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Brain Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522263/serum-concentrations-of-the-axonal-injury-marker-neurofilament-light-protein-are-not-influenced-by-blood-brain-barrier-permeability
#1
Marie Kalm, Martina Boström, Åsa Sandelius, Yohanna Eriksson, C Joakim Ek, Kaj Blennow, Thomas Björk-Eriksson, Henrik Zetterberg
A blood biomarker to monitor individual susceptibility to neuronal injury from cranial radiotherapy could potentially help to individualize radiation treatment and thereby reduce the incidence and severity of late effects. An important feature of such a blood biomarker is that its concentration is not confounded by varying degrees of release from the brain into the blood across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In this study, we investigated serum neurofilament light protein (NFL) concentrations in 21-day old mice following a single dose of cranial irradiation (8 Gy)...
May 15, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522262/transglutaminase-2-modulation-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-in-astrocytes-is-independent-of-its-ability-to-mediate-astrocytic-viability-in-ischemic-injury
#2
Julianne Feola, Alan Barton, Abdullah Akbar, Jeffrey Keillor, Gail V W Johnson
Transglutaminase 2 (TG2) is a multifunctional protein that can contribute to cell death and cell survival processes in a variety of disease contexts. Within the brain, TG2 has been shown to promote cell death in ischemic injury when expressed in astrocytes (Colak and Johnson, 2012). However, the specific functions and characteristics of astrocytic TG2 that mediate this effect are largely unknown. Therefore, the goal of this study was to investigate the role of astrocytic TG2 in mediating cellular viability processes in the context of ischemic injury, with a specific focus on its contributions to intracellular signaling cascades...
May 15, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511993/the-expression-of-opioid-genes-in-non-classical-reward-areas-depends-on-early-life-conditions-and-ethanol-intake
#3
Linnea Granholm, Aniruddah Todkar, Sofia Bergman, Kent Nilsson, Erika Comasco, Ingrid Nylander
The young brain is highly sensitive to environmental influences that can cause long-term changes in neuronal function, possibly through altered gene expression. The endogenous opioid system continues to mature after birth and because of its involvement in reward, an inadequate maturation of this system could lead to enhanced susceptibility for alcohol use disorder. Recent studies show that the classical reward areas nucleus accumbens and ventral tegmental area are less affected by early life stress whereas endogenous opioids in non-classical areas, e...
May 13, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511992/rna-seq-analyses-reveal-that-cervical-spinal-cords-and-anterior-motor-neurons-from-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-subjects-show-reduced-expression-of-mitochondrial-dna-encoded-respiratory-genes-and-rhtfam-may-correct-this-respiratory-deficiency
#4
Amy C Ladd, David G Brohawn, Ravindar R Thomas, Paula M Keeney, Stuart S Berr, Shaharyar M Khan, Francisco R Portell, Meiram Zh Shakenov, Patrick F Antkowiak, Bijoy Kundu, Nicholas Tustison, James P Bennett
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a generally fatal neurodegenerative disease of adults that produces weakness and atrophy due to dysfunction and death of upper and lower motor neurons. We used RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) to analyze expression of all mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-encoded respiratory genes in ALS and CTL human cervical spinal cords (hCSC) and isolated motor neurons. We analyzed with RNA-seq mtDNA gene expression in human neural stem cells (hNSC) exposed to recombinant human mitochondrial transcription factor A (rhTFAM), visualized in 3-dimensions clustered gene networks activated by rhTFAM, quantitated their interactions with other genes and determined their gene ontology (GO) families...
May 13, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506555/gut-microbiota-in-parkinson-disease-in-a-northern-german-cohort
#5
Franziska Hopfner, Axel Künstner, Stefanie H Müller, Sven Künzel, Kirsten E Zeuner, Nils G Margraf, Günther Deuschl, John F Baines, Gregor Kuhlenbäumer
Pathologic and epidemiologic studies suggest that Parkinson disease (PD) may in some cases start in the enteric nervous system and spread via the vagal nerve to the brainstem. Mounting evidence suggests that the gut microbiome plays an important role in the communication between gut and brain and that alteration of the gut microbiome is involved in the pathogenesis of numerous diseases, including Parkinson disease. The aim of this study was to determine whether Parkinson disease is associated with qualitative or quantitative changes in the gut microbiome...
