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Brain Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648388/heterozygous-knockout-of-cytosolic-phospholipase-a2%C3%AE-attenuates-alzheimer-s-disease-pathology-in-app-ps1-transgenic-mice
#1
Baoxi Qu, Yunhua Gong, Jassica M Gill, Kimbra Kenney, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia
Cytosolic Phospholipase A2α (cPLA2α) is a key enzyme in regulation of inflammation process and neuromembrane homeostasis, both of which are critical in pathogenesis of Alzheimer's diseases. By hybride APP/PS1 Tg-AD mice with cPLA2α knockout mice, three lines of APP/PS1 Tg-AD mice were produced with genotypes of cPLA2α +/+, cPLA2α +/- and cPLA2α-/-. Compared to cPLA2α +/+ Tg-AD mice, the amyloid plaque formation was significantly downregulated in the brain of cPLA2α+/- Tg-AD mice, but not in cPLA2α -/- Tg-AD mice...
June 22, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647273/the-effect-of-mir-30d-on-apoptosis-and-autophagy-in-cultured-astrocytes-under-oxygen-glucose-deprivation
#2
Fengyan Zhao, Yi Qu, Huiqing Wang, Lan Huang, Jianghu Zhu, Shiping Li, Yu Tong, Li Zhang, Jiao Li, Dezhi Mu
MiR-30d has been demonstrated to regulate autophagy in human cancer cells. However, the role of miR-30d in astrocytes exposed to hypoxia-ischemia is not clear. In this study, we established model of oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) with rat primary astrocytes and evaluated the role of miR-30d in the cross-talk between autophagy and apoptosis in astrocytes after OGD. We found that miR-30d inhibited Beclin1 expression in astrocytes. Inhibition of miR-30d by antagomir significantly increased cell autophagy but decreased cell apoptosis in astrocytes exposed to OGD...
June 21, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645494/venous-or-arterial-blood-components-trigger-more-brain-swelling-tissue-death-after-acute-subdural-hematoma-compared-to-elderly-atrophic-brain-with-subdural-effusion-sde-model-rats
#3
Daisuke Wajima, Fumiya Sato, Kenya Kawamura, Keisuke Sugiura, Ichiro Nakagawa, Yasushi Motoyama, Young-Soo Park, Hiroyuki Nakase
Acute subdural hematoma (ASDH) is a frequent complication of severe head injury, whose secondary ischemic lesions are often responsible for the severity of the disease. We focused on the differences of secondary ischemic lesions caused by the components, 0.4 ml venous- or arterial-blood, or saline, infused in the subdural space, evaluating the differences in vivo model, using rats. The saline infused rats are made for elderly atrophic brain with subdural effusion (SDE) model. Our data showed that subdural blood, both venous- and arterial-blood, aggravate brain edema and lesion development more than SDE...
June 20, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641949/reduced-protein-expressions-of-cytomembrane-gabaar%C3%AE-3-at-different-postnatal-developmental-stages-of-rats-exposed-prenatally-to-valproic-acid
#4
Yixin Li, Yang Zhou, Li Peng, Yong Zhao
Decreased inhibition plays an extremely important role in pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Therefore, we aimed to determine whether expression levels of the γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor β3 subunit (GABAARβ3), K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter 2 (KCC2), and Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter 1 (NKCC1) related to inhibition transmission are changed in a sodium valproate-induced rat model of ASD. Decreased expression levels of membrane GABAARβ3 (m-GABAARβ3) and KCC2 as well as increased endocytosis of GABAARs were found in the model group...
June 19, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633996/effects-of-monoaminergic-drugs-on-training-induced-motor-cortex-plasticity-in-older-adults
#5
Trisha M Kesar, Samir R Belagaje, Paola Pergami, Marc W Haut, Gerald Hobbs, Cathrin M Buetefisch
Primary motor cortex (M1) plasticity is involved in motor learning and stroke motor recovery, and enhanced by increasing monoaminergic transmission. Age impacts these processes but there is a paucity of systematic studies on the effects of monoaminergic drugs in older adults. Here, in ten older adults (age 61+ 4 years, 4 males), we determine the effects of a single oral dose of carbidopa/levodopa (DOPA), d-amphetamine (AMPH), methylphenidate (MEPH) and placebo (PLAC) on M1 excitability and motor training-induced M1 plasticity...
