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Recent Results in Cancer Research

Umberto Malapelle, Biagio Ricciuti, Sara Baglivo, Francesco Pepe, Pasquale Pisapia, Paola Anastasi, Marco Tazza, Angelo Sidoni, Anna M Liberati, Guido Bellezza, Rita Chiari, Giulio Metro
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutated (exons 18-21) advanced non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) are generally characterized by exquisite sensitivity to treatment with an EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (-TKI). First-generation or reversible EGFR-TKIs include gefitinib and erlotinib, while, more recently, second-generation or irreversible EGFR-TKIs have been developed, namely afatinib and dacomitinib, with the aim of overcoming/delaying acquired resistance to treatment. Nevertheless, clinical trials have shown that resistance eventually emerges after a median time of slightly less than one year, regardless of whether first- or second-generation EGFR-TKIs are used...
2018: Recent Results in Cancer Research
M Herden, Cornelius F Waller
Alectinib is an ATP-competitive small molecule and a second-generation inhibitor of ALK. EML4-ALK rearrangement is found in 3-5% of patients with NSCLC. The first-generation inhibitor crizotinib has changed the treatment dramatically, though most of the patients show disease progression within one year. Extra-thoracic progress, i.e., CNS metastases is common. The second-generation inhibitor alectinib has shown significant improvement in PFS and a remarkable prolongation of time to CNS progression. Alectinib has received approval as first-line therapy as well as second-line therapy after crizotinib failure...
2018: Recent Results in Cancer Research
Justyna Rawluk, Cornelius F Waller
Gefitinib is an orally active selective inhibitor epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). The large randomised phase III IPASS study (gefitinib 250 mg, daily vs carboplatin and paclitaxel) showed a beneficial effect on progression-free survival (PFS) and quality of life in selected patient populations under the treatment with gefitinib (HR for TKI 0.74; 95% CI: 0.65-0.85). In the subgroup of patients with EGFR mutation the effect of gefitinib on PFS was notably, PFS HR 0.48; 95% CI: 0.36-0.64, p < 0.001) and the objective response rate (RR) was 71...
2018: Recent Results in Cancer Research
Sylvia Bochum, Stephanie Berger, Uwe M Martens
Olaparib (Lynparza [AstraZeneca, Cambridge, UK], formerly referred to as AZD2281 or KU0059436) is an oral poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor. It is rationally designed to act as a competitive inhibitor of NAD+ at the catalytic site of PARP1 and PARP2, both members of the PARP family of enzymes that are central to the repair of DNA single-strand breaks (SSBs) mediated via the base excision repair (BER) pathway. Inhibition of the BER pathway by olaparib leads to the accumulation of unrepaired SSBs, which leads to the formation of deleterious double-strand breaks (DSBs)...
2018: Recent Results in Cancer Research
Helga Wecker, Cornelius F Waller
Afatinib (BIBW 2992, US: GilotrifTM , other countries: Giotrif©) is an irreversible blocker of the ErbB family, acting at the tyrosine kinases of these proteins. In 2013, it was approved by the FDA and the EMA for the treatment of adults with advanced, EGFR mutation-positive non-small-cell lung cancer. Further investigations for the treatment of many other tumors with afatinib, e.g., HNSCC and breast cancer, are ongoing.
2018: Recent Results in Cancer Research
Stefanie Zschäbitz, Carsten Grüllich
Lenvatinib is an oral receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) with activity against vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors 1-3, fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFR) 1-4, platelet-derived growth factor receptor-alpha (PDGFRα), and RET and KIT proto-oncogenes. Lenvatinib is approved for the treatment of radioiodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer and in combination with everolimus for the treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma following anti-VEGF treatment. In hepatocellular carcinoma lenvatinib was non inferior to sorafenib in first line with an improved progression-free survival and approval in this indication is expected...
2018: Recent Results in Cancer Research
Hana Andrlová, Robert Zeiser, Frank Meiss
The mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade (MAPK/ERK pathway) is a signaling pathway activated as a cellular response to various stimuli and for regulating the proliferation and survival of several types of eukaryotic cells, among others a wide variety of tumor cells. Mutations of the proteins involved in this pathway have been discovered in several tumor entities, indicating their inhibition as a potential therapeutic target. BRAF inhibitors have been in the clinical use since 2011. Several MEK inhibitors have been studied for metastatic cancer treatment in the recent past...
