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Advances in Enzyme Regulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21110994/the-role-of-inositol-polyphosphate-4-phosphatase-1-in-platelet-function-using-a-weeble-mouse-model
#1
REVIEW
Jasna Marjanovic, Monita P Wilson, Chunfen Zhang, Jun Zou, Peter Nicholas, Philip W Majerus
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2011: Advances in Enzyme Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21094659/ras-oncogene-mediated-deregulation-of-the-transcriptome-from-molecular-signature-to-function
#2
REVIEW
Reinhold Schäfer, Christine Sers
Transcriptome analysis of cancer cells has developed into a standard procedure to elucidate multiple features of the malignant process and to link gene expression to clinical properties. Gene expression profiling based on microarrays provides essentially correlative information and needs to be transferred to the functional level in order to understand the activity and contribution of individual genes or sets of genes as elements of the gene signature. To date, there exist significant gaps in the functional understanding of gene expression profiles...
2011: Advances in Enzyme Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21093474/temporal-and-functional-analysis-of-dna-replicated-in-early-s-phase
#3
REVIEW
David G Kaufman, Stephanie M Cohen, Paul D Chastain
In summary, recently developed technologies have begun to draw back the curtain of mystery that obscures some of the basic mechanisms of DNA replication at multiple levels. Studies using extended DNA and chromatin fiber techniques have proven valuable for identifying the location of origins of replication at specific genomic sites and determining their temporal order of replication, for identifying and quantifying sites of DNA damage and localizing chromatin proteins in relation to sites of DNA replication...
2011: Advances in Enzyme Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21093473/genetic-ablation-of-s6-kinase-does-not-prevent-processing-of-srebp1
#4
Caroline A Lewis, Beatrice Griffiths, Claudio R Santos, Mario Pende, Almut Schulze
The SREBP family of transcription factors regulates the expression of genes involved in fatty acid and cholesterol biosynthesis. The activation of SREBP transcription factors requires proteolytic cleavage of the inactive precursor and nuclear translocation of the mature form of the protein. It has been shown that nuclear accumulation of the mature form of SREBP1 is induced in response to activation of the serine/threonine kinase Akt, an important effector of the Ras/PI3-kinase signalling pathway. Activation of SREBP by Akt depends on the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) but the exact mechanism of this activation remains unclear...
2011: Advances in Enzyme Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21081138/advances-in-enzyme-regulation-foreword
#5
Lucio Cocco, George Weber, Catherine Forrest Weber
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2011: Advances in Enzyme Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21075134/sphingosine-kinase-localization-in-the-control-of-sphingolipid-metabolism
#6
Deanna L Siow, Charles D Anderson, Evgeny V Berdyshev, Anastasia Skobeleva, Viswanathan Natarajan, Stuart M Pitson, Binks W Wattenberg
The sphingosine kinases (sphingosine kinase-1 and -2) have been implicated in a variety of physiological functions. Discerning their mechanism of action is complicated because in addition to producing the potent lipid second messenger sphingosine-1-phosphate, sphingosine kinases, both by producing sphingosine-1-phosphate and consuming sphingosine, have profound effects on sphingolipid metabolism. Sphingosine kinase-1 translocates to the plasma membrane upon agonist stimulation and this translocation is essential for the pro-oncogenic properties of this enzyme...
2011: Advances in Enzyme Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21070803/inositol-and-its-derivatives-their-evolution-and-functions
#7
REVIEW
Robert H Michell
Ins and Ins phospholipids are present in and are made by most Archaea and all eukaryotes. Relatively few bacteria possess Ins phospholipids: and only one major grouping, the Actinobacteria, is known to have evolved multiple functions for Ins derivatives. The Ins phospholipids of all organisms, whether they have diradylglycerol or ceramide backbones, seem to use the same Ins1P headgroup stereochemistry, so they are probably made by evolutionarily conserved pathways. It seems likely that an early member of the Archaea made the first phospholipid with an Ins1P headgroup -maybe three billionyears ago – and that amuchlater archaeal descendentwas the ancestral contributor that brought these molecules into the common ancestor of all eukaryotes – maybe two billionyears ago (Michell, 2007, 2008)...
2011: Advances in Enzyme Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21056590/receptor-tyrosine-kinase-signaling-a-proteomic-perspective
#8
REVIEW
Jordane Biarc, Robert J Chalkley, A L Burlingame, Ralph A Bradshaw
The RTKs are one of the most important families mediating transmembrane signaling and they participate and are instrumental in regulating a broad range of physiological activities. Indeed, tyrosine kinases in general, and the processes that they control and/or stimulate, provide a rich source of drug targets, particularly in growth related disorders such as cancer (Zwick et al., 2002; Krause and Van Etten, 2005). However, there remain many questions regarding their activation and downstream signaling and the application of proteomic analyses promises to answer many of them...