June 17, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633995/quantitative-mri-study-of-the-permeability-of-peritumoral-brain-edema-in-lung-cancer-patients-with-brain-metastases
#6
Dan Wang, Ming-Liang Wang, Yue-Hua Li
PURPOSE: To use Ktrans to evaluate the aggressiveness and vascular permeability of peritumoral edema in cases of lung cancer brain metastases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 68 lung cancer patients with 92 metastatic brain lesions were enrolled (20 metastatic lesions only in the gray matter -group 1; and 72 metastatic lesions located in the gray and white matter junction -group 2). All patients underwent MRI examination, which involved a dual angle (2° and 15°) enhanced T1W-VIBE (volume interpolated breath-hold examination) sequence to calculate the T1 parameter map...
June 17, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633994/t-lymphocytes-infiltration-promotes-blood-brain-barrier-injury-after-experimental-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#7
Xuan Zhang, Wei Liu, Jichao Yuan, Haitao Zhu, Yang Yang, Zexian Wen, Yaxing Chen, Lan Li, Jiangkai Lin, Hua Feng
T lymphocytes migrate into the brain after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and promote cerebral inflammation, thus exacerbating neuronal injury. However, the relationship between of T lymphocytes infiltration and blood-brain barrier (BBB) injury after ICH has not been clarified. In this study, we investigated the spatial-temporal distribution of infiltrating T lymphocytes after ICH in C57BL/6 mice by immunofluorescence and flow cytometry, and the accompanying change rules of BBB permeability were detected by Evans blue dye leakage and tight junction protein expression...
June 17, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629742/statistical-differences-in-the-white-matter-tracts-in-subjects-with-depression-by-using-different-skeletonized-voxel-wise-analysis-approaches-and-dti-fitting-procedures
#8
Maurizio Bergamino, Madison Farmer, Hung-Wen Yeh, Elisabeth Paul, J Paul Hamilton
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the most significant contributors to the global burden of illness. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a procedure that has been used in several studies to characterize abnormalities in white matter (WM) microstructural integrity in MDD. These studies, however, have provided divergent findings, potentially due to the large variety of methodological alternatives available in conducting DTI research. In order to determine the importance of different approaches to coregistration of DTI-derived metrics to a standard space, we compared results from two different skeletonized voxel-wise analysis approaches: the standard TBBS pipeline and the Advanced Normalization Tools (ANTs) approach incorporating a symmetric image normalization (SyN) algorithm and a group-wise template (ANTs TBSS)...
June 16, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629741/establishment-of-an-ideal-time-window-model-in-hypothermic-targeted-temperature-management-after-traumatic-brain-injury-in-rats
#9
Wan-Yong Zhao, Shao-Bo Chen, Jing-Jing Wang, Chao Xu, Ming-Liang Zhao, Hua-Jiang Dong, Hai-Qian Liang, Xiao-Hong Li, Yue Tu, Sai Zhang, Chong Chen, Hong-Tao Sun
Although hypothermic-targeted temperature management (HTTM) holds great potential for the treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI), translation of the efficacy of hypothermia from animal models to TBI patientshas no entire consistency. This study aimed to find an ideal time window model in experimental rats which was more in accordance with clinical practice through the delayed HTTM intervention. Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to unilateral cortical contusion injury and received therapeutic hypothermia at 15 mins, 2 hours, 4 hours respectively after TBI...
June 16, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625390/dopamine-protects-cerebral-autoregulation-and-prevents-hippocampal-necrosis-after-traumatic-brain-injury-via-block-of-erk-mapk-in-juvenile-pigs
#10
Victor Curvello, Hugh Hekierski, Philip Pastor, Monica S Vavilala, William M Armstead
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) contributes to morbidity in children, and more boys experience TBI. Cerebral autoregulation is impaired after TBI, contributing to poor outcome. Cerebral Perfusion Pressure (CPP) is often normalized by use of vasoactive agents to increase mean arterial pressure (MAP). In prior studies of newborn and juvenile pigs, vasoactive agent choice influenced outcome after TBI as a function of age and sex, with none protecting cerebral autoregulation in both ages and sexes. Dopamine (DA) prevents impairment of cerebral autoregulation in male and female newborn pigs via inhibition of upregulation of ERK mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) after fluid percussion injury (FPI)...
