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Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078359/in-touch-with-mental-rotation-interactions-between-mental-and-tactile-rotations-and-motor-responses
#1
Johannes Lohmann, Bettina Rolke, Martin V Butz
Although several process models have described the cognitive processing stages that are involved in mentally rotating objects, the exact nature of the rotation process itself remains elusive. According to embodied cognition, cognitive functions are deeply grounded in the sensorimotor system. We thus hypothesized that modal rotation perceptions should influence mental rotations. We conducted two studies in which participants had to judge if a rotated letter was visually presented canonically or mirrored. Concurrently, participants had to judge if a tactile rotation on their palm changed direction during the trial...
January 11, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070623/synaptic-contact-between-median-preoptic-neurons-and-subfornical-organ-neurons-projecting-to-the-paraventricular-hypothalamic-nucleus
#2
Hitoshi Kawano
It is known that the median preoptic nucleus (POMe) sends dense projections to the subfornical organ (SFO). However, the functional significance of these projections have not been well discussed. In this electron microscopic study, we investigated the presence of synapses between POMe-derived axon terminals and SFO neurons that project to the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN). After injection of a retrograde tracer, wheat germ agglutinin-conjugated horseradish peroxidase-colloidal gold complex, into the PVN, many labeled neurons were found in the SFO...
January 9, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070622/haptic-feedback-attenuates-illusory-bias-in-pantomime-grasping-evidence-for-a-visuo-haptic-calibration
#3
Jillian Chan, Matthew Heath
Relative visual information has been shown to mediate grasping responses directed to an area previously occupied by a target object (i.e., pantomime-grasping) and is an information type functionally distinct from the absolute visual information supporting naturalistic grasping (i.e., grasping a physical target). Pantomime- and naturalistic grasps differ not only in terms of their visual properties, but also because the former lacks physical interaction with a target object (i.e., no-haptic feedback). The absence of haptic feedback may represent a reason why pantomime- and naturalistic grasps differ...
January 9, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032141/vestibular-control-of-standing-balance-is-enhanced-with-increased-cognitive-load
#4
Michael A McGeehan, Marjorie H Woollacott, Brian H Dalton
When cognitive load is elevated during a motor task, cortical inhibition and reaction time are increased; yet, standing balance control is often unchanged. This disconnect is likely explained by compensatory mechanisms within the balance system such as increased sensitivity of the vestibulomotor pathway. This study aimed to determine the effects of increased cognitive load on the vestibular control of standing balance. Participants stood blindfolded on a force plate with their head facing left and arms relaxed at their sides for two trials while exposed to continuous electrical vestibular stimulation (EVS)...
December 28, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032140/verbal-and-visual-divergent-thinking-in-aging
#5
Massimiliano Palmiero, Raffaella Nori, Laura Piccardi
According to the peak and decline model divergent thinking declines at a specific age (in or after middle age). However, if divergent thinking declines steadily in aging still has to be clarified. In order to explore the age-related changes in verbal and visual divergent thinking, in the present study a sample of 159 participants was divided in five age groups: young adults (18-35 years), middle-aged adults (36-55), young old (56-74), old (75-85) and the oldest-old (86-98). Two divergent thinking tasks were administered: the alternative uses for cardboard boxes, aimed at assessing verbal ideational fluency, flexibility and originality; the completion drawing task, aimed at assessing visual ideational fluency, flexibility and originality...
December 28, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032139/format-change-and-semantic-relatedness-effects-on-the-erp-correlates-of-recognition-old-pairs-new-pairs-different-stories
#6
Fabrice Guillaume, Sophia Baier, Mélanie Bourgeois, Sophie Tinard
In this event-related potential (ERP) study, we investigated the effects of format change and semantic relatedness in a recognition task using pairs composed of a word and a line drawing. The semantic relatedness of the pairs (related: rabbit-carrot; unrelated: duck-artichoke) influenced their associative properties and corresponding distinctiveness, while format change refers to the switching of an item from the verbal form to the line drawing form between study and recognition (e.g., the word "egg" is associated with a drawing of a hen at study, and a line drawing of an egg is associated with the word "hen" at test)...
December 28, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028583/syncopation-affects-free-body-movement-in-musical-groove
#7
Maria A G Witek, Tudor Popescu, Eric F Clarke, Mads Hansen, Ivana Konvalinka, Morten L Kringelbach, Peter Vuust
One of the most immediate and overt ways in which people respond to music is by moving their bodies to the beat. However, the extent to which the rhythmic complexity of groove-specifically its syncopation-contributes to how people spontaneously move to music is largely unexplored. Here, we measured free movements in hand and torso while participants listened to drum-breaks with various degrees of syncopation. We found that drum-breaks with medium degrees of syncopation were associated with the same amount of acceleration and synchronisation as low degrees of syncopation...
