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Recent Results in Cancer Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924689/future-research-in-psycho-oncology
#1
Ute Goerling, Anja Mehnert
Since the mid-1970s psycho-oncology and psycho-oncological research have been systematically developed in many industrialized countries and have produced nationally and internationally accepted guidelines. In this article developments and challenges are presented and discussed. From the perspective of various oncological treatment options, different needs for further psycho-oncological research are considered.
2018: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924688/the-barrier-to-informed-choice-in-cancer-screening-statistical-illiteracy-in-physicians-and-patients
#2
Odette Wegwarth, Gerd Gigerenzer
An efficient health care requires both informed doctors and patients. Our current healthcare system falls short on both counts. Most doctors and patients do not understand the available medical evidence. To illustrate the extent of the problem in the setting of cancer screening: In a representative sample of some 5000 women in nine European countries, 92% overestimated the reduction of breast cancer mortality by mammography by a factor of 10-200, or did not know. For a similar sample of about 5000 men with respect to PSA screening, this number was 89%...
2018: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924687/comskil-communication-training-in-oncology-adaptation-to-german-cancer-care-settings
#3
Tim J Hartung, David Kissane, Anja Mehnert
Medical communication is a skill which can be learned and taught and which can substantially improve treatment outcomes, especially if patients' communication preferences are taken into account. Here, we give an overview of communication training research and outline the COMSKIL program as a state-of-the-art communication skills training in oncology. COMSKIL has a solid theoretical foundation and teaches core elements of medical communication in up to ten fully operationalized modules. These address typical situations ranging from breaking bad news to responding to difficult emotions, shared decision-making, and communicating via interpreters...
2018: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924686/psychosocial-impact-of-personalized-therapies-in-oncology
#4
Georgia Schilling, Frank Schulz-Kindermann
Personalized medicine is a keyword in modern oncology summarizing biomarker-driven targeted therapies. Those novel agents enhance our therapeutic portfolio and offer new options for our patients. But the term is often misleading and implicates a tailored therapy to the individual person, but it rather means a treatment stratified on genetic characteristics of the tumor. Molecular therapies raise expectations of curability or long-term treatments making former life-threatening diseases to more chronic ones but this is true only for some patients...
2018: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924685/quality-of-life-in-oncology
#5
Anna Stickel, Ute Goerling
Continuous improvements in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer lead to improved cure rates and longer survival. However, in many patients, the disease becomes chronic. In this context, the patients' quality of life (QOL) becomes a crucial issue. After an introduction about QOL, results from different areas of cancer treatment are presented considering their impact on QOL. Finally, implications are discussed for researchers, clinicians, and patients.
2018: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924684/psychotherapy-in-the-oncology-setting
#6
Mirjam de Vries, Friedrich Stiefel
A person who faces the diagnosis of cancer is subjected to changes within his body, but also with regard to his view of himself and his social relationships. Cancer related psychological distress occurs frequently and has a different prevalence according to-among other factors-cancer type and stage of disease. The main psychiatric disturbances observed in patients with cancer are adjustment disorders and affective disorders (anxiety and depression), which in the majority of patients are due to stressors related to the occurrence and threat of the disease and pre-existing psychological vulnerabilities; however, they might also be a direct consequence of biological causes either resulting from bodily modifications induced by the cancer or from treatment side effects...
2018: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924683/cancer-survivorship-in-adults
#7
Cecilie E Kiserud, Alv A Dahl, Sophie D Fosså
With the favorable trend regarding survival of cancer in the Western world, there is an increasing focus among patients, clinicians, researchers, and politicians regarding cancer survivors' health and well-being. The number of survivors grows rapidly, and more than 3% of the adult populations in Western countries have survived cancer for 5 years or more. Cancer survivors are at increased risk for a variety of late effects after treatment, some life-threatening such as secondary cancer and cardiac diseases, while others mainly have negative impact on daily functioning and health-related quality of life (HRQOL)...
2018: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924682/rehabilitation-for-cancer-patients
#8
Joachim Weis, Jürgen M Giesler
Rehabilitation for cancer patients aims at reducing the impact of disabling and limiting conditions resulting from cancer and its treatment in order to enable patients to regain social integration and participation. Given current trends in cancer incidence and survival along with progress in medical treatment, cancer rehabilitation is becoming increasingly important in contemporary health care. Although not without limitations, the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) provides a valuable perspective for cancer rehabilitation in understanding impairments in functioning and activity as the result of an interaction between a health condition and contextual factors...
2018: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924681/family-caregivers-to-adults-with-cancer-the-consequences-of-caring
#9
Anna-Leila Williams
A person living with cancer will potentially have some degree of physical, cognitive, and/or psychological impairment, periods of unemployment, financial concerns, social isolation, and existential questions, any or all of which can impact the family and friends who surround them. In our current era of health care, patients with cancer receive invasive diagnostic studies and aggressive treatment as outpatients, and then convalesce at home. As such, cancer family caregivers are de facto partners with the healthcare team...
2018: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924680/the-oncological-patient-in-the-palliative-situation
#10
Steffen Eychmueller, Diana Zwahlen, Monica Fliedner
Palliative care approaches patients and their suffering with a bio-psycho-social-spiritual model. Thus, it is the strength of palliative care to complement the diagnosis driven approach of medical cancer care by a problem and resources-based assessment, participatory care plan and person-directed interventions. Interventions need to reflect timely prognosis, target population (the patient, the family carer, the professional) and level of trust and remaining energy. In palliative care the relevance of psycho-oncological aspects in the care of the terminally ill is considerable in the understanding of the overall suffering of patients approaching death and their loved ones and in their care and support...
