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Anesthesia Progress

Elliot Haybarger, Andrew S Young, Joseph A Giovannitti
The incidence of anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reactions has been reported to vary between 1 : 3500 and 1 : 20,000 cases with a mortality rate ranging from 3 to 9%. Clinical signs present as skin rash, urticaria, angioedema, bronchospasm, tachycardia, bradycardia, and hypotension. Rapid identification and treatment are crucial to overall patient prognosis, as delayed intervention is associated with increased mortality. Diagnosis may be confirmed with clinical presentation, serum tryptase levels, and skin test results...
2016: Anesthesia Progress
Takaaki Kamatani, Ayako Akizuki, Seiji Kondo, Tatsuo Shirota
Although cardiac arrhythmias are occasionally associated with dental extractions and dental anesthesia, atrioventricular block is rarely seen during dental procedures. We report a rare case of type I second-degree atrioventricular block (Wenckebach phenomenon) occurring after bilateral extraction of impacted mandibular third molars under general anesthesia in a 16-year-old Japanese girl. Under consultation with a cardiovascular physician, we carefully monitored the patient's vital signs postoperatively, including blood pressure, oxygen saturation, and electrocardiogram, using a bedside monitor...
2016: Anesthesia Progress
Aiji Boku, Mika Inoue, Hiroshi Hanamoto, Aiko Oyamaguchi, Chiho Kudo, Mitsutaka Sugimura, Hitoshi Niwa
Intravenous sedation with propofol is often administered to anxious patients in dental practice. Pain on injection of propofol is a common adverse effect. This study aimed to determine the age-adjusted doses of midazolam required to erase memory of vascular pain of propofol administration and assess whether the Ramsay Sedation Scale (RSS) after the pretreatment of midazolam was useful to predict amnesia of the vascular pain of propofol administration. A total of 246 patients with dental phobia requiring dental treatment under intravenous sedation were included...
2016: Anesthesia Progress
Bernadette Alvear Fa, Steven R Speaker, Alan W Budenz
Complications associated with various local anesthetic techniques have been recorded in case reports and reviews. This current case reports a transient incident of blurred, double vision (diplopia) following a Gow-Gates mandibular block injection. There is descriptive discussion on possibilities associated with intra-arterial injection, intravenous injection, diffusion through tissue planes, and the autonomic nervous system pathway to lend credence suggesting the etiology of the complication. For practitioners, recognizing when a complication arises from anesthesia delivery and managing the patient in an appropriate manner is essential to an overall agreeable outcome...
2016: Anesthesia Progress
Kenji Yoshida, Eri Tanaka, Hiroyoshi Kawaai, Shinya Yamazaki
To obtain effective infiltration anesthesia in the jawbone, high concentrations of local anesthetic are needed. However, to reduce pain experienced by patients during local anesthetic administration, low-pressure injection is recommended for subperiosteal infiltration anesthesia. Currently, there are no studies regarding the effect of injection pressure on infiltration anesthesia, and a standard injection pressure has not been clearly determined. Hence, the effect of injection pressure of subperiosteal infiltration anesthesia on local anesthetic infiltration to the jawbone was considered by directly measuring lidocaine concentration in the jawbone...
2016: Anesthesia Progress
Fathima Peerbhay, Ahmed Mahgoub Elsheikhomer
The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness and recovery times of 0.3 and 0.5 mg/kg intranasal midazolam (INM) administered with a mucosal atomizer device (MAD) in a pediatric emergency dental hospital clinic. One hundred eighteen children aged from 4 to 6 years were randomly administered either 0.3 or 0.5 mg/kg INM via an MAD in a triple-blinded randomized controlled trial. Sedation was achieved to some degree in 100% of the sample. The pulse rate and oxygen saturation were within the normal range in 99% of the patients...
2016: Anesthesia Progress
Makoto Maeno, Ken-Ichi Fukuda, Toyoaki Sakamoto, Yoshihiko Koukita, Tatsuya Ichinohe
Although several adjuncts to the general anesthetic propofol have been proposed, there is insufficient research identifying the ideal agent, and in what dosage, to combine with propofol in dental outpatient anesthesia. Here we examined the combination of remifentanil or nitrous oxide and propofol in patients with severe dental avoidance undergoing dental treatment in the outpatient setting. Eighty patients were randomized to 4 groups and administered propofol/saline solution (PS; n = 20), propofol/remifentanil 0...
2016: Anesthesia Progress
Steven Ganzberg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Anesthesia Progress
James Tom
The prevalence of cardiovascular implantable electronic devices as life-prolonging and life-saving devices has evolved from a treatment of last resort to a first-line therapy for an increasing number of patients. As these devices become more and more popular in the general population, dental providers utilizing instruments and medications should be aware of dental equipment and medications that may affect these devices and understand the management of patients with these devices. This review article will discuss the various types and indications for pacemakers and implantable cardioverter-defibrillators, common drugs and instruments affecting these devices, and management of patients with these devices implanted for cardiac dysrhythmias...
2016: Anesthesia Progress
Nobuhito Kamekura, Yukie Nitta, Shigeru Takuma, Toshiaki Fujisawa
We report the successful management of general anesthesia for a patient with Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD). PMD is one of a group of progressive, degenerative disorders of the cerebral white matter. The typical clinical manifestations of PMD include psychomotor retardation, nystagmus, abnormal muscle tone, seizures, and cognitive impairment. General anesthesia for a patient with PMD may be difficult mainly because of seizures and airway complications related to poor pharyngeal muscle control. In addition, the possibility of exacerbation of spasticity should be considered...
