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Brain Research

Eleanor J Cole, Nick E Barraclough
Neuroimaging studies have shown mirror system (MS) activation when participants infer internal states e.g. emotions, intentions or beliefs (known as 'mentalizing') from others' actions. However, the exact role of the MS in mentalizing tasks is unknown. Dysfunctional MS activation may underlie mentalizing deficits experienced by adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study investigated the timing of MS activity when inferring intentions in order to delineate between existing models of MS involvement...
July 14, 2018: Brain Research
Henrique Rocha Mendonça, Juliana Nicolau Aranha Carvalho, Carla Andreia Abreu, Domethila Mariano de Souza Aguiar Dos Santos, Julia Rios Carvalho, Suelen Adriani Marques, Karin da Costa Calaza, Ana Maria Blanco Martinez
Diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of acquired blindness in working-age individuals. Recent work has revealed that neurodegeneration occurs earlier than vascular insult and that distal optic nerve damage precedes retinal degeneration and vascular insult. Since we have shown that optic nerve degeneration is reduced after optic nerve crush in Galectin-3 knockout (Gal-3 -/-) mice, we decided to investigate whether Gal-3 -/- could relieve inflammation and preserve both neurons and the structure of the retina and optic nerve following 8 weeks of diabetes...
July 14, 2018: Brain Research
Sheng-Feng Tsai, Hung-Tsung Wu, Pei-Chun Chen, Yun-Wen Chen, Megan Yu, Tzu-Feng Wang, Shih-Ying Wu, Shun-Fen Tzeng, Yu-Min Kuo
Metabolic disorders induce adverse effects on brain functions. The hippocampus is one of the most vulnerable regions to metabolic disorders. Disrupted neuroplasticity is a major cause of hippocampus-related behavioral impairments, including memory loss, anxiety, and depression. Astrocytes support processes of neuroplasticity. However, whether metabolic disorders induce changes in astrocytes and their roles in affective disorders is relatively unclear. To answer this question, we fed 8-week-old male C57BL/6 mice with a high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks to induce metabolic disruption and then examined their performance of hippocampus-related memory, and anxiety- and depression-like behaviors...
July 13, 2018: Brain Research
Gerrit Höltje, Axel Mecklinger
Previous research has shown that in reinforcement learning, the hippocampus is involved in the processing of feedback when it is delayed for several seconds. Also, better recognition memory has been reported for temporally delayed than for immediately presented feedback pictures. Event-related potential (ERP) studies have found that feedback delay affects the amplitude of the feedback-related negativity (FRN), and there is evidence suggesting that the FRN is modulated by declarative learning. In the present study, a subsequent memory paradigm was used to investigate the effects of feedback delay on the incidental encoding and subsequent retrieval of feedback events...
July 12, 2018: Brain Research
Sebok, K Halder, Ravi Kant, Richard Milner
The laminin family of glycoproteins are major constituents of the basal lamina of blood vessels, and play a fundamental role in promoting endothelial differentiation and blood-brain barrier (BBB) stability. Chronic mild hypoxia (CMH), in which mice are exposed to 8% O2 for two weeks, induces a strong vascular remodeling response in the central nervous system (CNS) that includes endothelial proliferation, angiogenesis, arteriogenesis as well as increased expression of tight junction proteins, suggestive of enhanced vascular integrity...
July 10, 2018: Brain Research
Michelle Liou, Jih-Fu Hsieh, Jonathan Evans, I-Wen Su, Siddharth Nayak, Juin-Der Lee, Alexander N Savostyanov
Recent research has found a relationship between heart rate variability (HRV) and cognitive control mechanisms underlying various experimental tasks. This study explored the interaction between gender and resting-state HRV in brain oscillatory activity during visual recognition of linguistic ambiguity while taking state and trait anxiety scores into account. It is well known that stress or anxiety increases arousal levels, particularly under uncertainty situations. We tasked 50 young Mandarin speakers (26 women; average age 26...
July 10, 2018: Brain Research
Sooyoung Cho, Yeon Joo Jung, Eun Cheng Suh, Hee Jung Baik, Jong In Han, Guie Yong Lee, Kyung Eun Lee
Propofol is the most widely accepted intravenous anesthetic available for clinical use. However, neurotoxicity of propofol in the developing brain has been reported. This study investigated the effects of propofol on cognitive function in normal healthy adult mice. Thirty-three GFP-LC3 adult mice were included. Propofol was injected for anesthesia (n= 22). The sham control (n= 11) received intralipid injections. The mice completed a Y-maze test on 3 and 7 days after being anesthetized. Western blotting, immunofluorescence staining, and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) analyses were performed with their hippocampi...