June 15, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623147/neuregulin-1-protects-mouse-cerebellum-against-oxidative-stress-and-neuroinflammation
#11
Junping Xu, Chengliang Hu, Shuangxi Chen, Huifan Shen, Qiong Jiang, Peizhi Huang, Weijiang Zhao
Cerebellum undergoes degenerative changes in neurodegenerative diseases. Two main factors including oxidative stress and neuroinflammation mediate neurodegeneration. Neuregulin-1 (Nrg1) has been implicated in many neurodegenerative diseases, while the underlying mechanisms are unknown. We hypothesized that Nrg1 prevents oxidative stress and neuroinflammation in neurodegeneration. We found a positive correlation between Nrg1 protein levels and ErbB4 and ErbB2 receptor phosphorylation in microarrays of normal human cerebellar tissue...
June 13, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606783/methylprednisolone-as-a-memory-enhancer-in-rats-effects-on-aversive-memory-long-term-potentiation-and-calcium-influx
#12
Liane da Silva de Vargas, Rithiele Gonçalves, Marcus Vinícius S Lara, Zaquer S M Costa-Ferro, Simone Denise Salamoni, Michelle Flores Domingues, Angela Regina Piovesan, Dênis Reis de Assis, Lucia Vinade, Alexandre P Corrado, Wilson Alves-Do-Prado, Paulo Correia-de-Sá, Jaderson Costa da Costa, Ivan Izquierdo, Cháriston A Dal Belo, Pâmela B Mello-Carpes
It is well recognized that stress or glucocorticoids hormones treatment can modulate memory performance in both directions, either impairing or enhancing it. Despite the high number of studies aiming at explaining the effects of glucocorticoids on memory, this has not yet been completely elucidated. Here, we demonstrate that a low daily dose of methylprednisolone (MP, 5 mg/kg, i.p.) administered for 10-days favors aversive memory persistence in adult rats, without any effect on the exploring behavior, locomotor activity, anxiety levels and pain perception...
June 9, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606782/role-of-peripheral-and-central-trpv1-receptors-in-facial-heat-hyperalgesia-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#13
Erika IvannaAraya, Carina Fernanda MattediNones, Luiz Eduardo Nunes Ferreira, Caroline Machado Kopruszinski, Joice Maria da Cunha, Juliana GeremiasChichorro
There is increasing evidence that diabetes may be related to sensory changes in the trigeminal system. Long lasting facial heat hyperalgesia has been described in diabetic rats, but the mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Herein, the contribution of peripheral and central TRPV1 receptors to facial heat hyperalgesia in diabeticrats was investigated. Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats by streptozotocin (60 mg/kg, i.p) and facial heat hyperalgesia was assessed once a week up to four weeks. The role of TRPV1 receptors in the heat hyperalgesia in diabetic rats was evaluated through: 1) the ablation of TRPV1 receptors by resiniferatoxin (RTX) treatment and 2) injection of the TRPV1 antagonist,capsazepine, into the upper lip, trigeminal ganglion or medullary subarachnoid space, at doses that completed prevented the heat hyperalgesia induced by capsaicin in naïve rats...
June 9, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606781/sab-is-differentially-expressed-in-the-brain-and-affects-neuronal-activity
#14
Alejandro O Sodero, Monica Rodriguez-Silva, Chiara Salio, Marco Sassoè-Pognetto, Jeremy W Chambers
Sab (SH3 binding protein 5 or SH3BP5) is a mitochondrial scaffold protein involved in signaling associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis; furthermore, Sab is a crucial signaling platform for neurodegenerative disease. To determine how this signaling nexus could have a significant effect on disease, we examined the regional abundance of Sab in the brain and sub-neuronal distribution, and we monitored the effect of Sab-mediated signaling on neuronal activity. We found that Sab is widely expressed in the adult mouse brain with increased abundance in hippocampus, ventral midbrain, and cerebellum...
