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Brain Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315312/eeg-oscillatory-power-dissociates-between-distress-and-depression-related-psychopathology-in-subjective-tinnitus
#1
Martin Meyer, Patrick Neff, Angelina Grest, Colette Hemsley, Steffi Weidt, Tobias Kleinjung
Recent research has used source estimation approaches to identify spatially distinct neural configurations in individuals with chronic, subjective tinnitus (TI). The results of these studies are often heterogeneous, a fact which may be partly explained by an inherent heterogeneity of/in the TI population and partly by the applied EEG data analysis procedure and EEG hardware. Hence this study was performed to re-enact a formerly published study (Joos et al., 2012) to better understand the reason for differences and overlap between studies from different labs...
March 14, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315311/the-effects-of-crf-and-urocortins-on-the-sociability-of-mice
#2
Zsolt Bagosi, Gergely Karasz, András Czébely-Lénárt, Krisztina Csabafi, Miklós Jászberényi, Gyula Telegdy
The aim of our study was to determine the role of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), the urocortins (Ucn1, Ucn2 and Ucn3) and their receptors (CRF1 and CRF2) in the sociability of mice. Male CFLP mice were administered intracerebroventricularly (icv) with CRF and urocortins alone or in combination with antalarmin (specific CRF1 antagonist) and astressin2B (specific CRF2 antagonist) and then investigated in a Crawley social interaction test arena, that consists of three chambers. An unknown male in a cage was put in the first chamber and an empty cage was put in the opposite chamber...
March 14, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315310/combined-l-citrulline-and-glutathione-administration-prevents-neuronal-cell-death-following-transient-brain-ischemia
#3
Kazuya Matsuo, Yasushi Yabuki, Kohji Fukunaga
We previously reported that oral L-citrulline (L-Cit) administration antagonizes neuronal cell death in hippocampus following transient brain ischemia and that oral glutathione (GSH) administration prevents neuronal death through antioxidant activity. Here, we tested potential synergy of combined L-Cit and GSH administration in protection against neuronal death following cerebral ischemia. One day after a 20-min bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO), mice were orally administered L-Cit or GSH alone (at 40 or 100 mg/kg p...
March 14, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315309/effects-of-task-demands-on-the-early-neural-processing-of-fearful-and-happy-facial-expressions
#4
Roxane J Itier, Karly N Neath-Tavares
Task demands shape how we process environmental stimuli but their impact on the early neural processing of facial expressions remains unclear. In a within-subject design, ERPs were recorded to the same fearful, happy and neutral facial expressions presented during a gender discrimination, an explicit emotion discrimination and an oddball detection tasks, the most studied tasks in the field. Using an eye tracker, fixation on the face nose was enforced using a gaze-contingent presentation. Task demands modulated amplitudes from 200-350ms at occipito-temporal sites spanning the EPN component...
March 14, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302445/agmatine-attenuates-chronic-unpredictable-mild-stress-induced-anxiety-depression-like-behaviours-and-cognitive-impairment-by-modulating-nitrergic-signalling-pathway
#5
Nitin B Gawali, Vipin D Bulani, Malvika S Gursahani, Padmini S Deshpande, Pankaj S Kothavade, Archana R Juvekar
Agmatine, a neurotransmitter/neuromodulator, has shown to exert numerous effects on the CNS. Chronic stress is a risk factor for development of depression, anxiety and deterioration of cognitive performance. Compelling evidences indicate an involvement of nitric oxide (NO) pathway in these disorders. Hence, investigation of the beneficial effects of agmatine on chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)-induced depression, anxiety and cognitive performance with the involvement of nitrergic pathway was undertaken...
March 13, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300551/role-of-caveolin-1-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-pathway-in-basic-fibroblast-growth-factor-induced-angiogenesis-and-neurogenesis-after-treadmill-training-following-focal-cerebral-ischemia-in-rats
#6
Qiongyi Pang, Huimei Zhang, Zhenzhen Chen, Yudan Wu, Min Yidian Bai Liu, Yun Zhao, Fengxia Tu, Chan Liu, Xiang Chen
Exercise is known to aid functional recovery following ischemia, though the mechanisms responsible for the beneficial effects of exercise on recovery from ischemic stroke are not fully understood. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) contributes to angiogenesis and promotes neurologic functional recovery after stroke. The present study aimed to investigate the possible mechanisms whereby treadmill exercise ameliorated impaired angiogenesis and neurogenesis following transient cerebral ischemia in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) rats...
