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Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology

David D Edwards, Katie L Klotz, Paul A Moore
Crayfish extract information from chemical stimuli during social interactions. Commercial fertilizers increase background ammonia concentrations which may interfere with chemical communication. Background pollution can disrupt perception of chemical stimuli in three ways: masking, sensory impairment, physiological impairment or in combination. We investigated whether exposure to ammonia alters agonistic behavior. Crayfish pairs exposed to 0.9 mg/L ammonia fought for a longer duration, while crayfish exposed to 9...
November 16, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Staffan Åkerblom, Johnny de Jong
To characterise mercury (Hg) exposure in Daubenton's bat (Myotis daubentonii, Kuhl 1817) in southern Sweden, 17 specimens were captured in 2013 and back fur samples were taken for analysis to determine Hg concentrations. The fur Hg levels determined [1.15 ± 0.27 (mean ± standard deviation, n = 17) µg Hg g(-1) fresh weight (fw)] represent a baseline for comparison in future assessments of Hg exposure in bat populations in northern Europe. Mercury concentrations were close to those reported in fur from other bat species, but were lower than proposed toxicological thresholds in bats (> 30 µg Hg g(-1) fw) and mice (5 µg Hg g(-1) fw)...
November 11, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
M Kemp, V Wepener, K N de Kock, C T Wolmarans
The Marico River is relatively unaffected by anthropogenic activities. However, metal concentrations-mainly from natural sources-occasionally exceed environmental quality guidelines. Macroinvertebrates are capable to react to these metals through processes such as the induction of metallothioneins (MTs). The aims of this study were to determine whether the induction of MTs can be used as indicator of natural metal exposure in not anthropogenically impacted systems and whether there are relationships between metal concentrations in water, sediment and macroinvertebrates and concomitant MT levels...
November 9, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Srđan Subotić, Željka Višnjić-Jeftić, Aleksandra Penezić, Duško Ćirović
The grey wolf (Canis lupus) is a large carnivore species and a top predator in the ecosystems that it inhabits. Considering its role in food webs, wolves may be exposed to high concentrations of potentially harmful elements. Therefore liver samples from 28 legally hunted wolves were analyzed for concentrations of 16 elements using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The Mann-Whitney U test showed a significant difference between the genders only for Li, and there were no differences between individuals caught in different years...
November 8, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Fasong Li, Hanyu Huang, Zhibing Xu, Hui Ni, Hao Yan, Ran Chen, Yan Luo, Wei Pan, Jinyun Long, Xiaofang Ye, Xiaofen Qian, Guangming Yu
Fifteen individual perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were analyzed in 22 sediment samples collected from Anqing urban lakes (Anhui province, China) by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Total PFAS concentration was between 0.61 and 26 ng g(- 1) dry weight. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was the dominant PFAS contaminant, with a concentration range of < 0.040-13 ng g(- 1). Results indicated higher total PFAS concentrations in lakes located to the northwest of Anqing City than in other regions...
November 8, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
W L Liu, C B Zhang, W J Han, M Guan, S Y Liu, Y Ge, J Chang
To control potential fungal denitrification rate (PFDR) in vertical flow simulated wetlands (VFSW) microcosms, thirty VFSW microcosms were established and planted with three plant species richness levels (i.e. unplanted, monoculture, and four-species polyculture treatment), and effects of carbon, nitrogen and pH amendments on the PFDR were investigated using a room-incubating method. Among seven carbon compounds, sodium citrate, glycerol, glucose and sodium succinate were more effective in enhancing PFDRs. These enhanced effects were dependant on a given species richness level...
November 7, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Robin D Calfee, Edward E Little
The Chiricahua leopard frog (Lithobates chiricahuensis) is in decline throughout the western United States, and is particularly sensitive to physical, chemical and biotic changes in their habitat. Acute toxicity tests revealed that among the metals detected in Chiricahua leopard frog habitat, copper was toxic at concentrations lower than those observed in the environment. Developing tadpoles were chronically exposed for 60 days to cadmium, copper and zinc because of the potential for long term exposure to these metals during early development...
