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Eric F LoPresti, Douglass H Morse
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 20, 2017: Ecology
S Pierre, I Hewson, J P Sparks, C M Litton, C Giardina, P M Groffman, T J Fahey
Functional gene approaches have been used to better understand the roles of microbes in driving forest soil nitrogen (N) cycling rates and bioavailability. Ammonia oxidation is a rate limiting step in nitrification, and is a key area for understanding environmental constraints on N availability in forests. We studied how increasing temperature affects the role of ammonia oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) in soil N cycling and availability by using a highly constrained natural mean annual temperature (MAT) elevation gradient in a tropical montane wet forest...
April 18, 2017: Ecology
Lorena Gómez-Aparicio, Jara Domínguez-Begines, Paul Kardol, José M Ávila, Beatriz Ibáñez, Luis V García
Plant-soil feedbacks (PSFs) play a relevant role as drivers of species abundance, coexistence, and succession in plant communities. However, the potential contribution of PSFs to community dynamics in changing forest ecosystems affected by global change drivers is still largely unexplored. We measured the direction, strength and nature (biological vs. chemical) of PSFs experienced by coexisting tree species in two types of declining Quercus suber forests of southwestern Spain (open woodland vs. closed forest) invaded by the exotic soil pathogen Phytophthora cinnamomi...
April 18, 2017: Ecology
Aaron W E Galloway, Alan L Shanks, Scott Groth, Scott R Marion, Andrew R Thurber
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 18, 2017: Ecology
Ilia Rochlin, James T Morris
The 18.6-year lunar-nodal cycle drives changes in tidal amplitude globally, affecting coastal habitat formation, species and communities inhabiting rocky shores, and salt marsh vegetation. However, the cycle's influence on salt marsh fauna lacked sufficient long-term data for testing its effect. We circumvented this problem by using salt marsh mosquito records obtained over a period of over four decades in two estuaries in the northeastern USA. Salt marsh mosquito habitat is near the highest tide level where the impact of the nodal cycle on flood frequency is greatest...
April 18, 2017: Ecology
Torrance C Hanley, David L Kimbro, A Randall Hughes
Environmental perturbations can strongly affect community processes and ecosystem functions by acting primarily as a subsidy that increases productivity, a stress that decreases productivity, or both, with the predominant effect potentially shifting from subsidy to stress as the overall intensity of the perturbation increases. While perturbations are often considered along a single axis of intensity, they consist of multiple components (e.g., magnitude, frequency, and duration) that may not have equivalent stress and/or subsidy effects...
April 18, 2017: Ecology
Hans Ter Steege, Daniel Sabatier, Sylvia Mota de Oliveira, William E Magnusson, Jean-François Molino, Vitor F Gomes, Edwin T Pos, Rafael P Salomão
Species richness estimation is one of the most widely used analyses carried out by ecologists, and nonparametric estimators are probably the most used techniques to carry out such estimations. We tested the assumptions and results of nonparametric estimators and those of a logseries approach to species richness estimation for simulated tropical forests and five datasets from the field. We conclude that nonparametric estimators are not suitable to estimate species richness in tropical forests, where sampling intensity is usually low and richness is high, because the assumptions of the methods do not meet the sampling strategy used in most studies...
April 17, 2017: Ecology
Joseph A LaManna, Thomas E Martin
Increased perceived predation risk can cause behavioral and physiological responses to reduce direct predation mortality, but these responses can also cause demographic costs through reduced reproductive output. Such indirect costs of predation risk have received increased attention in recent years, but the relative importance of direct versus indirect predation costs to population growth (λ) across species remains unclear. We measured direct nest predation rates as well as indirect benefits (i.e. reduced predation rates) and costs (i...
April 12, 2017: Ecology
Florian Raub, Hubert Höfer, Ludger Scheuermann
The data presented here have been collected in the southern part of the Atlantic Forest (Mata Atlântica) in the state of Paraná, Brazil within a bilateral scientific project (SOLOBIOMA). The project aimed to assess the quality of secondary forests of different regeneration stages in comparison with old-growth forests with regard to diversity of soil animals and related functions. The Atlantic Forest is a hotspot of biological diversity with an exceptionally high degree of endemic species, extending over a range of 3,500 km along the coast of Brazil...
April 12, 2017: Ecology
Nathan P Lemoine, Dejeanne Doublet, Juha-Pekka Salminen, Deron E Burkepile, John D Parker
Climate warming can modify plant reproductive fitness through direct and indirect pathways. Direct effects include temperature-driven impacts on growth, reproduction, and secondary metabolites. Indirect effects may manifest through altered species interactions, including herbivory, although studies comparing the interactive effects of warming and herbivory are few. We used experimental warming combined with herbivore exclusion cages to assess the interactive effects of climate warming and herbivory by Popillia japonica, the Japanese beetle, on flowering phenology, growth, defense, and lifetime reproduction of a biennial herb, Oenothera biennis...