December 27, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999893/lifespan-development-of-the-bilateral-deficit-in-a-simple-reaction-time-task
#8
Solveig Vieluf, Gisa Aschersleben, Stefan Panzer
Performing an action at a maximum speed or with a maximum strength simultaneously with two limbs leads to a lower performance than the sum of unimanual performances. This phenomenon is known as bilateral deficit. There is some evidence that the bilateral deficit changes over the lifespan, in a way that children and older adults show lower deficits than young adults. Inverse developmental changes of childrens' and older adults' brain structures connecting both hemispheres, i.e., the corpus callosum, might importantly contribute to this phenomenon...
December 20, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999892/electromyographic-assessment-of-paratonia
#9
Lucio Marinelli, Laura Mori, Matteo Pardini, David Beversdorf, Leonardo Cocito, Antonio Currà, Francesco Fattapposta, Maria Felice Ghilardi, Giovanni Abbruzzese, Carlo Trompetto
Many years after its initial description, paratonia remains a poorly understood concept. It is described as the inability to relax muscles during muscle tone assessment with the subject involuntary facilitating or opposing the examiner. Although related to cognitive impairment and frontal lobe function, the underlying mechanisms have not been clarified. Moreover, criteria to distinguish oppositional paratonia from parkinsonian rigidity or spasticity are not yet available. Paratonia is very frequently encountered in clinical practice and only semi-quantitative rating scales are available...
December 20, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942764/increased-inter-hemispheric-resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-acute-lacunar-stroke-patients-with-aphasia
#10
Haiqing Yang, Lin Bai, Yi Zhou, Shan Kang, Panpan Liang, Lihua Wang, Yifei Zhu
Aphasia is a devastating neurological condition affecting a person's ability to communicate and reintegrate into the society. It may occur in 20% or more of patients after stroke. The recovery of language function is accompanied by brain reorganization, and identifying the inter-hemispheric interaction post-stroke will conduce to more targeted treatments. Previous studies suggested that robust homotopic resting-state functional connectivity is a key characteristic of the brain's intrinsic functional architecture, and communication between the left and right cerebral hemispheres is important for language processing...
December 10, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942763/changes-in-movement-organization-and-control-strategies-when-learning-a-biomechanically-constrained-gait-pattern-racewalking-a-pca-study
#11
L Majed, A M Heugas, I A Siegler
Combining advances from gait analysis and motor learning fields, this study aims to examine invariant characteristics and practice-related changes in the control of walking gait when learning a biomechanically constrained pattern, racewalking (RW). RW's regulation imposes a straightened knee at the stance phase which differentiates it qualitatively from normal walking. Using 3D motion analysis, we computed key kinematic variables from a whole-body model. Principal component analysis was then used as a tool to evaluate the evolution of normal walking synergies (S0) immediately at the first practice session (S1) and further with practice (S1-S4)...
December 10, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933358/embodiment-and-the-origin-of-interval-timing-kinematic-and-electromyographic-data
#12
Caspar Addyman, Sinead Rocha, Lilian Fautrelle, Robert M French, Elizabeth Thomas, Denis Mareschal
Recent evidence suggests that interval timing (the judgment of durations lasting from approximately 500 ms. to a few minutes) is closely coupled to the action control system. We used surface electromyography (EMG) and motion capture technology to explore the emergence of this coupling in 4-, 6-, and 8-month-olds. We engaged infants in an active and socially relevant arm-raising task with seven cycles and response period. In one condition, cycles were slow (every 4 s); in another, they were fast (every 2 s)...
December 9, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933357/bilateral-increases-in-erk-activation-at-the-spinomedullary-junction-region-by-acute-masseter-muscle-injury-during-temporomandibular-joint-inflammation-in-the-rats
#13
Masayuki Kurose, Hiroki Imbe, Yosuke Nakatani, Mana Hasegawa, Noritaka Fujii, Ritsuo Takagi, Kensuke Yamamura, Emiko Senba, Keiichiro Okamoto
We determined the role of persistent monoarthritis of temporomandibular joint region (TMJ) on bilateral masseter muscle (MM) nociception in male rats using orofacial nocifensive behaviors, phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase and Fos induction at the trigeminal subnucleus caudalis/upper cervical spinal cord (Vc/C2) region in response to formalin injection to the MM region. TMJ inflammation was induced by local injection of CFA into the left TMJ region. Orofacial nocifensive behaviors evoked by formalin injection ipsilateral or contralateral to the TMJ inflammation appeared to be increased at 1-14 days or at 1, 10 and 14 days after induction of TMJ inflammation, respectively, while increases in behavioral duration were seen mainly in the late phase rather than the early phase...
