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Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology

Farah Akmal Idrus, Masania Mohd Basri, Khairul Adha A Rahim, Nur Syazwani Abd Rahim, Melissa Dennis Chong
This study analyzed the levels of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) by the flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (FAAS), in the muscle tissues, exoskeletons, and gills from freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) (n = 20) harvested from natural habitat in Kerang River, Malaysia on 25th November 2015. Significant increase of the metals level in muscle tissue and gill (r > 0.70, p < 0.05) were observed with increase in length except for Cu in gills. No relationship was found between metals level in exoskeleton and length...
January 17, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Anshumali, Manish Kumar, Nikki Chanda, Abhay Kumar, Bijendra Kumar, Madavi Venkatesh
This study assessed the fluoride (F-) pollution in groundwater samples (n = 170) of tribal regions around Bailadila Iron Ore Mines [BIOM] Complex of Dantewada District, India. Weathering of carbonate and silicate clays were important geogenic sources of dissolved ions. A Piper diagram showed a Ca-HCO3 water type, with positive chloro-alkaline indices illustrating the occurrence of direct base-exchange reactions. The F- concentrations varied from 0.08 to 1.95 mg L-1 with a mean value of 0.9 ± 0.3 mg L-1...
January 16, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Andrea Vannini, Luca Paoli, Marco Vichi, Martin Bačkor, Miriam Bačkorová, Stefano Loppi
This study investigated the occurrence of toxicity, expressed as damage to the photosynthetic apparatus, in the aquatic fern Azolla filiculoides and the lichen Xanthoria parietina following treatments with diclofenac at different concentrations (0.1, 1, 10 and 100 mg/L) and different exposure times (24, 48, 72 and 240 h). Measurements of photosynthetic efficiency, chlorophyll content and chlorophyll degradation indicated dose- and time-dependent toxicity, since significant differences with control samples as well as among treatments, emerged mainly for the highest concentration (100 mg/L) and the longest time (240 h)...
January 16, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Abril K Romo-Piñera, Ofelia Escobar-Sánchez, Jorge Ruelas-Inzunza, Martín G Frías-Espericueta
We evaluated the total Hg concentration in different tissues of squalid callista Megapitaria squalida in order to measure Hg distribution in tissue and to estimate human health risk. Samples were obtained by free diving in the SW Gulf of California, Mexico. Concentrations are given on a wet weight basis. A total of 89 squalid callista specimens were obtained, presenting an average Hg concentration of 0.07 ± 0.04 µg g-1. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in Hg concentration between tissues (visceral mass = 0...
January 15, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Oana Alexandra Drăghiceanu, Liliana Cristina Soare, Irina Fierăscu, Radu-Claudiu Fierăscu, Monica Popescu
The paper aims to determine the lead-induced physiological, biochemical and enzymatic changes in Asplenium scolopendrium, which could represent biomarkers used in environmental assessment. Of all the physiological processes, photosynthesis and respiration were analyzed and the enzymatic and biochemical determinations focused on catalase activity, assimilatory pigment concentration, polyphenol content and lead presence in tissues.The stress induced by the exposure to Pb of the species Asplenium scolopendrium determined an increase in the carotenoid content, the catalase activity, the total polyphenol content and also enhanced the respiration potential...
January 15, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Kalender Arıkan, Zeynep Yaşar Arıkan, Salih Levent Turan
The residues of persistent organochlorinated pollutants (POPs), namely polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) (HCHs, CHLs, HCCPs, DDTs, and dicofol congeners) were investigated in the hair and muscle of road-killed Erinaceus roumanicus and E. concolor in Turkey. Mean residue levels were as follows: in hair, PCBs = 7.43 ± 4.88 ng/g and OCPs = 9.21 ± 1.27 ng/g; in muscle, PCBs = 30.73 ± 2.51 ng/g and OCPs = 145.04 ± 16.59 ng/g. There was no significant difference between species and sex, while there was significant difference between habitats and regions in terms of either total PCB and OCP levels, or POP levels (p < 0...
