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Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30242427/the-influence-of-phasic-alerting-on-multisensory-temporal-precision
#1
Qingqing Li, Peiduo Liu, Shunhang Huang, Xiting Huang
The relationship between attention and multisensory integration has attracted the attention of many researchers but remains a topic of debate. As a mechanism that regulates the intensity of attention, little is known regarding whether and how phasic alerting affects multisensory perception. Three experiments and warning cues were employed to investigate the influence of phasic alerting on multisensory temporal processing. Experiments 1 and 2 used a temporal order judgement task and a simultaneity judgement task with audiovisual target stimuli presented at varying stimulus onset asynchronies...
September 21, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30229305/hear-speech-change-your-reach-changes-in-the-left-hand-grasp-to-eat-action-during-speech-processing
#2
Nicole A van Rootselaar, Jason W Flindall, Claudia L R Gonzalez
Research has shown that the kinematic characteristics of right-hand movements change when executed during both speech production and processing. Despite the variety of prehension and manual actions used to examine this relationship, the literature has yet to examine potential movement effects using an action with a distinct kinematic signature: the hand-to-mouth (grasp-to-eat) action. In this study, participants performed grasp-to-eat and grasp-to-place actions in (a) a quiet environment and (b) while processing speech...
September 18, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30220004/body-ownership-and-the-absence-of-touch-approaching-the-rubber-hand-inside-and-outside-peri-hand-space
#3
M Smit, J T H Brummelman, A Keizer, M J van der Smagt, H C Dijkerman, I J M van der Ham
It is widely accepted that the integration of visual and tactile information is a necessity to induce ownership over a rubber hand. This idea has recently been challenged by Ferri et al. (Proc R Soc B 280:1-7, 2013), as they found that sense of ownership was evident by mere expectation of touch. In our study, we aimed to further investigate this finding, by studying whether the mere potential for touch yields a sense of ownership similar in magnitude to that resulting from actually being touched. We conducted two experiments...
September 15, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30218111/the-influence-of-action-outcome-contingency-on-motivation-from-control
#4
Tegan Penton, Xingquan Wang, Michel-Pierre Coll, Caroline Catmur, Geoffrey Bird
The sense of agency is defined as one's sense of control over one's actions and their consequences. A recent theory, the control-based response selection framework (Karsh and Eitam, Motivation from control: a response selection framework. The sense of agency, Oxford University Press, New York, 2015a), suggests that actions associated with a high sense of agency are intrinsically rewarding and thus motivate response selection. Previous studies support this theory by demonstrating that factors impacting on sense of agency (e...
September 14, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30209517/the-neural-correlates-of-flow-experience-explored-with-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation
#5
Martin Ulrich, Johannes Niemann, Markus Boland, Thomas Kammer, Filip Niemann, Georg Grön
The experience of flow ensues when humans engage in a demanding task while task demands are balanced with the individual's level of skill or ability. Here, we further tested the hypothesis that the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) plays a causal role in mediating flow experience using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to interfere with MPFC's deactivation evoked by a flow paradigm and measured by magnetic resonance (MR)-based perfusion imaging. In a balanced, within-subjects repeated measure design, three treatments of tDCS (sham, anodal, cathodal) were applied in a sample of 22 healthy male participants...
September 12, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30209516/inhibition-of-vection-by-grasping-an-object
#6
Masaki Mori, Takeharu Seno
The present study investigated whether vection could be modified by an object grasping movement. Twenty-five university students were asked to do one of the following four types of left-hand movements while they were viewing a radial optic flow: (1) grasping the hand-gripper strongly; (2) holding the hand-gripper; (3) clenching fist strongly; and (4) open hand without having anything in their left hands (normal hand condition). The participants' tasks were to keep pressing a button with their right hands while they were perceiving vection...
September 12, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30206669/a-3-adenosine-receptor-agonist-attenuates-neuropathic-pain-by-suppressing-activation-of-microglia-and-convergence-of-nociceptive-inputs-in-the-spinal-dorsal-horn
#7
Ryuji Terayama, Mitsuyasu Tabata, Kotaro Maruhama, Seiji Iida
Peripheral nerve injuries cause glial activation and neuronal hyperactivity in the spinal dorsal horn. These changes have been considered to be involved in the underlying mechanisms for the development and maintenance of neuropathic pain. Using double immunofluorescence labeling, we previously demonstrated that spinal microglial activation induced by nerve injury enhanced convergence of nociceptive inputs in the spinal dorsal horn from uninjured afferents. The adenosine A3 receptor (A3 AR) agonists have been shown to have antinociceptive activities in several experimental neuropathic pain models...
