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Brain Research

Naoki Kozono, Akiko Ohtani, Takashi Shiga
Serotonin (5-HT) is involved in various aspects of hippocampal development, although the specific roles of 5-HT receptors are poorly understood. We investigated the roles of 5-HT receptors in the dendrite formation of hippocampal neurons. We focused on the 5-HT4 receptor, which is coupled with Gs protein, and compared the effects with those of the Gi-coupled 5-HT1A receptor. Neurons from rat hippocampi at embryonic day 18 were dissociated and treated for 4 days with the 5-HT4 receptor agonist BIMU8 or the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH DPAT...
November 25, 2016: Brain Research
Zhen-Nian Zhang, Jing-Si Zhang, Jun Xiang, Zhong-Hai Yu, Wen Zhang, Min Cai, Xiang-Ting Li, Ting Wu, Wen-Wei Li, Ding-Fang Cai
Subcutaneous administration of rotenone has recently attracted attention because of its convenience, simplicity and efficacy in replicating features of Parkinson's disease (PD) in animal models. However, the wide range of doses reported in the literature makes it difficult to evaluate the effectiveness of this technique objectively. The aim of the present study was to identify the optimum dose of subcutaneous rotenone for establishing a model of PD. We injected male Wistar rats subcutaneously with one of three doses of rotenone (1...
November 19, 2016: Brain Research
Lucyna Pomierny-Chamiolo, Joanna Miszkiel, Malgorzata Frankowska, Beata Bystrowska, Malgorzata Filip
Several behavioral findings highlight the importanceof glutamatergic transmission and its metabotropic receptor type 5 (mGlu5) in the controlling of cocaine reward and seeking behaviors. The molecular or neurochemical nature of such interactions is not well recognized, so in the present paper we determine if cocaine self-administration and extinction/reinstatement models with the yoked triad control procedure alter mGlu5 receptor density in rats. [³H]MPEP was used to evaluate mGlu5 receptors density and affinity in selected brain structures, while immunofluorescence analysis was used to detect changes in mGlu5 receptors' brain location...
November 18, 2016: Brain Research
Nasrin Hosseini, Hojjatollah Alaei, Parham Reisi, Maryam Radahmadi
The nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM) is a major source of cholinergic projections to the neocortex that is vulnerable to degeneration in Alzheimer's disease. Despite numerous anatomical, pharmacological, behavioral, and physiological investigations of NBM, there is no in vivo study of its effects on short- or long-term synaptic plasticity. Hence, this study was devoted to the assessment of the effects of bilateral lesion of the NBM on synaptic plasticity in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus using electrophysiological techniques...
November 17, 2016: Brain Research
Huoqiang Duan, Jiehui Jiang, Jun Xu, Hucheng Zhou, Zhemin Huang, Zhihua Yu, Zhuangzhi Yan
The prevailing β-amyloid (Aβ)-cascade hypothesis is the most classical Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. In this hypothesis, excessive Aβ plaque deposition in human brain is considered to be the cause of AD. Carbon 11-labeled Pittsburgh compound B Positron emission tomography (11C-PiB PET) is the latest technology to detect Aβ plaques in vivo. Thus, it is possible to investigate the difference of Aβ brain networks between AD patients and Health Controls (HC) by analyzing 11C-PiB PET images. In this study, a graph-theoretical method was employed to investigate the topological properties of Aβ networks in 18 Chinese AD patients and 16 HC subjects from Huashan Hospital, Shanghai...
November 17, 2016: Brain Research
Fang Wang, Rachel A Diana
Temporal context, memory for the timing of events, can be assessed using non-temporal strategies such as relative familiarity or inference from a semantic narrative. Neuroimaging studies, which have previously encouraged such strategies, find similar patterns of brain regions involved in both temporal and non-temporal context memory. The present study aims to investigate whether previous findings are driven by the use of non-temporal strategies or whether the same pattern of brain regions is identified when relative familiarity and semantic narrative strategies are discouraged...
November 17, 2016: Brain Research
Francesco Vetri, Meirigeng Qi, Haoliang Xu, Jose Oberholzer, Chanannait Paisansathan
Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced chronic hyperglycemia has a detrimental effect on neurovascular coupling, linked to increased PKC-mediated phosphorylation and PKC isoform expression changes. Here, we sought to determine whether: 1) selective PKC-α/β/γ inhibitor, GF109203X, could reverse the effects of chronic hyperglycemia on cerebrovascular reactivity; 2) pancreatic islet transplantation could prevent the development of cerebrovascular impairment seen in a rat model of Type 1 Diabetes. We studied the effect of GF109203X in diabetic (DM), non-diabetic (ND), and transplanted (TR) Lewis rats during either sciatic nerve stimulation (SNS) or the topical applications of the large-conductance Ca(2+)-operated K(+) (BKCa) channel opener, NS1619, or the K(+) inward rectifier (Kir) channel agonist, KCl...
