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Recent Results in Cancer Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699546/vaccination-expectations-in-hnscc
#1
Stina Syrjänen, Jaana Rautava
HPV-associated head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), more specifically the incidence of oropharyngeal cancer, is dramatically increasing in industrialized countries. According to what has been learned from anogenital vaccination programs, there are reasons to believe that current human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccinations may be potentially effective also against HNSCC. However, before specific results on HNSCC are available, one must keep in mind that carcinogenesis in the head and neck region may differ from that of the anogenital tract...
2017: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699545/update-on-de-intensification-and-intensification-studies-in-hpv
#2
Hisham Mehanna
In this chapter, we discuss de-esclation of treatment for patients with HPV-positive disease. We discuss the rationale for de-escalation (why de-escalate?), patient selection criteria (who to de-esclate?) and what the treatment options for de-esclation are and the studies that are currently being run in those areas (how to de-escalate?). We stress the importance of clinicians NOT changing the management of oropharyngeal cancer patients outside clinical trials, and encourage them to recruit to the ongoing studies...
2017: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699544/cancer-immunology-and-hpv
#3
Barbara Wollenberg
HNSCC is a heterogeneous group of tumors located in the oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx and larynx. Originally, tobacco and alcohol exposures were the main risk factors for HNSCC. In the last two decades, HPV infections have been identified as a risk factor for HNSCC, especially for oropharyngeal tumors. Whereas the HPV-induced oropharyngeal carcinomas predominantly express the HPV16 related E6 and E7 oncoproteins, the HPV-negative HNSCC are associated with an overexpression of p53. However, if the therapy successes for HPV-negative and HPV-positive HNSCCs are compared, there are significantly higher total survival rates for HPV-positive oropharyngeal tumors compared to HPV-negative tumors...
2017: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699543/predictive-factors-for-outcome-and-quality-of-life-in-hpv-positive-and-hpv-negative-hnscc
#4
Jochen Hess
Infection with high-risk types of the human papilloma virus (HPV) is an etiological risk factor for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) and associated with a better response to therapy and improved survival. A better understanding of the molecular principles underlying the differences in clinical behavior could pave the way to establish more effective and less toxic therapy for HPV-positive OPSCC and their HPV-negative counterparts. Compelling experimental evidence demonstrates that extensive global reprogramming of epigenetic profiles is as important as genetic mutations during neoplastic transformation and malignant progression, including HPV-positive OPSCC...
2017: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699542/risk-groups-for-survival-in-hpv-positive-and-hpv-negative-opscc
#5
Michelle M Rietbergen, Ruud H Brakenhoff, C René Leemans
Over the last three decades, it has become clear that infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is etiologically linked to the development of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas, particularly those carcinomas that arise in the oropharyngeal region.
2017: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699541/tors-in-hpv-positive-tumors-the-new-standard
#6
S Lang, S Mattheis, B Kansy
In this chapter, we discuss implications of tumor site and tumor microenvironment properties of human papilloma virus (HPV)-associated cancer formation with special emphasis on the therapeutic modality of transoral robotic surgery (TORS). Over the past years, the development of robotic systems has improved, and therefore, its use in the surgical treatment of HNSCC has become a relevant treatment modality for many patients. Yet, there are limitations. Especially for endolaryngeal TORS procedures, additional technical development is mandatory, particularly with respect to visualization and manipulation...
2017: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699540/the-role-of-surgery-in-the-management-of-recurrent-oropharyngeal-cancer
#7
Neil D Gross, Ehab Y Hanna
The incidence of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) continues to rise worldwide at a dramatic pace, buoyed by the predominance of human papilloma virus (HPV) driven disease (Panwar et al. 2014). While the outcomes of patients with HPV-positive OPSCC are dramatically improved compared to HPV-negative OPSCC, treatment failures do occur. The result is an inevitable rise in the incidence of recurrent OPSCC. Since the majority of incident OPSCC cases are treated with some form of radiation therapy (primary or adjuvant), surgery remains the backbone of treatment for recurrent OPSCC...
