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Brain Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329984/infralimbic-dopamine-d2-receptors-mediate-glucocorticoid-induced-facilitation-of-auditory-fear-memory-extinction-in-rats
#1
Masoumeh Dadkhah, Payman Raise Abdullahi, Ali Rashidy-Pour, Hamid Reza Sameni, Abbas Ali Vafaei
The infralimbic (IL) cortex of the medial prefrontal cortex plays an important role in the extinction of fear memory. Also, it has been showed that both brain glucocorticoid and dopamine receptors are involved in many processes such as fear extinction that drive learning and memory; however, the interaction of these receptors in the IL cortex remains unclear. We examined a putative interaction between the effects of glucocorticoid and dopamine receptors stimulation in the IL cortex on fear memory extinction in an auditory fear conditioning paradigm in male rats...
January 9, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329983/attenuation-of-noise-induced-hyperactivity-in-the-dorsal-cochlear-nucleus-by-pre-treatment-with-mk-801
#2
M W Criddle, D A Godfrey, J A Kaltenbach
It has previously been hypothesized that hyperactivity of central auditory neurons following exposure to intense noise is a consequence of synaptic alterations. Recent studies suggest the involvement of NMDA receptors in the induction of this hyperactive state. NMDA receptors can mediate long term changes in the excitability of neurons through their involvement in excitotoxic injury and long term potentiation and depression. In this study, we examined the effect of administering an NMDA receptor blocker on the induction of hyperactivity in the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) following intense sound exposure...
January 9, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325855/gating-of-long-term-potentiation-ltp-in-the-thalamocortical-auditory-system-of-rats-by-serotonergic-5-ht-receptors
#3
Karen K Y Lee, Chloe N Soutar, Hans C Dringenberg
The neuromodulator serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) plays an important role in controlling the induction threshold and maintenance of long-term potentiation (LTP) in the visual cortex and hippocampus of rodents. Serotonergic fibers also innervate the rodent primary auditory cortex (A1), but the regulation of A1 plasticity by 5-HT receptors (5-HTRs) is largely uncharted. Thus, we examined the role of several, predominant 5-HT receptor classes (5-HT1ARs, 5-HT2Rs, and 5-HT3Rs) in gating in vivo LTP induction at A1 synapses of adult, urethane-anesthetized rats...
January 8, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317290/running-exercise-protects-against-myelin-breakdown-in-the-absence-of-neurogenesis-in-the-hippocampus-of-ad-mice
#4
Feng-Lei Chao, Lei Zhang, Yi Zhang, Chun-Ni Zhou, Lin Jiang, Qian Xiao, Yan-Min Luo, Fu-Lin Lv, Qi He, Yong Tang
Neurogenesis might influence oligodendrogenesis and selectively instruct myelination in the mammalian brain. Running exercise could induce neurogenesis and protect the myelin sheaths in the dentate gyrus of AD mice. It is unclearwhether running exercise could protect the myelin sheaths in the absence of neurogenesis in the hippocampus of AD mice. Six-month-old male APP/PS1 transgenic mice were randomly assigned to a control group (Tg control) or a running group (Tg runner), and age-matched non-transgenic littermates were used as a wild-type group (WT control)...
January 6, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317289/baroreflex-stimulation-attenuates-central-but-not-peripheral-inflammation-in-conscious-endotoxemic-rats
#5
Fernanda Brognara, Jaci A Castania, Daniel P M Dias, Alexandre H Lopes, Rubens Fazan, Alexandre Kanashiro, Luis Ulloa, Helio C Salgado
We previously reported that activation of the baroreflex, a critical physiological mechanism controlling cardiovascular homeostasis, through electrical stimulation of the aortic depressor nerve attenuates joint inflammation in experimental arthritis. However, it is unknown whether baroreflex activation can control systemic inflammation. Here, we investigate whether baroreflex activation controls systemic inflammation in conscious endotoxemic rats. Animals underwent sham or electrical aortic depressor nerve stimulation initiated 10 min prior to a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge, while inflammatory cytokine levels were measured in the blood, spleen, heart and hypothalamus 90 min after LPS treatment...
January 6, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317288/time-frequency-analysis-of-event-related-potentials-associated-with-the-origin-of-the-motor-interference-effect-from-dangerous-objects
#6
Peng Liu
Previous research has suggested that the motor interference effect of dangerous objects may originate from danger evaluations rather than direct response inhibition, as evidenced by a larger parietal P3 amplitude (which represents danger evaluations) under dangerous conditions than under safe conditions and an insignificant difference between dangerous and safe conditions in the frontal P3 component (which represents response inhibition). However, an alternative explanation exists for the null effect of the frontal P3 component...
