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Ecology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653399/timing-of-stressors-alters-interactive-effects-on-a-coastal-foundation-species
#1
Jillian M Bible, Brian S Cheng, Andrew L Chang, Matthew C Ferner, Kerstin Wasson, Chela J Zabin, Marilyn Latta, Eric Sanford, Anna Deck, Edwin D Grosholz
The effects of climate-driven stressors on organismal performance and ecosystem functioning have been investigated across many systems; however, manipulative experiments generally apply stressors as constant and simultaneous treatments, rather than accurately reflecting temporal patterns in the natural environment. Here, we assessed the effects of temporal patterns of high aerial temperature and low salinity on survival of Olympia oysters (Ostrea lurida), a foundation species of conservation and restoration concern...
June 27, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646625/fluctuating-effects-of-genetic-and-plastic-changes-in-body-mass-on-population-dynamics-in-a-large-herbivore
#2
Gabriel Pigeon, Thomas H G Ezard, Marco Festa-Bianchet, David W Coltman, Fanie Pelletier
Recent studies suggest that evolutionary changes can occur on a contemporary time scale. Hence, evolution can influence ecology and vice-versa. To understand the importance of eco-evolutionary dynamics in population dynamics, we must quantify the relative contribution of ecological and evolutionary changes to population growth and other ecological processes. To date, however, most eco-evolutionary dynamics studies have not partitioned the relative contribution of plastic and evolutionary changes in traits on population, community and ecosystem processes...
June 24, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636183/ordination-with-any-dissimilarity-measure-a-weighted-euclidean-solution
#3
Michael Greenacre
The classical approach to ordination is to use variants of the Euclidean distance to measure differences between samples (e.g. sites in a community study) based on their observation vectors (e.g. abundance counts for a set of species). Examples are: Euclidean distance on standardized or log-transformed data, on which principal component analysis and redundancy analysis are based; chi-square distance, on which (canonical) correspondence analysis is based; and Hellinger distance, using square roots of relative values in each multivariate vector...
June 21, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632944/deconstructing-the-landscape-of-fear-in-stable-multi-species-societies
#4
A E Martínez, E Parra, L F Collado, V T Vredenburg
Animal distributions are influenced by variation in predation risk in space, which has been described as the "landscape of fear." Many studies suggest animals also reduce predation risk by eavesdropping on heterospecific alarm calls, allowing them to occupy otherwise risky habitats. One unexplored area of study is understanding how different species' alarms vary in quality, and how this variation is distributed in the landscape. We tested this phenomenon in a unique system of avian mixed species flocks in Amazonian rainforests: flock mates (eavesdropping species) strongly associate with alarm-calling antshrikes (genus Thamnomanes), which act as sentinel species...
June 20, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632943/habitat-coupling-writ-large-pelagic-derived-materials-fuel-benthivorous-macroalgal-reef-fishes-in-an-upwelling-zone
#5
Felipe Docmac, Miguel Araya, Ivan A Hinojosa, Cristina Dorador, Chris Harrod
Coastal marine upwelling famously supports elevated levels of pelagic biological production, but can also subsidise production in inshore habitats via pelagic-benthic coupling. Consumers inhabiting macroalgae-dominated rocky reef habitats are often considered to be members of a food web fuelled by energy derived from benthic primary production; conversely, they may also be subsidised by materials transported from pelagic habitats. Here, we used stable isotopes (δ(13) C, δ(15) N) to examine the relative contribution of pelagic and benthic materials to an ecologically and economically important benthivorous fish assemblage inhabiting subtidal macroalgae-dominated reefs along ~1000 km of the northern Chilean coast where coastal upwelling is active...
June 20, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632900/native-predator-invasive-prey-trophic-interactions-in-tierra-del-fuego-the-beginning-of-biological-resistance
#6
Simón P Castillo, Ramiro D Crego, Jaime E Jiménez, Ricardo Rozzi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 20, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628212/disturbance-mediated-facilitation-by-an-intertidal-ecosystem-engineer
#7
Jeffrey T Wright, Paul E Gribben
Ecosystem engineers facilitate communities by providing a structural habitat that reduces abiotic stress or predation pressure for associated species. However, disturbance may damage or move the engineer to a more stressful environment, possibly increasing the importance of facilitation for associated communities. In this study we determined how disturbance to intertidal boulders (i. e. flipping) and the subsequent movement of a structural ecosystem engineer, the tube-forming serpulid worm Galeolaria caespitose, from the bottom (natural state, low abiotic stress) to the top (disturbed state, high abiotic stress) surface of boulders influenced the importance of facilitation for intertidal communities across two intertidal zones...