November 2, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Mingjing Ke, Youchao Zhu, Meng Zhang, Hailiqieguli Gumai, Zhenyan Zhang, Junjie Xu, Haifeng Qian
The widespread application of copper oxide nanoparticles (nCuO) results in ecological risk when nanoparticles enter the environment. This study clarifies the mechanism of nCuO toxicity in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings via comparison with copper (Cu) ion bioeffects. Under the same culture conditions, Cu(2+) ion exposure exerted a stronger inhibitory effect on plant fresh weight and growth and caused stronger oxidative disruption (measured by malondialdehyde, MDA) than nCuO exposure. The Cu(2+) ions also showed a stronger induction effect than did nCuO on the activity of antioxidant enzymes and the transcription of antioxidant-related genes...
November 2, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
S V Copaja, C A Pérez, C Vega-Retter, D Véliz
In this study, we analyze the concentration of ten metals in two freshwater fish-the benthic catfish Trichomycterus areolatus and the limnetic silverside Basilichthys microlepidotus-in order to detect possible accumulation differences related to fish habitat (benthic or pelagic), tissue type (gill, liver and muscle), and the river of origin (four different rivers) in central Chile. The MANOVA performed with all variables and metals, revealed independent effects of fish, tissue and river. In the case of the fish factor, Cu, Cr, Mo and Zn showed statistically higher concentrations in catfish compared with silverside for all tissues and in all rivers (p < 0...
October 28, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
John W Finger, Juan Botero, Yufeng Zhang, Shelby E Still, Alexander J Hoffman, Andreas N Kavazis, Daniel A Cristol, Haruka Wada
Songbirds exposed to methylmercury (MeHg) often exhibit reduced reproductive success and cognitive abilities. To better understand whether oxidative stress plays a role, we dosed zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) with a contaminated (1.2 ppm MeHg-cysteine) or control diet for their entire lives, including during development in the egg. Levels of antioxidant enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD1 and SOD2)], oxidative damage (4-hydroxynonenal; 4-HNE), and antioxidant transcription factors [nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2; Nrf2] were measured in the liver and pectoralis muscle of adults...
October 27, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Graeme Allinson
Arundo donax (giant reed) has great potential for bioenergy biomass production in constructed wetlands. Large scale use of A. donax in constructed wetlands will require the use of either established plants sourced from nurseries, or the use of cuttings or rhizomes and stems from mother plants derived from nurseries or wild stands. The results of this study suggest that cuttings and rhizomes are not sensitive to salinity up to an EC ~ 4500 µS cm(- 1). Plants used to establish a constructed wetland should have stems of at least 300 mm length, with well established roots...
October 27, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Meilin He, Yuting Chen, Yongquan Yan, Shanmei Zhou, Changhai Wang
The ecotoxicity of α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles (NPs) and its interaction with a typical natural organic matter (NOM), fulvic acid (FA) on the physiological responses of Synechococcus sp. PCC7942 was studied. α-Fe2O3 NPs inhibited the algae growth at concentration higher than 10 mg L(-1) and induced oxidative stress, indicated by enhanced antioxidant enzymes activities, elevated protein and sugar content. FA could efficiently recover cell growth and reduce antioxidant enzyme activities which induced by α-Fe2O3 NPs, indicating the toxicity of NPs was alleviated in the presence of FA...
October 27, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Mauricio González-Piana, Daniel Fabián, Andrea Piccardo, Guillermo Chalar
The original version of this article contains mistakes. The author inadvertently mentioned units mg/L in all the places of first paragraph under "Results and discussion" section. The correct unit is µg/L. In second paragraph, 10th line under "Results and discussion" section, the value should read as (< 0.05-85.4 µg/mm(3)) instead of (< 0.05-854.00 µg/mm(3)). The units and value are corrected through this erratum.
