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Brain Research

Caitlin M Vander Weele, Cody A Siciliano, Kay M Tye
Decades of research suggest that the mesocortical dopamine system exerts powerful control over mPFC physiology and function. Indeed, dopamine signaling in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is implicated in a vast array of processes, including working memory, stimulus discrimination, stress responses, and emotional and behavioral control. Consequently, even slight perturbations within this delicate system result in profound disruptions of mPFC-mediated processes. Many neuropsychiatric disorders are associated with dysregulation of mesocortical dopamine, including schizophrenia, depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, among others...
December 1, 2018: Brain Research
Eleonora Ambrad Giovannetti, Martin Fuhrmann
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the classical hallmarks of Aβ-deposition and tau-pathology that are thought to ultimately lead to synapse and neuron loss. Although long known, neuroinflammation has recently attracted a substantial amount of attention by researchers due to genome wide association studies (GWAS) that identified microglia associated genes to be correlated with sporadic AD. Besides that, cholinergic degeneration and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) abnormalities have been identified in the brains of AD patients already decades ago, but have not received much attention over the last ten years...
November 29, 2018: Brain Research
Jessica Galgano, Spiro Pantazatos, Kachina Allen, Ted Yanagihara, Joy Hirsch
Previous studies in animals and humans suggest the periaqueductal grey region (PAG) is a final integration station between the brain and laryngeal musculature during phonation. To date, a limited number of functional magnetic neuroimaging (fMRI) studies have examined the functional connectivity of the PAG during volitional human phonation. An event-related, stimulus-induced, volitional movement paradigm was used to examine neural activity during sustained vocalization in neurologically healthy adults and was compared to controlled exhalation through the nose...
November 27, 2018: Brain Research
Norihiko Nakano, Kenji Kanekiyo, Yoshihiro Yamada, Masahiro Tamachi, Yoshihisa Suzuki, Masatoshi Fukushima, Fukuki Saito, Seiya Abe, Chihiro Tsukagoshi, Chimi Miyamoto, Chizuka Ide
The filum terminale (FT) is a potential source of ependymal cells for transplantation. The present study was performed to clarify the characteristics of ependymal cells of the central canal (CC) of the FT in rats. The FT was a thin strand continuous with the conus medullaris (CM), a caudal end of the main spinal cord, situated at the L3-4 level in adult rats. The border between the CM and FT was not visible, but could be defined as the site where the strand was as thin as its more caudal segment. While the CM contained an appreciable amount of white and grey matter associated with the CC at its center, the FT had no or only a negligible amount of such spinal cord parenchymal tissue...
November 27, 2018: Brain Research
Amanda Damasceno Brasileiro, Lidiane Pereira Garcia, Samuel de Carvalho da Silva, Lenaldo Branco Rocha, André Luiz Pedrosa, André Shwambach Vieira, Valdo José Dias da Silva, Aldo Rogelis Aquiles Rodrigues
Diabetes mellitus (DM) may lead to gastrointestinal motility disorders. Rodent models of DM indicate the presence of morpho-functional abnormalities of the enteric nervous system. Here, we evaluated whether experimental DM can cause changes in the excitatory cholinergic fibers, neuronal density, and voltage-gated sodium channel (Nav) expression in the myenteric plexus of the ileum. After streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemia in female rats progressed for eight weeks, triple immunofluorescence labeling experiments revealed that the neuronal density in DM rats was significantly lower than that in control...
November 27, 2018: Brain Research
Lei Wang, Michael Chopp, XueRong Lu, Alexandra Szalad, LongFei Jia, Xian Shuang Liu, Kuan-Han Wu, Mei Lu, Zheng Gang Zhang
Diabetes induces neurovascular dysfunction leading to peripheral neuropathy. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) affect many biological processes and the development of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. In the present study, we investigated whether thymosin-β4 (Tβ4) ameliorates diabetic peripheral neuropathy and whether miR-146a mediates the effect of Tβ4 on improved neurovascular function. Male Type II diabetic BKS.Cg-m+/+Leprdb /J (db/db) mice at age 20 weeks were treated with Tβ4 for 8 consecutive weeks, and db/db mice treated with saline were used as a control group...