June 19, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628211/germination-phenology-determines-the-propensity-for-facilitation-and-competition
#8
Lindsay D Leverett
A single plant can interact both positively and negatively with its neighbors through the processes of facilitation and competition, respectively. Much of the variation in the balance of facilitation and competition that individuals experience can be explained by the degree of physical stress and the sizes or ages of plants during the interaction. Germination phenology partly controls both of these factors, but its role in defining the facilitation-competition balance has not been explicitly considered. I performed an experiment in a population of the winter annual Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae) to test whether germinating during physically stressful periods leads to facilitation while germinating during periods that promote growth and reproduction leads to competition...
June 19, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628198/pulse-frequency-and-soil-litter-mixing-alter-the-control-of-cumulative-precipitation-over-litter-decomposition
#9
François-Xavier Joly, Kelsey L Kurupas, Heather L Throop
Macroclimate has traditionally been considered the predominant driver of litter decomposition. However, in drylands, cumulative monthly or annual precipitation typically fails to predict decomposition. In these systems, the windows of opportunity for decomposer activity may rather depend on the precipitation frequency and local factors affecting litter desiccation, such as soil-litter mixing. We used a full-factorial microcosm experiment to disentangle the relative importance of cumulative precipitation, pulse frequency, and soil-litter mixing on litter decomposition...
June 19, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628191/abiotic-and-biotic-factors-modulate-carrion-fate-and-vertebrate-scavenging-communities
#10
Kelsey L Turner, Erin F Abernethy, L Mike Conner, Olin E Rhodes, James C Beasley
Carrion is a valuable nutrient resource used by a diversity of vertebrates across the globe. However, vertebrate scavenging ecology remains an understudied area of science, especially in regards to how biotic and abiotic factors influence scavenging community composition. Here we elucidate how fundamental biotic and abiotic factors interact to modulate the efficiency and composition of vertebrate scavengers by investigating scavenging dynamics across a large gradient in carcass sizes and habitat types representative of many temperate ecosystems, as well as between two seasons reflecting differences in invertebrate activity...
June 19, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609566/host-taxonomy-constrains-the-properties-of-trophic-transmission-routes-for-parasites-in-lake-food-webs
#11
Alyssa R Cirtwill, Clement Lagrue, Robert Poulin, Daniel B Stouffer
Some parasites move from one host to another via trophic transmission- the consumption of the parasite (inside its current host) by its future host. Feeding links among free-living species can thus be understood as potential transmission routes for parasites. As these links have different dynamic and structural properties, they may also vary in their effectiveness as trophic transmission routes. That is, some links may be better than others in allowing parasites to complete their complex life cycles. However, not all links are accessible to parasites as most are restricted to a small number of host taxa...
June 13, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609549/non-random-species-loss-in-a-forest-herbaceous-layer-following-nitrogen-addition
#12
Christopher A Walter, Mary Beth Adams, Frank S Gilliam, William T Peterjohn
Nitrogen (N) additions have decreased species richness (S) in hardwood forest herbaceous layers, yet the functional mechanisms for these decreases have not been explicitly evaluated. We tested two hypothesized mechanisms - random species loss (RSL) and non-random species loss (NRSL) - in the hardwood forest herbaceous layer of a long-term, plot-scale fertilization experiment in the central Appalachian Mountains, USA. Using a random thinning algorithm, we simulated changes in species densities under RSL and compared the simulated densities to the observed densities among N-fertilized (+N), N-fertilized and limed (+N+L), and reference (REF) plots in regenerating forest stands...
June 13, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605015/scavengers-that-fit-beneath-a-microscope-lens
#13
Carlos M Herrera
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 12, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600836/an-empirical-examination-of-consumer-effects-across-twenty-degrees-of-latitude
#14
James T Lavender, Katherine A Dafforn, Melanie J Bishop, Emma L Johnston
The strength and importance of consumer effects are predicted to increase towards low latitudes, but this hypothesis has rarely been tested using a spatially consistent methodology. In a consumer-exclusion experiment spanning twenty degrees of latitude along the east Australian coast, the magnitude of consumer effects on assemblage-level metrics of sub-tidal sessile assemblage composition was no greater at low than high latitudes. Across caged and control assemblages, Shannon's diversity, Pielou's evenness and richness of functional groups decreased with increasing latitude, but the magnitude of consumer effects on these metrics did not display consistent latitudinal gradients...
