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Brain Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919465/uridine-treatment-protects-against-neonatal-brain-damage-and-long-term-cognitive-deficits-caused-by-hyperoxia
#1
Bulent Goren, Aysen Cakir, Cansu Sevinc, Sema Serter Kocoglu, Busra Ocalan, Ceren Oy, Zehra Minbay, Nevzat Kahveci, Tulin Alkan, Mehmet Cansev
Exposure to excessive oxygen in survivors of preterm birth is one of the factors that underlie the adverse neurological outcome in later life. Various pathological changes including enhanced apoptotic activity, oxidative stress and inflammation as well as decreased neuronal survival has been demonstrated in animal models of neonatal hyperoxia. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of administering uridine, an anti-apoptotic agent, on cellular, molecular and behavioral consequences of hyperoxia-induced brain damage in a neonatal rat model...
September 15, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919467/distribution-of-spleen-tyrosine-kinase-and-tau-phosphorylated-at-tyrosine-18-in-a-mouse-model-of-tauopathy-and-in-the-human-hippocampus
#2
Christoph Köhler, Vivien Timpa, Maja Dinekov
PURPOSE: Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) has been shown to phosphorylate tyrosine 18 of tau in vitro. It has been proposed that increased immunoreactivity for double-phosphorylated Syk in hippocampal neurons of Alzheimer's disease cases indicates a not yet defined neurodegenerative process. To investigate this possibility we have studied Syk and tau phosphorylated at tyrosine 18 (pTyr18) in transgenic mice and human hippocampi. METHODS: We performed immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence labeling and Western blotting and compared the distribution of Syk double-phosphorylated at tyrosines 525 and 526 and pTyr18 in human tau transgenic pR5 mice and human hippocampi with low and high Braak stages for neurofibrillary tangle pathology...
September 14, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919466/intrastriatally-injected-botulinum-neurotoxin-a-differently-effects-cholinergic-and-dopaminergic-fibers-in-c57bl-6-mice
#3
Alexander Hawlitschka, Carsten Holzmann, Sarah Witt, Juliane Spiewok, Anne-Marie Neumann, Oliver Schmitt, Andreas Wree, Veronica Antipova
Unilateral intrastriatal BoNT-A injection abolished apomorphine-induced rotational behavior in a rat model of hemiparkinsonism (hemi-PD) up to 6 months. It was hypothesized that the beneficial effect of botulinum neurotoxin-A (BoNT-A) grounded on the reduction of the Parkinson's diseases (PD) associated striatal hypercholinism. Intrastriatal injection of BoNT-A was not cytotoxic in rat brain, but neuronal fiber swellings in the BoNT-A infiltrated striata appeared and named BoNT-A-induced varicosities (BiVs)...
September 14, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919464/corticothalamic-network-dysfunction-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
Rohan Jagirdar, Jeannie Chin
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disease that is characterized by progressive cognitive decline and a prominent loss of hippocampal-dependent memory. Therefore, much focus has been placed on understanding the function and dysfunction of the hippocampus in AD. However, AD is also accompanied by a number of other debilitating cognitive and behavioral alterations including deficits in attention, cognitive processing, and sleep maintenance. The underlying mechanisms that give rise to impairments in such diverse behavioral domains are unknown, and identifying them would shed insight into the multifactorial nature of AD as well as reveal potential new therapeutic targets to improve overall function in AD...
September 14, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917524/tremor-dominant-kyoto-trdk-rats-carry-a-missense-mutation-in-the-gene-encoding-the-sk2-subunit-of-small-conductance-ca-2-activated-k-channel
#5
Takashi Kuramoto, Mayuko Yokoe, Naofumi Kunisawa, Kana Ohashi, Takahito Miyake, Yuki Higuchi, Kazuto Yoshimi, Tomoji Mashimo, Miyuu Tanaka, Mitusru Kuwamura, Shuji Kaneko, Saki Shimizu, Tadao Serikawa, Yukihiro Ohno
Tremor dominant Kyoto (Trdk) is an autosomal dominant mutation that appeared in F344/NSlc rats mutagenized with N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU). In this study, we characterized and genetically analyzed F344-Trdk/+ heterozygous rats. The rats exhibited a tremor that was especially evident around weaning but persisted throughout life. The tremors of F344-Trdk/+ rats were attenuated by drugs effective against essential tremor (ET) but not drugs used to treat Parkinson's disease-related tremor, indicating that the pharmacological phenotype of F344-Trdk/+ rats was similar to human ET...
