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Brain Research

A Newman-Tancredi, L Bardin, A Auclair, F Colpaert, R Depoortère, M A Varney
NLX-112 (a.k.a. F13640 or befiradol) possesses marked activity in a variety of animal models of pain and of neuropsychiatric disorders; it exhibits nanomolar affinity, exceptional selectivity and high agonist efficacy at 5-hydroxytryptamine 1A (5-HT1A ) receptors. Although NLX-112 has been shown to activate 5-HT1A postsynaptic heteroreceptors in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), a brain region involved in the control of depressive states, the influence of NLX-112 on spinal cord 5-HT1A receptors (implicated in the control of pain) has not been described...
March 16, 2018: Brain Research
Tianlin Wang, Xin Zhou, Yan Bai, Lan Zhang, Lin Li, Chunfu Wu
Uridine is a potential endogenous neuromodulator studied for several decades for its antiepileptic effect, but the results were controversial. One remarkable feature of uridine is its regulatory action on the dopaminergic pathways. In this study, the changes in uridine and dopamine (DA) release were examined in the mouse corpus striatum after pilocarpine (PC) intraperitoneal injection. Then, the effect of uridine pre-treatment on DA release and expression of dopamine receptor (DR) was determined. The results revealed an increased uridine release initially, followed by a downward trend after an injection of 400-mg/kg PC...
March 16, 2018: Brain Research
Marilena Marraudino, Mariangela Martini, Sara Trova, Alice Farinetti, Giovanna Ponti, Stefano Gotti, GianCarlo Panzica
The kisspeptin system is clustered in two main groups of cell bodies (the periventricular region, RP3V and the arcuate nucleus, ARC) that send fibers mainly to the GnRH neurons and in a few other locations, including the paraventricular nucleus, PVN. In physiological conditions, gonadal hormones modulate the kisspeptin system with expression changes according to different phases of the estrous cycle: the highest being in estrus phase in RP3V and PVN (positive feedback), and in ARC during the diestrus phase (negative feedback)...
March 16, 2018: Brain Research
Adrienn Máté, Dávid Kis, Andrea Czigner, Tamás Fischer, László Halász, Pál Barzó
Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging is a non-invasive tool increasingly used for the investigation of brain connectivity in vivo. In this paper we propose a method that allows segmentation of the brainstem to four subregions (frontopontine, motor, sensory, and reticular) based on connections to supratentorial structures, thereby eliminating the need for using anatomical landmarks within the brainstem for the identification of these subregions. The feasibility of connectivity-based brainstem segmentation was investigated in a group of healthy subjects (n =20)...
March 16, 2018: Brain Research
Ying Song, Yun Bei, Yan Xiao, Hai-Da Tong, Xie-Qi Wu, Man-Ting Chen
To investigate the neuroprotective effect of edaravone was dependent on 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) signalling pathway or not. Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) were established in SD rats and PC12 cells to mimic ischemic injury. In vivo, edaravone can significantly reduce neurological deficit scores, infarct volume and expression of 5-LOX. For in vitro experiment, reduced viability, cell death which occurred via necrosis and apoptosis were shown after OGD and even severer in OGD-reperfusion (OGD-R)...
March 15, 2018: Brain Research
Jianbo Zhang, Peng Yan, Yunxiao Li, Xintong Cai, Ziyu Yang, Xinyao Miao, Bo Chen, Shengbin Li, Wei Dang, Wei Jia, Yongsheng Zhu
Ankyrin repeat and kinase domain containing 1 (ANKK1) and dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2) gene polymorphisms have long been considered to contribute to susceptibility to heroin dependence. Despite their adjacent locations, few studies have elucidated the role of the potential interaction between ANKK1 and DRD2 in heroin dependence. In the present study, we performed a systematic analysis of the association between 39 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in these two genes and heroin dependence in 593 Chinese subjects...
March 14, 2018: Brain Research
Regina Trollmann, Theresa Mühlberger, Mandy Richter, Gudrun Boie, Andreas Feigenspan, Florian Brackmann, Susan Jung
Angiogenesis due to hypoxic-ischemic (HI) injury represents a crucial compensatory mechanism of the developing brain that is mainly regulated by hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIF). Pharmacological stimulation of HIF is suggested as a neuroprotective option, however, studies of its effects on vascular development are limited. We analyzed the influence of the prolyl-4-hydroxylase inhibitor (PHI), FG-4497, and erythropoietin (rhEPO) on post-hypoxic angiogenesis (angiogenic growth factors, vessel structures) in the developing mouse brain (P7) assessed after a regeneration period of 72 h...
