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Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30415290/cognitive-perceptual-load-modulates-hand-selection-in-left-handers-to-a-greater-extent-than-in-right-handers
#1
Jiali Liang, Krista M Wilkinson, Robert L Sainburg
Previous studies have proposed that selecting which hand to use for a reaching task appears to be modulated by a factor described as "task difficulty," defined by either the requirement for spatial precision or movement sequences. However, we previously reported that analysis of the movement costs associated with even simple movements plays a major role in hand selection. We further demonstrated, in right-handers, that cognitive-perceptual loading modulates hand selection by interfering with the analysis of such costs...
November 10, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30413843/cognitive-resilience-after-prolonged-task-performance-an-erp-investigation
#2
Endre Takács, Irén Barkaszi, Anna Altbäcker, István Czigler, László Balázs
Deleterious consequences of cognitive fatigue might be avoided if people respond with increased effort to increased demands. In this study, we hypothesized that the effects of fatigue would be more pronounced in cognitive functions reflecting compensatory effort. Given that the P3a event-related potential is sensitive to the direction and amount of attention allocated to a stimulus array, we reasoned that compensatory effort would manifest in increased P3a amplitudes. Therefore, we compared P3a before (pre-test) and after (post-test) a 2 h long cognitively demanding (fatigue group, n = 18) or undemanding task (control group, n = 18)...
November 9, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30413842/the-dominant-role-of-functional-action-representation-in-object-recognition
#3
Long Ni, Ye Liu, Wenyuan Yu
Action representation of manipulable objects has been found to be involved in object recognition. Recently, studies have indicated the existence of two distinct action systems: functional action specifying how to use an object and structural action concerning how to grasp an object. Despite evidence revealing the systems' anatomical and functional differences, few preceding studies have dissociated their respective roles in object recognition. The present study aimed to tease apart their roles in the recognition of manipulable objects with a priming paradigm...
November 9, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30411222/handedness-modulates-proprioceptive-drift-in-the-rubber-hand-illusion
#4
Harriet Dempsey-Jones, Ada Kritikos
Preference for use of either the left or right hand ('handedness') has been linked with modulations of perception and sensory processing-both of space and the body. Here we ask whether multisensory integration of bodily information also varies as a function of handedness. We created a spatial disparity between visual and somatosensory hand position information using the rubber hand illusion, and use the magnitude of illusory shifts in hand position (proprioceptive 'drift') as a tool to probe the weighted integration of multisensory information...
November 8, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30406817/selective-resetting-position-and-heading-estimations-while-driving-in-a-large-scale-immersive-virtual-environment
#5
Lei Zhang, Weimin Mou
Two experiments investigated how self-motion cues and landmarks interact in determining a human's position and heading estimations while driving in a large-scale virtual environment by controlling a gaming wheel and pedals. In an immersive virtual city, participants learned the locations of five buildings in the presence of two proximal towers and four distal scenes. Then participants drove two streets without viewing these buildings, towers, or scenes. When they finished driving, either one tower with displacement to the testing position or the scenes that had been rotated reappeared...
November 8, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30406395/increased-center-of-pressure-trajectory-of-the-finger-during-precision-grip-task-in-stroke-patients
#6
Junichi Kurihara, Bumsuk Lee, Daichi Hara, Naoto Noguchi, Tsuneo Yamazaki
The aim of this study was to assess the spatial stability of stroke patients while holding a freely movable object. Twenty-two acute stroke patients with mild hand impairment performed a grip and lift task using the thumb and index finger. The displacement of the center of pressure (COP) trajectory, the grip force (GF) and several clinical parameters were monitored. Although the GF was not different between paretic and nonparetic hands, the COP trajectory of the paretic index finger was increased. Moreover, the COP trajectories of the thumb and index finger in hemorrhagic patients were longer than those in ischemic patients...
November 7, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30390101/local-dynamic-stability-in-temporal-pattern-of-intersegmental-coordination-during-various-stride-time-and-stride-length-combinations
#7
Benio Kibushi, Toshio Moritani, Motoki Kouzaki
For the regulation of walking speed, the central nervous system must select appropriate combinations of stride time and stride length (stride time-length combinations) and coordinate many joints or segments in the whole body. However, humans achieve both appropriate selection of stride time-length combinations and effortless coordination of joints or segments. Although this selection of stride time-length combination has been explained by minimized energy cost, it may also be explained by the stability of kinematic coordination...