2018: Recent Results in Cancer Research
Marcus Schmidt, Martin Sebastian
During the last decades, much has been learned about with cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK) playing a pivotal role in the cell cycle regulation. CDK4/6 is the key regulator of the G1-S transition. Palbociclib (PD 0332991, Ibrance®) is the first oral CDK4/6 inhibitor showing a substantially improved median progression-free survival (PFS) in advanced estrogen receptor (ER) positive and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) negative breast cancer. This PFS prolongation was seen both with letrozole as first-line therapy (24...
2018: Recent Results in Cancer Research
Stephanie Berger, Uwe M Martens, Sylvia Bochum
One of the most challenging issues in oncology research and treatment is identifying oncogenic drivers within an individual patient's tumor which can be directly targeted by a clinically available therapeutic drug. In this context, gene fusions as one important example of genetic aberrations leading to carcinogenesis follow the widely accepted concept that cell growth and proliferation are driven by the accomplished fusion (usually involving former proto-oncogenes) and may therefore be successfully inhibited by substances directed against the fusion...
2018: Recent Results in Cancer Research
Frank Meiss, Hana Andrlová, Robert Zeiser
Vismodegib (GDC-0449, Erivedge® ) is a small molecule antagonist of the hedgehog (Hh) pathway that binds to smoothened (SMO) and leads to inhibition of an aberrant activation of the Hh pathway. Dysregulated Hh signaling results in uncontrolled proliferation in basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and has also been found present in medulloblastoma, and many other cancers such as those of gastrointestinal tract, brain, lung, breast, and prostate. In January 2012, vismodegib became the first agent to target the Hh pathway to receive approval by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and in July 2013 approval by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) followed for the treatment of adult patients with symptomatic metastatic BCC, or locally advanced BCC inappropriate for surgery or radiotherapy...
2018: Recent Results in Cancer Research
Jens Hasskarl
Everolimus (RAD001) is an oral protein kinase inhibitor of the mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) serine/threonine kinase signal transduction pathway. The mTOR pathway regulates cell growth, proliferation and survival, and is frequently deregulated in cancer.The EMA has approved Everolimus as Afinitor® for the treatment of hormone receptor-positive, HER2/neu-negative advanced breast cancer, in combination with exemestane, in postmenopausal women without symptomatic visceral disease after recurrence or progression following a nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor, for the treatment of unresectable or metastatic, well- or moderately differentiated neuroendocrine tumors of pancreatic origin in adults with progressive disease, and for the treatment of unresectable or metastatic, well-differentiated (Grade 1 or Grade 2) nonfunctional neuroendocrine tumors of gastrointestinal or lung origin in adults with progressive disease, and for the treatment of patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma, whose disease has progressed on or after treatment with VEGF-targeted therapy And as Votubia® for the treatment of adult patients with renal angiomyolipoma associated with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), who are at risk of complications (based on factors such as tumor size or presence of aneurysm, or presence of multiple or bilateral tumors) but who do not require immediate surgery, and for the treatment of patients with subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA) associated with TSC who require therapeutic intervention but are not amenable to surgery, and as an add-on treatment in patients from 2 years of age with seizures related to TSC that have not responded to other treatments ( https://www...
2018: Recent Results in Cancer Research
Robert Zeiser, Hana Andrlová, Frank Meiss
The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK MAPK/ERK kinase) signaling pathways play a critical role in the regulation of diverse cellular activities, including survival, differentiation, proliferation, motility, and angiogenesis. Therefore, MEK inhibition was recognized as a promising target for antineoplastic therapy. Trametinib (GSK1120212), an oral MEK inhibitor which is selective for MEK1 and MEK2, has been approved by the FDA for the treatment of metastatic melanoma in a combination with a BRAF inhibitor...
2018: Recent Results in Cancer Research
Claus Garbe, Thomas K Eigentler
The activating BRAF mutation V600E and related mutations in this codon are most important for the activation of the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathway in melanoma. BRAF V600E mutations have been detected in ~40% of melanoma patients and BRAF V600K mutations in ~5% of melanoma patients. Activation of the MAPK pathway results in continuous stimulation of cell proliferation and inhibits programmed cell death. Vemurafenib (PLX4032) was developed as a low-molecular-weight molecule for the inhibition of the mutated serine-threonine kinase BRAF, and it selectively binds to the ATP-binding site of BRAF V600E kinase and inhibits its activity...