March 13, 2018: Brain Research
Daniel J Dennis, Sisu Han, Carol Schuurmans
The formation of functional neural circuits in the vertebrate central nervous system (CNS) requires that appropriate numbers of the correct types of neuronal and glial cells are generated in their proper places and times during development. In the embryonic CNS, multipotent progenitor cells first acquire regional identities, and then undergo precisely choreographed temporal identity transitions (i.e. time-dependent changes in their identity) that determine how many neuronal and glial cells of each type they will generate...
March 12, 2018: Brain Research
Isabel Carreras, Nurgul Aytan, Tiffany Mellott, Ji-Kyung Choi, Margaret Lehar, Leah Crabtree, Kimberly Leite-Morris, Bruce G Jenkins, Jan Krzysztof Blusztajn, Alpaslan Dedeoglu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 8, 2018: Brain Research
Ishan Gupta, Andrew M J Young
The non-competitive glutamate antagonist, phencyclidine is used in rodents to model behavioural deficits see in schizophrenia. Importantly, these deficits endure long after the cessation of short-term chronic treatment (sub-chronic), indicating that the drug treatment causes long-term changes in the physiology and/or chemistry of the brain. There is evidence that this may occur through glutamatergic modulation of mesolimbic dopamine release, perhaps involving metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR). This study sought to investigate the effect of sub-chronic phencyclidine pretreatment on modulation of dopamine neurotransmission by metabotropic glutamate receptors 2 and 5 (mGluR2 and mGluR5) in the nucleus accumbens shell in vitro, with the hypothesis that phencyclidine pretreatment would disrupt the mGluR-mediated modulation of dopamine release...
March 7, 2018: Brain Research
Yasmin Mashhoon, Jennifer Betts, Stacey L Farmer, Scott E Lukas
Adolescence is a period during which a number of critical neuromaturation processes occur and the vulnerability for developing nicotine dependence is extremely high. Thus, early-onset (EO; age < 16 years old), relative to late-onset (LO; age ≥ 16 years old), tobacco smoking may be uniquely deleterious for developmentally immature systems that regulate neural signaling reactivity. This study investigated how age of tobacco smoking onset affects neurophysiological measures of smoking cue reactivity and reported craving in adult smokers...
March 7, 2018: Brain Research
Christiane Linster
Norepinephrine (NE), a central neuromodulator, influences sensory processing at the behavioral and physiological levels, potentially by regulating signal-to-noise ratio in sensory neural networks. To understand neuromodulatory function at the perceptual level, one must understand the neural mechanisms underlying these effects. In this review, we illustrate this process using the olfactory system as a model system. We discuss basic computations in the olfactory system and their modulation by NE. We review known cellular effects of NE in the olfactory bulb and cortex and how these effects modulate olfactory computation...
March 7, 2018: Brain Research
Daniela A Grassi, Marie E Jönsson, Per Ludvik Brattås, Johan Jakobsson
TRIM28 is an epigenetic co-repressor protein that mediates transcriptional silencing. TRIM28 participates, together with the large family of Kruppel-associated box domain zinc finger proteins (KRAB-ZFP) transcription factors, in the repression of transposable elements (TE). Recent advances indicate that TRIM28-based repression of TEs occurs in the mammalian brain and may provide beneficial effects through the regulation of transcriptional networks. Here, we provide an overview of TRIM28-related functions, highlighting the role of controlling TEs in neural progenitor cells and discuss how this mechanism may have contributed to the evolution of the complex human brain...
March 6, 2018: Brain Research
J L Hawkins, N J Moore, D Miley, P L Durham
The pathology of migraine, a common neurological disease, involves sensitization and activation of trigeminal nociceptive neurons to promote hyperalgesia and allodynia during an attack. Migraineurs often exhibit characteristics of a hyperexcitable or hypervigilant nervous system. One of the primary reported risk factors for development of a hyperexcitable trigeminal system is chronic, unmanaged stress and anxiety. While primary traumatic stress is a commonly cited risk factor for many pain conditions, exposure to secondary traumatic stress early in life is also thought to be a contributing risk factor...