May 12, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506554/selective-dopamine-receptor-4-activation-mediates-the-hippocampal-neuronal-calcium-response-via-ip3-and-ryanodine-receptors
#6
Ya-Li Wang, Jian-Gang Wang, Fang-Li Guo, Xia-Huan Gao, Dan-Dan Zhao, Lin Zhang, Jian-Zhi Wang, Cheng-Biao Lu
Intracellular calcium is a key factor in most cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, proliferation and neurotransmitter release. Dopamine (DA) mediates synaptic transmission by regulating the intracellular calcium content. It is not clear, however, which specific subunit of the DA receptor contributes to DA modulation of intracellular calcium content changes. Through the traditional technique of Fura-2 calcium imaging, this study demonstrated that the DA can induce transient calcium in cultured hippocampal neurons and that this response can be mimicked by a selective dopamine receptor 4 (DR4) agonist PD168077 (PD)...
May 12, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502585/frontoparietal-neurostimulation-modulates-working-memory-training-benefits-and-oscillatory-synchronization
#7
Kevin T Jones, Dwight J Peterson, Kara J Blacker, Marian E Berryhill
There is considerable interest in maintaining working memory (WM) because it is essential to accomplish most cognitive tasks, and it is correlated with fluid intelligence and ecologically valid measures of daily living. Toward this end, WM training protocols aim to improve WM capacity and extend improvements to unpracticed domains, yet success is limited. One emerging approach is to couple WM training with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). This pairing of WM training with tDCS in longitudinal designs promotes behavioral improvement and evidence of transfer of performance gains to untrained WM tasks...
May 11, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502584/up-regulation-of-mir-325-3p-suppresses-pineal-aralkylamine-n-acetyltransferase-aanat-after-neonatal-hypoxia-ischemia-brain-injury-in-rats
#8
Yuanyuan Yang, Bin Sun, Jian Huang, Lixiao Xu, Jian Pan, Chen Fang, Mei Li, Gen Li, Yanfang Tao, Xiaofeng Yang, Ying Wu, Po Miao, Ying Wang, Hong Li, Jing Ren, Meiqin Zhan, Yiping Fang, Xing Feng, Xin Ding
Survivors of hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD), besides impairment of psychomotor development, often develop circadian rhythm disorders, although the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we first verified that mRNA and protein expression of pineal aralkylamine N-acetyltransferase (Aanat), a key regulator for melatonin (MT) synthesis, along with MT, were severely impaired after HIBD. In addition, we demonstrated that neonatal HIBD disrupted the circadian rhythmicity of locomotor activities in juvenile rats...
May 11, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501494/focused-microwave-irradiation-assisted-immunohistochemistry-to-study-effects-of-ketamine-on-perk-expression-in-the-mouse-brain
#9
Alda Fernandes, Yu-Wen Li
Ketamine produces rapid and long-lasting antidepressant effects in depressive patients. Preclinical studies demonstrate that ketamine stimulates AMPA receptor transmission and activates BDNF/TrkB-Akt/ERK-mTOR signaling cascades, leading to a sustained increase in synaptic protein synthesis and strengthening of synaptic plasticity, a potential mechanism underlying the antidepressant effects. The purpose of this study was to develop a sensitive and reliable immunohistochemistry (IHC) assay to map the distribution of ERK phosphorylation in the mouse brain in response to systemic ketamine treatment...
May 10, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495307/event-related-potentials-during-encoding-comparing-unitization-to-relational-processing
#10
Hsiao-Wei Tu, Emma E Alty, Rachel A Diana
Context details are typically encoded into episodic memory via arbitrary associations to the relevant item, known as relational binding. Subsequent retrieval of those context details is primarily supported by recollection. Research suggests that context retrieval can rely on familiarity if the context details are "unitized" and thereby encoded as features of the item itself in a single new representation. With most investigations into unitization focusing on the contributions of familiarity and recollection during retrieval, little is known about unitization during encoding...
