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Journal of Experimental Social Psychology

Thomas C Mann, Melissa J Ferguson
People are adept at forming impressions of others, but how easily can impressions be updated? Although implicit first impressions have been characterized as difficult to overturn, recent work shows that they can be reversed through reinterpretation of earlier learning. However, such reversal has been demonstrated only in the same experimental session in which the impression formed, suggesting that implicit updating might be possible only within a brief temporal window, before impressions are consolidated and when memory about the initial information is strongest...
January 2017: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology
Angela G Pirlott, David P MacKinnon
Identifying causal mechanisms has become a cornerstone of experimental social psychology, and editors in top social psychology journals champion the use of mediation methods, particularly innovative ones when possible (e.g. Halberstadt, 2010, Smith, 2012). Commonly, studies in experimental social psychology randomly assign participants to levels of the independent variable and measure the mediating and dependent variables, and the mediator is assumed to causally affect the dependent variable. However, participants are not randomly assigned to levels of the mediating variable(s), i...
September 2016: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology
Richard Yi, Alison Pickover, Allison M Stuppy-Sullivan, Sydney Baker, Reid D Landes
Episodic future thinking, which refers to the use of prospective imagery to concretely imagine oneself in future scenarios, has been shown to reduce delay discounting (enhance self-control). A parallel approach, in which prospective imagery is used to concretely imagine other's scenarios, may similarly reduce social discounting (i.e., enhance altruism). In study 1, participants engaged in episodic thinking about the self or others, in a repeated-measures design, while completing a social discounting task. Reductions in social discounting were observed as a function of episodic thinking about others, though an interaction with order was also observed...
July 2016: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology
Alison Blodorn, Brenda Major, Jeffrey Hunger, Carol Miller
The present research tested the hypothesis that the negative effects of weight stigma among higher body-weight individuals are mediated by expectations of social rejection. Women and men who varied in objective body-weight (body mass index; BMI) gave a speech describing why they would make a good date. Half believed that a potential dating partner would see a videotape of their speech (weight seen) and half believed that a potential dating partner would listen to an audiotape of their speech (weight unseen)...
March 1, 2016: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology
Brenda Major, Jonathan W Kunstman, Brenna D Malta, Pamela J Sawyer, Sarah S M Townsend, Wendy Berry Mendes
Strong social and legal norms in the United States discourage the overt expression of bias against ethnic and racial minorities, increasing the attributional ambiguity of Whites' positive behavior to ethnic minorities. Minorities who suspect that Whites' positive overtures toward minorities are motivated more by their fear of appearing racist than by egalitarian attitudes may regard positive feedback they receive from Whites as disingenuous. This may lead them to react to such feedback with feelings of uncertainty and threat...
January 1, 2016: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology
Jennifer L Rennels, Andrea J Kayl
A significant association exists between adults' expressivity and facial attractiveness, but it is unclear whether the association is linear or significant only at the extremes of attractiveness. It is also unclear whether attractive persons actually display more positive expressivity than unattractive persons (target effects) or whether high and low attractiveness influences expressivity valence judgments (perceiver effects). Experiment 1 demonstrated adult ratings of attractiveness were predictive of expressivity valence only for high and low attractive females and medium attractive males...
September 1, 2015: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology
Ori Weisel, Robert Böhm
We report on two studies investigating the motivations ("ingroup love" and "outgroup hate") underlying individual participation in intergroup conflict between natural groups (fans of football clubs, supporters of political parties), by employing the Intergroup Prisoner's Dilemma Maximizing-Difference (IPD-MD) game. In this game group members can contribute to the ingroup (at a personal cost) and benefit ingroup members with or without harming members of an outgroup. Additionally, we devised a novel version of the IPD-MD in which the choice is between benefiting ingroup members with or without helping members of the outgroup...
September 2015: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology
M Cikara, E Bruneau, J J Van Bavel, R Saxe
Despite its early origins and adaptive functions, empathy is not inevitable; people routinely fail to empathize with others, especially members of different social or cultural groups. In five experiments, we systematically explore how social identity, functional relations between groups, competitive threat, and perceived entitativity contribute to intergroup empathy bias: the tendency not only to empathize less with out-group relative to in-group members, but also feel pleasure in response to their pain (and pain in response to their pleasure)...
November 1, 2014: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology
Sarah E Ainsworth, Roy F Baumeister, Kathleen D Vohs, Dan Ariely
Three experiments tested the effects of ego depletion on economic decision making. Participants completed a task either requiring self-control or not. Then participants learned about the trust game, in which senders are given an initial allocation of $10 to split between themselves and another person, the receiver. The receiver receives triple the amount given and can send any, all, or none of the tripled money back to the sender. Participants were assigned the role of the sender and decided how to split the initial allocation...
September 1, 2014: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology
Donna D Whitsett, Yuichi Shoda
The effects of situations may vary importantly across people. If the relevant individual difference variables are known, moderation analyses can test for this possibility. But what if the moderators are not measured or are unknown? We demonstrated how a Highly-Repeated Within-Person (HRWP) design can be used to answer this question, by examining the effect of support seekers' expressions of distress separately for each participant. Although on average, participants' willingness to provide social support increased as a function of support seekers' levels of distress, the opposite was true for some participants; their willingness to provide support significantly decreased as support seekers' expressed distress increased...
