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Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology

Peng Liu, Carol J Ptacek, David W Blowes
Previous studies show mercury (Hg) can be effectively removed from solution by biochar, but limited attention was paid on the complexation between Hg and components released from biochars, e.g. dissolved organic matter (DOM). Here, aqueous data from batch-style experiments were modeled using PHREEQC, incorporating thermodynamic constants between Hg and DOM, which was assumed to be composed of thiol, carboxylic, and phenolic functional groups. Modelling results suggest that > 99% Hg complexed with thiol groups in DOM...
July 14, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Alfredo Zubillaga, Luis A Soto, Diana L Salcedo, Alfonso V Botello
We assessed the presence and distribution of oil mineral aggregates (OMAs) in surficial sediments of Mexican waters in the NW Gulf of Mexico, their potential sources and their correlation with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). In summer of 2010, OMAs were detected in three shallow sites. In winter of 2011, OMAs were observed in ten sites, two of them in the northernmost area at > 1500 m depth. These particles were possibly advected from the north Gulf and Mississippi area following the deep-water currents of the zone...
July 11, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Donatella Caniani, Stefania Calace, Giuseppina Mazzone, Marianna Caivano, Ignazio M Mancini, Michele Greco, Salvatore Masi
Lab-scale experiments on three soil matrices featured by increasing granulometry (sea sand, silica sand and gravel) were carried out in order to evaluate the adsorption capability and the removal efficiency of a new graphene-based material. Soil samples, firstly contaminated with different quantities of used lubricant oil up to final concentrations of 12.5, 25.0, 50.0 g kg-1 , were treated with an opportune amount of thermally expanded graphite (TEG) (i.e. 1/10, 1/20, 1/40 as TEG/pollutant ratio). Results show that the removal efficiency of TEG is directly correlated to the contamination level of the soil...
July 10, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Luca Di Palma, Nicola Verdone, Giorgio Vilardi
The effect of soil composition on the reduction of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) by zero valent iron nanoparticles was studied. A model was proposed, to investigate both the effect of manganese oxide and the simultaneous effect of manganese dioxide and soil organic matter on the kinetic of Cr(VI) reduction. Fe(0) nanoparticles consumption by the reaction with dissolved oxygen, water and soluble Cr(VI) was taken into account. The model was validated through experimental tests performed on soil samples collected at an industrial polluted site, and on artificially contaminated samples from the same site, in the presence of selected amount of leonardite...
July 10, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
R García, R Pérez, A Kotsarenko, H Álvarez, H Barrera, A Carrillo-Chavez, O Peralta, J Campos, R Torres, G Hernández
We measured and compared mercury (Hg) and other ions in rainwater collected in San Joaquin (mining zone) and Juriquilla (urban area), central Mexico, from 2009 to 2012. A total of 274 rainwater samples were collected and analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity, [Formula: see text] Cl- , [Formula: see text] Na+ , K+ , Ca2+ , Mg2+ and Hg. Mercury concentrations in rainwater varied from 24.21 to 248.89 (x-bar = 86.97 ± 10.77) µg L- 1 in San Joaquin (mining zone) and 11.26 to 176.91 (x-bar = 81...
July 9, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Shu-Xuan Liang, Ling Ding, Shigang Shen, Wei Liu, Jianbing Li, Xiaocan Xi
Lead (Pb) is one of the most abundant metal soil pollutants. In this research, effects of nano-hydroxyapatite (NHAP) on remediation of Pb-contaminated soil were evaluated by the measure of extractable Pb using toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and soil enzyme activities. Results suggested NHAP significantly decreased the concentrations of extractable Pb, achieving the maximum decrement rate of 75.71%. Activity of urease decreased with increasing Pb concentrations. Moreover, activities of alkaline phosphatase, dehydrogenase, and catalase increased at the lower Pb levels and decreased at the higher Pb levels...
July 9, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Jing Wei, Chen Tu, Guodong Yuan, Dongxue Bi, Hailong Wang, Lijuan Zhang, Benny K G Theng
The dissolved organic matter (DOM) samples from biochars produced from Jerusalem artichoke stalks by pyrolysis at 300, 500, and 700 °C were characterized using a combination of spectroscopic techniques. Additionally, the binding affinities (long KM ) and the complexation capacities (CL ) of the DOM samples with Cu(II) were calculated to assess their Cu binding properties. The biochar-borne DOM contained mainly humic-like components (C1-C3) with a small amount of a protein-like component (C4). As the charring temperature increased, the concentrations of released DOM decreased...