July 10, 2018: Brain Research
Tao-Ran Li, Yan-Jie Jia, Qun Wang, Xiao-Qiu Shao, Ping Zhang, Rui-Juan Lv
Accumulative evidence demonstrates that there is an inseparable connection between inflammation and temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Some recent studies have found that multifunctional microRNA-155 (miR-155) is a key regulator in controlling the neuroinflammatory response of TLE rodent animals and patients. The aim of the present study was to investigate the dynamic expression pattern of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) as a pro-inflammatory cytokine and miR-155 as a posttranscriptional inflammation-related miRNA in the hippocampus of TLE rat models and patients...
July 10, 2018: Brain Research
Pengfei Han, Stephanie Mann, Claudia Raue, Jonathan Warr, Thomas Hummel
Humans have distinct and overlapping brain regions for the processing of intranasal olfactory or trigeminal stimuli. It may be assumed that trigeminal stimulants and "trigeminal-free" odorous stimuli from the same source are processed differently in the human brain. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), this study investigated the question whether the black pepper (Piper Nigrum) derived trigeminal active compound piperine and the trigeminal-free pepper essential oil (pepperEO) are processed in relation to their degree of trigeminal stimulation...
July 10, 2018: Brain Research
Liu Han
The role of the cerebrovascular network during the acute and chronic phases after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is poorly defined and emerging evidence suggests that cerebral perfusion is altered. The purpose of this study is to explore how the cortical blood flow is pathologically altered following TBI using a newly developed technique, laser speckle imaging. The controlled cortical impact (CCI) model was established in mice. Then, cerebral blood flow was monitored in vivo laser speckle imaging and vessel painting was labeled by Lectin in the peri-contusional cortex...
July 7, 2018: Brain Research
Siqi Zhou, Yuanjing Feng, Liling Jin, Jianzhong He, Qingrun Zeng, Ye Wu, Zhewen Cao
The aim of this study is to verify whether anatomical changes occur in the brains of chess players. Besides, it is a potential attempt to evaluate diffusion properties along the tracts due to the diverse situations at anatomical level in different locations; moreover, conventional voxel-based analysis (VBA) has already been used to calculate the average values within the voxels in the investigated regions as analysis data. In this study, we used automated fiber quantification (AFQ) to automatically identify the major tracts that are related to functional domains of the human brain...
July 7, 2018: Brain Research
Rebecca V Crago, Louis Renoult, Laura Biggart, Gavin Nobes, Tamara Satmarean, Jennifer O Bowler
This study aimed to identify the neural correlates of aggression-related attentional selectivity to angry faces in physical aggression. Physical aggression in a non-clinical sample of young men (N = 35) was measured using an aggression questionnaire. Visual attentional bias to angry faces was assessed using a dot-probe task during which angry and neutral faces were presented simultaneously, and EEG was recorded. Median split and correlational analyses were conducted to assess the relationship between physical aggression and attentional bias...
July 7, 2018: Brain Research
Kumiko Hosokawa, Seiji Hosokawa, Gail Ishiyama, Akira Ishiyama, Ivan A Lopez
Oxidative stress plays an important role in several inner ear diseases and normal aging. Nuclear (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2, also known as Nrf2, is a transcription factor encoded by the NFE2L2 gene that controls the expression of genes necessary to reduce oxidative stress. There are no studies to the date on the localization of Nrf2 in the human inner ear in normal or pathological conditions. Therefore, we investigated the immunohistochemical localization of Nrf2 in the human cochlea and vestibule using formalin-fixed celloidin-embedded human temporal bone sections...
July 5, 2018: Brain Research
L Bonetti, N T Haumann, E Brattico, M Kliuchko, P Vuust, T Särkämö, R Näätänen
OBJECTIVE: Memory is the faculty responsible for encoding, storing and retrieving information, comprising several sub-systems such as sensory memory (SM) and working memory (WM). Some previous studies exclusively using clinical population revealed associations between these two memory systems. Here we aimed at investigating the relation between modality-general WM performance and auditory SM formation indexed by magnetic mismatch negativity (MMN) responses in a healthy population of young adults...
