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Brain Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743448/chronic-cb1-cannabinoid-receptor-antagonism-persistently-increases-dendritic-spine-densities-in-brain-regions-important-to-zebra-finch-vocal-learning-and-production-in-an-antidepressant-sensitive-manner
#1
Tessa L Holland, Ken Soderstrom
During typical late-postnatal CNS development, net reductions in dendritic spine densities are associated with activity-dependent learning. Prior results showed agonist exposure in young animals increased spine densities in a subset of song regions while adult exposures did not, suggesting endocannabinoid signaling regulates dendritic spine dynamics important to vocal development. Here we addressed this question using the CB1 receptor-selective antagonist SR141716A (SR) to disrupt endocannabinoid signaling both during and after vocal learning...
July 22, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736108/chronic-intermittent-ethanol-exposure-selectively-alters-the-expression-of-g%C3%AE-subunit-isoforms-and-rgs-subtypes-in-rat-prefrontal-cortex
#2
D Jluessen, H Sun, M M McGinnis, B A McCool, R Chen
Chronic alcohol exposure induces pronounced changes in GPCR-mediated G-protein signaling. Recent microarray and RNA-seq analyses suggest associations between alcohol abuse and the expression of genes involved in G-protein signaling. The activity of G-proteins (e.g. Gαi/o and Gαq) is negatively modulated by regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) proteins which are implicated in drugs of abuse including alcohol. The present study used 7 days of chronic intermittent ethanol exposure followed by 24 hour withdrawal (CIE) to investigate changes in mRNA and protein levels of G-protein subunit isoforms and RGS protein subtypes in rat prefrontal cortex, a region associated with cognitive deficit attributed to excessive alcohol drinking...
July 20, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736107/cholinergic-opioid-interaction-in-anterior-cingulate-cortex-reduces-the-nociceptive-response-of-vocalization-in-guinea-pigs
#3
João Zugaib, Leda Menescal-de-Oliveira
The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is crucial in the modulation of the sensory, affective and cognitive aspects of nociceptive processing. Also, it participates in the plannig and execution of behavioral responses evoked by nociceptive stimuli via descending projections to the brainstem. In laboratory animals nociceptive experimental tests evaluate behavioral responses that preferentially express the sensory-discriminative or affective-motivational component of pain. The objective of this study was to investigate the participation of opioid and cholinergic neurotransmission in the ACC on different nociceptive responses in guinea pigs...
July 20, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736106/in-vivo-magnetic-resonance-approach-to-trimethyltin-induced-neurodegeneration-in-rats
#4
Ladislav Baciak, Zdenka Gasparova, Tibor Liptaj, Ivo Juranek
Trimethyltin (TMT) is commonly used to induce neurodegeneration in mice and rats; however, only scarce data of in vivo MR spectroscopy and imaging characterizing TMT neurotoxicity are available. Our aim was to assess brain metabolite changes and brain atrophy by in vivo MR in the rat model of neurodegeneration induced by TMT. Adult male Wistar rats exposed to TMT (8 mg/kg, i.p.) were used in the study. Proton MRS was applied on the dorsal hippocampus to reveal changes in neurochemical profile and MRI was used to assess the volume of the entire hippocampus, ventricles and whole brain...
July 20, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734802/co-transplantation-of-mesenchymal-and-neural-stem-cells-and-overexpressing-stromal-derived-factor-1-for-treating-spinal-cord-injury
#5
Andrew N Stewart, Griffin Kendziorski, Zachary M Deak, Dara J Brown, Matthew N Fini, Katherine L Copely, Julien Rossignol, Gary L Dunbar
Genetic engineering of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and neuronal stem cells (NSCs) has been used to treat spinal cord injuries (SCI). As a mechanism of therapy, MSCs secrete high amounts of anti-inflammatory cytokines and trophic factors, while NSCs can differentiate into neuronal lineages and aid in tissue replacement. Additionally, the forced overexpression of secreted proteins can enhance the secretome of transplanted cells, which can increase therapeutic efficacy. This study utilized a combinational treatment consisting of MSCs, NSCs, and the forced overexpression of the chemokine stromal-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) from MSCs (SDF-1-MSCs), to treat a rat model of SCI...
