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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328145/short-range-dispersal-maintains-a-volatile-marine-metapopulation-the-brown-alga-postelsia-palmaeformis
#1
Robert T Paine, Eric R Buhle, Simon A Levin, Peter Kareiva
The annual brown alga Postelsia palmaeformis is dependent for its survival on short-distance dispersal (SDD) where it is already established, as well as occasional long-distance colonization of novel sites. To quantify SDD, we transplanted Postelsia to sites lacking established plants within ≥10 m. The spatial distribution of the first naturally produced sporophyte generation was used to fit dispersal kernels in a hierarchical Bayesian framework. Mean dispersal distance within a year ranged from 0.16 to 0...
March 22, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328067/diminishing-returns-limit-energetic-costs-of-climate-change
#2
Ofir Levy, Jason D Borchert, Travis W Rusch, Lauren B Buckley, Michael J Angilletta
Changes in the time available for organisms to maintain physiologically preferred temperatures (thermal opportunity) is a primary mechanism by which climate change impacts the fitness and population dynamics of organisms. Yet, it is unclear whether losses or gains in thermal opportunity result in proportional changes in rates of energy procurement and use. We experimentally quantified lizard food consumption and energy assimilation at different durations of thermal opportunity. We incorporated these data in an individual-based model of foraging and digestion in lizards to explore the implications of nonlinear responses to shifts in thermal opportunity across a wide geographic range...
March 22, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317111/an-experimental-test-of-the-habitat-amount-hypothesis-for-saproxylic-beetles-in-a-forested-region
#3
Sebastian Seibold, Claus Bässler, Roland Brandl, Lenore Fahrig, Bernhard Förster, Marco Heurich, Torsten Hothorn, Fabian Scheipl, Simon Thorn, Jörg Müller
The habitat-amount hypothesis challenges traditional concepts that explain species richness within habitats, such as the habitat-patch hypothesis, where species number is a function of patch size and patch isolation. It posits that effects of patch size and patch isolation are driven by effects of sample area, and thus that the number of species at a site is basically a function of the total habitat amount surrounding this site. We tested the habitat-amount hypothesis for saproxylic beetles and their habitat of dead wood by using an experiment comprising 190 plots with manipulated patch sizes situated in a forested region with a high variation in habitat amount (i...
March 19, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317110/atlantic-frugivory-a-plant-frugivore-interaction-dataset-for-the-atlantic-forest
#4
Carolina Bello, Mauro Galetti, Denise Montan, Marco A Pizo, Tatiane C Mariguela, Laurence Culot, Felipe Bufalo, Fabio Labecca, Felipe Pedrosa, Rafaela Constantini, Carine Emer, Wesley R Silva, Fernanda R da Silva, Otso Ovaskainen, Pedro Jordano
The dataset provided here includes 8320 frugivory interactions (records of pairwise interactions between plant and frugivore species) reported for the Atlantic Forest. The dataset includes interactions between 331 vertebrate species (232 birds, 90 mammals, five fishes, one amphibian and three reptiles) and 788 plant species. We also present information on traits directly related to the frugivory process (endozoochory), such as the size of fruits and seeds and the body mass and gape size of frugivores. Data were extracted from 166 published and unpublished sources spanning from 1961 to 2016...
March 19, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317109/what-if-plant-functional-types-conceal-species-specific-responses-to-environment-study-on-arctic-shrub-communities
#5
Patrick Saccone, Kristiina Hoikka, Risto Virtanen
Plant functional types (PFT) are increasingly used to outline biome-scale plant-environment relationship and predict global change effects on community structure. However, the potentials and limitations of the PFT approach have to be tested as they can be less sensitive than trait-based or species-level approaches. Here, we compare the responses of deciduous-evergreen shrub PFTs and species to gradual snow-related environmental conditions by also considering effects of aboveground architectural traits and neighboring shrubs...
March 19, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317103/outside-the-envelope-rare-events-disrupt-the-relationship-between-climate-factors-and-species-interactions
#6
Katharine L Stuble, Emily Zefferman, Kristina Wolf, Kurt J Vaughn, Truman P Young
The order in which species arrive during community assembly can be an important driver of community composition and function. However, the strength of these priority effects can be variable, in part because of strong site and year effects. To understand how priority effects vary in importance with abiotic conditions, we initiated identical community assembly experiments in which we varied the timing of arrival of native and exotic grass species in each of four years across three grassland sites in northern California...
March 19, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316079/insectivorous-birds-disrupt-biological-control-of-cereal-aphids
#7
Ingo Grass, Katrin Lehmann, Carsten Thies, Teja Tscharntke
Insect-feeding birds may interfere with trophic interactions in plant-insect food webs, which may be particularly important in agroecosystems. Here, we studied how Eurasian tree sparrows (Passer montanus) affect aphids and their predators in cereal fields using bird exclusion experiments. The tree sparrows fed their nestlings with aphid antagonists. Hoverflies and ladybird beetles accounted for 77% of the food for the nestlings during peak aphid density. When birds were excluded, densities of hoverfly larvae, which were the most abundant aphid predator group in the cereals, were 4% higher in wheat and 45% higher in oat, while aphid densities were 24% lower in wheat and 26% lower in oat...