September 13, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916442/acute-stress-promotes-post-injury-brain-regeneration-in-fish
#6
Michael S Sinyakov, Amihai Haimovich, Ramy R Avtalion
The central nervous system and the immune system, the two major players in homeostasis, operate in the ongoing bidirectional interaction. Stress is the third player that exerts strong effect on these two 'supersystems'; yet, its impact is studied much less. In this work employing carp model, we studied the influence of preliminary stress on neural and immune networks involved in post-injury brain regeneration. The relevant in-vivo models of air-exposure stress and precisely directed cerebellum injury have been developed...
September 12, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916441/monoamine-involvement-in-the-antidepressant-like-effect-induced-by-p2-blockade
#7
Cassiano Raf Diniz, Murilo Rodrigues, Plínio C Casarotto, Vítor S Pereira, Carlos C Crestani, Sâmia Rl Joca
Depression is a common mental disorder that affects millions of individuals worldwide. Available monoaminergic antidepressants are far from ideal since they show delayed onset of action and are ineffective in approximately 40% of patients, thus indicating the need of new and more effective drugs. ATP signaling through P2 receptors seems to play an important role in neurophatological mechanisms involved in depression, since their pharmacological or genetic inactivation induce antidepressant-like effects in the forced swimming test (FST)...
September 12, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916440/white-matter-microstructure-within-the-superior-longitudinal-fasciculus-modulates-the-degree-of-response-conflict-indexed-by-n2-in-healthy-adults
#8
Shudan Gao, Peng Liu, Jialu Guo, Yuanqiang Zhu, Peng Liu, Jinbo Sun, Xuejuan Yang, Wei Qin
Response conflict can be induced by priming multiple responses competing for control of action in trials. The N2 is one functionally-related cognitive control index for response conflict. And yet the underlying whiter matter neural substrates of inter-individual difference in conflict N2 remain unclear. So the aim of present study was to address the white matter microstructure of the N2 responsible for conflict by directly relating the amplitude cost of the event-related potential (ERP) N2 component to diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) indices in healthy subjects...
September 12, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912059/piracetam-inhibits-ethanol-etoh-induced-memory-deficit-by-mediating-multiple-pathways
#9
Yifan Yang, Jian Feng, Fangyuan Xu, Jianglin Wang
Excessive ethanol (EtOH) intake, especially to prenatal exposure, can significantly affect cognitive function and cause permanent learning and memory injures in children. As a result, how to protect children from EtOH neurotoxicity has gained increasing attention in recent years. Piracetam (Pir) is a nootropic drug derived from c-aminobutyric acid and can manage cognition impairments in multiple neurological disorders. Studies have shown that Pir can exert therapeutic effects on EtOH-induced memory impairments, but the underlying mechanism is still unknown...
September 11, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899760/chronic-atypical-antipsychotics-but-not-haloperidol-increase-neurogenesis-in-the-hippocampus-of-adult-mouse
#10
Koji Chikama, Hidetaka Yamada, Tatsuo Tsukamoto, Kosuke Kajitani, Yusaku Nakabeppu, Naohisa Uchimura
It is suggested that altered neuroplasticity contributes to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and antipsychotics may exhibit some of their therapeutic efficacies by improving neurogenesis and/or proliferation of neural progenitors. The aim of this study is to investigate whether chronic antipsychotics treatment affect neurogenesis in adult mouse hippocampus. Animals were administered olanzapine, quetiapine, clozapine, risperidone, aripiprazole, or haloperidol via the osmotic minipump for 21 days and then injected with 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label mitotic cells...