January 6, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307593/transcranial-near-infrared-photobiomodulation-attenuates-memory-impairment-and-hippocampal-oxidative-stress-in-sleep-deprived-mice
#7
Farzad Salehpour, Fereshteh Farajdokht, Marjan Erfani, Saeed Sadigh-Eteghad, Siamak Sandoghchian Shotorbani, Michael R Hamblin, Pouran Karimi, Seyed Hossein Rasta, Javad Mahmoudi
Sleep deprivation (SD) causes oxidative stress in the hippocampus and subsequent memory impairment. In this study, the effect of near-infrared (NIR) photobiomodulation (PBM) on learning and memory impairment induced by acute SD was investigated. The mice were subjected to an acute SD protocol for 72 hr. Simultaneously, NIR PBM using a laser at 810 nm was delivered (once a day for 3 days) transcranially to the head to affect the entire brain of mice. The Barnes maze and the What-Where-Which task were used to assess spatial and episodic-like memories...
January 4, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307592/complex-noradrenergic-dysfunction-in-alzheimer-s-disease-low-norepinephrine-input-is-not-always-to-blame
#8
Mary Gannon, Qin Wang
The locus coeruleus-noradrenergic (LC-NA) system supplies the cerebral cortex with norepinephrine, a key modulator of cognition. Neurodegeneration of the LC is an early hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this article, we analyze current literature to understand whether NA degeneration in AD simply leads to a loss of norepinephrine input to the cortex. With reported adaptive changes in the LC-NA system at the anatomical, cellular, and molecular levels in AD, existing evidence support a seemingly sustained level of extracellular NE in the cortex, at least at early stages of the long course of AD...
January 4, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294350/differential-response-of-hippocampal-and-prefrontal-oscillations-to-systemic-lps-application
#9
Omar Mamad, Md Nuru L Islam, Colm Cunningham, Marian Tsanov
The early electrophysiological phenomena linked to systemic inflammation are largely underexplored. We developed here local field analyses to detect prodromal oscillatory abnormalities. We identified early band-specific patterns in local field potential recorded from freely-moving rats injected intraperitoneally with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 1 mg/kg). Theta frequency was significantly reduced and this effect was not related to the decreased locomotion of the animal. Furthermore, LPS-induced alterations show a region-specific response when compared between the hippocampal region and medial prefrontal cortex...
December 30, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294349/free-radical-scavenger-edaravone-produces-robust-neuroprotection-in-a-rat-model-of-spinal-cord-injury
#10
Hideaki Ishii, Andrey B Petrenko, Mika Sasaki, Yukio Satoh, Yoshinori Kamiya, Toshiyuki Tobita, Kenta Furutani, Mari Matsuhashi, Tatsuro Kohno, Hiroshi Baba
We used a multimodal approach to evaluate the effects of edaravone in a rat model of spinal cord injury (SCI). SCI was induced by extradural compression of thoracic spinal cord. In experiment 1, 30 min prior to compression, rats received a 3 mg/kg intravenous bolus of edaravone followed by a maintenance infusion of 1 (low-dose), 3 (moderate-dose), or 10 (high-dose) mg/kg/h edaravone. Although both moderate- and high-dose edaravone regimens promoted recovery of spinal motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) at 2 h post-SCI, the effect of the moderate dose was more pronounced...
December 30, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294348/existence-of-nicotinic-receptors-in-a-subset-of-type-i-vestibular-hair-cells-of-guinea-pigs
#11
Chang-Kai Guo
In mammals, vestibular hair cells (VHCs) are classified as type I and II according to morphological criteria. Acetylcholine (ACh) is identified as the primary efferent neurotransmitter. To date, cholinergic activities have been reported in mammalian type II VHCs, but similar activities in type I VHCs have not been pursued presumably because the body of type I VHCs were suggested to be totally surrounded by afferent nerve calyces. A few reports showed that part of type I VHCs were incompletely surrounded by calyces and received contact from the efferent nerve endings in the mammals studied...
December 30, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291393/patchouli-alcohol-protects-against-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-brain-injury-via-inhibiting-neuroinflammation-in-normal-and-obese-mice
#12
Li-Li Wei, Yong Chen, Qiong-Yang Yu, Yuhui Wang, George Liu
Almost all of the candidate drugs for ischemic stroke failed to be translated from bench to beside. One important reason is that animals used in experimental studies cannot mimic ischemic patients due to lack of comorbidities like hypertension, diabetes and obesity. Therefore, it is better to test candidate drugs not only in normal animals but also in animals with comorbidities. Patchouli alcohol (PA), a natural tricyclic sesquiterpene in the traditional Chinese herb Pogostemonisherba, is well recognized for its anti-inflammation function in various inflammatory diseases...
December 29, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291392/urothelial-bladder-afferent-neurons-in-the-rat-are-anatomically-and-neurochemically-distinct-from-non-urothelial-afferents
#13
Buffie J Clodfelder-Miller, Hirosato Kanda, Jianguo G Gu, Judy R Creighton, Timothy J Ness, Jennifer J DeBerry
There is mounting evidence underscoring a role for the urothelium in urinary bladder sensation. Previous functional studies have identified bladder primary afferents with mechanosensitive properties suggesting urothelial innervation and/or communication. The current study identifies a group of urothelium-innervating afferent neurons in rat, and characterizes and compares the properties of these and non-urothelial afferent neuron populations. Lumbosacral (LS) primary afferent neurons were retrogradely labeled using intraparenchymal (IPar) microinjection or intravesical (IVes) infusion of tracer into the bladder...