July 19, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732667/contribution-of-bdnf-trkb-signalling-in-the-racc-to-the-development-of-pain-related-aversion-via-activation-of-erk-in-rats-with-spared-nerve-injury
#6
Xu Wang, Le Zhang, Yufeng Zhan, Dengping Li, Yuangui Zhang, Gongming Wang, Mengyuan Zhang
The rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) is a key structure in mediating the negative affective component of chronic pain. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is known to play a critical role in activity-dependent synaptic plasticity, learning and memory. It has been shown that BDNF signalling in the rACC might be involved in spontaneous pain-related aversion, but its underlying mechanism is still largely unknown. To address this question, we measured the mRNA and protein levels of BDNF in the rACC after nerve injury and found that BDNF expression was markedly higher in nerve-injured rats than in controls...
July 18, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729192/butyrylcholinesterase-knockout-reduces-fibrillar-%C3%AE-amyloid-and-conserves-18-fdg-retention-in-5xfad-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
D R DeBay, G A Reid, I R Macdonald, G Mawko, S Burrell, E Martin, C V Bowen, S Darvesh
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder causing dementia. One hallmark of the AD brain is the deposition of β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques. AD is also a state of cholinergic dysfunction and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) associates with Aβ pathology. A transgenic mouse (5XFAD) is an aggressive amyloidosis model, producing Aβ plaques of which BChE also associates. A derived strain (5XFAD/BChE-KO), with the BChE gene knocked out, has significantly lower fibrillar Aβ than 5XFAD mice at the same age...
July 17, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729191/hypothermia-pretreatment-improves-cognitive-impairment-via-enhancing-synaptic-plasticity-in-a-traumatic-brain-injury-model
#8
Bingjin Liu, Lin Wang, Yun Cao, Weiqi Xu, Fangxiao Shi, Qing Tian, Xinwen Zhou
PosttraumatichypothermiaattenuatescognitivedeficitscausedbyTBIwhen it is administered at an early stage. However, little is known regarding the effect of hypothermia pretreatment on cognitive deficits one month after TBI. In the current study, the behavior test revealed that hypothermia pretreatment mitigates the learning and memory impairment induced by TBI in mice. Hypothermia treatment significantly increased the expression of PSD93, PSD95 and NR2B one month after TBI in the cortex and hippocampus compared with the normothermia group...
July 17, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716633/the-synthetic-cannabinoid-win55212-2-ameliorates-traumatic-spinal-cord-injury-via-inhibition-of-gapdh-siah1-in-a-cb2-receptor-dependent-manner
#9
Bin-Xiao Su, Xin Chen, Jia Huo, Shu-Yun Guo, Rui Ma, Yan-Wu Liu
The essential role of GAPDH/Siah1 signaling pathway in the pathogenesis of various injurious conditions such as traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) has been gradually recognized. However, the drugs targeting this signaling pathway are still lacking. The endocannabinoid system, including its receptors (CB1 and CB2), act as neuroprotective and immunomodulatory modulators in SCI. WIN55212-2, an agonist for CB1 and CB2 receptors, has been demonstrated with anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects in multiple neurological diseases...
July 14, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716632/mitochondrial-estrogen-receptors-as-a-vulnerability-factor-of-chronic-stress-and-mediator-of-fluoxetine-treatment-in-female-and-male-rat-hippocampus
#10
Miroslav Adzic, Milos Mitic, Marija Radojcic
Depression is a disease of an abnormal brain energy metabolism also marked with increased apoptosis in specific brain regions. Mounting evidence indicates that the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and apoptosis are novel targets for the actions of estrogen receptors (ERs). In this study, we examined the effects of antidepressant (AD) fluoxetine (FLU) treatment on the mitochondrial ER alpha (ERα), ER beta (total and phospo-pERβ) and their association with cytochrome c (cyt c) oxidase activity and apoptotic Bcl2/Bax-molecules in the hippocampal mitochondria of chronically isolated (CPSI) female and male rats depicting depression...