September 9, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899759/hippocampal-metabolism-and-prefrontal-brain-structure-a-combined-1h-mr-spectroscopy-neuropsychological-and-voxel-based-morphometry-vbm-study
#11
Johanna Steinke, Christian Gaser, Kerstin Langbein, Maren Dietzek, Alexander Gussew, Jürgen R Reichenbach, Stefan Smesny, Heinrich Sauer, Igor Nenadić
Hippocampal structural and functional integrity impacts on multiple remote areas of the brain, and this connectivity is central to multiple cognitive functions in healthy and disease. We studied associations of hippocampal metabolic markers N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) and glutamate (Glu and Glx; assessed with 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy) and brain grey matter (studied with voxel-based morphometry, VBM) in 20 healthy subjects. We found a significant correlation between right hippocampal NAA and left ventrolateral prefrontal cortical grey matter (TFCE, p<0...
September 9, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899758/chronic-global-analysis-of-vascular-permeability-and-cerebral-blood-flow-after-bone-marrow-stromal-cell-treatment-of-traumatic-brain-injury-in-the-rat-a-long-term-mri-study
#12
Lian Li, Michael Chopp, Guangliang Ding, Qingjiang Li, Asim Mahmood, Quan Jiang
Vascular permeability and hemodynamic alteration in response to the transplantation of human bone marrow stromal cells (hMSCs) after traumatic brain injury (TBI) were longitudinally investigated in non directly injured and normal-appearing cerebral tissue using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Male Wistar rats (300-350g, n=30) subjected to controlled cortical impact TBI were intravenously injected with 1 ml of saline (at 6-hours or 1-week post-injury, n=5/group) or with hMSCs in suspension (∼3x10(6) hMSCs, at 6-hours or 1-week post-injury, n=10/group)...
September 9, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899757/segmentation-of-the-inferior-longitudinal-fasciculus-in-the-human-brain-a-white-matter-dissection-and-diffusion-tensor-tractography-study
#13
Francesco Latini, Johanna Mårtensson, Elna-Marie Larsson, Mats Fredrikson, Fredrik Åhs, Mats Hjortberg, Håkan Aldskogius, Mats Ryttlefors
The inferior longitudinal fascicle (ILF) is one of the major occipital-temporal association pathways. Several studies have mapped its hierarchical segmentation to specific functions. There is, however, no consensus regarding a detailed description of ILF fibre organisation. The aim of this study was to establish whether the ILF has a constant number of subcomponents. A secondary aim was to determine the quantitative diffusion proprieties of each subcomponent and assess their anatomical trajectories and connectivity patterns...
September 9, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893581/tryptophan-circuit-in-fatigue-from-blood-to-brain-and-cognition
#14
Masatoshi Yamashita, Takanobu Yamamoto
Brain tryptophan and its neuroactive metabolites play key roles in central fatigue. However, previous brain function analysis targets may have included both glia and neurons together. Here, we clarified the fatigue-cognitive circuit of the central-peripheral linkage, including the role of glial-neuronal interaction in cognition. Using a rat model of central fatigue induced by chronic sleep disorder (CFSD), we isolated presynaptic terminals and oligodendrocytes. Results showed that compared to control group, presynaptic levels of tryptophan, kynurenine, and kynurenic acid, but not serotonin, in the CFSD group were higher in the hypothalamus and hippocampus...
September 8, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893580/high-intraocular-pressure-produces-learning-and-memory-impairments-in-rats
#15
Yuxiang Yuan, Zhiqi Chen, Lu Li, Xing Li, Qian Xia, Hong Zhang, Qiming Duan, Yin Zhao
Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is a leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Previous MRI studies have revealed that POAG can be associated with alterations in hippocampal function. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate a relationship between chronic high intraocular pressure (IOP) and hippocampal changes in a rat model. We used behavioural tests to assess learning and memory ability, and additionally investigated the hippocampal expression of pathological amyloid beta (Aβ), phospho-tau, and related pathway proteins...
