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Brain Research

Abhishek Mukherjee, Sibani Sarkar, Sayantan Jana, Snehasikta Swarnakar, Nirmalendu Das
Cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (CIR) accelerates the progression of neurodegeneration by causing mitochondrial dysfunction to overproduce reactive oxygen species (ROS). Curcumin shows protective effects against CIR-induced oxidative damage. Free curcumin (FC) is effective at high doses due to its poor bioavailability. Also the blood-brain barrier (BBB) limits the passage of substances from circulation into the cerebral region. Thus, formulation of curcumin within polyethylene glycol (PEG)-ylated polylactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) nanoparticles (NC) was applied orally to aged rats to explore its role against CIR injury...
October 13, 2018: Brain Research
Xiao-Hui Wang, Hai-Ying Wu, Jian Gao, Xu-Hui Wang, Tian-Hui Gao, Shu-Feng Zhang
BACKGROUND: MYCN and LMO1 amplification are commonly observed in neuroblastoma (NB), which was often accompanied by genetic loss of let-7 microRNA (miRNA). Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) was found to regulate let-7 miRNA expression via FGF receptor substrate 2 (FRS2), which then activates transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signaling. METHODS: Expression of MYCN, LMO1, FRS2, let-7, and TGF-β receptor I (TGFβRI) was selectively knocked-down or enhanced in NB cells...
October 12, 2018: Brain Research
Julian P Tuazon, Regine Sitruk-Ware, Cesario V Borlongan
Neurological diseases such as ischemic stroke can be debilitating and have limited treatments available. The progestin Nestorone® (segesterone acetate) has been evaluated for use in birth control and hormone replacement therapy due to its potency and high affinity for the progesterone receptor. Interestingly, Nestorone also exerts neuroprotection in animals afflicted with various central nervous system diseases, including stroke, which implicates its potential for treating these maladies in clinical settings...
October 12, 2018: Brain Research
Rupa Priscilla, Ben G Szaro
In vertebrates from fishes to mammals, optic nerve injury induces increased expression ofSuppressor of Cytokine Signaling 3(SOCS3) mRNA, a modulator of cytokine signaling that is known to inhibit CNS axon regeneration. Unlike amniotes, however, anamniotes successfully regenerate optic axons, despite this increase. To address this seeming paradox, we examined the SOCS3 response to optic nerve injury in the frog,Xenopus laevis, at both the mRNA and protein levels. Far from being only transiently induced, SOCS3 mRNA expression increased throughout regeneration in retinal ganglion cells, but immunostaining and Western blots indicated that this increase was reflected at the protein level in regenerating optic axons but not in ganglion cell bodies...
October 10, 2018: Brain Research
Kevin Lloyd, Peter Dayan
In active avoidance tasks, subjects have to learn to execute particular actions in order to avoid an aversive stimulus, such as a shock. Such paradigms pose a number of psychological and neural enigmas, and so have attracted substantial computational interest. However, the ratio of conjecture to confirmation remains high. Here, we perform a theoretical inquiry into a recent experiment by Gentry, Lee, and Roesch ('Phasic dopamine release in the rat nucleus accumbens predicts approach and avoidance performance', Nat...
October 8, 2018: Brain Research
Bertille Somon, Aurélie Campagne, Arnaud Delorme, Bruno Berberian
Performance monitoring is an amply studied function, since it is of major importance in carrying out actions in our everyday life. No consensus has been reached on the functional role and the relationship between each event-related potential (ERP) characterizing this function. In this study, we used a modified version of the flanker task, measuring the impact of task difficulty on the amplitudes of response-locked and feedback-locked performance monitoring ERPs in a single trial. We observed a functional differentiation between fronto-central (ERN/CRN and FRN) and centro-parietal (Pe/Pc and P300) components: the former seem to be only sensitive to accuracy, whereas the latter seem to be mainly modulated by task difficulty...
October 6, 2018: Brain Research
S Bariselli, W C Fobbs, M C Creed, A V Kravitz
The direct and indirect pathway striatal medium spiny neurons (dMSNs and iMSNs) have long been linked to action selection, but the precise roles of these neurons in this process remain unclear. Here, we review different models of striatal pathway function, focusing on the classic "go/no-go" model which posits that dMSNs facilitate movement while iMSNs inhibit movement, and the "complementary" model, which argues that dMSNs facilitate the selection of specific actions while iMSNs inhibit potentially conflicting actions...