July 7, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Jie Wei, Qi Shen, Yanli Ban, Yuan Wang, Chenchen Shen, Tianyi Wang, Wen Zhao, Xi Xie
As a commonly used phthalate compound, di(n-butyl) phthalate (DBP) is an emerging group of polyvinyl chloride plasticizers. The acute toxicity of DBP has been extensively studied using the aquatic indicator organism, Daphnia magna. However, little is known about chronic and transgenerational toxicity of DBP. In this study, acute LC50 values were 3.04 mg/L (24 h) and 2.55 mg/L (48 h). Chronic toxicity tests in the case of maternal exposure to DBP revealed that DBP had negligible effects on growth and reproduction of F3 generation of D...
July 6, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Priti Saha, Biswajit Paul
A multi-purpose Water Quality Index (WQI) was developed to assess the suitability of surface water for drinking, fish-culture, as well as irrigation in Durgapur industrial city, India. WQI was calculated for 48 sampling locations, where 2.08%, 4.17% and 22.91% of the sampling locations have excellent water quality (WQI: 0-25) and 20.83%, 33.33% and 34.35% have good quality (WQI: 25-50), which represents its suitability for drinking, irrigation, and fish-culture respectively. Further, health risk was evaluated by Hazard Index (HI), which reflected that the population were prone to risk on oral ingestion [HI (female): 1...
July 4, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Heyong Huang, Xiaoguang Xu, Chenfei Shi, Xiansheng Liu, Guoxiang Wang
Taste and odor (T&O) compounds are frequently reported during black blooms, however, their production mechanisms and influencing factors are far from clear. In this study, laboratory simulation experiment was carried out to investigate the formation processes of T&O compounds under the influences of temperature, cyanobacteria biomass and their combined effects. The decay of cyanobacteria blooms caused increased T&O compounds loading to water. Results showed the maximum dimethyl sulfide (DMS) release concentration was observed at 35°C compared with that at 25 and 30°C...
July 4, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Helena Doležalová Weissmannová, Jiří Pavlovský, Lenka Fišerová, Hedvika Kosárová
Algal test using chlorococcal algae Desmodesmus subspicatus was used to determine single acute toxicity of either diclofenac or cadmium and to assess acute toxicity of their binary mixtures. The test confirmed significant acute toxicity of both diclofenac and cadmium; diclofenac with acute toxicity Er C50 60.44 ± 0.20 mg/L and cadmium with acute toxicity Er C50 2.14 ± 0.02 mg/L. This study of acute toxicity of binary cadmium-diclofenac mixtures confirmed their negative effects on aquatic producers and it also proved influence of the above substances on acute toxicity of their mixtures...
July 4, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Christopher J Schmitt, Kathy R Echols, Paul H Peterman, Carl E Orazio, K Christiana Grim, Shirlee Tan, Nora E Diggs, Peter P Marra
The original version of this article contained a mistake. Author name in the text citation and reference in section should be Maldonado et al (2016), it was incorrectly spelled as Maldinado et al (2015).
July 3, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Shao-Wei Chen, Zi-Hui Chen, Ping Wang, Rui Huang, Wei-Lun Huo, Wei-Xiong Huang, Xing-Fen Yang, Jie-Wen Peng
The offshore area of the South China Sea is an important fishing ground in China. We used a food frequency questionnaire to determine marine fish consumption by local residents, and we detected mercury concentrations in commonly consumed marine fish species. In total, 127.9 g/day of the marine fish consumed was identified in 178 local residents. THg and MeHg concentrations in 209 samples of 22 fish species ranged from 11.3 to 215.0 µg/kg wt and 2.0 to 160.0 µg/kg wt, respectively. The mean MeHg exposure from marine fish to local residents was 0...
July 3, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Magollo Laurence, Joshua K Kibet, Silas M Ngari
The primary degradation of benzene derivatives in aquatic environments occurs via microbial and chemical processes. This study investigated the kinetic degradation of o-ethyltoluene and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene in the wetland of Lake Naivasha. Sediment samples were collected from 6:00 AM to 6:00 PM at intervals of 3 h during the dry season of December 2017. The sediment samples were air dried, ground into powder, followed by soxhlet extraction in a binary mixture of methanol and hexane in the ratio of 1:1. The extract was analyzed using gas chromatograph with mass selective detector...