March 11, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288870/tia-model-is-attainable-in-wistar-rats-by-intraluminal-occlusion-of-the-mca-for-10-min-or-shorter
#7
A Durukan Tolvanen, E Tatlisumak, E Pedrono, U Abo-Ramadan, T Tatlisumak
Transient ischemic attack (TIA) has received only little attention in the experimental research field. Recently, we introduced a TIA model for mice, and here we set similar principles for simulating this human condition in Wistar rats. In the model: 1) transient nature of the event is ensured, and 2) 24 h after the event animals are free from any sensorimotor deficit and from any detectable lesion by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Animals experienced varying durations of ischemia (5, 10, 12.5, 15, 25, and-30 min, n=6-8 per group) by intraluminal middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)...
March 10, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288869/schizophrenia-illness-severity-is-associated-with-reduced-loss-aversion
#8
James Currie, Dheeraj Buruju, Jennifer S Perrin, Ian C Reid, J Douglas Steele, Nick Feltovich
Loss aversion, whereby losses weigh more heavily than equal-sized gains, has been demonstrated in many decision-making settings. Previous research has suggested reduced loss aversion in schizophrenia, but with little evidence of a link between loss aversion and schizophrenia illness severity. In this study, 20 individuals with schizophrenia and 16 control participants, matched by age and sex, played two versions of the Iterated Prisoners' Dilemma, one version with only positive payoffs and another version in which negative payoffs were possible, with the second version being derived from the first by subtracting a constant value from all payoffs...
March 10, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288868/inhibition-of-kir4-1-potassium-channels-by-quinacrine
#9
Leticia G Marmolejo-Murillo, Iván A Aréchiga-Figueroa, Meng Cui, Eloy G Moreno-Galindo, Ricardo A Navarro-Polanco, José A Sánchez-Chapula, Tania Ferrer, Aldo A Rodríguez Menchaca
Inwardly rectifying potassium (Kir) channels are expressed in many cell types and contribute to a wide range of physiological processes. Particularly, Kir4.1 channels are involved in the astroglial spatial potassium buffering. In this work, we examined the effects of the cationic amphiphilic drug quinacrine on Kir4.1 channels heterologously expressed in HEK293 cells, employing the patch clamp technique. Quinacrine inhibited the currents of Kir4.1 channels in a concentration and voltage dependent manner. In inside-out patches, quinacrine inhibited Kir4...
March 10, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288867/moderate-traumatic-brain-injury-increases-the-vulnerability-to-neurotoxicity-induced-by-systemic-administration-of-6-hydroxydopamine-in-mice
#10
Paulo Alexandre de Oliveira, Juliana Ben, Filipe Carvalho Matheus, Marcelo Liborio Schwarzbold, Eduardo Luiz Gasnhar Moreira, Daniel Rial, Roger Walz, Rui Daniel Prediger
Moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI) might increase the vulnerability to neuronal neurodegeneration, but the basis of such selective neuronal susceptibility has remained elusive. In keeping with the disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) caused by TBI, changes in BBB permeability following brain injury could facilitate the access of xenobiotics into the brain. To test this hypothesis, here we evaluated whether TBI would increase the susceptibility of nigrostriatal dopaminergic fibers to the systemic administration of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), a classic neurotoxin used to trigger a PD-like phenotype in mice, but that in normal conditions is unable to cross the BBB...