November 27, 2018: Brain Research
An Cheng, Yasuharu Shinoda, Tetsunori Yamamoto, Hiroyuki Miyachi, Kohji Fukunaga
In Parkinson's disease (PD), α-synuclein (αSyn) accumulation and inclusion triggers dopamine neuronal death and synapse dysfunction in vivo. We previously reported that fatty acid-binding protein 3 (FABP3) is highly expressed in the brain and accelerates αSyn oligomerization when cells are exposed to 1-Methyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropiridine (MPTP). Here, we demonstrate that αSyn oligomerization was markedly enhanced by co-overexpressing FABP3 in neuro-2A cells when cells were treated with arachidonic acid (AA)...
November 26, 2018: Brain Research
Tae-Kyung Han, Yea-Hyun Leem, Hee-Sun Kim
A high-fat diet (HFD) is known to induce metabolic disturbances that may lead to cognitive impairment. In the present study, we investigated whether a regular treadmill exercise program would improve HFD-induced hippocampal-dependent memory deficits in C57BL/6 mice. Weight gain and hepatic triglyceride levels were profoundly elevated following administration of a 60% HFD for 23 weeks, and this change was attenuated by 23-weeks of treadmill running. The exercise regimen attenuated impairments in memory function of HFD-fed mice in a water maze test and recovered HFD-induced anti-neurogenic effects as shown by immunohistochemistry data with Ki-67 and doublecortin (DCX) antibodies...
November 26, 2018: Brain Research
Kathryn M Emmer, William H Walker, Ning Zhang, A Courtney DeVries
Understanding why breast cancer survivors are at an increased risk for cognitive and affective disorders is essential for developing targeted treatment plans and improving quality of life. Microglia priming results in chronic neuroinflammation and can contribute to neuronal degeneration and dysfunction, thereby offering a potential mechanism for altered brain function that persists after tumor removal. This study examined whether mammary tumors alter microglia and augment the inflammatory profile and behavior of mice...
November 26, 2018: Brain Research
Lu Xiong, Lijie Duan, Wenqing Xu, Zigao Wang
General anesthesia with sevoflurane is associated with an increased incidence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction. Previous studies have shown that sevoflurane anesthesia can affect the integrity and function of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCNs) which are essential for learning and memory. However, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, we demonstrated that exposure to 2.5% sevoflurane induced significant loss of BFCNs and caused impairments of the spatial and the fear memory. Further, sevoflurane exposure significantly reduced the level of nerve growth factor (NGF), an important factor for the survival and phenotype maintenance of BFCNs, by disrupting its synthesis pathways in the brain...
November 24, 2018: Brain Research
Shingo Soya, Takeshi Sakurai
Fear is an important physiological function for survival. It appears when animals or humans are confronted with an environmental threat. The amygdala has been shown to play a highly important role in emergence of fear. Hypothalamic orexin neurons are activated by fearful stimuli to evoke a 'defense reaction' with an increase in arousal level and sympathetic outflow to deal with the imminent danger. However, how this system contributes to the emergence of fear-related behavior is not well understood. Orexin neurons in the hypothalamus send excitatory innervations to noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus (NALC ) which express orexin receptor 1 (OX1R) and send projections to the lateral amygdala (LA)...
November 24, 2018: Brain Research
Bama Radwan, He Liu, Dipesh Chaudhury
Dopamine is primarily produced in the substantia nigra (SN) and the ventral tegmentum area (VTA) in the brain. It plays a well-established role in the motor control, reward, mood regulation and addiction behaviour. Dopamine release has been shown to be regulated by the circadian clock and hence, plays a regulatory role in the sleep-wake cycle. Clinically, dopaminergic agents have been widely used to modulate alertness. The following review offers a demonstration of the heterogeneous dopamine system in the brain and the various studies investigating the circadian rhythmicity of the dopamine system and its regulation of sleep-wake behaviour...
November 24, 2018: Brain Research
Xiao-Ge Liu, Shuai Lu, Dong-Qun Liu, Lun Zhang, Ling-Xiao Zhang, Xiao-Lin Yu, Rui-Tian Liu
It is widely accepted that amyloid oligomers are the most toxic species to initiate the pathologic processes of Parkinson's disease (PD) and Huntingdon's disease (HD). But there is no definitive diagnosis for PD and HD at their early stages. Here, we conjugated an amyloid oligomer-specific scFv antibody (W20) to PEGylated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) and detected the properties of the SPIONs conjugated with W20. The results showed that W20-SPIONs, with the size of around 11.8 nm in diameter, were stable and nontoxic, and had enough relaxation capacity to be used as an MRI contrast agent...