2011: Advances in Enzyme Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21036187/control-of-eukaryotic-gene-expression-gene-loops-and-transcriptional-memory
#9
REVIEW
Michael Hampsey, Badri Nath Singh, Athar Ansari, Jean-Philippe Lainé, Shankarling Krishnamurthy
Gene loops are dynamic structures that juxtapose promoter–terminator regions of Pol II-transcribed genes. Although first described in yeast, gene loops have now been identified in yeast and mammalian cells. Looping requires components of the transcription preinitiation complex, the pre-mRNA 30-end processing machinery, and subunits of the nuclear pore complex. Loop formation is transcription-dependent, but neither basal nor activated transcription requires looping. Rather, looping appears to affect cellular memory of recent transcriptional activity, enabling a more rapid response to subsequent stimuli...
2011: Advances in Enzyme Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21035501/the-impact-of-pten-regulation-by-ck2-on-pi3k-dependent-signaling-and-leukemia-cell-survival
#10
REVIEW
João T Barata
Gene alterations affecting elements of PI3K signaling pathway do not appear to be sufficient to explain the extremely high frequency of PI3K signaling hyperactivation in leukemia. It has been known for long that PTEN phosphorylation at the C-terminal tail, in particular by CK2, contributes to the stabilization and simultaneous inhibition of this critical tumor suppressor. However, direct evidence of the involvement of this mechanism in cancer has been gathered only recently. It is now known that CK2-mediated posttranslational, non-deleting, inactivation of PTEN occurs in T-ALL, CLL and probably other leukemias and solid tumors...
2011: Advances in Enzyme Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21035500/regulation-and-roles-of-pi3k%C3%AE-a-major-actor-in-platelet-signaling-and-functions
#11
REVIEW
Marie-Pierre Gratacap, Julie Guillermet-Guibert, Valérie Martin, Gaëtan Chicanne, Hélène Tronchère, Frédérique Gaits-Iacovoni, Bernard Payrastre
Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) are important signaling enzymes involved in the regulation of a number of critical cell functions. Significant progress has been made during the last few years in defining the implication of individual PI3K isoforms. The role of the class IA PI3Kβ in different cell types has only been recently uncovered by the use of isoform-selective inhibitors and the development of mouse models harboring p110β catalytic subunit knock-out or germline knock-in of a kinase-dead allele of p110β...
2011: Advances in Enzyme Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21035499/the-mechanism-of-contribution-of-integrin-linked-kinase-ilk-to-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-emt
#12
Dorota Gil, Dorota Ciołczyk-Wierzbicka, Joanna Dulińska-Litewka, Karolina Zwawa, James A McCubrey, Piotr Laidler
Integrin linked kinase (ILK) is ubiquitously expressed serine/threonine protein kinase, a binding partner of β1 and β3 integrin subunit as a cytoplasmic effector of integrin receptors that functionally links them to the actin cytoskeleton.We postulate that ILK is important enzyme involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) a critical event in the process of cancer progression. Commonly used EMT molecular markers include among others increased expression of N-cadherin and vimentin, nuclear localization of β-catenin, and the decrease of E-cadherin synthesis...
2011: Advances in Enzyme Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21035498/the-signaling-role-of-inositol-hexakisphosphate-kinases-ip6ks
#13
REVIEW
Cristina Azevedo, Zsolt Szijgyarto, Adolfo Saiardi
The past ten years have seen a contained explosion of interest in inositol pyrophosphates. The early cloning of the IP6Ks and the more recent identification of the PP-IP5Ks have allowed the development of essential experimental tools to investigate the physiological role of inositol pyrophosphates. However, for this exciting field of research to gain momentum, simpler and more reliable research protocols need to be further developed. The ability to resolve and quantify inositol pyrophosphates using gel electrophoresis (Losito et al...
2011: Advances in Enzyme Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21035497/deciphering-the-signaling-pathways-of-cancer-stem-cells-of-glioblastoma-multiforme-role-of-akt-mtor-and-mapk-pathways
#14
Meena Jhanwar-Uniyal, Ladislau Albert, Elise McKenna, Michael Karsy, Priya Rajdev, Alex Braun, Raj Murali
These findings emphasize that the mTOR pathway may contribute to maintenance of quiescence of CSCs, and provide a basis for manipulating CSCs in the treatment of GBM. Future research should focus on further defining the PI3K/Akt/mTOR molecular network in the regulation of stem cell quiescence and provide rationale for targeting the cancer-initiating cells of GBM.