November 2, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30390100/solo-versus-joint-bimanual-coordination
#8
Peter Dixon, Scott Glover
Understanding the differences between solo and joint action control is an important goal in psychology. The present study represented a novel approach in which participants performed a bimanual finger oscillation task, either alone or in pairs. It was hypothesized that performance of this task relies heavily on attention and utilizes two independent processes that differentially affect solo and joint performance. One process attempts to align the fingers correctly regardless of oscillation speed, and this is reflected in an alignment error evident even at slow oscillations...
November 2, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30386881/-1-5-dissociation-of-somatoparaphrenia-for-the-upper-limb-and-neglect-for-the-lower-limb-following-a-thalamic-stroke-presenting-as-flaccid-hemiparesis-rehabilitation-applications-and-neuroscience-implications
#9
LETTER
Sonika Randev, Orlando Quiroga, Mohammed Islam, Eric L Altschuler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30382323/searching-for-the-inner-self-evidence-against-a-direct-dependence-of-the-self-prioritization-effect-on-the-ventro-medial-prefrontal-cortex
#10
Sarah Schäfer, Christian Frings
The processing of self-referential material is supposed to be located in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and in particular in the ventro-medial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC). A reliable method to assess effects of self-relevance is the so-called matching paradigm in which the prioritization of newly learned self-associations in comparison to non-self-relevant associations can be measured. To assess the connection of activation in the VMPFC and self-referential processing, we measured the self-prioritization effect (SPE) before and after experimentally manipulating activation in the VMPFC...
October 31, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30382322/muscular-effort-differentially-mediates-perception-of-heaviness-and-length-via-dynamic-touch
#11
Madhur Mangalam, James D Conners, Tarkeshwar Singh
Our ability to perceive properties of handheld objects (e.g., heaviness, orientation, length, width, and shape) by wielding via dynamic touch is crucial for tooling and other forms of object manipulation-activities that are the basis of much human experience. Here, we investigated how muscular effort mediates perception of heaviness and length via dynamic touch. Twelve participants wielded nine occluded elongated objects of distinct moments of inertia and reported their perceptual judgments of heaviness and length...
October 31, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30377711/age-differences-in-arm-trunk-coordination-during-trunk-assisted-reaching
#12
Sajida Khanafer, Heidi Sveistrup, Mindy F Levin, Erin K Cressman
Reaching for an object is a basic motor skill that requires precise coordination between elbow, shoulder and trunk motion. The purpose of this research study was to examine age-related differences in compensatory arm-trunk coordination during trunk-assisted reaching. To engage the arm and trunk, an older and younger group of participants were asked to (1) maintain a fixed hand position while flexing forward at the trunk [stationary hand task (SHT)] and (2) reach to a within-arm's reach target while simultaneously flexing forward at the trunk [reaching hand task (RHT)] (Raptis et al...
October 30, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30377710/voluntary-and-electrically-induced-muscle-fatigue-differently-affect-postural-control-mechanisms-in-unipedal-stance
#13
Hachard Betty, Noe Frédéric, Catherine Antony, Zeronian Sacha, Paillard Thierry
The repetition of muscle contractions is likely to generate fatigue which can provoke alterations of postural control. Regulatory mechanisms can be triggered to counteract these alterations. However, these mechanisms would occur only when fatigue is induced through voluntary (VOL) contractions and not with electrically stimulated (ES) contractions. Hence the aim was to compare the effects of VOL and ES fatiguing contractions inducing a similar level of strength loss on unipedal postural control (assessed by means of force platform and EMG measurements), maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and central activation ratio (CAR) to characterize the alterations induced by both modalities of fatigue and the associated regulatory mechanisms...
October 30, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30374785/cognitive-load-and-emotional-processing-in-psoriasis-a-thermal-imaging-study
#14
Maria Serena Panasiti, Giorgia Ponsi, Bianca Monachesi, Luigi Lorenzini, Vincenzo Panasiti, Salvatore Maria Aglioti
Psoriasis is a chronic dermatologic disease which is frequently associated with psychological distress. Although studies suggest a relationship between this condition and difficulties in emotion regulation, behavioral and physiological evidence about this link is scarce. We measured implicit emotion regulation abilities of psoriasis patients and a healthy control group by examining the impact of distracting emotional (positive, negative or neutral) images on a working memory task ("Emotional N-Back") which could present high (2-back) or low (1-back) cognitive workload...