December 29, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289546/prediabetes-is-associated-with-post-stroke-cognitive-impairment-in-ischaemic-stroke-patients
#14
Qiongzhang Wang, Kai Zhao, Yan Cai, Xinjie Tu, Yuntao Liu, Jincai He
AIM: Diabetes mellitus is associated with post-stroke cognitive impairment. To the best of our knowledge, no study has explored the relationship between prediabetes and post-stroke cognitive impairment. The purpose of this study is to explore the association between prediabetes and cognitive impairment in ischaemic stroke patients at 1 month. METHODS: Two hundred one acute ischaemic stroke patients were consecutively recruited within the first 24 h after admission and were followed up for 1 month...
December 28, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288644/out-of-thin-air-hyperventilation-triggered-seizures
#15
Kathryn A Salvati, Mark P Beenhakker
Voluntary hyperventilation triggers seizures in the vast majority of people with absence epilepsy. The mechanisms that underlie this phenomenon remain unknown. Herein, we review observations - many made long ago - that provide insight into the relationship between breathing and absence seizures.
December 27, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288062/the-degree-of-leukoaraiosis-predicts-clinical-outcomes-and-prognosis-in-patients-with-middle-cerebral-artery-occlusion-after-intravenous-thrombolysis
#16
Yanyan Liu, Min Zhang, Yuan Chen, Ping Gao, Wenwei Yun, Xianju Zhou
Leukoaraiosis (LA) is common in elderly patients with ischemic stroke on magnetic resonance imaging. In this study, we investigate whether the degree of LA is associated with clinical outcomes and prognosis of patients with middle cerebral artery occlusion following intravenous thrombolytic. Ninety-seven patients were recruited and divided into three groups based on the degree of LA (no, mild and moderate to severe LA) by the Fazekas scale. Clinical outcomes, recurrent stroke, Fugl-Meyer rating scale (FMS) and complications of intravenous thrombolysis were assessed...
December 26, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288061/the-effect-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-on-radiation-induced-neuron-architecture-impairment-is-associated-with-the-nfatc4-3-pathway
#17
Qixian Zhang, Xiaoyang Li, Ru He, Quanhong Ma, Rui Sun, Shengjun Ji, Bei Wang, Ye Tian
Irradiation to developing brains results in progressive cognitive dysfunction. Changes in the morphology of mature neurons are thought to be related to impairments of cognitive function. However, little is known about the effects of radiation on neurite outgrowth of immature neurons. Therefore, we sought to evaluate the structural alterations of immature neurons following X-ray irradiation and determine potential strategies to reverse it. Our data revealed damage to the neurite outgrowths of cultured neurons after 2 Gy and 8 Gy irradiation at 1 d and 3 d, respectively...
December 26, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278717/heart-rate-variability-associated-with-grey-matter-volumes-in-striatal-and-limbic-structures-of-the-central-autonomic-network
#18
Luqing Wei, Hong Chen, Guo-Rong Wu
Previous neuroimaging studies have highlighted the functional neural correlates of cardiac vagal activity, providing convergent evidence that the cardiac vagal function is controlled by a number of brain regions in the central autonomic network (CAN). However, it remains largely unknown whether the underlying anatomicalbasis of those identified regions are associated with individual difference in vagal function. To address the above issue, this study used a large sample of healthy subjects (n=185) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis to verify brain morphometry associated with vagal control and the associations varied as a function of gender and age...
December 23, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278716/2-o-carba-oleoyl-cyclic-phosphatidic-acid-induces-glial-proliferation-through-the-activation-of-lysophosphatidic-acid-receptor
#19
Shingo Nakajima, Mari Gotoh, Keiko Fukasawa, Hiromu Murofushi, Kimiko Murakami-Murofushi
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and cyclic phosphatidic acid (cPA) are one of the lipid mediators regulating cell proliferation and differentiation through the activation of LPA receptors. An LPA receptor-mediated signal is important for the development of the central nervous system, while it has been demonstrated that LPA caused microglial activation and astroglial dysfunction. Previously, we have reported that cPA and carba analog of cPA, 2-O-carba-cPA (2ccPA), protected neural damage caused by transient ischemia...
December 23, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278715/accumulation-of-beta-synuclein-in-cortical-neurons-is-associated-with-autophagy-attenuation-in-the-brains-of-dementia-with-lewy-body-patients
#20
Tracey Evans, Wai Ling Kok, Katrina Cowan, Megan Hefford, Oleg Anichtchik
Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is the second most prevalent neurodegenerative dementia, where an accumulation of aggregated fibrillar alpha-synuclein in neurons of limbic and forebrain regions of the brain leads to visual hallucination, cognitive impairment of a fluctuating nature and extrapyramidal motor disturbances. Beta-synuclein counteracts aggregation of alpha-synuclein in vitro and in animal models, however it is not clear whether this effect occurs in human Lewy body dementia (LBD) diseases. Here we examine expression of alpha-, beta-synuclein and autophagy markers in the frontal cortex (BA9) and occipital cortex (BA18-19) of patients with neuropathologically confirmed DLB/LBD and age-matched controls...
December 23, 2017: Brain Research
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