2018: Recent Results in Cancer Research
Carsten Grüllich
Cabozantinib is a receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) with activity against a broad range of targets, including MET, RET, AXL, VEGFR2, FLT3, and c-KIT. Activity of cabozantinib towards a broad range of tumor models could be detected in several preclinical studies. Of note, cabozantinib decreases metastasis potential and tumor invasiveness when compared with placebo or agents that target VEGFR and have no activity against MET. Cabozantinib is clinically approved for the treatment of medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) and for renal cell cancer (RCC) in the second line...
2018: Recent Results in Cancer Research
David F Heigener, Martin Reck
Crizotinib is an ATP-competitive small-molecule inhibitor of the receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) C-Met, ALK and ROS1. There is a robust effectiveness in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harbouring EML4-ALK-rearrangements resulting in constitutional activation of the ALK-RTK. The drug is approved for this entity, which represents no more than 3-5% of all NSCLC. However, in this population, impressive response rates are generated. The same is true for ROS-1 rearrangements; however, these only occur in approximately 1% of all NSCLC...
2018: Recent Results in Cancer Research
Thomas J Ettrich, Thomas Seufferlein
Regorafenib (BAY 73-4506, Stivarga® ) is an oral diphenylurea multi-kinase inhibitor that targets angiogenic (VEGFR1-3, TIE2), stromal (PDGFR-β, FGFR), and oncogenic receptor tyrosine kinases (KIT, RET, and RAF). Regorafenib is the first small-molecule multi-kinase inhibitor to achieve survival benefits in metastatic colorectal cancer that has progressed after all standard therapies. Consequently, Regorafenib was FDA approved for this indication in 2012. In addition, Regorafenib treatment resulted in a significant improvement in progression-free survival (PFS) compared to placebo in patients with metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) after progression on standard treatments and is also FDA-approved in this indication since 2013...
2018: Recent Results in Cancer Research
Minna Voigtlaender, Tanja Schneider-Merck, Martin Trepel
The human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) family of receptor tyrosine kinases plays an important role in the biology of many cancers. In breast and gastrointestinal cancer, and at lower rates also in additional tumor types, HER2 and its homo- or heterodimerization with HER1 or HER3 are essential for cancer cell growth and survival. Breast cancer patients overexpressing HER2 have a more aggressive course of their disease. The poor prognosis associated with HER2 overexpression can be substantially improved by adding HER2-targeted therapy to standard of care using the monoclonal antibody trastuzumab...
2018: Recent Results in Cancer Research
Martin Steins, Michael Thomas, Michael Geißler
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been implicated in a multiplicity of cancer-related signal transduction pathways like cellular proliferation, adhesion, migration, neoangiogenesis and apoptosis inhibition, all of which are important features of cancerogenesis and tumour progression. Its tyrosine kinase activity plays a central role in mediating these processes and has been intensely studied to exploit it as a therapeutic target. Inhibitors of this pathway have been developed and assessed in trials with significant efficacy in clinical applications...
2018: Recent Results in Cancer Research
Katharina Kriegsmann, Mark Kriegsmann, Mathias Witzens-Harig
The Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) is an essential in the B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling pathway which was identified as crucial in the pathogenesis of B-cell malignancies. Ibrutinib, a first-in-class BTK inhibitor, has been approved for the treatment of distinct B-cell malignancies. To overcome off-target side effects of and emerging resistances to ibrutinib, more selective second-generation BTK inhibitors were developed. Acalabrutinib is a novel second-generation BTK inhibitor and has shown promising safety and efficacy profiles in phase 1/2 clinical trials in patients with relapsed CLL and pretreated MCL...
2018: Recent Results in Cancer Research
Monika Engelhardt, Magdalena Szymaniak-Vits, Stefanie Ajayi, Sandra Maria Dold, Stefan Jürgen Müller, Sophia Scheubeck, Ralph Wäsch
Carfilzomib (CFZ) is a potent, second-generation proteasome inhibitor (PI), with significant activity as a single agent and in combination with other antimyeloma agents in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM). CFZ binds selectively and irreversibly to its target and leads to antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects on cancer cells. This irreversible inhibition is dose- and time-dependent in vitro and in vivo. CFZ as monotherapy and in combination with other antimyeloma agents (e.g...
2018: Recent Results in Cancer Research
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