September 11, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30191261/adaptation-to-visual-feedback-delays-on-touchscreens-with-hand-vision
#8
Elie Cattan, Pascal Perrier, François Bérard, Silvain Gerber, Amélie Rochet-Capellan
Direct touch finger interaction on a smartphone or a tablet is now ubiquitous. However, the latency inherent in digital computation produces an average feedback delay of ~ 75 ms between the action of the hand and its visible effect on digital content. This delay has been shown to affect users' performance, but it is unclear whether users adapt to this delay and whether it influences skill learning. Previous work studied adaptation to feedback delays but only for longer delays, with hidden hand or indirect devices...
September 6, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30182273/keeping-your-eye-on-the-target-eye-hand-coordination-in-a-repetitive-fitts-task
#9
S de Vries, R Huys, P G Zanone
In a cyclical Fitts' task, hand movements transition from continuous to discrete movements when the Index of Difficulty (ID) increases. Moreover, at high ID (small target), the eyes saccade to and subsequently fixate the targets at every movement, while at low ID (large target) intermittent monitoring is used. By hypothesis, the (periodic) gaze shifts are abandoned for movement times shorter than about 0.350 s due to systemic constraints (i.e., a refractory period and intrinsic latency). If so, the transition in eye and hand movements is independent...
September 4, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30178123/avoidance-behaviours-of-young-adults-during-a-head-on-collision-course-with-an-approaching-person
#10
Lana M Pfaff, Michael E Cinelli
Individuals use visual information to guide their avoidance behaviours. More specifically, individuals may directly perceive the time prior to colliding with an approaching obstacle (i.e., time to contact, TTC) to determine when to avoid. In addition, individuals use body-scaled information to control their movements. These avoidance behaviours differ when avoiding a human obstacle compared to an inanimate object. As such, the purpose of this experiment was to examine the avoidance behaviours of individuals during a head-on collision course with an approaching person...
September 3, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30178122/rational-civil-servant-interviewers-evidence-from-an-event-related-potential-study-of-beauty-premiums-in-chinese-civil-servant-interviews
#11
Bonai Fan, Menglin Zhao, Jia Jin, Hao Ding, Qingguo Ma
Physical attractiveness can greatly influence business job applications (the "beauty premium" effect). However, little is known about whether and how physical attractiveness influences interviewers' evaluations of Chinese civil servant applicants, given that many characteristics of civil service appear to be different from those of business jobs. Using event-related potentials (ERPs), the current study investigated how female job candidates' physical attractiveness influenced interviewers' evaluations in Chinese civil servant interviews for both technical and managerial positions...
September 3, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30159590/effects-of-auditory-feedback-on-movements-with-two-segment-sequence-and-eye-hand-coordination
#12
Miya K Rand
The present study investigated the effect of auditory feedback on planning and control of two-segment reaching movements and eye-hand coordination. In particular, it was examined whether additional auditory information indicating the progression of the initial reach (i.e., passing the midway and contacting the target) affects the performance of that reach and gaze shift to the second target at the transition between two segments. Young adults performed a rapid two-segment reaching task, in which both the first and second segments had two target sizes...
August 28, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30155563/how-would-you-describe-a-familiar-route-or-put-in-order-the-landmarks-along-it-it-depends-on-your-cognitive-style
#13
Alessia Bocchi, Marco Giancola, Laura Piccardi, Massimiliano Palmiero, Raffaella Nori, Simonetta D'Amico
Cognitive style refers to the preference in perceiving, organizing and remembering information. Different cognitive styles have been identified across the years. Amongst others, field-dependence/independence cognitive style is the extent to which the person perceives part of a field as discrete from the surrounding environment as a whole, rather than embedded in the field. Instead, visualizer/verbalizer cognitive style involves the preference in processing visual versus verbal information. Both cognitive styles can influence navigational behaviour...
August 28, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30159591/high-intensity-exhaustive-exercise-reduces-long-interval-intracortical-inhibition
#14
Thomas J O'Leary, Johnny Collett, Martyn G Morris
The development of fatigue during single-joint isolated muscle contractions is accompanied by an increase in long-interval intracortical inhibition (LICI). However, the effect of whole-body locomotor endurance exercise on LICI is unknown. Eighteen healthy men completed three exercise trials on a cycle ergometer. The first trial was completed to determine the lactate threshold (LT) and maximal oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]). The remaining two trials (familiarisation and experimental) involved cycling to volitional exhaustion at an intensity equivalent to halfway between the LT and [Formula: see text] (50%Δ)...