June 19, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Kamila Pokorska-Niewiada, Monika Rajkowska-Myśliwiec, Mikołaj Protasowicki
Laboratory experiments were conducted to assess the effects of highly toxic and dangerous metals (Pb, Cd, Hg) and essential microelements (Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn) on the seed germination process in vetch and eight plant species of major importance to human consumption. The degree of metal toxicity was determined on the basis of acute LC50 values calculated by means of two different methods. All the metals were found to inhibit the germination process, but in a varying, species-dependent degree. Of all the plant seeds under study, the most sensitive to the presence of the examined metals during germination were the seeds of cress (Cu, Pb, Hg), rye (Ni, Zn, Cd) and barley (Cr), while vetch (Cr, Ni, Zn, Cd, Pb, Hg), rape (Cr, Cu) and pea (Ni, Cd) were found to be least affected...
June 19, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Seongeon Lee, Jinwook Chung, Yong-Woo Lee
Concentrations were measured three times from 2006 to 2013 at major harbors and marine areas along the Korean coast. The Cu concentration in seawater and sediments increased, while the Zn concentration first decreased and then increased. The pattern of increase in Cu concentration with time was consistent with the increased total tonnage of ships moored at the sampling area and with the increased discharge of organic antifouling agents. To confirm the relationship between seawater and marine sediments in heavy metal pollution, all data were arrayed and compared depending on concentrations...
June 18, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Kaili Duan, Meng Cui, Yanni Wu, Xueyong Huang, Ahui Xue, Xunan Deng, Liping Luo
In the present study, Chlorella vulgaris were cultured in the presence of the common plasticizer dibutyl phthalate (DBP) with different concentrations for 10 days. The cell density, DBP concentrations, neutral lipid concentrations, and lipid morphology in C. vulgaris were studied using optical microscopy, gas chromatography (GC), fluorescence spectrophotometry, and laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM). We observed that the neutral lipid contents and cell density of C. vulgaris were negatively influenced by DBP of high concentrations (50 and 100 mg/L), but significantly stimulated by DBP of low concentrations (5, 10, and 20 mg/L)...
June 16, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Xun Zhang, Tingting Hu, Lu Yang, Zhiyong Guo
The occurrence of 15 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in water, sediments, and fish from Songhua River and Yalu River in Jilin Province, Northeast China, during their spring flood period were investigated for the first time. The short-chain perfluorobutanoic acid was the dominant PFAS in the water with the mean concentrations of 10 ng L-1 in Songhua River and 9.0 ng L-1 in Yalu River, and also dominant in sediments with the mean concentrations of 2.0 and 1.8 ng g-1 dry weight. Perfluorodecane sulfonate was the predominant compound in fish...
June 15, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Shiping Shan, Zhaohui Guo, Ping Lei, Wei Cheng, Minxi Wu, Zujiao Fu, Shandong Wu, Dongxia Du, Liyang Wu
This study assessed the effectiveness of limestone-montmorillonite-rapeseed residue-Si fertilizer compound amendment on the bioavailability and crop uptake of cadmium (Cd) and enzyme activities in acidic paddy soils. Applying the compound amendment at ratios of 1%-3% increased soil pH by 0.1-1.9 units, decreased leaching ratios of soil Cd 4.0%-22%, and decreased exchangeable and carbonated Cd 42%-55% and 27%-49%, respectively. Organic matter-bound Cd increased 47%-62% (p < 0.05). Cadmium concentrations decreased in the roots, culms, leaves, and grains of rice grown in the Cd-contaminated soils by 37%-81%, 18%-73%, 29%-64% and 27%-63%, respectively, (p < 0...
June 13, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Qiuzan Zhong, Shuqing Wan, Changyou Shen, Yi Liu
Quinclorac is a selective herbicide commonly used in China to control monocotyledonous weeds in paddy fields. A field experiment was conducted to quantify the environmental behavior of quinclorac in acidic paddy soil under rice (Oryza sativa L.) field conditions, and to evaluate the risk of its residues to the subsequent crop of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.). Rice was sprayed once with quinclorac 50% WP at 562.5, 375.0, or 187.5 g a.i. ha-1 at 7 days after transplanting the seedlings. Decay of quinclorac in paddy field soil followed first-order kinetics, with a half-life of 28...
June 12, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
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