2018: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924679/psycho-oncology-a-patient-s-view
#11
Patricia Garcia-Prieto
Culturally the most important, valued, and less stigmatized part of cancer care is the medical part: The surgeon cutting the tumors out and the oncologist leading the strategic decision-making of the medical treatments available. The least valued and stigmatized part of cancer remains the psychosocial care. This chapter describes-through the eyes of an academic, psychologist, stage IV melanoma patient, and patient advocate-how one patient navigated changing psycho-oncological needs from early stage-to-stage IV through a whole range of psychological interventions available...
2018: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924678/gender-opportunities-in-psychosocial-oncology
#12
Matthew Loscalzo, Karen Clark
So much has happened since the original publication of this chapter. In some ways, the progress made in appreciating the full spectrum of sexual and gender expression has been uneven and in some nations, there has been serious regression and resulting repression. But overall, especially in the industrialized countries, there is much greater awareness of sex and gender and its importance in health and well being. In this updated chapter, we put sex and gender into a historical context that is relevant to psycho-oncology and that openly accepts that society overall, is highly conflicted when it comes to how women and men get the best out of each other, never mind how to best integrate lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) communities...
2018: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924677/fear-of-progression-in-cancer-patients-and-survivors
#13
Andreas Dinkel, Peter Herschbach
Fear of progression (or fear of recurrence) is an appropriate, adequate response to the real threat of cancer. However, elevated levels of fear of progression can become dysfunctional, affecting well-being, quality of life, and social functioning. Research has shown that fear of progression is one of the most frequent distress symptoms of patients with cancer. As a clear consensus concerning clinically relevant states of fear of progression is still lacking, it is difficult to provide a valid estimate of the rate of cancer patients who clearly suffer from fear of progression...
2018: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924676/psychosocial-impact-of-cancer
#14
Susanne Singer
Diagnosis and treatment of malignant diseases affect in many ways the lives of patients, relatives and friends. Common reactions immediately after the diagnosis are shock and denial, frequently followed by depression, anxiety and/or anger. About a third of all cancer patients suffer from a co-morbid mental health condition, requiring professional support by the entire medical team, including psycho-oncologists. Often overlooked issues are financial and social problems due to inability to work or due to out-of-pocket costs for the medical treatment...
2018: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699546/vaccination-expectations-in-hnscc
#15
REVIEW
Stina Syrjänen, Jaana Rautava
HPV-associated head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), more specifically the incidence of oropharyngeal cancer, is dramatically increasing in industrialized countries. According to what has been learned from anogenital vaccination programs, there are reasons to believe that current human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccinations may be potentially effective also against HNSCC. However, before specific results on HNSCC are available, one must keep in mind that carcinogenesis in the head and neck region may differ from that of the anogenital tract...
2017: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699545/update-on-de-intensification-and-intensification-studies-in-hpv
#16
REVIEW
Hisham Mehanna
In this chapter, we discuss de-esclation of treatment for patients with HPV-positive disease. We discuss the rationale for de-escalation (why de-escalate?), patient selection criteria (who to de-esclate?) and what the treatment options for de-esclation are and the studies that are currently being run in those areas (how to de-escalate?). We stress the importance of clinicians NOT changing the management of oropharyngeal cancer patients outside clinical trials, and encourage them to recruit to the ongoing studies...
2017: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699544/cancer-immunology-and-hpv
#17
REVIEW
Barbara Wollenberg
HNSCC is a heterogeneous group of tumors located in the oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx and larynx. Originally, tobacco and alcohol exposures were the main risk factors for HNSCC. In the last two decades, HPV infections have been identified as a risk factor for HNSCC, especially for oropharyngeal tumors. Whereas the HPV-induced oropharyngeal carcinomas predominantly express the HPV16 related E6 and E7 oncoproteins, the HPV-negative HNSCC are associated with an overexpression of p53. However, if the therapy successes for HPV-negative and HPV-positive HNSCCs are compared, there are significantly higher total survival rates for HPV-positive oropharyngeal tumors compared to HPV-negative tumors...
2017: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699543/predictive-factors-for-outcome-and-quality-of-life-in-hpv-positive-and-hpv-negative-hnscc
#18
REVIEW
Jochen Hess
Infection with high-risk types of the human papilloma virus (HPV) is an etiological risk factor for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) and associated with a better response to therapy and improved survival. A better understanding of the molecular principles underlying the differences in clinical behavior could pave the way to establish more effective and less toxic therapy for HPV-positive OPSCC and their HPV-negative counterparts. Compelling experimental evidence demonstrates that extensive global reprogramming of epigenetic profiles is as important as genetic mutations during neoplastic transformation and malignant progression, including HPV-positive OPSCC...
2017: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699542/risk-groups-for-survival-in-hpv-positive-and-hpv-negative-opscc
#19
REVIEW
Michelle M Rietbergen, Ruud H Brakenhoff, C René Leemans
Over the last three decades, it has become clear that infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is etiologically linked to the development of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas, particularly those carcinomas that arise in the oropharyngeal region.
2017: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699541/tors-in-hpv-positive-tumors-the-new-standard
#20
REVIEW
S Lang, S Mattheis, B Kansy
In this chapter, we discuss implications of tumor site and tumor microenvironment properties of human papilloma virus (HPV)-associated cancer formation with special emphasis on the therapeutic modality of transoral robotic surgery (TORS). Over the past years, the development of robotic systems has improved, and therefore, its use in the surgical treatment of HNSCC has become a relevant treatment modality for many patients. Yet, there are limitations. Especially for endolaryngeal TORS procedures, additional technical development is mandatory, particularly with respect to visualization and manipulation...
2017: Recent Results in Cancer Research
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