December 8, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915368/touch-contingent-visual-motion-perception-tactile-events-drive-visual-motion-perception
#14
Ryo Teraoka, Wataru Teramoto
It has recently been demonstrated that the brain rapidly forms an association between concurrently presented sound sequences and visual motion. Once this association has been formed, the associated sound sequence can drive visual motion perception. This phenomenon is known as "sound-contingent visual motion perception" (SCVM). In the present study, we addressed the possibility of a similar association involving touch instead of audition. In a 9-min exposure session, two circles placed side by side were alternately presented to produce apparent motion in a horizontal direction...
December 3, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915367/the-virtual-reality-head-mounted-display-oculus-rift-induces-motion-sickness-and-is-sexist-in-its-effects
#15
Justin Munafo, Meg Diedrick, Thomas A Stoffregen
Anecdotal reports suggest that motion sickness may occur among users of contemporary, consumer-oriented head-mounted display systems and that women may be at greater risk. We evaluated the nauseogenic properties of one such system, the Oculus Rift. The head-mounted unit included motion sensors that were sensitive to users' head movements, such that head movements could be used as control inputs to the device. In two experiments, seated participants played one of two virtual reality games for up to 15 min. In Experiment 1, 22% of participants reported motion sickness, and the difference in incidence between men and women was not significant...
December 3, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913817/the-contribution-of-response-conflict-multisensory-integration-and-body-mediated-attention-to-the-crossmodal-congruency-effect
#16
Francesco Marini, Daniele Romano, Angelo Maravita
The crossmodal congruency task is a consolidated paradigm for investigating interactions between vision and touch. In this task, participants judge the elevation of a tactile target stimulus while ignoring a visual distracter stimulus that may occur at a congruent or incongruent elevation, thus engendering a measure of visuo-tactile interference (crossmodal congruency effect, CCE). The CCE reflects perceptual, attentional, and response-related factors, but their respective roles and interactions have not been set out yet...
December 2, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909748/temporal-prediction-abilities-are-mediated-by-motor-effector-and-rhythmic-expertise
#17
Fiona C Manning, Jennifer Harris, Michael Schutz
Motor synchronization is a critical part of musical performance and listening. Recently, motor control research has described how movements that contain more available degrees of freedom are more accurately timed. Previously, we demonstrated that stick tapping improves perception in a timing detection task, where percussionists greatly outperformed non-percussionists only when tapping along. Since most synchronization studies implement finger tapping to examine simple motor synchronization, here we completed a similar task where percussionists and non-percussionists synchronized using finger tapping; movement with fewer degrees of freedom than stick tapping...
December 1, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909747/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-tdcs-to-the-supplementary-motor-area-sma-influences-performance-on-motor-tasks
#18
K E Hupfeld, C J Ketcham, H D Schneider
The supplementary motor area (SMA) is believed to be highly involved in the planning and execution of both simple and complex motor tasks. This study aimed to examine the role of the SMA in planning the movements required to complete reaction time, balance, and pegboard tasks using anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), which passes a weak electrical current between two electrodes, in order to modulate neuronal activity. Twenty healthy adults were counterbalanced to receive either tDCS (experimental condition) or no tDCS (control condition) for 3 days...
December 1, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900437/bdnf-and-ltp-ltd-like-plasticity-of-the-primary-motor-cortex-in-gilles-de-la-tourette-syndrome
#19
L Marsili, A Suppa, F Di Stasio, D Belvisi, N Upadhyay, I Berardelli, M Pasquini, S Petrucci, M Ginevrino, G Fabbrini, F Cardona, G Defazio, A Berardelli
Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is characterized by motor and vocal tics and often associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Responses to intermittent/continuous theta-burst stimulation (iTBS/cTBS), which probe long-term potentiation (LTP)-/depression (LTD)-like plasticity in the primary motor cortex (M1), are reduced in GTS. ITBS-/cTBS-induced M1 plasticity can be affected by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) polymorphism. We investigated whether the BDNF polymorphism influences iTBS-/cTBS-induced LTP-/LTD-like M1 plasticity in 50 GTS patients and in 50 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects...
November 30, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900397/noradrenaline-receptor-mechanisms-modulate-the-angiotensin-ii-induced-water-intake-in-the-subfornical-organ-in-rats
#20
Makoto Takahashi, Junichi Tanaka
The present study was carried out to clarify the role of noradrenergic systems in the mediation of drinking response to angiotensin II (ANG II) in the rat subfornical organ (SFO). Microinjection of ANG II (10 pmol, 50 nl) into the SFO caused a robust drinking response (water volume, 1.8-8.7 ml for 20 min). Injections of either noradrenaline (NA; 0.1, 1 and 10 nmols, 50 nl) into the SFO did not produce a significant water intake. Phenylephrine (Phen; 0.1, 1, 10 nmols, 50 nl), an α1-adrenoceptor agonist, injected into the SFO elicited little drinking in the rats tested (water volume, 0...
November 29, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
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