September 8, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893579/the-brain-during-free-movement-what-can-we-learn-from-the-animal-model
#16
F B Händel, M L Schölvinck
Animals, just like humans, can freely move. They do so for various important reasons, such as finding food and escaping predators. Observing these behaviors can inform us about the underlying cognitive processes. In addition, while humans can convey complicated information easily through speaking, animals need to move their bodies to communicate. This has prompted many creative solutions by animal neuroscientists to enable studying the brain during movement. In this review, we first summarize how animal researchers record from the brain while an animal is moving, by describing the most common neural recording techniques in animals and how they were adapted to record during movement...
September 8, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888841/implications-of-the-n-terminal-heterogeneity-for-the-neuronal-k-cl-cotransporter-kcc2-function
#17
Marika Markkanen, Anastasia Ludwig, Stanislav Khirug, Evgeny Pryazhnikov, Shetal Soni, Leonard Khiroug, Eric Delpire, Claudio Rivera, Matti S Airaksinen, Pavel Uvarov
The neuron-specific K-Cl cotransporter KCC2 maintains the low intracellular chloride concentration required for the fast hyperpolarizing responses of the inhibitory neurotransmitters γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glycine. The two KCC2 isoforms, KCC2a and KCC2b differ by their N-termini as a result of alternative promoter usage. Whereas the role of KCC2b in mediating the chloride transport is unequivocal, the physiological role of KCC2a in neurons has remained obscure. We show that KCC2a isoform can decrease the intracellular chloride concentration in cultured neurons and attenuate calcium responses evoked by application of the GABAA receptor agonist muscimol...
September 6, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870827/distinguishing-response-to-names-in-rett-and-mecp2-duplication-syndrome-an-erp-study-of-auditory-social-information-processing
#18
U Peters Sarika, Katzenstein Ashley, Jones Dorita, P Key Alexandra
Despite significant advances at the level of basic research, the characterization of higher-level processes in Rett and MECP2 Duplication syndrome remains understudied. In this pilot study, we assessed social-emotional information processing by testing whether children (ages 4-12 years) with Rett (n=9) and MECP2 Duplication syndrome (n=7) distinguished their own spoken name from other names. We hypothesized that own and familiar names would elicit more positive parietal P300 responses than unknown names, and that the groups would have different neural responses to these stimuli...
September 1, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870826/hyperforin-protects-against-acute-cerebral-ischemic-injury-through-inhibition-of-interleukin-17a-mediated-microglial-activation
#19
Li Ma, Xia Pan, Fang Zhou, Kang Liu, Long Wang
Hyperforin, a pharmacologically active component of the medicinal plant Hypericum perforatum (St. John's wort), has been shown to be neuroprotective against acute ischemic stroke. However, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear and need to be fully elucidated. C57BL/6 wildtype (WT) mice or interleukin (IL)-17A knock-out mice were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (60 minutes) followed by reperfusion for 72 hours. Hyperforin (0.5 μg) was injected slowly into the right ventricle of WT mice 1, 24 and 48 hours after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) onset...
September 1, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870825/prolonged-but-non-permanent-expression-of-a-transgene-in-ependymal-cells-of-adult-rats-using-an-adenovirus-mediated-transposon-gene-transfer-system
#20
Jun-Ichi Suzuki, Mari Dezawa, Masaaki Kitada
Ependymal cells have been considered one of prime targets for gene therapy in the central nervous system as they can secrete proteins directly into the cerebrospinal fluid. In this study, we have explored the probability of permanent exogenous gene expression using a combined adenovirus/transposon system. To this end, we created three adenoviruses; adenovirus #1 containing a CAG promoter-driven enhanced green fluorescent protein tagged with a palmitoylation site (palEGFP), whose DNA sequence was flanked by two different Tol2 ends, #2 containing a human FoxJ1 promoter-driven T2TP transposase, and #3 containing an EF-1 alpha promoter-driven T2TP transposase...
September 1, 2017: Brain Research
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