2017: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699539/the-role-of-conventional-surgery-in-oropharyngeal-cancer
#8
Wojciech Golusinski
Anatomically, the oropharynx can be divided into four subsites: the soft palate, pharyngeal wall, base of tongue, and the tonsillar complex. Surgical access to these tumours is often challenging due to the anatomic localization. For this reason, such tumours were traditionally managed with open surgical techniques, usually involving a mandibulotomy, to provide better visualization and access to the oropharynx, followed by free-flap reconstruction of the oropharyngeal defect. However, the invasiveness of this approach could lead to significant morbidity, including speech, swallowing, and airway dysfunction, in addition to poor cosmetic outcomes...
2017: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699538/should-we-de-escalate-the-treatment-for-hpv-positive-tumors
#9
Andreas Dietz, Gunnar Wichmann, Susanne Wiegand
De-escalation or de-intensification of therapy is discussed since many retrospective analyses of former trials demonstrated significantly better outcome for patients suffering from p16/HPV16-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck (OHNSCC). These observations are comprehensively addressed, but the reader has to keep in mind that none of the currently discussed data result from prospective controlled trials addressing the HPV-discrimination in the primary endpoint design. Identification of the true HPV16-related tumors is still challenging and in addition with different clinical reports and lack of data of prospective trials not mature for routine clinical decision making in 2016...
2017: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699537/optimizing-radiotherapy-in-hpv-associated-oropharyngeal-cancer-patients
#10
Johannes A Langendijk, Roel J H M Steenbakkers
Concurrent chemoradiation is considered the golden standard in the treatment of locally advanced OPC. However, given the very high survival rates in favorable HPV-positive OPC and the high rates of acute and late treatment-related side effects, de-escalation strategies have to be considered. In this chapter, the potential benefit of a number of de-escalation strategies is described, including of replacement of concurrent chemotherapy by cetuximab, radiation dose de-escalation based on response to induction chemotherapy, radiotherapy alone without systemic treatment, and limiting elective nodal target volumes for radiation...
2017: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699536/systemic-treatment-in-hpv-induced-recurrent-or-metastatic-hnscc
#11
Damian T Rieke, Ulrich Keilholz
Recurrent or metastatic head and neck cancer describes tumor deposits that arise locally, regionally, or at distant sites after treatment or distant metastases at the time of primary diagnosis. Prognosis for R/M squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck (HNSCC) is poor and treatment options are limited in this situation. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is an important risk factor for HNSCC. About 40 % of all HNSCC have been attributed to HPV in Europe. HPV positivity at initial diagnosis is the single best prognostic factor for survival...
2017: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699535/human-papillomavirus-hpv-a-criterion-for-therapeutic-decision-in-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-head-and-neck
#12
Jan B Vermorken
When deciding how to treat patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN), several factors have to be taken into account: disease factors, patient factors, treatment factors, and the wish of the patient. This symposium article is summarizing the information on HPV (p16) in the context of decision making in SCCHN patients with locoregionally advanced disease and those with recurrent/metastatic disease. The literature data suggest that HPV(p16) has prognostic significance, both in locoregionally advanced disease (in particular, in oropharynx cancer) and in recurrent/metastatic disease, while there are only limited data on its predictive significance...
2017: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699534/tumor-staging-and-hpv-related-oropharyngeal-cancer
#13
Claus Wittekindt, Jens Peter Klussmann
The current TNM staging for oropharyngeal cancer (OSCC) was designed empirically for non-HPV-related disease. Emerging evidence suggests it is unsuited for Human papillomavirus (HPV)-related OSCC. Patients with HPV-positive tumors have improved prognosis, despite presenting at advanced stages. These shortcomings of the current staging system have been identified in single- and multi-institutional trials. Patients with HPV related OSCC typically present with advanced N-stages leading to higher stage groupings...
2017: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699533/variation-of-hpv-subtypes-with-focus-on-hpv-infection-and-cancer-in-the-head-and-neck-region
#14
Gunnar Wichmann
The human papillomavirus (HPV) comprises a heterogeneous group of double-strand DNA viruses with variable potential to infect human epithelial cells and trigger neoplastic transformation. Its 8 kb genome encodes proteins required for virus replication and self-organized formation of infectious particles but also for early proteins E6 and E7 able to trigger neoplastic transformation. E6 and E7 of high-risk (HR) HPV subtypes can bind to p53 or release E2F and abrogate replication control. Due to variable amino acid sequence (AAS) in the binding sites of E6 and E7 particular HR-HPV variants within subtypes are essentially heterogeneous in efficacy triggering neoplastic transformation and cancer development...