October 6, 2018: Brain Research
Ronny N Gentry, Douglas R Schuweiler, Matthew R Roesch
Using environmental cues to acquire good and avoid harmful things is critical for survival. Rewarding and aversive outcomes both drive behavior through reinforcement learning and sometimes occur together in the environment, but it remains unclear how these signals are encoded within the brain and if signals for positive and negative reinforcement are encoded similarly. Recent studies demonstrate that the dopaminergic system and interconnected brain regions process both positive and negative reinforcement necessary for approach and avoidance behaviors, respectively...
October 6, 2018: Brain Research
Andreas B Wulff, Jessica Tooley, Lauren J Marconi, Meaghan C Creed
Responding to aversive and rewarding stimuli is essential to survival. The ventral pallidum (VP) is a critical node in the mesolimbic network, being the primary output of the nucleus accumbens and projecting to the lateral habenula (LHb) and ventral tegmental area (VTA). The VP is thus poised to modulate the habenula-tegmental circuitry and contribute to processing both rewarding and aversive stimuli. Here, we integrate human functional imaging, behavioral pharmacology in rodents, and recent optogenetic circuit dissection studies of the VP with a focus on the role of the neurochemically-distinct subpopulations in aversion processing...
October 6, 2018: Brain Research
Trinity K Shaver, Jenny E Ozga, Binxing Zhu, B A, Karen G Anderson, Kris M Martens, Cole Vonder Haar
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) affects 2.8 million people annually in the United States, with significant populations suffering from ongoing cognitive dysfunction. Impairments in decision-making can have major implications for patients and their caregivers, often enduring for years to decades, yet are rarely explored in experimental TBI. In the current study, the Rodent Gambling Task (RGT), an Iowa Gambling Task analog, was used to assess risk-based decision-making and motor impulsivity after TBI. During testing, rats chose between options associated with different probabilities of reinforcement (sucrose) or punishment (timeout)...
October 5, 2018: Brain Research
Farzaneh Rahmani, Amene Saghazadeh, Maryam Rahmani, Antonio L Teixeira, Nima Rezaei, Vajiheh Aghamollaei, Hassan Eftekhar Ardebili
BACKGROUND: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is an abundant neurotrophin in the adult brain. Serum BDNF levels might be used as a proxy for its central expression. Considering conflicting reports, we aimed to answer "How do serum/CSF levels of BDNF change in patients with PD?". METHODS: We conducted a comprehensive search in MEDLINE, EMBASE and SCOPUS databases including 12 eligible studies. Five studies compared BDNF in serum of PD patients versus healthy controls (HC) and 3 studies provided BDNF levels in sera of non-depressed and depressed PD patients (NDPD and DPD)...
October 5, 2018: Brain Research
Jing-Jing Liu, Vincent R Mirabella, Zhiping P Pang
Orexin-expressing neurons are located exclusively in the lateral hypothalamic and perifornical areas and exhibit complex connectivity. The intricate wiring pattern is evident from a diverse function for orexin neurons in regulating many physiological processes and behaviors including sleep, metabolism, circadian cycles, anxiety, and reward. Nevertheless, the precise synaptic and circuitry-level mechanisms mediating these processes remain enigmatic, partially due to the wide spread connectivity of the orexin system, complex neurochemistry of orexin neurons, and previous lack of suitable tools to address its complexity...
October 5, 2018: Brain Research
Yu Izumisawa, Keiko Tanaka-Yamamoto, John Ciriello, Naoki Kitamura, Izumi Shibuya
Characteristics of subfornical organ (SFO) neurons were examined by measuring the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in acutely dissociated neurons of the rat. SFO neurons, defined by the responsiveness to 50 mM K+ (n=67) responded to glutamate (86%), angiotensin II (AII) (50%), arginine vasopressin (AVP) (66%) and/or carbachol (CCh) (61%), at their maximal concentrations, with marked increases in [Ca2+]i. More than a half (174/307) of SFO neurons examined exhibited spontaneous Ca2+ oscillations, while the remainder showed a relatively stable baseline under unstimulated conditions...
October 5, 2018: Brain Research
Vaibhav Walia, Chanchal Garg, Munish Garg
Glutamate is an excitatory neurotransmitter implicated in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders. Glutamate results in the activation of an enzyme called glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) acting through N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Impaired expression of GSK-3 affects behavior and neurochemicals level in the brain responsible for the pathogenesis of mood disorders. It has been reported that lithium acts as an inhibitor of GSK-3 and inhibit the enzyme GSK-3 in an uncompetitive manner. In the present study, anxiolytic like effect of lithium in mice is investigated through light and dark box (LDB) and elevated pus maze (EPM)...