March 10, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284898/role-of-probdnf-and-bdnf-in-dendritic-spine-plasticity-and-depressive-like-behaviors-induced-by-an-animal-model-of-depression
#11
Hui Qiao, Shu-Cheng An, Chang Xu, Xin-Ming Ma
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the most common psychiatric disorder, but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Increasing evidence shows that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in the structural plasticity induced by depression. Considering the opposite effects of BDNF and its precursor proBDNF on neural plasticity, we hypothesized that the balance of BDNF and proBDNF plays a critical role in chronic unpredicted mild stress (CUMS)-induced depressive-like behaviors and structural plasticity in the rodent hippocampus...
March 8, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284897/dietary-restriction-reduces-hippocampal-neurogenesis-and-granule-cell-neuron-density-without-affecting-the-density-of-mossy-fibers
#12
Miranda C Staples, McKenzie J Fannon-Pavlich, Karthik K Mysore, Rahul R Dutta, Alexandria T Ongjoco, Leon W Quach, Khush M Kharidia, Sucharita S Somkuwar, Chitra D Mandyam
The hippocampal formation undergoes significant morphological and functional changes after prolonged caloric and dietary restriction (DR). In this study we tested whether prolonged DR results in deleterious alterations in hippocampal neurogenesis, density of granule cell neurons and mossy fibers, all of which support plasticity in the dentate gyrus. Young adult animals either experienced free access to food (control condition), or every-other-day feeding regimen (DR condition) for 3 months. The number of Ki-67 cells and 28-day old 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) cells were quantified in the dorsal and ventral dentate gyrus to determine the effect of DR on cellular proliferation and survival of neural progenitor cells in the anatomically defined regions of the dentate gyrus...
March 8, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284896/progesterone-increased-%C3%AE-endorphin-innervation-of-the-locus-coeruleus-but-ovarian-steroids-had-no-effect-on-noradrenergic-neurodegeneration
#13
Fernanda B Lima, Cristiane M Leite, Cynthia L Bethea, Janete A Anselmo-Franci
With the decline of ovarian steroids levels at menopause, many women experience an increase in anxiety and stress sensitivity. The locus coeruleus (LC), a central source of noradrenaline (NE), is activated by stress and is inhibited by β-endorphin. Moreover, increased NE has been implicated in pathological anxiety syndromes. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in menopause appears to decrease anxiety and vulnerability to stress. Therefore, we questioned the effect of HRT on the inhibitory β-endorphin innervation of the LC...
March 8, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274609/tongxinluo-improves-the-cognition-by-reducing-%C3%AE-amyloid-accumulation-in-spontaneous-hypertensive-rats
#14
Yu-Lang Fei, Hong-Jun Lv, Yan-Bo Li, Jie Liu, Yi-Hua Qian, Wei-Na Yang, Kai-Ge Ma, Hong-Bao Li, Qiu-Min Qu
β-amyloid (Aβ) accumulation in the brain is the major pathophysiology of Alzheimer disease (AD). Hypertension is a risk factor for AD by promoting Aβ deposition. Traditional Chinese medicinal compound tongxinluo (TXL) can improve blood circulation and endothelium-dependent vasodilation. This study investigates the effects of TXL on cognition and Aβ accumulation using spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). TXL was intragastrically administered to SHRs at low-dose, mid-dose and high-dose for 15, 30 or 60 days...
March 5, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274608/low-and-high-intensity-treadmill-exercise-attenuates-chronic-morphine-induced-anxiogenesis-and-memory-impairment-but-not-reductions-in-hippocampal-bdnf-in-female-rats
#15
Shahrbanoo Ghodrati-Jaldbakhan, Ali Ahmadalipour, Ali Rashidy-Pour, Abbas Ali Vafaei, Hossein Miladi-Gorji, Maryam Alizadeh
Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that treadmill exercise alleviates the deficits in cognitive functions and anxiety behaviors induced by chronic exposure to morphine in male rats. In this study, we investigated the effects of low and high intensities of treadmill exercise on spatial memory, anxiety-like behaviors, and biochemical changes in the hippocampus and serum of morphine-treated female rats. The adult virgin female rats were injected with bi-daily doses (10 mg/kg, at 12 h intervals) of morphine over a period of 10 days...