May 8, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495306/long-term-effects-of-enriched-environment-following-neonatal-hypoxia-ischemia-on-behavior-bdnf-and-synaptophysin-levels-in-rat-hippocampus-effect-of-combined-treatment-with-g-csf
#11
Myrsini Griva, Rosa Lagoudaki, Olga Touloumi, Evangelia Nousiopoulou, Filippos Karalis, Thomas Georgiou, Georgia Kokaraki, Constantina Simeonidou, Despina A Tata, Evangelia Spandou
Increasing evidence shows that exposure to an enriched environment (EE) is neuroprotective in adult and neonatal animal models of brain ischemia. However, the mechanisms underlying this effect remain unclear. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether post-weaning EE would be effective in preventing functional deficits and brain damage by affecting markers of synaptic plasticity in a neonatal rat model of hypoxia-ischemia (HI). We also examined the possibility that granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), a growth factor with known neuroprotective effects in a variety of experimental brain injury models, combined with EE stimulation could enhance the potential beneficial effect of EE...
May 8, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495305/mechanism-for-optimization-of-signal-to-noise-ratio-of-dopamine-release-based-on-short-term-bidirectional-plasticity
#12
Claudio Da Cunha, Eric McKimm, Rafael M Da Cunha, Suelen L Boschen, Peter Redgrave, Charles D Blaha
Repeated electrical stimulation of dopamine (dopamine) fibers can cause variable effects on further dopamine release; sometimes there are short-term decreases while in other cases short-term increases have been reported. Previous studies have failed to discover what factors determine in which way dopamine neurons will respond to repeated stimulation. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate what determines the direction and magnitude of this particular form of short-term plasticity. Fixed potential amperometry was used to measure dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens in response to two trains of electrical pulses administered to the ventral tegmental area of anesthetized mice...
May 8, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483509/nitric-oxide-in-the-nucleus-of-the-tractus-solitarius-is-involved-in-hypoglycemic-conditioned-response
#13
Beatriz A Alvarado, Mónica Lemus, Sergio Montero, Valery Melnikov, Sonia Luquín, Joaquín García-Estrada, Elena Roces de Álvarez-Buylla
The repeated injection of insulin (unconditioned stimulus, UCS) immediately followed by exposure to sensory stimulation (e.g. sound or odor; conditioned stimulus, CS) results in a learned conditioned reflex in which the exposure to the CS alone lowers blood glucose. The brain regions participating in this hypoglycemic Pavlovian response remain unknown. Here we investigate if nitric oxide (NO) in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), a nucleus known to be involved in glucose homeostasis, participates in this hypoglycemic reflex...
May 5, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477863/intrahippocampal-injection-of-cortistatin-14-impairs-recognition-memory-consolidation-in-mice-through-activation-of-sst2-ghrelin-and-gabaa-b-receptors
#14
Jinhong Jiang, Yali Peng, Zhen He, Lijuan Wei, Weidong Jin, Xiaoli Wang, Min Chang
Cortistatin-14 (CST-14), a neuropeptide related to somatostatin, is primarily localized within the cortex and hippocampus. In the hippocampus, CST-14 inhibits CA1 neuronal pyramidal cell firing and co-exists with GABA. However, its role in cognitive is still not clarified. The first aim of our study was to elucidate the role of CST-14 signaling in consolidation and reconsolidation of recognition memory in mice, using novel object recognition task. The results showed that central CST-14 induced in impairment of long-term and short-term recognition memory, indicating memory consolidation impairment effect...
May 3, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477862/contribution-of-fronto-striatal-regions-to-emotional-valence-and-repetition-under-cognitive-conflict
#15
Ji-Won Chun, Hae-Jeong Park, Dai Jin Kim, Eosu Kim, Jae-Jin Kim
Conflict processing mediated by fronto-striatal regions may be influenced by emotional properties of stimuli. This study aimed to examine the effects of emotion repetition on cognitive control in a conflict-provoking situation. Twenty-one healthy subjects were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a sequential cognitive conflict task composed of emotional stimuli. The regional effects were analyzed according to the repetition or non-repetition of cognitive congruency and emotional valence between the preceding and current trials...