July 5, 2018: Brain Research
Sherif Rashad, Kuniyasu Niizuma, Mika Sato-Maeda, Miki Fujimura, Ahmed Mansour, Hidenori Endo, Shuntaro Ikawa, Teiji Tominaga
Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a rare form of cerebral stroke that causes a variety of symptoms, ranging from mild headache to severe morbidity or death in the more severe forms. The use of anti-coagulant or thrombolytic agents is the classical treatment for CVT. However, the development of new therapies for the treatment of the condition has not been the focus. In this study, we aimed to analyze the pathophysiology of CVT and to identify the pathways associated with its pathology. Moreover, mechanisms that are potential drug targets were identified...
July 4, 2018: Brain Research
Xing Zhang, Min Deng, Guangming Ran, Qingting Tang, Wenjian Xu, Yuanxiao Ma, Xu Chen
Evidence from human and animal studies has shown that experiences of early attachment can influence brain development and structure. Adult attachment style develops from early attachment experiences. However, little is known about the relationship between gray matter volume and attachment style. Further, the structural bases of sex-related differences in adult attachment styles remain unknown. We used voxel-based morphometry to investigate the neuroanatomical basis underlying adult attachment styles and the structural basis of sex-related differences in adult attachment styles...
June 30, 2018: Brain Research
Minerva Ortiz-Valladares, Carmen Torrero, Mirelta Regalado, Manuel Salas
Maternal care in the rat is an ancient behavioral response to specific multisensory inputs widely integrated in a complex forebrain, limbic and brain stem network to meet the basic needs of the young. Early undernutrition interferes with the morphofunctional organization of the brain, including maternal circuitry. The late-emerging effects of pre- and neonatal undernutrition on nest building and pup retrieval by lactating Wistar rats were correlated with dendritic arbor and perikaryon measurements (Golgi-Cox) in layer II pyramidal neurons of the anterior cingulate cortex, layer III pyramidal neurons of the medial prefrontal cortex and multipolar basolateral amygdala neurons examined on lactation days 4 and 12...
June 29, 2018: Brain Research
Mason H Price, Jeffrey D Johnson
Several fMRI and EEG studies have demonstrated that successful episodic retrieval is accompanied by the reactivation of cortical regions that were active during encoding. These findings are consistent with influential models of episodic memory that posit that conscious retrieval (recollection) relies on hippocampally-mediated cortical reinstatement. Evidence of reactivation corresponding to episodic information that is beyond conscious awareness at the time of memory retrieval, however, is limited. A recent exception is from an EEG study by Wimber, Maaβ, Staudigl, Richardson-Klavehn, and Hanslmayr (2012) in which words were encoded in the context of highly salient visual flicker entrainment and then presented at retrieval in the absence of any flicker...
June 29, 2018: Brain Research
Timothy J Ness, Cary DeWitte, Jennifer J DeBerry, Alan Randich
There is increasing evidence that chronic pain may be associated with events that occur during critical periods of development. Recent studies have identified behavioral, spinal neurophysiological and spinal/peripheral neurochemical differences in rats that have experienced neonatal bladder inflammation (NBI): a putative model of the chronically painful bladder disorder, interstitial cystitis. Stress has been shown to exacerbate symptoms of interstitial cystitis and produces bladder hypersensitivity in animal models...
June 28, 2018: Brain Research
Xinwei Wu, Xuemei Li, Yi Liu, Nannan Yuan, Chengwen Li, Zhimin Kang, Xinlei Zhang, Yuning Xia, Yimeng Hao, Yongxing Tan
Cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) is a serious complication during the treatment of stroke patients with very few effective clinical treatment. Hydrogen (H2) can protect mitochondria function and have favorable therapeutic effects on cerebral IRI. Mitophagy plays an important role in eliminating damaged or dysfunctional mitochondria and maintaining mitochondria homeostasis. However, whether the protection of H2 on cerebral IRI is via regulating mitophagy is still unknown. In this study, OGD/R damaged hippocampal neurons were used to mimic cerebral IRI in vivo and we detected the effect of H2, Rap(autophagy activator) and 3-MA(autophagy inhibitor) on OGD/R neurons...
June 26, 2018: Brain Research
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