2011: Advances in Enzyme Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21035496/leukotriene-b4-receptors-novel-roles-in-immunological-regulations
#15
REVIEW
Takehiko Yokomizo
Mammals have at least two receptors for LTB4; high-affinity BLT1 and low-affinity BLT2, both of which are GPCRs. 12-HHT serves as a more potent and abundant ligand for BLT2 than LTB4. BLT1 is expressed in a variety of inflammatory and immune cells including granulocytes, eosinophils, macrophages, differentiated Th1, Th2 and Th17 cells, effecter CD8+ T cells, dendritic cells and osteoclasts. BLT1 antagonists will be beneficial for the treatment of various diseases such as bronchial asthma, multiple sclerosis, contact dermatitis, and postmenopausal osteoporosis...
2011: Advances in Enzyme Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21035495/hits-fhits-and-nits-beyond-enzymatic-function
#16
REVIEW
Kay Huebner, Joshua C Saldivar, Jin Sun, Hidetaka Shibata, Teresa Druck
We have briefly summarized what is known about these proteins, but in closing wish to feature the outstanding questions. Hint1 was discovered mistakenly as an inhibitor of Protein Kinase C and designated Pkci, a designation that still confuses the literature. The other Hint family members were discovered by homology to Hint1. Aprataxin was discovered as a result of the hunt for a gene responsible for AOA1. Fhit was discovered through cloning of a familial chromosome translocation breakpoint on chromosome 3 that interrupts the large FHIT gene within an intron, in the FRA3B chromosome region (Ohta et al...
2011: Advances in Enzyme Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21035494/regulation-of-b-cell-survival-development-and-function-by-inositol-1-4-5-trisphosphate-3-kinase-b-itpkb
#17
REVIEW
Stéphane Schurmans, Valérie Pouillon, Yoann Maréchal
In mammals, Ins(1,4,5)P3, the well known calcium mobilization messenger, is phosphorylated in the cytosol at the 3-position of the inositol ring to yield Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 by Ins(1,4,5)P3 3-kinases A, B and C isoforms as well as by inositol polyphosphate multikinase (Ipmk). Studies in gene-deficient mice have revealed that these enzymes and Ins(1,3,4,5)P4, their reaction product, play essential role in multiple physiological processes, ranging from synaptic plasticity, hematopoietic cell survival, development and function, to mRNA export, transcriptional regulation and chromatin remodelling...
2011: Advances in Enzyme Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21035493/diphosphoinositol-polyphosphates-what-are-the-mechanisms
#18
REVIEW
Stephen B Shears, Nikhil A Gokhale, Huanchen Wang, Angelika Zaremba
In countries where adulthood is considered to be attained at age eighteen, 2011 can be the point at which the diphosphoinositol polyphosphates might formally be described as "coming of age", since these molecules were first fully defined in 1993 (Menniti et al., 1993; Stephens et al., 1993b). But from a biological perspective, these polyphosphates cannot quite be considered to have matured into the status of being independently-acting intracellular signals. This review has discussed several of the published proposals for mechanisms by which the diphosphoinositol polyphosphates might act...
2011: Advances in Enzyme Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21035492/involvement-of-human-choline-kinase-alpha-and-beta-in-carcinogenesis-a-different-role-in-lipid-metabolism-and-biological-functions
#19
REVIEW
David Gallego-Ortega, Teresa Gómez del Pulgar, Fátima Valdés-Mora, Arancha Cebrián, Juan Carlos Lacal
We have summarized here the importance of ChoKα1 in human carcinogenesis. ChoKα1 displays its oncogenic activity through activation of specific signaling pathways that influence on cell proliferation and survival. It is overexpressed in a large number of human tumors with an incidence of 40-60% of all tumors investigated. Currently, there is an active effort in the development of strategies to knockdown the activity of ChoKα through specific siRNA or small molecules inhibitors. Results from genetic silencing or from treatment with MN58b, a well characterized ChoKα inhibitor showing antiproliferative and antitumoral effect in mice xenografts, provide strong support to this concept, indicating that the design of new antitumoral drugs must be selective against this isoform...
2011: Advances in Enzyme Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21035491/phosphoinositide-signalling-in-the-nucleus
#20
REVIEW
Willem jan Keune, Yvette Bultsma, Lilly Sommer, David Jones, Nullin Divecha
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2011: Advances in Enzyme Regulation
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