January 2014: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology
James F M Cornwell, E Tory Higgins
Moral Foundations Theory has provided a framework for understanding the endorsement of different moral beliefs. Our research investigated whether there are other reasons to endorse moral foundations in addition to epistemic concerns; specifically, the perceived social usefulness of moral foundations. In Study 1, we demonstrate that those showing stronger locomotion concerns for controlling movement tend toward a higher endorsement of binding foundations, and that this effect is stronger among political liberals who otherwise do not typically endorse these foundations...
January 2014: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology
Markus Koppensteiner
The current study presents a methodology to analyze first impressions on the basis of minimal motion information. In order to test the applicability of the approach brief silent video clips of 40 speakers were presented to independent observers (i.e., did not know speakers) who rated them on measures of the Big Five personality traits. The body movements of the speakers were then captured by placing landmarks on the speakers' forehead, one shoulder and the hands. Analysis revealed that observers ascribe extraversion to variations in the speakers' overall activity, emotional stability to the movements' relative velocity, and variation in motion direction to openness...
November 2013: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology
Miguel Farias, Anna-Kaisa Newheiser, Guy Kahane, Zoe de Toledo
Growing evidence indicates that religious belief helps individuals to cope with stress and anxiety. But is this effect specific to supernatural beliefs, or is it a more general function of belief - including belief in science? We developed a measure of belief in science and conducted two experiments in which we manipulated stress and existential anxiety. In Experiment 1, we assessed rowers about to compete (high-stress condition) and rowers at a training session (low-stress condition). As predicted, rowers in the high-stress group reported greater belief in science...
November 2013: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology
Rainer Romero-Canyas, Kavita S Reddy, Sylvia Rodriguez, Geraldine Downey
An experimental study tests if people's hostility after experiencing rejection is partly explained by the degree to which they had initially suppressed their own feelings and beliefs to please the source of rejection. This hypothesis emerges from the literatures on women's self-silencing and that on rejection-sensitivity, which has documented that rejection-sensitive women show strong responses to rejection, but are also likely to self-silence to please their partners. An online dating paradigm examined if this self-silencing drives post-rejection hostility among women...
July 1, 2013: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology
Sandra L Murray, John G Holmes, Jaye L Derrick, Brianna Harris, Dale W Griffin, Rebecca T Pinkus
A contextual model of self-protection is proposed to explain when adhering to cautious "if-then" rules in daily interaction erodes marital satisfaction. People can self-protect against partner non-responsiveness by distancing when a partner seems rejecting, promoting a partner's dependence when feeling unworthy, or by devaluing a partner in the face of costs. The model implies that being less trusting elicits self-protection, and that mismatches between self-protective practices and encountered risk accelerate declines in satisfaction...
May 2013: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology
Larisa Heiphetz, Elizabeth S Spelke, Paul L Harris, Mahzarin R Banaji
The beliefs people hold about the social and physical world are central to self-definition and social interaction. The current research analyzes reasoning about three kinds of beliefs: those that concern matters of fact (e.g., dinosaurs are extinct), preference (e.g., green is the prettiest color), and ideology (e.g., there is only one God). The domain of ideology is of unique interest because it is hypothesized to contain elements of both facts and preferences. If adults' distinct reasoning about ideological beliefs is the result of prolonged experience with the physical and social world, children and adults should reveal distinct patterns of differentiating kinds of beliefs, and this difference should be particularly pronounced with respect to ideological beliefs...
May 1, 2013: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology
Joseph Sweetman, Russell Spears, Andrew G Livingstone, Antony S R Manstead
In four studies, we report evidence that admiration affects intergroup behaviors that regulate social hierarchy. We demonstrate that manipulating the legitimacy of status relations affects admiration for the dominant and that this emotion negatively predicts political action tendencies aimed at social change. In addition, we show that greater warmth and competence lead to greater admiration for an outgroup, which in turn positively predicts deferential behavior and intergroup learning. We also demonstrate that, for those with a disposition to feel admiration, increasing admiration for an outgroup decreases willingness to take political action against that outgroup...
May 2013: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology
Julie Y Huang, Joshua M Ackerman, John A Bargh
People cope with social exclusion both by seeking reconnection with familiar individuals and by denigrating unfamiliar and disliked others. These reactions can be seen as adaptive responses in ancestral environments where ostracism exposed people to physical dangers and even death. To the extent that reactions to ostracism evolved to minimize exposure to danger, alleviating these foundational concerns with danger may lessen people's need to cope with exclusion. Three studies demonstrate how a novel physical invulnerability simulation lessens both positive and negative reactions to social exclusion...
May 1, 2013: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology
Maya Tamir, Brett Q Ford, Erin Ryan
Goals can determine what people want to feel (e.g., Tamir et al., 2008), but can they do so even when they are primed outside of conscious awareness? In two studies, participants wanted to feel significantly less angry after they were implicitly primed with a collaboration goal, compared to a neutral prime. These effects were found with different implicit priming manipulations, direct and indirect measures of emotional preferences, and when controlling for concurrent emotional experiences. The effects were obtained in social contexts in which the potential for collaboration was relatively higher (Study 1) and lower Study 2)...
March 2013: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology
Jonathan B Freeman, Yina Ma, Shihui Han, Nalini Ambady
Social categorization is often thought to be based on facial features and immune to visual context. Moreover, East Asians have been argued to attend to context more than Westerners. American and Chinese participants were presented with faces varying along a White-Asian morph continuum either in American, neutral, or Chinese contexts. American contexts made White categorizations more likely, and Chinese contexts made Asian categorizations more likely. Further, the compatibility between facial and contextual cues influenced the directness of participants' hand trajectories en route to selecting a category response...
March 1, 2013: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology
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