November 16, 2016: Brain Research
Jichao Yuan, Wei Liu, Haitao Zhu, Yaxing Chen, Xuan Zhang, Lan Li, Weihua Chu, Zexian Wen, Hua Feng, Jiangkai Lin
Spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to glial scar formation by astrocytes, which severely hinders neural regeneration. Curcumin (cur) can inhibit glial scar formation, but the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. Using both in vivo and in vitro experiments, the current study investigated the phenotypic transformation of astrocytes following cur and siRNA intervention during the processes of inflammation and fibrosis and determined details of the relationship between cur treatment and the glial scar components GFAP and CSPG...
November 16, 2016: Brain Research
Christina J Mueller, Nathalie Fritsch, Markus J Hofmann, Lars Kuchinke
A controversy in emotion research concerns the question of whether affective or cognitive primacy are evident in processing affective stimuli and the factors contributing to each alternative. Using electrophysiological recordings in an adapted visual oddball paradigm allowed tracking the dynamics of affective and cognitive effects. Stimuli consisted of face pictures displaying affective expressions with rare oddballs differing from frequent stimuli in either affective expression, structure (while frequent stimuli were shown frontally these deviants were turned sideways) or they differed on both dimensions, i...
November 15, 2016: Brain Research
Bo Yang, Shaohua Wang, Shanshan Yu, Yanlin Chen, Linyu Li, Hui Zhang, Yong Zhao
C1q/tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related proteins (CTRPs) have been confirmed to be adiponectin (APN) paralogs and some share APN's metabolic regulatory functions. Oxidative stress contributes to brain injury after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and APN can inhibit oxidative stress injury during ICH. Thus, we addressed the role of a specific CTRP-CTRP 3-after experimental ICH and studied post-ICH oxidative stress injury and the pathway involved. ICH was induced in rats via intracerebral infusion of autologous blood, and the effects of exogenous CTRP3 (lentivirus or recombinant CTRP3) replenishment on ICH injury were investigated...
November 14, 2016: Brain Research
Yong Cao, Tian-Ding Wu, Hao Wu, Ye Lang, Dong-Zhe Li, Shuang-Fei Ni, Hong-Bin Lu, Jian-Zhong Hu
MicroRNA-210 (miR-210) was initially reported to be associated with hypoxia and plays a vital role in modulating angiogenesis. However, the potential effect and underlying mechanisms of miR-210 activity in rat spinal cord injury (SCI) have not yet been fully illuminated. In the present study, differential microRNA expression after SCI was determined by Microarray analysis. To explore the effect of miR-210 after SCI, we intrathecally injected agomir-210 with Alzet Osmotic Pumps to up-regulated the endogenous miR-210 expression...
November 12, 2016: Brain Research
Vasileios Tentolouris-Piperas, Natalie S Ryan, David L Thomas, Kirsi M Kinnunen
Recent brain imaging studies have found changes in subcortical regions in presymptomatic autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease (ADAD). These regions are also affected in sporadic Alzheimer's disease (sAD), but whether such changes are seen in early-stage disease is still uncertain. In this review, we discuss imaging studies published in the past 12 years that have found evidence of subcortical involvement in early-stage ADAD and/or sAD. Several papers have reported amyloid deposition in the striatum of presymptomatic ADAD mutation carriers, prior to amyloid deposition elsewhere...
November 12, 2016: Brain Research
Denise Pergolizzi, Elizabeth F Chua
The precise role of the prefrontal and posterior parietal cortices in recognition performance remains controversial, with questions about whether these regions contribute to recognition via the availability of mnemonic evidence or via decision biases and retrieval orientation. Here we used an explicit memory cueing paradigm, whereby external cues probabilistically predict upcoming memoranda as old or new, in our case with 75% validity, and these cues affect recognition decision biases in the direction of the cue...
November 11, 2016: Brain Research
Xuemei Tang, Senqing Qi, Botao Wang, Xiaojuan Jia, Wei Ren
The neural mechanisms underlying the processing of novel metaphors created from poetic contexts have been investigated in previous experiments. Considering the different attributes of metaphors, the current study compared the temporal dynamics for processing two kinds of novel metaphors with event-related potentials (ERPs): scientific metaphors and poetic metaphors. Amplitudes of the N400 (350-450 ms) were similar for scientific metaphors and poetic metaphors. Within the LPC window (550-850 ms), ERPs associated with these two kinds of novel metaphors were observed every 100 ms in three successive subwindows...
