic toxicity with this test related to discharge of a mine effluent, which some regulators believed indicated adverse effects in the receiving environment. One mine effluent and two receiving water samples were evaluated. There were no adverse effects on C. dubia survival in any tests. However, sublethal effects on reproduction (i...
October 8, 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
E G Canli, G Atli, M Canli
Freshwater fish Oreochromis niloticus were exposed to Cu in differing Ca(2+) levels (15, 30 and 90 mg/L), using acute (0.3 µM, 3 d) and chronic (0.03 µM, 30 d) exposure protocols and enzyme activities related to the antioxidant (catalase, CAT, EC; superoxide dismutase, SOD, EC; glutathione peroxidase, GPx, EC and osmoregulation (Total, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, EC, Mg(2+)-ATPase, EC systems in the erythrocytes were measured. Activities of antioxidant enzymes generally decreased significantly following either Ca(2+) alone or Ca(2+)+Cu combinations in both acute and chronic exposures...
October 6, 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Jovana Bavaresco, Jessé R Fink, Maria Lucia K Rodrigues, Clesio Gianello, Vidal Barrón, José Torrent
Prolonged use of biosolids with high metal content may result in diffuse pollution across large regions, especially if such ions can move freely through the soil profile and reach underground water sources. The objective of this study was to verify whether Cr added to the soil surface in the form of hydrolysed leather or a soluble salt would migrate over significant distances in four subtropical soils differing in physical, chemical and mineralogical properties. Horizontal and vertical mobility were assessed in Petri dishes and small pots, respectively, using low (12 mg kg(-1) soil) and high Cr levels (150 mg kg(-1) soil) added to the soil surface...
October 4, 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Soledad Chamorro, Daniela López, Pablina Brito, Mayra Jarpa, Benjamin Piña, Gladys Vidal
The implementation of elemental chlorine-free (ECF) bleaching methods has drastically reduced the aquatic toxicity of Kraft mill effluents during the last decade. However, the residual toxicity of Kraft mill effluents is still a potential concern for the environment, even when subjected to secondary wastewater treatment. The aim of this study is characterize potential sublethal effects of ECF Kraft mill effluents using Daphnia magna as model species. D. magna exposed towards increasing concentration of ECF Kraft mill effluent showed a significant, dose-dependent reduction in feeding...
October 4, 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Fei Deng, Shuling Wang, Hua Xin
Roots of Allium cepa were exposed to six CuO NPs suspensions (0, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80 mg L(-1)) in this study. Results revealed that with the increase of CuO NPs concentration, the Cu content in roots increased significantly. Compared to control, onion roots treated with CuO NPs (except 5 mg L(-1) suspension) grew slowly after 24 h. The surface of the root cap and meristematic zone were obviously damaged. The apical meristem of roots treated by 10 mg L(-1) and above concentrations stopped division. The nucleus of meristematic cells deformed, and nucleoli number increased...
October 4, 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Itaru Sato, Kiyoshi Yamauchi, Shuji Tsuda
Cadmium and lead were measured in liver and kidney samples of 242 Japanese black bears (Ursus thibetanus japonicus) captured from 1999 to 2014 from two local populations in Japan. The median concentration of cadmium was 0.54 (mean: 0.80) mg/kg-w.w. in liver and 7.7 (mean: 11.8) mg/kg-w.w. in kidney. The median concentration of lead was 0.24 (mean: 0.40) and 0.21 (mean: 0.32) mg/kg-w.w. in liver and kidney, respectively. Bears in the Kita-ou local population had higher concentrations of cadmium and lead than those in the Kitakami Highlands local population...
October 4, 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Subhashree Sahoo, Totan Adak, Torit B Bagchi, Upendra Kumar, Sushmita Munda, Sanjoy Saha, J Berliner, Mayabini Jena, B B Mishra
Pretilachlor treatments, namely, recommended dose at 600 g a.i. ha(-1) (RD), double the recommended dose at 1200 g a.i. ha(-1) (2RD), ten times of the recommended dose at 6000 g a.i. ha(-1) (10RD) along with control, were used to study the effects of pretilachlor on soil enzymes in tropical rice soil. Pretilachlor, at recommended dose completely dissipated 30 days after herbicide application. Twenty days after herbicide application, the dehydrogenase activity was inhibited up to 27 %, 28 % and 40 % of initial values of RD, 2RD and 10RD treatments, respectively...
October 4, 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
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