March 17, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316076/provenance-by-environment-interaction-of-reproductive-traits-in-the-invasion-of-spartina-alterniflora-in-china
#8
Wenwen Liu, Donald R Strong, Steven C Pennings, Yihui Zhang
Ecological invasions are facilitated by pre-adaptation and phenotypic plasticity, upon which evolution can act. The rapid invasion of the intertidal grass Spartina alterniflora in China during the last 36 years is a test case for the roles of these mechanisms. A previous study of S. alterniflora in China found strong latitudinal clines in vegetative and sexual traits and concluded that most of this variation was due to phenotypic plasticity. Recent observations suggested provenance by environment interactions, and we employed common gardens at multiple latitudes as a test of this idea...
March 17, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316068/contribution-by-vertebrates-to-seed-dispersal-effectiveness-in-the-gal%C3%A3-pagos-islands-a-community-wide-approach
#9
M Nogales, A González-Castro, B Rumeu, A Traveset, P Vargas, P Jaramillo, J M Olesen, R Heleno
Seed dispersal and seedling recruitment are crucial phases in the life cycle of all spermatophyte plants. The net contribution of seed dispersers to plant establishment is known as seed dispersal effectiveness (SDE) and is defined as the product of a quantitative (number of seeds dispersed) and a qualitative (probability of recruitment) component. In Galápagos, we studied the direct contribution to SDE (number of seeds dispersed and effect on seedling emergence) provided by the five island groups of frugivores (giant tortoises, lizards, medium-sized passerine birds, small non-finch passerine birds and finches) in the two main habitats in this archipelago: the lowland and the highland zones, and found 16 vertebrate species dispersing 58 plant species...
March 17, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295223/spatial-scale-mediates-the-effects-of-biodiversity-on-marine-primary-producers
#10
Matthew E S Bracken, James G Douglass, Valerie Perini, Geoffrey C Trussell
Most studies evaluating the effects of biodiversity on ecosystem functioning are conducted at a single location, limiting our understanding of how diversity-function relationships may change when measured across different spatial scales. We conducted a species-removal experiment at 3 sites nested in each of 3 regions along the rocky intertidal coastline of the Gulf of Maine, USA, to evaluate the potential for scale-dependent effects of species loss on the biomass of intertidal seaweed assemblages. We randomly assigned 50 plots in the mid-intertidal zone at each site to one of 5 treatments (n = 10 plots each): an un-manipulated control, a polyculture plot that contained our 3 target seaweed species, and three monoculture plots...
March 15, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294305/differential-impacts-of-wildfire-on-the-population-dynamics-of-an-old-forest-species
#11
Jeremy T Rockweit, Alan B Franklin, Peter C Carlson
Ecological disturbances shape and maintain natural communities, but climate change and human land use can alter disturbance regimes and affect population persistence and vital rates in unpredictable ways. Species inhabiting landscapes shaped by wildfire have evolved mechanisms allowing them to persist under this dynamic disturbance type, which creates habitats of varying quality for these species. We utilized data from a 26-year demographic study of northern spotted owls to analyze the influence of wildfire on apparent survival and recruitment rates...
March 14, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295286/predicting-coastal-algal-blooms-in-southern-california
#12
John A McGowan, Ethan R Deyle, Hao Ye, Melissa L Carter, Charles T Perretti, Kerri D Seger, Alain de Verneil, George Sugihara
The irregular appearance of planktonic algae blooms off the coast of southern California has been a source of wonder for over a century. Although large algal blooms can have significant negative impacts on ecosystems and human health, a predictive understanding of these events has eluded science, and many have come to regard them as ultimately random phenomena. However, the highly nonlinear nature of ecological dynamics can give the appearance of randomness and stress traditional methods-such as model fitting or analysis of variance-to the point of breaking...
March 10, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273358/estimating-thermal-performance-curves-from-repeated-field-observations
#13
Evan S Childress, Benjamin H Letcher
Estimating thermal performance of organisms is critical for understanding population distributions and dynamics and predicting responses to climate change. Typically, performance curves are estimated using laboratory studies to isolate temperature effects, but other abiotic and biotic factors influence temperature-performance relationships in nature reducing these models' predictive ability. We present a model for estimating thermal performance curves from repeated field observations that includes environmental and individual variation...