March 6, 2018: Brain Research
Shen-Ju Chou, Shubha Tole
A hundred years after Lhx2 ortholog apterous was identified as a critical regulator of wing development in Drosophila, LIM-HD gene family members have proved to be versatile and powerful components of the molecular machinery that executes the blueprint of embryogenesis across vertebrate and invertebrate species. Here, we focus on the spatio-temporally varied functions of LIM-homeodomain transcription factor LHX2 in the developing mouse forebrain. Right from its earliest known role in telencephalic and eye field patterning, to the control of the neuron-glia cell fate switch, and the regulation of axon pathfinding and dendritic arborization in late embryonic stages, LHX2 has been identified as a fundamental, temporally dynamic, always necessary, and often sufficient factor in a range of critical developmental phenomena...
March 6, 2018: Brain Research
Linnea A Weiss, Marta Nieto
Cux1 and Cux2 are the vertebrate members of a family of homeodomain transcription factors (TF) containing Cut repeat DNA-binding sequences. Perturbation of their expression has been implicated in a wide variety of diseases and disorders, ranging from cancer to autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Within the nervous system, both genes are expressed during neurogenesis and in specific neuronal subpopulations. Their role during development and circuit specification is discussed here, with a particular focus on the cortex where their restricted expression in pyramidal neurons of the upper layers appears to be responsible for many of the specialized functions of these cells, and where their functions have been extensively investigated...
March 5, 2018: Brain Research
Ning Ma, Zi-Ai Zhao, Nan-Nan Zhang, Hui-Sheng Chen
An urgent need exists to develop intra-arterial treatment for acute ischemic stroke in animal study. This study aimed to explore the beneficial effects of intra-arterial administration of human urinary kallidinogenase (HUK) on brain injury after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) in a rat model, and the potential underlying molecular mechanisms. Brain injury induced by pMCAO was evaluated through measuring neurological deficit scores, neuropathological changes, and inflammatory factors. Neurological deficits were observed 24 h after pMCAO and were alleviated by intra-arterial HUK treatment obviously...
March 3, 2018: Brain Research
Malek Chouchane, Marcos R Costa
The adult mammalian brain contains an enormous variety of neuronal types, which are generally categorized in large groups, based on their neurochemical identity, hodological properties and molecular markers. This broad classification has allowed the correlation between individual neural progenitor populations and their neuronal progeny, thus contributing to probe the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in neuronal identity determination during central nervous system (CNS) development. In this review, we discuss the contribution of the proneural genes Neurogenin2 (Neurog2) and Achaete-scute homolog 1(Ascl1) for the specification of neuronal phenotypes in the developing neocortex, cerebellum and retina...
March 3, 2018: Brain Research
Jeffrey S Bedwell, Christopher C Spencer, Chi C Chan, Pamela D Butler, Pejman Sehatpour, Joseph Schmidt
A reduced P1 visual-evoked potential amplitude has been reported across several psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia-spectrum, bipolar, and depressive disorders. In addition, a difference in P1 amplitude change to a red background compared to its opponent color, green, has been found in schizophrenia-spectrum samples. The current study examined whether specific psychiatric symptoms that related to these P1 abnormalities in earlier studies would be replicated when using a broad transdiagnostic sample...
March 3, 2018: Brain Research
Hongfeng Zhao, Junxia Jiang, Gang Wang, Chong Le, John C Wingfield
Extra-retinal, non-pineal, encephalic photoreceptors (EP) play important roles in mediating development of the reproductive system by the annual change in day length (photoperiodic gonadal response - PGR) in birds. However, the distribution of rhodopsin-like EPs and their functional daily, circadian and seasonal changes are still unclear in the avian brain. This study identifies two novel groups of rhodopsin-immunoreactive cells in the nucleus paraventricularis magnocellularis (PVN) of the hypothalamus and in the medial basal hypothalamus (MBH) in a seasonally breeding species, Gambel's white-crowned sparrow (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii)...
March 3, 2018: Brain Research
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