2016: Anesthesia Progress
Kevin T Wolf, Everett J Brokaw, Andrea Bell, Anita Joy
A sound knowledge of anatomical variations that could be encountered during surgical procedures is helpful in avoiding surgical complications. The current article details anomalous morphology of inferior alveolar nerves encountered during routine dissection of the craniofacial region in the Gross Anatomy laboratory. We also report variations of the lingual nerves, associated with the inferior alveolar nerves. The variations were documented and a thorough review of literature was carried out. We focus on the variations themselves, and the clinical implications that these variations present...
2016: Anesthesia Progress
Naohiro Ohshita, Saeko Oka, Kaname Tsuji, Hiroaki Yoshida, Shosuke Morita, Yoshihiro Momota, Yasuo M Tsutsumi
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMTD) is a hereditary peripheral neuropathy and is characterized by progressive muscle atrophy and motor-sensory disorders in all 4 limbs. Most reports have indicated that major challenges with general anesthetic administration in CMTD patients are the appropriate use of nondepolarizing muscle relaxants and preparation for malignant hyperthermia in neuromuscular disease. Moderate sedation may be associated with the same complications as those of general anesthesia, as well as dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system, reduced perioperative respiratory function, difficulty in positioning, and sensitivity to intravenous anesthetic agents...
2016: Anesthesia Progress
Mikiko Yamashiro, Shuichi Hashimoto, Asako Yasuda, Katsuhisa Sunada
Pulpal anesthesia success rates for ropivacaine following maxillary infiltration anesthesia seem to be low. We investigated the hypothesis that the addition of epinephrine would affect the pharmacokinetics of ropivacaine by retaining ropivacaine in the mucosa of the injected area through the time-dependent distribution of ropivacaine in the rat maxilla and serum following maxillary infiltration anesthesia using (3)H-labeled ropivacaine. We then examined the vasoactivity of ropivacaine with or without epinephrine on local peripheral blood flow...
2016: Anesthesia Progress
Shigeru Maeda, Yumiko Tomoyasu, Hitoshi Higuchi, Yuka Honda, Minako Ishii-Maruhama, Takuya Miyawaki
Sedation may minimize physiologic and behavioral stress responses. In our facility, the infusion rate of propofol is adjusted according to the bispectral index (BIS) in all cases of implant-related surgery; multivariate analysis of retrospective data enabled us to extract independent factors that affect the dose of propofol in sedation that are considered useful indicators for achieving adequate sedation. The study population comprised all patients undergoing implant-related surgery under intravenous sedation in Okayama University Hospital from April 2009 to March 2013...
2016: Anesthesia Progress
Kentaro Nogami, Shogo Taniguchi, Tomoko Ichiyama
The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between basic life support skills in dentists who had completed the American Heart Association's Basic Life Support (BLS) Healthcare Provider qualification and time since course completion. Thirty-six dentists who had completed the 2005 BLS Healthcare Provider course participated in the study. We asked participants to perform 2 cycles of cardiopulmonary resuscitation on a mannequin and evaluated basic life support skills. Dentists who had previously completed the BLS Healthcare Provider course displayed both prolonged reaction times, and the quality of their basic life support skills deteriorated rapidly...
2016: Anesthesia Progress
Arthur C DiMarco, Ann O'Kelley Wetmore
A randomized, nonblinded clinical trial compared the effectiveness of an application method of a fast-acting refrigerant topical agent to a 20% benzocaine gel topical. In a split-mouth design, right and left anterior middle superior alveolar injections (N = 30) were administered with a 27-gauge needle at least 24 hours apart with preinjection topicals. Using a cotton-tipped applicator, a refrigerant topical was applied for 5 seconds and 20% benzocaine gel for 2 minutes on opposite sides at 2 separate appointments...
2016: Anesthesia Progress
Steven Ganzberg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Anesthesia Progress
Mary Satuito, James Tom
Nitrous oxide and the volatile inhalational anesthetics have defined anxiety and pain control in both dentistry and medicine for over a century. From curious experimentation to spectacular public demonstrations, the initial work of 2 dentists, Horace Wells and William T. G. Morton, persists to this day in modern surgery and anesthesia. This article reviews the history, similarities, differences, and clinical applications of the most popular inhalational agents used in contemporary dental surgical settings.
2016: Anesthesia Progress
Sean Thoms, Matthew Cooke, James Crawford
Patients with multiple comorbid conditions visit the dental office every day, and although rare, complications from their conditions may occur during treatment. A case is presented of a 65-year-old African American woman with a history of severe cardiovascular disease, renal disease, and a reported local anesthetic allergy who experienced complete cardiovascular collapse during routine dental treatment from which she was successfully resuscitated. Treating clinicians should recognize the emerging symptoms and be proficient with a basic and advanced cardiac life support protocol to care for their patients safely and effectively until they can be transported to more advanced care facilities...
2016: Anesthesia Progress
Mitsuhiro Yoshida, Toru Yamamoto, Shunji Shiiba, Nozomu Harano, Teppei Sago, Masahito Nunomaki, Seiji Watanabe
Takayasu arteritis is a rare chronic progressive panendarteritis involving the aorta and its main branches. Anesthesia in patients with this disease can be complicated by severe uncontrolled hypertension, end-organ dysfunction, and stenosis of major blood vessels. In this case, general anesthesia was induced with sevoflurane and remifentanil without complications. To prevent intraoperative complications, we conducted intubation with a rigid video laryngoscope with careful consideration of the concentrations of analgesics and sedatives used...
2016: Anesthesia Progress
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