August 25, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30132042/the-effects-of-instrumental-action-on-perceptual-hand-maps
#15
Matthew R Longo
Perceiving the external spatial location of body parts using position sense requires that immediate proprioceptive afferent signals be integrated with information about body size and shape. Longo and Haggard (Proc Natl Acad Sci 107:11727-11732, 2010) developed a method to measure perceptual hand maps reflecting this metric information about body size and shape. In this paradigm, participants indicate the perceived location of landmarks on their occluded hand by pointing with a long baton held in their other hand...
August 21, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30132041/the-effect-of-task-symmetry-on-bimanual-reach-to-grasp-movements-after-cervical-spinal-cord-injury
#16
Laura Britten, R O Coats, R M Ichiyama, W Raza, F Jamil, S L Astill
Injury to the cervical spinal cord results in deficits in bimanual control, reducing functional independence and quality of life. Despite this, little research has investigated the control strategies which underpin bimanual arm/hand movements following cervical spinal cord injury (cSCI). Using kinematics and surface electromyography this study explored how task symmetry affects bimanual control, in patients with an acute cSCI (< 6 m post injury), as they performed naturalistic bimanual reach-to-grasp actions (to objects at 50% and 70% of their maximal reach distance), and how this differs compared to uninjured age-matched controls...
August 21, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30132040/neural-circuits-activated-by-error-amplification-and-haptic-guidance-training-techniques-during-performance-of-a-timing-based-motor-task-by-healthy-individuals
#17
Marie-Hélène Milot, Laura Marchal-Crespo, Louis-David Beaulieu, David J Reinkensmeyer, Steven C Cramer
To promote motor learning, robotic devices have been used to improve subjects' performance by guiding desired movements (haptic guidance-HG) or by artificially increasing movement errors to foster a more rapid learning (error amplification-EA). To better understand the neurophysiological basis of motor learning, a few studies have evaluated brain regions activated during EA/HG, but none has compared both approaches. The goal of this study was to investigate using fMRI which brain networks were activated during a single training session of HG/EA in healthy adults learning to play a computerized pinball-like timing task...
August 21, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30132039/effects-of-bioengineered-scaffold-loaded-with-neurotrophins-and-locomotor-training-in-restoring-h-reflex-responses-after-spinal-cord-injury
#18
Babitha Tom, Jaclyn Witko, Michel Lemay, Anita Singh
The combinational effects of a bioengineered scaffold loaded with neurotrophins and rehabilitation training on spasticity observed after spinal cord injury (SCI) has not been studied. We used an animal model of moderate contusion injury at T9/T10 that received bioengineered scaffold poly N-isopropylacrylamide-g-poly ethylene glycol (PNIPAAm-g-PEG) loaded with BDNF/NT3 followed by body weight supported treadmill training (BWSTT) and assessed the efficacy of the combinational bioengineered approaches in treating spasticity...
August 21, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30128624/beta-gamma-band-and-high-frequency-coherence-of-emgs-of-vasti-muscles-caused-by-clustering-of-motor-units
#19
Vinzenz von Tscharner, Martin Ullrich, Maurice Mohr, Daniel Comaduran Marquez, Benno M Nigg
The vasti muscles stabilize the knee joint during the running movement. This requires some motor units to synchronize. Test the hypothesis that EMGs from the vasti muscles (VM and VL) are coherent in four frequency bands, one below 30 Hz, the 40 Hz (30-45 Hz), the middle band up to 120 Hz, and the high-frequency band (135-280 Hz). Because the VM during one step and the VL during another step contain common EMG signal parts the inter-step coherence at low frequencies does not disappear when the coherence is computed between the EMGVM obtained from one step and the EMGVL of the previous step...
August 20, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30121740/prefrontal-activation-during-stroop-and-wisconsin-card-sort-tasks-in-children-with-developmental-coordination-disorder-a-nirs-study
#20
Jennifer K Lange Koch, Helga Miguel, Ann L Smiley-Oyen
We used near-infrared spectroscopy to examine dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) activation over time in 10 children with or at-risk-for developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and 11 typically developing children (ages 8-12) during tasks involving executive processing. The groups performed with similar accuracy on the Stroop and Wisconsin card sort (WCST), but their underlying neural activation differed. Typically developing children modulated DLPFC activity over time and showed rightward lateralization during Stroop but no lateralization during WCST...
August 18, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
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