October 29, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30374784/touch-induced-pupil-size-reflects-stimulus-intensity-not-subjective-pleasantness
#15
Roel van Hooijdonk, Sebastiaan Mathot, Evelien Schat, Hannah Spencer, Stefan van der Stigchel, H Chris Dijkerman
Interpersonal touch is known to influence human communication and emotion. An important system for interpersonal touch is the C-tactile (CT) system, which is activated by a soft stroke on hairy skin with a velocity of 1-10 cms-1 . This system been proposed to play a unique role in hedonic valence and emotion of touch. For other sensory modalities, hedonic processing has been associated with pupil dilation. However, it is unclear whether pupil dilation can be modulated by hedonic touch. The current study investigated in two experiments how pupil size reacts to both affective and non-affective stroking...
October 29, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30374783/virtual-auditory-aperture-passability
#16
Christopher Riehm, Anthony Chemero, Paula L Silva, Kevin Shockley
Two experiments investigated (1) the ability of individuals to perceive the passability of apertures that are constructed using two virtual sounds sources and (2) the nature of the perceptual information that is used when determining passability in such a way. In the first experiment, participants judged whether they could successfully walk between two sound sources, heard through headphones, without turning their shoulders. We hypothesized that judgements would be accurate and driven by the detection of a proposed informational variable that relates head rotation, forward locomotion and aperture width...
October 29, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30374782/the-impact-of-maternal-separation-and-isolation-stress-during-stress-hyporesponsive-period-on-fear-retention-and-extinction-recall-memory-from-5-week-to-1-year-old-rats
#17
Pradeep Kumar Mishra, Bindu M Kutty, T R Laxmi
The purpose of the present study was to determine whether age would disrupt fear retention and extinction memory in rats pre-exposed to maternal separation and isolation stress; these rats are called MS rats. MS stress was induced by exposing rat pups into maternal separation followed by isolation stress from peer groups (MS) daily/6 h during stress hyporesponsive period, while controls rats that were undisturbed during this period are called NMS rats. 5, 8, 15 and 52 weeks later, these animals were exposed to classical fear conditioning test by pairing auditory stimulus (conditioned stimulus, CS+) with electric footshock...
October 29, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30368551/anticipatory-and-compensatory-postural-adjustments-in-response-to-loading-perturbation-of-unknown-magnitude
#18
Lin Xie, Jian Wang
In response to sudden postural perturbations, the posture control system uses anticipatory and compensatory postural adjustments (APAs and CPAs) to maintain balance and equilibrium. APAs strengthen as the perturbation magnitude increases, while CPAs remain constant because APAs make the necessary adjustments. However, the magnitude of a postural perturbation cannot always be fully known. This research focused on postural adjustments in response to perturbations with unknown magnitude. Participants caught falling sandbags of three weights on a tray held in their hands...
October 27, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30367192/comparison-of-ion-channel-inhibitor-combinations-for-limiting-secondary-degeneration-following-partial-optic-nerve-transection
#19
Lillian M Toomey, Carole A Bartlett, Maimuna Majimbi, Gopana Gopalasingam, Jennifer Rodger, Melinda Fitzgerald
Following neurotrauma, secondary degeneration of neurons and glia adjacent to the injury leads to further functional loss. A combination of ion channel inhibitors (lomerizine + oxATP + YM872) has been shown to be effective at limiting structural and functional loss due to secondary degeneration. Here we assess efficacy of the combination where oxATP is replaced with Brilliant Blue G (BBG), a more clinically applicable P2X7 receptor inhibitor. Partial optic nerve transection was used to model secondary degeneration in adult female rats...
October 26, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30361773/adaptive-changes-in-automatic-motor-responses-based-on-acquired-visuomotor-correspondence
#20
Yoshihiro Itaguchi, Kazuyoshi Fukuzawa
The present study tested whether remapping of visuomotor correspondence alters automatic motor responses induced by visual stimuli. We hypothesized that the congruency effect, an automatic modulation of motor responses based on stimulus-response congruency, changes in accordance with a new visuomotor correspondence acquired through an adaptation task. To induce visuomotor adaptation, participants performed a tracking task with 30° or 150° rotation of the visual feedback. The congruency effect was evaluated multiple times by a visual response task where participants moved their finger left or right...
October 25, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
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