October 24, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Ilana Tavshunsky, Susan L Eggert, Carl P J Mitchell
Mercury (Hg) methylation is often elevated at the terrestrial-peatland interface, but methylmercury (MeHg) production at this "hot spot" has not been linked with in situ biotic accumulation. We examined total Hg and MeHg levels in peat, invertebrates and tissues of the insectivore Sorex cinereus (masked shrew), inhabiting a terrestrial-peatland ecotone in northern Minnesota, USA. Mean MeHg concentrations in S. cinereus (71 ng g(-1)) fell between concentrations measured in spiders (mean 70-140 ng g(-1)), and ground beetles and millipedes (mean 29-42 ng g(-1))...
October 23, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Mona Schweizer, Andreas Dieterich, Rita Triebskorn, Heinz-R Köhler
Beyond the mere detection of presence or absence of heart beat in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos in a fish embryo test conducted referring to the OECD TG 236 at 48 hpf (hours post fertilization) onwards, embryo heart rate may serve as an additional and very sensitive endpoint in ecotoxicological studies. But by including heart rate as a sublethal endpoint, care has to be taken of separating effects exerted by a tested compound from those exerted by temperature. Therefore, profound knowledge on the natural variation of zebrafish heart rates at defined temperatures as a basis for the assessment of gained results is mandatorily needed...
October 20, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Navdeep Singh, Manpreet Kaur, Jatinder Kaur Katnoria
Suitability of surface water of Kanjli wetland, Punjab (India) during the period of 2013-2015 was assessed for drinking, irrigation and aquatic life using a water quality index (WQI), heavy metal pollution index (HPI) and aquatic toxicity index (ATI). WQI was calculated using 14 physico-chemical parameters while HPI determination used nine heavy metals like As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn. WQI revealed that Kanjli wetland contained medium quality water (irrigation and aquatic life). Cr, Cd and Co exceeded desirable limits of World Health Organization (WHO, Guidelines for drinking-water quality, World Health Organization, Geneva, 2011) and Indian drinking water standard (2012) during all the three seasons (monsoon, post monsoon and winter)...
October 16, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Emmmanuel E Awokunmi
The need to develop an approach for the reclamation of contaminated site using locally available agricultural waste has been considered. The present study investigated the application of sawdust as an effective amendment in the immobilization of potentially toxic metals (PTMs) by conducting a greenhouse experiment on soil collected from an automobile dumpsite. The amended and non-amended soil samples were analyzed for their physicochemical parameters and sequential extraction of PTMs. The results revealed that application of amendment had positive impact on the physicochemical parameters as organic matter content and cation exchange capacity increased from 12...
October 16, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Mehmet Kocabaş, Filiz Kutluyer
Experiments were designed to examine the in vitro effect of cobalt on sperm motility of the endangered trout species (Salmo coruhensis). Sperm samples were diluted in an immobilizing solution, and activated in a motility-activation solution that was supplemented with cobalt at concentrations of 1, 10, 100 and 1000 mg/L. The percentage of motile sperm and duration of motility were determined. Cobalt concentrations of 1-100 mg/L had a positive effect on the percentage of motile sperm and duration of motility compared to the control group, while a concentration of 1000 mg/L resulted in decreases in these parameters (p < 0...
October 16, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Xuan-Vy Nguyen, Minh-Hue Tran, Trong-Dung Le, Jutta Papenbrock
Seagrasses beds are vulnerable ecosystems. Human-induced disturbances, including heavy metal pollution, cause losses in seagrass beds. Assessment of the heavy metal concentration in seagrass meadows is an urgent need in order to protect and sustain these ecosystems. The concentration of eight trace metals in the surface sediment was observed from six seagrass beds at Khanh Hoa's coast, Vietnam. Three pollution indices and statistical analysis were used to evaluate the levels of contamination with these elements...
October 14, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Filis Morina, Marija Vidović, Tatjana Srećković, Vesela Radović, Sonja Veljović-Jovanović
We investigated metal accumulation in bamboo leaves during three seasons at three urban locations differing in pollution levels. The higher content of Cu, Pb, and Zn in the leaves was in correlation with the highest bioavailable content of these elements in the soil at the most polluted location. The content of leaf trace elements was higher in summer and autumn compared to spring. Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy showed that Si accumulation in bamboo leaves was the highest in epidermis and vascular tissue, and was co-localized with trace metals...
October 14, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
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