November 24, 2018: Brain Research
Mai Abul, Maie D Al-Bader, Abdeslam Mouihate
Fetal exposure to dexamethasone (DEX) alters brain plasticity and cognitive functions during adulthood in a sex-dependent manner. The mechanisms underlying such long-lasting sex-dependent change of prenatal DEX is not well understood. The p73 gene plays an important role in brain development. It encodes for two protein variants; the neural cell death protein (TAp73) and the anti-neural cell death protein (ΔNp73). Therefore, we sought to determine how prenatal exposure to DEX alters the expression of these p73 gene variants in the brain of male and female fetuses...
November 23, 2018: Brain Research
Shahram Zarrabian, Esmail Riahi, Sara Karimi, Yasaman Razavi, Abbas Haghparast
Despite a history of more than a century of intense research in drug addiction, with currently available medication and behavioral therapy, the rate of relapse to drug use is 40-60 percent within a year after the cessation of treatment. The discovery of the neuropeptide orexin/hypocretin in 1998 and subsequent research during the past 20 years revealed an important role for the lateral hypothalamus (LH) in driving the reward pathway. The present review includes an overview of the orexinergic system and focuses on the role of LH orexin neurons targeting different components of the brain's reward pathway in addictive behaviors...
November 23, 2018: Brain Research
Kiyohiko Nakamura, Misako Komatsu
In addition to primary rewards such as food and water, humans continuously seek information in daily life. Whereas the neural mechanisms for processing primary rewards have been clarified in detail in the homeostatic system, those for information seeking remain poorly understood. Although studies in psychology and economics have suggested several criteria with which information is assessed in human information seeking, the neural mechanism that assesses information remains unknown. The suggested criteria include the value of information (VOI; Hubbard, 2010), Shannon information, and the probability gain (Baron, 1985), which are defined as reduction of expected cost, reduction in expected entropy, and expected improvement of identifying correct response, respectively...
November 22, 2018: Brain Research
Jian Hu, Ce Li, Yan Hua, Bei Zhang, Bei-Yao Gao, Pei-Le Liu, Li-Min Sun, Rong-Rong Lu, Yu-Yuan Wang, Yu-Long Bai
Constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT), which forces the use of the impaired limb by restraining the unaffected limb, has been used extensively for the recovery of limb motor function after stroke. However, the underlying mechanism of CIMT remains unclear. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a well-known neuroimaging technique that reflects the microstructure of white matter tracts and potential changes associated with different treatments. The aim of this study is to use DTI imaging to determine how corticospinal tract (CST) fibers remodel in ischemic rats with CIMT...
November 21, 2018: Brain Research
Haena Kim, Brian A Anderson
Stimuli associated with reward acquire the ability to automatically capture attention. It is also the case that, with sufficient training, former targets can acquire the ability to capture attention in the absence of extrinsic rewards. It remains unclear whether these two experience-dependent attentional biases share a common underlying mechanism. The present study examined the influence of selection history on attentional capture, and compared its neural correlates with those of value-driven attentional capture reported in Anderson et al...
November 20, 2018: Brain Research
Usha Kant Misra, Jayantee Kalita, Prashant Singh Chauhan
Cognitive and memory impairment are related to cholinergic dysfunction and are important complication of viral encephalitis, In view of paucity of studies on cholinergic dysfunction in encephalitis, this study has been undertaken. We report AChE and M2 receptor levels in HSE and Japanese encephalitis (JE) patients, and correlate these with cognitive functions and MRI findings. Patients with JE and HSE were evaluated for consciousness, neurological and MRI findings , plasma AChE and M2 receptor levels on admission and after one year Results: Twenty-nine patients with JE and 23 with HSE were included ...
November 20, 2018: Brain Research
Kimberly A Clark, Elyssa B Jacob, P S MohanKumar, Sheba M J MohanKumar
Type I Diabetes (T1D) is associated with reduced leptin levels and increased stress axis activity marked by elevations in norepinephrine (NE) levels in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus. We hypothesized that leptin suppresses stress axis activity in T1D through central and peripheral mechanisms. In the first experiment, adult male Sprague Dawley rats were implanted with a cannula in the PVN and randomly divided into a non-diabetic group treated with vehicle (n=6) and a diabetic group treated with streptozotocin (n=13)...
November 20, 2018: Brain Research
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