May 3, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465229/poly-dimensional-network-comparative-analysis-reveals-the-pure-pharmacological-mechanism-of-baicalin-in-the-targeted-network-of-mouse-cerebral-ischemia
#16
Qiong Liu, Jun Liu, Pengqian Wang, Yingying Zhang, Bing Li, Yanan Yu, Haixia Dang, Haixia Li, Xiaoxu Zhang, Zhong Wang
This study aimed to investigate the pure pharmacological mechanisms of baicalin/baicalein (BA) in the targeted network of mouse cerebral ischemia using a poly-dimensional network comparative analysis METHODS: Eighty mice with induced focal cerebral ischemia were randomly divided into four groups: BA, Concha Margaritifera (CM), vehicle and sham group. A poly-dimensional comparative analysis of the expression levels of 374 stroke-related genes in each of the four groups was performed using MetaCore RESULTS: BA significantly reduced the ischemic infarct volume (P <0...
April 29, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465228/knockout-of-sodium-pump-%C3%AE-3-subunit-gene-atp1a3-results-in-perinatal-seizure-and-defective-respiratory-rhythm-generation
#17
Keiko Ikeda, Hiroshi Onimaru, Kiyoshi Kawakami
ATP1A3 encodes a neuron-specific human α3 subunit isoform of the sodium pump that plays an important role in neuronal excitability. Point and deletion mutations in ATP1A3 have been recognized in diverse neurological disorders. Three ATP1A3 disorders, alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC); apnea; and severe infantile epileptic encephalopathy often appear shortly after birth. To gain insight into the pathophysiology of these disorders and to understand the functional roles of the sodium pump α3 subunit in the brain in vivo during this period of development, we examined the phenotype of Atp1a3 knockout homozygous mouse fetuses (Atp1a3(-/-))...
April 29, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465227/bovine-lactoferrin-reduces-extra-territorial-facial-allodynia-hyperalgesia-following-a-trigeminal-nerve-injury-in-the-rat
#18
Kayo Horie, Mineo Watanabe, Chea Chanbora, Tetsuya Awada, Ryo Kunimatsu, Takashi Uchida, Takashi Takata, Kotaro Tanimoto
There is an urgent clinical need for an effective therapeutic agent to treat neuropathic pain. This study explored whether intrathecal administration of bovine lactoferrin (bLF), in combination with signal transduction pathway inhibition or an inflammatory cytokine production, results in reduced allodynia/hyperalgesia in the whisker pad area following mental nerve transection (MNT) in rats. Rats were intrathecally infused with bLF, lipopolysaccharide from Rhodobacter sphaeroides (LPS-RS), an antagonist of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), or interleukin (IL)-18 binding protein (BP)...
April 29, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465226/repeated-propofol-anesthesia-induced-downregulation-of-hippocampal-mir-132-and-learning-and-memory-impairment-of-rats
#19
Shuo Zhang, Zuodi Liang, Wenchong Sun, Ling Pei
Several studies have reported that neonatal exposure to propofol may cause neurotoxicity in the hippocampus, involving long-term neurodevelopmental impairments. We aimed to detect real-time changes of miR-132 of neonatal rats exposed to propofol anesthesia and to characterize subsequent changes in learning and memory. Seven-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats were injected intraperitoneally with 40 mg/kg propofol at 0, 120, and 240 minutes or with isotonic fat emulsion as controls. Expression levels of miR-132 were assessed, and the mRNA and protein expression levels of p250GAP, a prominent target for miR-132, were evaluated at different time points during development...
April 29, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442243/abnormal-neural-precursor-cell-regulation-in-the-early-postnatal-fragile-x-mouse-hippocampus
#20
Mary Sourial, Laurie C Doering
The regulation of neural precursor cells (NPCs) is indispensable for a properly functioning brain. Abnormalities in NPC proliferation, differentiation, survival, or integration have been linked to various neurological diseases including Fragile X syndrome. Yet, no studies have examined NPCs from the early postnatal Fragile X mouse hippocampus despite the importance of this developmental time point, which marks the highest expression level of FMRP, the protein missing in Fragile X, in the rodent hippocampus and is when hippocampal NPCs have migrated to the dentate gyrus (DG) to give rise to lifelong neurogenesis...
April 22, 2017: Brain Research
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