April 12, 2017: Ecology
Tyler D Tunney, Stephen R Carpenter, M Jake Vander Zanden
Predicting species responses to perturbations is a fundamental challenge in ecology. Decision makers must often identify management perturbations that are the most likely to deliver a desirable management outcome despite incomplete information on the pattern and strength of food web links. Motivated by a current fishery decline in inland lakes of the Midwestern United States, we evaluate consistency of the responses of a target species (walleye (Sander vitreus)) to press perturbations. We represented food web uncertainty with 196 plausible topological models and applied four perturbations to each one...
April 12, 2017: Ecology
Megan V Ross, Ray T Alisauskas, David C Douglas, Dana K Kellett
A full understanding of population dynamics depends not only on estimation of mechanistic contributions of recruitment and survival, but also knowledge about the ecological processes that drive each of these vital rates. The process of recruitment in particular may be protracted over several years, and can depend on numerous ecological complexities until sexually mature adulthood is attained. We addressed long term declines (23 breeding seasons, 1992-2014) in the per capita production of young by both Ross's geese (Chen rossii) and lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) nesting at Karrak Lake in Canada's central arctic...
April 12, 2017: Ecology
Sara Weinstein, Georgia Titcomb, Bernard Agwanda, Corinna Riginos, Hillary Young
Biodiversity loss can alter disease transmission; however, the magnitude and direction of these effects vary widely across ecosystems, scales, and pathogens. Here we experimentally examine the effects of one of the most globally pervasive patterns of biodiversity decline, the selective loss of large wildlife, on infection probability, intensity and population size of a group of common rodent-borne parasites - macroparasitic helminths. Consistent with previous work on vector-borne pathogens, we found that large wildlife removal causes strong and systematic increases of rodent-borne parasites, largely due to increases in rodent density, as rodents are released from competition with larger herbivores...
April 12, 2017: Ecology
Daniel Nelson, Jonathan P Benstead, Alexander D Huryn, Wyatt F Cross, James M Hood, Philip W Johnson, James R Junker, Gísli M Gíslason, Jón S Ólafsson
A central question at the interface of food-web and climate change research is how secondary production, or the formation of heterotroph biomass over time, will respond to rising temperatures. The metabolic theory of ecology (MTE) hypothesizes the temperature-invariance of secondary production, driven by matched and opposed forces that reduce biomass of heterotrophs while increasing their biomass turnover rate (production:biomass, or P:B) with warming. To test this prediction at the whole community level, we used a geothermal heat exchanger to experimentally warm a stream in southwest Iceland by 3...
April 12, 2017: Ecology
Pedro Joaquim Bergamo, Marina Wolowski, Pietro Kiyoshi Maruyama, Jeferson Vizentin-Bugoni, Luísa G Carvalheiro, Marlies Sazima
Plant species within communities may overlap in pollinators' use and influence visitation patterns of shared pollinators, potentially engaging in indirect interactions (e.g. facilitation or competition). While several studies have explored the mechanisms regulating insect-pollination networks, there is a lack of studies on bird-pollination systems, particularly in species-rich tropical areas. Here, we evaluated if phenotypic similarity, resource availability (floral abundance), evolutionary relatedness and flowering phenology affect the potential for indirect effects via shared pollinators in hummingbird-pollinated plant species within four communities in the Brazilian Atlantic forest...
April 12, 2017: Ecology
Matt L Jones, Josep Ramoneda, Damian W Rivett, Thomas Bell
The number of invaders and the timing of invasion are recognised as key determinants of successful invasions. Despite the recognised importance of 'propagule pressure', invasion ecology has largely focused on how characteristics of the native community confer invasion resistance. We simultaneously manipulated community composition and invader propagule pressure in microcosm communities of freshwater bacteria. We show that high propagule pressures can be necessary to establish an invader population, but that the influence of propagule pressure depends on the composition of the resident species...
April 11, 2017: Ecology
David L Morgan, Ruchira Somaweera, Adrian C Gleiss, Stephen J Beatty, Jeff M Whitty
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 10, 2017: Ecology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 7, 2017: Ecology
Corey E Tarwater, Peter Arcese
Theory predicts that reproduction will change as individuals near the end of their lives by either increasing reproductive allocation (terminal allocation hypothesis) or decreasing allocation (senescence hypothesis) towards the end of life. Although senescence has received more support, few studies examine how both age and years to death influence late-life reproduction. We used a 37-year study of song sparrows (Melospiza melodia) to ask how age and years to death influenced reproductive allocation late in life...
April 7, 2017: Ecology
J Nicholas Hendershot, Quentin D Read, Jeremiah A Henning, Nathan J Sanders, Aimée T Classen
Macroecology seeks to understand broad-scale patterns in the diversity and abundance of organisms, but macroecologists typically study aboveground macroorganisms. Belowground organisms regulate numerous ecosystem functions, yet we lack understanding of what drives their diversity. Here, we examine the controls on belowground diversity along latitudinal and elevational gradients. We performed a global meta-analysis of 325 soil communities across 20 studies conducted along temperature and soil pH gradients. Belowground taxa, whether bacterial or fungal, observed along a given gradient of temperature or soil pH were equally likely to show a linear increase, linear decrease, humped pattern, trough-shaped pattern, or no pattern in diversity along the gradient...
April 5, 2017: Ecology
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