March 8, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273353/do-larvae-from-deep-sea-hydrothermal-vents-disperse-in-surface-waters
#14
Takuya Yahagi, Hiromi Kayama Watanabe, Shigeaki Kojima, Yasunori Kano
Larval dispersal significantly contributes to the geographic distribution, population dynamics and evolutionary processes of animals endemic to deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Little is known as to the extent that their larvae migrate vertically to shallower waters and experience stronger currents and richer food supplies. Here, we first provide evidence from early life-history traits and population genetics for the surface dispersal of a vent species. Planktotrophic larvae of a red blood limpet, Shinkailepas myojinensis (Gastropoda: Neritimorpha: Phenacolepadidae), were cultured to observe their swimming behavior and to evaluate the effects of temperature on survival and growth...
March 8, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273346/interactive-effects-of-genotype-and-food-quality-on-consumer-growth-rate-and-elemental-content
#15
Clay Prater, Nicole D Wagner, Paul C Frost
Consumer body stoichiometry is a key trait that links organismal physiology to population and ecosystem-level dynamics. However, as elemental composition has traditionally been considered to be constrained within a species, the ecological and evolutionary factors shaping consumer elemental composition have not been clearly resolved. To this end, we examined the causes and extent of variation in the body phosphorus (P) content and the expression of P-linked traits, mass specific growth rate (MSGR) and P use efficiency (PUE), of the keystone aquatic consumer Daphnia using lake surveys and common garden experiments...
March 8, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273343/fire-disturbance-disrupts-an-acacia-ant-plant-mutualism-in-favor-of-a-subordinate-ant-species
#16
Ryan L Sensenig, Duncan K Kimuyu, Juan Carlos Ruiz Guajardo, Kari E Veblen, Corinna Riginos, Truman P Young
Although disturbance theory has been recognized as a useful framework in examining the stability of ant-plant mutualisms, very few studies have examined the effects of fire disturbance on these mutualisms. In myrmecophyte-dominated savannas, fire and herbivory are key drivers that could influence ant-plant mutualisms by causing complete colony mortality and/or decreasing colony size, which potentially could alter dominance hierarchies if subordinate species are more fire resilient. We used a large-scale, replicated fire experiment to examine long-term effects of fire on acacia-ant community composition...
March 8, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273334/predator-community-composition-is-linked-to-soil-carbon-retention-across-a-human-land-use-gradient
#17
Oswald J Schmitz, Robert W Buchkowski, Jeffrey R Smith, Mark Telthorst, Adam E Rosenblatt
Soil carbon (C) storage is a major component of the carbon cycle. Consensus holds that soil C uptake and storage is regulated by plant-microbe-soil interactions. However, the contribution of animals in aboveground food webs to this process has been overlooked. Using insights from prior long-term experimentation in an old-field ecosystem and mathematical modeling, we predicted that the amount of soil C retention within a field should increase with the proportion of active hunting predators comprising the aboveground community of active hunting and sit-and-wait predators...
March 8, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273333/global-mammal-parasite-database-version-2-0
#18
Patrick R Stephens, Paula Pappalardo, Shan Huang, James E Byers, Maxwell J Farrell, Alyssa Gehman, Ria R Ghai, Sarah E Haas, Barbara Han, Andrew W Park, John P Schmidt, Sonia Altizer, Vanessa O Ezenwa, Charles L Nunn
Illuminating the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of parasites is one of the most pressing issues facing modern science, and is critical for basic science, the global economy and human health. Extremely important to this effort are data on the disease-causing organisms of wild animal hosts (including viruses, bacteria, protozoa, helminths, arthropods and fungi). Here we present an updated version of the Global Mammal Parasite Database, a database of the parasites of wild ungulates (artiodactyls and perissodactyls), carnivores, and primates, and make it available for download as complete flat files...
March 8, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273331/effects-of-native-diversity-soil-nutrients-and-natural-enemies-on-exotic-invasion-in-experimental-plant-communities
#19
Robert W Heckman, Fletcher W Halliday, Peter A Wilfahrt, Charles E Mitchell
Many factors can promote exotic plant success. Three of these factors-greater pressure from natural enemies on natives, increased soil nutrient supply, and low native species richness-may interact during invasions. To test for independent and interactive effects of these drivers, we planted herbaceous perennial communities at two levels of native richness (monocultures and five-species polycultures). We then factorially manipulated soil nutrient supply and access to these communities by aboveground foliar enemies (fungal pathogens and insect herbivores), and allowed natural colonization to proceed for four years...
March 8, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266031/climate-change-may-restrict-dryland-forest-regeneration-in-the-21-st-century
#20
M D Petrie, J B Bradford, R M Hubbard, W K Lauenroth, C M Andrews, D R Schlaepfer
The persistence and geographic expansion of dryland forests in the 21(st) century will be influenced by how climate change supports the demographic processes associated with tree regeneration. Yet, the way that climate change may alter regeneration is unclear. We developed a quantitative framework that estimates forest regeneration potential (RP) as a function of key environmental conditions for ponderosa pine, a key dryland forest species. We integrated meteorological data and climate projections for 47 ponderosa pine forest sites across the western United States, and evaluated RP using an ecosystem water balance model...
March 7, 2017: Ecology
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