January 15, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Muhammad Siraj, Muhammad Khisroon, Ajmal Khan, Farrah Zaidi, Ahmad Ullah, Ghani Rahman
The study explored (I) the concentration of heavy metals in water samples (II) their bioaccumulation in common carp Cyprinus carpio (III) and the subsequent genotoxicity in the selected organs of carp; from river Kabul, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan. Except for Mercury (Hg) the water samples had all the heavy metals within permissible limits of recommended dietary allowance (RDA). Nonetheless a number of heavy metals (Zn, Ni, Cr, Cd, Pb and Hg) showed bioaccumulation at levels higher than permissible. Zinc (Zn) was the most while Cadmium (Cd) was the least accumulated metal in all tissue samples analyzed...
January 11, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Juan A Placencia, Fernán Saavedra, Javier Fernández, Carolina Aguirre
Surface sediments from Reloncaví Fjord and the Chiloé inner sea in Chilean Patagonia were extracted and analyzed to estimate deltamethrin and diflubenzuron levels. These antiparasitary pesticides have been used for decades in the salmon industry. Relationships were determined between pesticide concentrations and organic carbon percent in sediments. Deltamethrin (0.39-1.05 µg g-1 dw) was found at all sampling sites but diflubenzuron (0.06-0.09 µg g-1 dw) at only five. Diflubenzuron levels were similar for sediments from other fjord areas...
January 6, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
L Díaz de León-Martínez, M Rodríguez-Aguilar, R Ocampo-Pérez, J M Gutiérrez-Hernández, F Díaz-Barriga, L Batres-Esquivel, R Flores-Ramírez
A molecularly imprinted polymer was developed and evaluated for selective determination of metronidazole (MNZ) in wastewater. This was achieved by using sodium methacrylate as monomer, toluene as porogen, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as crosslinker, azobisisobutyronitrile as initiator and metronidazole as template molecule to generate the selectivity of the polymer for the compound, as well as non-imprinted polymers were synthesized. Two different polymerization approaches were used, bulk and emulsion and the polymers obtained by emulsion presented higher retention percentages the MIP 2-M presented the higher retention (83%)...
January 3, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
J L Clausen, T Georgian, K H Gardner, T A Douglas
Research shows grab sampling is inadequate for evaluating military ranges contaminated with energetics because of their highly heterogeneous distribution. Similar studies assessing the heterogeneous distribution of metals at small-arms ranges (SAR) are lacking. To address this we evaluated whether grab sampling provides appropriate data for performing risk analysis at metal-contaminated SARs characterized with 30-48 grab samples. We evaluated the extractable metal content of Cu, Pb, Sb, and Zn of the field data using a Monte Carlo random resampling with replacement (bootstrapping) simulation approach...
January 3, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
C A Kantún-Manzano, J A Herrera-Silveira, F Arcega-Cabrera
The influence of coastal submarine groundwater discharges (SGD) on the distribution and abundance of seagrass meadows was investigated. In 2012, hydrological variability, nutrient variability in sediments and the biotic characteristics of two seagrass beds, one with SGD present and one without, were studied. Findings showed that SGD inputs were related with one dominant seagrass species. To further understand this, a generalized additive model (GAM) was used to explore the relationship between seagrass biomass and environment conditions (water and sediment variables)...
January 3, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Sandipan Pal, Palas Samanta, Debraj Kole, Aloke Kumar Mukherjee, Apurba Ratan Ghosh
This study evaluated the acute toxicity and oxidative stress responses to sodium fluoride (NaF) exposure in tadpoles of the skittering frog, Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis (Schneider 1799). The 96 h LC50 value was found to be 647 mg/L. Biochemical tests were conducted at 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70% and 80% of the 96 h LC50 dose. Cholinesterase (ChE) activity was unaffected. Lipid peroxidation levels significantly increased (p < 0.05) at lower concentrations, but decreased significantly with increasing NaF concentrations...