June 9, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606780/sexual-dimorphic-expression-of-trkb-trkb-t1-and-bdnf-in-the-medial-preoptic-area-of-the-syrian-hamster
#15
Joe C Brague, Jennifer M Swann
Neurotrophins regulate many aspects of neuronal function and activity. Specifically, the binding of Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) to Tyrosine receptor kinase-B (TrkB) or its truncated version, TrkB-T1, can cause growth and differentiation or dominant inhibition of receptor signaling, respectively. There is evidence that these neurotropic effects on nervous tissue, in both the central and peripheral nervous system, behave differently between the sexes. This study used western blots to examine the expression of these neurotrophins in the medial preoptic area (MPOA), a sexually dimorphic region of the hamster brain that controls male sex behavior...
June 9, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606779/2-arachidonoylglycerol-as-a-possible-treatment-for-anorexia-nervosa-in-animal-model-in-mice
#16
Y Avraham, I Paturski, I Magen, L Vorobiev, E M Berry
We have investigated the effects of 0.001mg/kg 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) administered in combination with compounds present in the body alongside 2-AG like 2-palmitoylglycerol and 2-linoleylglycerol (also termed "entourage"), on cognitive function,food intake, and neurotransmitter levels in the hippocampus and hypothalamus of mice under diet restriction. Young female Sabra mice were treated with vehicle, 2-AG, 2-AG + entourage, 2-AG + entourage + 5-(4-Chlorophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichloro-phenyl)- 4-methyl-N-(piperidin-1-yl)-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide (SR141716A, a CB1 antagonist) and SR141716A...
June 9, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606778/hmgb1-promotes-neurovascular-remodeling-via-rage-in-the-late-phase-of-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#17
Xiaodi Tian, Liang Sun, Dongxia Feng, Qing Sun, Yang Dou, Chenglin Liu, Feng Zhou, Haiying Li, Haitao Shen, Zhong Wang, Gang Chen
High-mobility group box1 (HMGB1) is a nuclear protein widely expressed in the central nervous system. Extracellular HMGB1 serves as a proinflammatory cytokine and contributes to brain injury during the acute stage post-stroke. Recently, increasing evidence has demonstrated beneficial effects of HMGB1 in some types of brain injury, but little is known about its effects during the late phase of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). This study was designed to explore the potential roles and mechanisms of HMGB1 and its receptor, receptor for advanced glycation end-products (Rage), on brain recovery in the late stage of experimental SAH...
June 9, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602745/systemic-estradiol-administration-to-ovariectomized-rats-facilitates-thermoregulatory-behavior-in-a-cold-environment
#18
Yuki Uchida, Kei Nagashima, Kazunari Yuri
Rats place their tails underneath their bodies in the cold (tail-hiding behavior), which is a behavioral indicator of thermoregulation. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the effect of estradiol (E2) on tail-hiding behavior and neural activity assessed by immunohistochemistry. Ovariectomized rats were implanted with a silastic tube with or without E2 underneath the dorsal skin (E2(-) and E2(+) groups), and exposed to 27°C, 16°C, and 10°C for 2h with continuous body temperature (Tb), tail skin temperature (Ttail), and behavioral measurements...
June 9, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601633/leptomycin-b-attenuates-neuronal-death-via-pka-and-pp2b-mediated-erk1-2-activation-in-the-rat-hippocampus-following-status-epilepticus
#19
Su-Ji Min, Hye-Won Hyun, Tae-Cheon Kang
Leptomycin B (LMB), originally developed as an anti-fungal agent, has potent neuroprotective properties against status epilepticus (SE, a prolonged seizure activity). However, the pharmacological profiles and mechanisms of LMB for neuroprotection remain elusive. In the present study, we found that LMB increased phosphorylation levels of protein kinase A (PKA) catalytic subunits, protein phosphatase 2B (PP2B, calcineurin) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) under normal condition, and abolished SE-induced neuronal death...
June 7, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601632/intraspecific-gestural-laterality-in-chimpanzees-and-gorillas-and-the-impact-of-social-propensities
#20
Jacques Prieur, Simone Pika, Stéphanie Barbu, Catherine Blois-Heulin
A relevant approach to address the mechanisms underlying the emergence of the right-handedness/left-hemisphere language specialization of humans is to investigate both proximal and distal causes of language lateralization through the study of non-human primates' gestural laterality. We carried out the first systematic, quantitative comparison of within-subjects' and between-species' laterality by focusing on the laterality of intraspecific gestures of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) living in six different captive groups...
June 7, 2017: Brain Research
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