July 14, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709907/the-details-of-structural-disconnectivity-in-psychotic-disorder-a-family-based-study-of-non-fa-diffusion-weighted-imaging-measures
#11
Stijn Michielse, Ed Gronenschild, Patrick Domen, Jim van Os, Machteld Marcelis
BACKGROUND: Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) studies in psychotic disorder have shown reduced FA, often interpreted as disturbed white matter integrity. The observed 'dysintegrity' may be of multifactorial origin, as changes in FA are thought to reflect a combination of changes in myelination, fiber organization and number of axons. Examining the structural substrate of the diffusion tensor in individuals with (risk for) psychotic disorder may provide better understanding of the underlying structural changes...
July 11, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709906/effects-of-feeding-time-on-daily-rhythms-of-neuropeptide-and-clock-gene-expression-in-the-rat-hypothalamus
#12
Dawei Wang, Anne-Loes Opperhuizen, Jane Reznick, Nigel Turner, Yan Su, Gregory J Cooney, Andries Kalsbeek
Shiftworkers are exposed to several adverse health conditions, one being eating at night. Food consumption at an unnatural time-of-day is thought to be one of the main factors responsible for the increased risk of developing metabolic diseases, such as obesity and diabetes mellitus. The underlying mechanism is considered to include disruption of the circadian organization of physiology, leading to disruption of metabolism. When food is consumed at night, the hypothalamus, a brain region central to homeostasis, receives contradicting input from the central clock and the systemic circulation...
July 11, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705715/acute-treatment-with-doxorubicin-affects-glutamate-neurotransmission-in-the-mouse-frontal-cortex-and-hippocampus
#13
Theresa Currier Thomas, Joshua A Beitchman, Francois Pomerleau, Teresa Noel, Paiboon Jungsuwadee, D Allan Butterfield, Daret K St Clair, Mary Vore, Greg A Gerhardt
Doxorubicin (DOX) is a potent chemotherapeutic agent known to cause acute and long-term cognitive impairments in cancer patients. Cognitive function is presumed to be primarily mediated by neuronal circuitry in the frontal cortex (FC) and hippocampus, where glutamate is the primary excitatory neurotransmitter. Mice treated with DOX (25 mg/kg i.p.) were subjected to in vivo recordings under urethane anesthesia at 24h post-DOX injection or 5 consecutive days of cognitive testing (Morris Water Maze; MWM). Using novel glutamate-selective microelectrode arrays, amperometric recordings measured parameters of extracellular glutamate clearance and potassium-evoked release of glutamate within the medial FC and dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus...
July 10, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693821/synchronizing-midi-and-wireless-eeg-measurements-during-natural-piano-performance
#14
Anna Zamm, Caroline Palmer, Anna-Katharina R Bauer, Martin G Bleichner, Alexander P Demos, Stefan Debener
Although music performance has been widely studied in the behavioural sciences, less work has addressed the underlying neural mechanisms, perhaps due to technical difficulties in acquiring high-quality neural data during tasks requiring natural motion. The advent of wireless electroencephalography (EEG) presents a solution to this problem by allowing for neural measurement with minimal motion artefacts. In the current study, we provide the first validation of a mobile wireless EEG system for capturing the neural dynamics associated with piano performance...
July 7, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693820/central-glucagon-like-peptide-1-inhibits-reflex-swallowing-elicited-by-the-superior-laryngeal-nerve-via-caudal-brainstem-in-the-rat
#15
Motoi Kobashi, Satoshi Mizutani, Masako Fujita, Yoshihiro Mitoh, Yuichi Shimatani, Ryuji Matsuo
The effects of glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) on reflex swallowing were examined using anaesthetized rats. GLP-1 was injected into the dorsal vagal complex (DVC) using glass micropipettes. Swallowing was induced by repeated electrical stimulation of the central cut end of the superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) and was identified by the electromyogram lead penetrated in the mylohyoide muscle through bipolar electrodes. Microinjection of GLP-1 into the medial DVC (M-DVC) increased the frequency of swallowing during the electrical stimulation of the SLN and extended the latency of the first swallowing...