November 11, 2016: Brain Research
Tae Yeon Kim, Kimie Niimi, Eiki Takahashi
Voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (VGCCs) are comprised of α1, α2/δ, β, and γ subunits. The pore-forming α1 subunit is essential for the proper functioning of Ca(2+) channels, while the α2/δ subunit interacts with components of the extracellular matrix. The α2/δ subunit is related in many neuropathological symptoms, including epilepsy and cerebellar ataxia. We previously reported that the mutant Cav.2.1α1 subunit has protective effects following brain injury. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of the α2/δ subunit inhibition alone and in combination with the inhibition of the Cav...
November 11, 2016: Brain Research
Ana Carolina de Moura, Verônica Bidinotto Brito, Marilene Porawski, Jenifer Saffi, Márcia Giovenardi
Maternal care is crucial for offspring development and licking/grooming patterns can be induced by sensorial, neuroendocrine, and metabolic variations in the CNS. Important brain functions, such as learning and memory, can be influenced by oxidative stress, which can also modulate pathophysiological processes (e.g., depression, anxiety, and other psychiatric disorders). This study evaluated oxidative stress in the hippocampus (HP), olfactory bulb (OB), and plasma in Low-Licking (LL) and High-Licking (HL) lactating rats through superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities, DNA damage (comet assay), and dihydrodichlorofluorescein (DCF) oxidation assay...
November 10, 2016: Brain Research
Qingyuan Deng, Xiao Zhou, Jinyu Chen, Mengqiu Pan, Huimin Gao, Jing Zhou, Dongmei Wang, Qiong Chen, Xiaomei Zhang, Qun Wang, Yunqi Xu
Although several lines of evidence suggest that low levels of hemoglobin are a risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD), few studies have examined changes in hemoglobin after PD onset. In this study, we quantify alterations in hemoglobin after the onset of PD and explore possible mechanisms for changes in hemoglobin. We enrolled 213 PD and 219 control subjects between 2013 and 2014 at the Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University and Nanfang Hospital of Southern Medical University. We collected data from routine blood tests (including markers of iron metabolism) and measured basic clinical parameters...
November 10, 2016: Brain Research
Marie-Claire Smith, James W Stinear, P Alan Barber, Cathy M Stinear
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is used to examine corticospinal tract integrity after stroke, however, generating motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) in the lower limb (LL) can be difficult. Previous studies have used activation of the target leg to facilitate MEPs in the LL but this may not be possible after stroke due to hemiplegia. The dominance of the target limb may also be important, however the neurophysiological effects of LL dominance are not known. We investigated whether voluntary activation of the non-target leg combined with optimal TMS coil orientation increases corticomotor excitability in healthy adults, and whether limb dominance influences these results...
November 10, 2016: Brain Research
Stefan Reuss, Bastienne Brauksiepe, Ursula Disque-Kaiser, Tim Olivier
The present study was conducted to investigate the expression of serine/threonine-kinase 33 (Stk33) in neuronal structures of the central nervous system in rat and hamster as well as the presence of the protein in the brain of higher mammals, using a polyclonal antibody on cryosections of fixed brains. We found a distinct immunostaining pattern that included intense fluorescence of the ependymal lining of cerebral ventricles, and of hypothalamic tanycytes and their processes. We further observed intense staining of magnocellular neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular, supraoptic and accessory neurosecretory nuclei, in particular the circular nuclei, and less intense stained neurons in other diencephalic regions...
November 10, 2016: Brain Research
Ryosuke Takaya, Jun Nagai, Wenfui Piao, Emi Niisato, Takeru Nakabayashi, Yuki Yamazaki, Fumio Nakamura, Naoya Yamashita, Papachan Kolattukudy, Yoshio Goshima, Toshio Ohshima
Neural circuit formation is a critical process in brain development. Axon guidance molecules, their receptors, and intracellular mediators are important to establish neural circuits. Collapsin response mediator proteins (CRMPs) are known intercellular mediators of a number of repulsive guidance molecules. Studies of mutant mice suggest roles of CRMPs in dendrite development. However, molecular mechanisms of CRMP-mediated dendritic development remain to elucidate. In this study, we show abnormal orientation of basal dendrites (extension to deeper side) of layer V pyramidal neurons in the cerebral cortex of CRMP4-/- mice...
November 8, 2016: Brain Research
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