January 2, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Efstathios Reppas-Chrysovitsinos, Anna Sobek, Matthew MacLeod
Legislation such as the Stockholm Convention and REACH aim to identify and regulate the production and use of chemicals that qualify as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and very persistent and very bioaccumulative (vPvB) chemicals, respectively. Recently, a series of studies on planetary boundary threats proposed seven chemical hazard profiles that are distinct from the POP and vPvB profiles. We previously defined two exposure-based hazard profiles; airborne persistent contaminants (APCs) and waterborne persistent contaminants (WPCs) that correspond to two profiles of chemicals that are planetary boundary threats...
December 28, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Daniel J Call, Joseph W Gorsuch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 27, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Anusha Balangoda, K H M Ashoka Deepananda, H C E Wegiriya
This study investigated the potential toxic effects of environmentally relevant nitrate concentrations on development, growth, and mortality of early life stages of common hour-glass tree frog, Polypedates cruciger. Tadpoles from hatchlings through pre-adult were exposed to environmentally relevant nitrate concentrations detected in Mirissa, Sri Lanka. Newly hatched, external gill stage, and internal gill stage tadpoles were exposed to potassium nitrate for bioassay tests. No behavioral changes or abnormalities were observed in control and nitrate-induced group...
December 27, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Rami B Naddy, William A Stubblefield, Russell A Bell, Kuen B Wu, Robert C Santore, Paul R Paquin
The acute toxicity of silver to Ceriodaphnia dubia was investigated in laboratory reconstituted waters as well as in natural waters and reconstituted waters with natural organic matter. The water quality characteristics of the laboratory reconstituted waters were systematically varied. The parameters that demonstrated an ability to mitigate the acute toxic effects of silver were chloride, sodium, organic carbon, and chromium reducible sulfide. Factors that did not have a consistent effect on the acute toxicity of silver to C...
December 26, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Mohammad Farajvand, Vahid Kiarostami, Mehran Davallo, Abdolmohammad Ghaedi
A multivariate method based on solvent terminated dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction was developed for the determination of Cu2+ ions in aqueous samples. In the proposed approach, di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid, xylene and acetone were used as chelating agent, dispersive and extraction solvents, respectively. The effects of various factors on the extraction efficiency such as extraction and dispersive solvent volumes, salt addition and pH were studied using central composite design (CCD) and artificial neural networks coupled bees algorithm (ANN-BA)...
December 26, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Xiaodan Lin, Shen Yu, Hwongwen Ma
Intense human activities have led to increasing deterioration of the watershed environment via pollutant discharge, which threatens human health and ecosystem function. To meet a need of comprehensive environmental impact/risk assessment for sustainable watershed development, a biogeochemical process-based life cycle assessment and risk assessment (RA) integration for pollutants aided by geographic information system is proposed in this study. The integration is to frame a conceptual protocol of "watershed life cycle assessment (WLCA) for pollutants"...
December 23, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Tara N Tait, James C McGeer, D Scott Smith
Speciation of copper in marine systems strongly influences the ability of copper to cause toxicity. Natural organic matter (NOM) contains many binding sites which provides a protective effect on copper toxicity. The purpose of this study was to characterize copper binding with NOM using fluorescence quenching techniques. Fluorescence quenching of NOM with copper was performed on nine sea water samples. The resulting stability constants and binding capacities were consistent with literature values of marine NOM, showing strong binding with [Formula: see text] values from 7...
December 23, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Ray Arnold, Deyuan Kong, Gregory Douglas, Jeffery Hardenstine, Shahrokh Rouhani, William Gala
An experiment was designed to address the validity of the prescribed maximum allowable holding-time limit of 14 days when acidified at < 2 pH and maintained at 4°C to prevent significant loss of benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and xylenes (BTEX) in preserved water samples. Preservation methods prescribed by the United State Environmental Protection Agency were used as well as adaptions of that procedure to determine stability between 3 and 21 days. Water samples preserved at 4°C and pH of < 2 with hydrochloric acid did not result in unacceptable (> 15%) BTEX losses during the study as defined by procedures and statistical methods described by the American Society for Testing and Materials International...
December 22, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
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