July 7, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690129/graph-theoretical-analysis-of-functional-network-for-comprehension-of-sign-language
#16
Lanfang Liu, Xin Yan, Jin Liu, Mingrui Xia, Chunming Lu, Karen Emmorey, Mingyuan Chu, Guosheng Ding
Signed languages are natural human languages using the visual-motor modality. Previous neuroimaging studies based on univariate activation analysis show that a widely overlapped cortical network is recruited regardless whether the sign language is comprehended (for signers) or not (for non-signers). Here we move beyond previous studies by examining whether the functional connectivity profiles and the underlying organizational structure of the overlapped neural network may differ between signers and non-signers when watching sign language...
July 6, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687259/why-does-finland-have-the-highest-dementia-mortality-rate-environmental-factors-may-be-generalizable
#17
REVIEW
Arnold R Eiser
Finland has the highest death rate from dementia in the world and its environmental features can be instructive in understanding hidden causes of dementia. Environmental factors there include: 1) a climate that is both very cold and humid resulting in housing frequently harboring molds that are capable of producing a neurotoxic mycotoxin 2) the Gulf of Finland as well as Finnish lakes harbor cyanobacteria that produce the neurotoxin, beta-N-methyl amino-L-alanine, known to cause dementia and related disorders 3) the aforementioned toxins can be potentiated by the presence of mercury and methyl mercury which can be found in Finnish waters 4) soil in Finland is naturally low in selenium and selenium deficiency may reduce the quantity and effectiveness of glutathione's ability to protect against neurotoxins...
July 4, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684049/short-term-facilitation-and-depression-of-transmitter-release-at-amphibian-sympathetic-ganglionic-cells-mathematical-computa-tional-modeling
#18
Nobutada Tashiro, Shogoro Nishi
There have been few investigations of the short-term plasticity of synaptic transmission at amphibian sympathetic ganglionic cells where the frequency of miniature excitatory postsynaptic potentials is too low to measure an accurate quantum size. This has made it difficult to investigate the mechanism of synaptic transmission at the ganglionic cells by quantal analysis. A theoretical equation, therefore, is proposed. This equation is based on the premise that transmitter release is due to the product of two factors: intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)]i) and acetylcholine (ACh), which is a readily releasable transmitter...
July 3, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684048/dihydrocapsaicin-dhc-enhances-the-hypothermia-induced-neuroprotection-following-ischemic-stroke-via-pi3k-akt-regulation-in-rat
#19
Di Wu, Jingfei Shi, Omar Elmadhoun, Yunxia Duan, Hong An, Jun Zhang, Xiaoduo He, Ran Meng, Xiangrong Liu, Xunming Ji, Yuchuan Ding
OBJECTIVE: Hypothermia has demonstrated neuroprotection following ischemia in preclinical studies while its clinical application is still very limited. The aim of this study was to explore whether combining local hypothermia in ischemic territory achieved by intra-arterial cold infusions (IACIs) with pharmacologically induced hypothermia enhances therapeutic outcomes, as well as the underlying mechanism. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to right middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 2 h using intraluminal hollow filament...
July 3, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673481/cs-specific-modifications-of-auditory-evoked-potentials-in-the-behaviorally-conditioned-rat
#20
Matthew I Leon, Alexandre A Miasnikov, Ernest J Wright, Norman M Weinberger
The current report provides a detailed analysis of the changes in the first two components of the auditory evoked potential (AEP) that accompany associative learning. AEPs were recorded from the primary auditory cortex before and after training sessions. Experimental subjects underwent one (n = 5) or two (n = 7) days of conditioning in which a tone, serving as a conditioned stimulus (CS), was paired with mild foot shock. Control subjects received one (n = 5) or two (n = 7) days of exposure to the same stimuli delivered randomly...
June 30, 2017: Brain Research
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