October 4, 2018: Brain Research
Ananya Bansal, Megan Kirschner, Li Zu, Dongming Cai, Lumin Zhang
Alzheimer's disease (AD), affecting 5.3 million people in the U.S., impairs portions of the brain controlling memories. In humans, mutations in the amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene has been implicated in increased plaque formation, which can block the communication between nerve cells, decrease dendritic formation and increase cell death, and promote neuroinflammation. As coconut oil has been suggested to alleviate the symptoms in AD patients, we examined the impact of coconut oil on APP expression and secretion of amyloid peptides in N2a cells expressing the human APP gene (N2a/APP695)...
October 1, 2018: Brain Research
Xiao-Ye Mo, Xiang-Min Li, Chang-Shou She, Xiao-Qin Lu, Cheng-Gen Xiao, Shi-Hai Wang, Guo-Qing Huang
BACKGROUND: Hydrogen is received as an inert gas that thought to be non-functional in vivo previously. Recently, emerging evidences showed that in ischemia/reperfusion (IR) condition, hydrogen reduced cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and ameliorated cell apoptosis. However, the underlying mechanism of hydrogen on IR-induced apoptosis remains elusive. Here we tried to unravel the mode of action of hydrogen with rat adrenal medulla cell line PC-12 in vitro. METHODS: The mitochondrial functions before and after oxygen glucose deprivation and reperfusion (OGD/RP) were determined with corresponding dyes...
October 1, 2018: Brain Research
Jayantee Kalita, Usha K Misra, Laxmi Shankar Singh, Anuradha Tiwari
PURPOSE: To report oxidative stress in the patients with status epilepticus (SE), and correlate these with severity, MRI and outcome. METHODS: Thirty-five patients with SE and 34 controls were included. Blood sample was collected at admission for measuring superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, protein carbonyl, glutathione, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO). The type of SE, duration and Status Epilepticus Severity Score (STESS) at admission and refractoriness to treatment were noted...
October 1, 2018: Brain Research
S Castaño-Castaño, G Martinez-Navarrete, M Morales-Navas, E Fernadez-Jover, F Sanchez-Santed, F Nieto-Escámez
In this work visual functional improvement of amblyopic Long Evans rats treated with tDCS has been assessed using the "slow angled-descent forepaw grasping" (SLAG) test. This test is based on an innate response that does not requires any memory-learning component and has been used before for measuring visual function in rodents. The results obtained show that this procedure is useful to assess monocular but not binocular deficits, as controls and amblyopic animals showed significant differences during monocular but not during binocular assessment...
October 1, 2018: Brain Research
Chihiro Andoh, Naoya Nishitani, Emina Hashimoto, Yuma Nagai, Keizo Takao, Tsuyoshi Miyakawa, Takayuki Nakagawa, Yasuo Mori, Kazuki Nagayasu, Hisashi Shirakawa, Shuji Kaneko
Transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) is a Ca2+ -permeable, nonselective cation channel and a member of the TRP channel superfamily that acts as a sensor of intracellular redox states. TRPM2 is widely distributed in many tissues and highly expressed in the brain, but the physiological roles of TRPM2 in the central nervous system remain unclear. In this study, TRPM2-deficient mice were examined in a series of behavioral tests. TRPM2-deficient mice did not significantly differ from wild-type littermates in muscle strength, light/dark transition test, rotarod, elevated plus maze, social interaction, prepulse inhibition, Y-maze, forced swim test, cued and contextual fear conditioning, and tail suspension test...
September 28, 2018: Brain Research
Yujeong Lee, Jung-Hyun Cho, Seulah Lee, Wonjong Lee, Seung-Cheol Chang, Hae Young Chung, Hyung Ryong Moon, Jaewon Lee
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear receptors and are considered promising therapeutic targets in several neurodegenerative diseases. A number of PPAR agonists have been shown to have neuroprotective properties in the presence of oxidative stress, neuroinflammatory response, and apoptosis in various neurodegenerative disease. MHY908 is a novel PPAR α/γ dual agonist, which has been shown to suppress inflammatory response and attenuate insulin resistance in aged rats and db/db mice...
September 28, 2018: Brain Research
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