June 10, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599058/the-timing-of-leaf-damage-affects-future-herbivory-in-mountain-sagebrush-artemisia-tridentata
#15
Marshall S McMunn
Many plants respond to herbivory by increasing expression of defensive traits. The defensive response of plants can vary depending on plant condition, seasonality, and time of day. Due to a lack of field-based studies, it is unclear how temporal variability in defensive response may alter future rates of herbivory within ecological communities. In a series of simulated herbivory experiments, I quantified how the timing of leaf damage in mountain sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana) affects future herbivory...
June 9, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590557/declines-in-plant-palatability-from-polar-to-tropical-latitudes-depend-on-herbivore-and-plant-identity
#16
Alyssa M Demko, Charles D Amsler, Mark E Hay, Jeremy D Long, James B McClintock, Valerie J Paul, Erik E Sotka
Long-standing theory predicts that the intensity of consumer-prey interactions declines with increasing latitude, yet for plant-herbivore interactions, latitudinal changes in herbivory rates and plant palatability have received variable support. The topic is of growing interest given that lower-latitude species are moving poleward at an accelerating rate due to climate change, and predicting local interactions will depend partly on whether latitudinal gradients occur in these critical biotic interactions. Here, we assayed the palatability of 50 seaweeds collected from polar (Antarctica), temperate (northeastern Pacific; California), and tropical (central Pacific; Fiji) locations to two herbivores native to the tropical and subtropical Atlantic, the generalist crab Mithraculus sculptus and sea urchin Echinometra lucunter...
June 7, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590554/wet-years-have-more-caterpillars-interacting-roles-of-plant-litter-and-predation-by-ants
#17
Richard Karban, Patrick Grof-Tisza, Marcel Holyoak
Climate is widely recognized as an important factor that affects temporal and spatial patterns of occurrence and abundance of herbivorous insects, although the ecological mechanisms responsible are poorly understood. We found that precipitation and standing water were positively correlated with locations and years of high abundance of caterpillars of the ranchman's tiger moth, Platyprepia virginalis. We analyzed 30 years of survey data and found that the number of large rainfall events was a better predictor of caterpillar abundance than total annual accumulation...
June 7, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585743/intraspecific-variation-shapes-community-level-behavioral-responses-to-urbanization-in-spiders
#18
Maxime Dahirel, Jasper Dierick, Maarten De Cock, Dries Bonte
Urban areas are an extreme example of human-changed environments, exposing organisms to multiple and strong selection pressures. Adaptive behavioral responses are thought to play a major role in animals' success or failure in such new environments. Approaches based on functional traits have proven especially valuable to understand how species communities respond to environmental gradients. Until recently, they have, however, often ignored the potential consequences of intraspecific trait variation (ITV). When ITV is prevalent, it may highly impact ecological processes and resilience against stressors...
June 6, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585719/toward-a-community-ecology-of-landscapes-predicting-multiple-predator-prey-interactions-across-geographic-space
#19
Oswald J Schmitz, Jennifer R B Miller, Anne M Trainor, Briana Abrahms
Community ecology was traditionally an integrative science devoted to studying interactions between species and their abiotic environments in order to predict species' geographic distributions and abundances. Yet for philosophical and methodological reasons it has become divided into two enterprises: one devoted to local experimentation on species interactions to predict community dynamics; the other devoted to statistical analyses of abiotic and biotic information to describe geographic distribution. Our goal here is to instigate thinking about ways to reconnect the two enterprises and thereby return to a tradition to do integrative science...
June 6, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574151/prey-driven-control-of-predator-assemblages-zooplankton-abundance-drives-aquatic-beetle-colonization
#20
Matthew R Pintar, William J Resetarits
Trophic interactions are critical determinants of community structure and ecosystem function. In freshwater habitats, top predators are traditionally viewed as drivers of ecosystem structure, shaping populations of consumers and primary producers. The temporary nature of small water bodies makes them dependent on colonization by many organisms, particularly insects that form highly diverse predator assemblages. We conducted mesocosm experiments with naturally-colonizing populations of aquatic beetles to assess how prey (zooplankton) abundances influenced colonization and assemblages of natural populations of aquatic beetles...
June 2, 2017: Ecology
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