2017: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699532/hpv-testing-of-head-and-neck-cancer-in-clinical-practice
#15
Max Robinson
The pathology laboratory has a central role in providing human papillomavirus (HPV) tests for patients with head and neck cancer. There is an extensive literature around HPV testing and a large number of proprietary HPV tests, which makes the field difficult to navigate. This review provides a concise contemporary overview of the evidence around HPV testing in head and neck cancer and signposts key publications, guideline documents and the most commonly used methods in clinical practice.
2017: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699531/hpv-related-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinomas
#16
Andrzej Marszałek, Łukasz Szylberg
Since more than 5 years, it becomes evident that there is a new group of patients with squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck area, namely human papillomavirus (HPV)-related (caused) tumors. As clinical statistics indicate, those patients have better prognosis, even despite more advanced stage compared to those with HPV-negative tumors. In fact, as a surrogate of HPV infection for clinical studies, an immunohistochemical expression of p16 protein is used. In the following chapter, the spectrum of squamous cell carcinomas variants with indication of the percentage cases with proved HPV infection will be presented...
2017: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699530/risk-factors-for-oral-infection-with-human-papillomavirus
#17
Pawel Golusinski
Human papillomavirus has been identified as a causative factor for a subset of head and neck carcinomas (HNSCC). The majority of the HPV-positive tumors arises in the oropharyngeal region, and at present, the infection of the human papilloma type 16 is the major cause of the oropharyngeal cancer development. Patients with HPV DNA-positive tumors have been shown to be younger in age and are less likely to have a history of tobacco smoking or alcohol use. The tumors referred to the HPV positivity have been proven to more likely confer better prognosis...
2017: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699529/hpv-integration-in-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinomas-cause-and-consequence
#18
Ernst Jan M Speel
Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are a necessary cause of anogenital squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) and a subgroup of head and neck SCC, i.e., those originating in the oropharynx. The key events in high-risk HPV (HRHPV)-associated neoplastic progression include persistent infection, deregulated expression of virus early genes in basal epithelial cells, local immune suppression and the accumulation of chromosomal alterations. Evidence for these events particularly comes from studies of uterine cervical carcinogenesis; primary premalignant HRHPV-positive lesions of the head and neck mucosa are seldomly detected...
2017: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699528/molecular-patterns-and-biology-of-hpv-associated-hnscc
#19
Ruud H Brakenhoff, Steffen Wagner, Jens P Klussmann
Head and neck cancer is the sixth most common cancer worldwide. The large majority are squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) that develop in the mucosal linings of the upper aerodigestive tract. These tumors develop either by exogenous carcinogen exposure (smoking, alcohol drinking) or by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, particularly those in the oropharynx (OPSCC). HPV-positive (HPV+ve) and HPV-negative (HPV-ve) OPSCC are considered different disease entities. HPV+ve tumors are different at the molecular level and likely as a consequence have a much more favorable prognosis than HPV-ve tumors, despite their generally advanced stage at presentation...
2017: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699527/epidemiology-of-hpv-positive-tumors-in-europe-and-in-the-world
#20
Xavier Castellsagué, Marisa Mena, Laia Alemany
Strong evidence has accumulated in the last 15 years showing that infection by certain human papillomaviruses (HPVs) is etiologically involved in a subset of head and neck cancers (HNCs). In this chapter, epidemiologic-related topics on HNCs are reviewed: (i) HPV-attributable fractions and HPV-type distributions by different anatomical HNC sites, using not only HPV DNA but other more specific markers of causality; (ii) an update of the HPV-related HNCs burden worldwide and by regions; and finally, (iii) the determinants for HPV positivity in HNCs, focussing on gender, age, smoking habits, sexual behavior, and other related factors such as tonsillectomy performance...
2017: Recent Results in Cancer Research
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