March 5, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267433/hemi-ovariectomies-promote-a-decrease-in-the-dendritic-lengths-of-ca1-and-ca3-neurons-a-dimorphic-effect-of-the-cerebral-hemispheres
#16
Dolores Adriana Bravo Durán, Adriana Berenice Silva Gómez, Ana Coral Gutiérrez Rosas, Angélica Trujillo
Certain structures of the central nervous system (CNS) are morphologically and functionally related to the ovaries. Ovariectomy has been used to study the functional role of the ovaries in the CNS, as well as the role of the CNS on the reproductive system. In the present study, the effects of left and right hemi-ovariectomy on the morphology of pyramidal neurons from the CA1 and CA3 regions of the ventral hippocampus were studied. During the estrus phase, female Long-Evans rats underwent either left and right hemi-ovariectomies or left and right sham surgeries...
March 3, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263713/fluorescent-light-induces-neurodegeneration-in-the-rodent-nigrostriatal-system-but-near-infrared-led-light-does-not
#17
Stefania Romeo, Flora Vitale, Cristina Viaggi, Stefano di Marco, Gabriella Aloisi, Irene Fasciani, Carla Pardini, Ilaria Pietrantoni, Mattia Di Paolo, Serena Riccitelli, Rita Maccarone, Claudia Mattei, Marta Capannolo, Mario Rossi, Annamaria Capozzo, Giovanni U Corsini, Eugenio Scarnati, Luca Lozzi, Francesca Vaglini, Roberto Maggio
We investigated the effects of continuous artificial light exposure on the mouse substantia nigra (SN). A three month exposure of C57Bl/6J mice to white fluorescent light induced a 30% reduction in dopamine (DA) neurons in SN compared to controls, accompanied by a decrease of DA and its metabolites in the striatum. After six months of exposure, neurodegeneration progressed slightly, but the level of DA returned to the basal level, while the metabolites increased with respect to the control. Three month exposure to near infrared LED light (∼710 nm) did not alter DA neurons in SN, nor did it decrease DA and its metabolites in the striatum...
March 2, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263712/synergistic-blockade-of-alcohol-escalation-drinking-in-mice-by-a-combination-of-novel-kappa-opioid-receptor-agonist-mesyl-salvinorin-b-and-naltrexone
#18
Yan Zhou, Rachel Saylor Cowley, Konrad Ben, Thomas E Prisinzano, Mary Jeanne Kreek
Mesyl Salvinorin B (MSB) is a potent selective kappa opioid receptor (KOP-r) agonist that has potential for development as an anti-psychostimulant agent with fewer side-effects (e.g., sedation, depression and dysphoria) than classic KOP-r agonists. However, no such study has been done on alcohol. We investigated whether MSB alone or in combination with naltrexone (mu-opioid receptor antagonist) altered voluntary alcohol drinking in both male and female mice. Mice, subjected to 3 weeks of chronic escalation drinking (CED) in a two-bottle choice paradigm with 24-h access every other day, developed rapid escalation of alcohol intake and high preference...
March 2, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257780/neuroprotective-erythropoietin-attenuates-microglial-activation-including-morphological-changes-phagocytosis-and-cytokine-production
#19
Tetsuya Tamura, Mineyoshi Aoyama, Seiko Ukai, Hiroki Kakita, Kazuya Sobue, Kiyofumi Asai
Erythropoietin (EPO), a hematopoietic hormonal cytokine induced in response to hypoxia, has neuroprotective effects. EPO receptor (EPOR) is expressed in microglia, resident immune cells in the brain. However, the effect of EPO on microglial activation is not clear. In the present study, we demonstrated that the EPOR is highly expressed in microglia, rather than in neurons or astrocytes, in in vitro experiments. Therefore, we investigated whether EPO could attenuate lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated activation of microglia in vitro...
February 28, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249775/corrigendum-to-acute-axonal-damage-in-three-different-murine-models-of-multiple-sclerosis-a-comparative-approach-brain-res-1650-2016-125-133
#20
Katharina Marie Höflich, Cordian Beyer, Tim Clarner, Christoph Schmitz, Stella Nyamoya, Markus Kipp, Tanja Hochstrasser
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 26, 2017: Brain Research
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