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Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30635704/modulation-of-temporal-resolution-and-speech-long-latency-auditory-evoked-potentials-by-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-in-children-and-adolescents-with-dyslexia
#1
Vida Rahimi, Ghassem Mohamadkhani, Javad Alaghband-Rad, Fatemeh Ranjbar Kermani, Hossien Nikfarjad, Saman Marofizade
In recent years, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been used as a safe and non-invasive method for children and adolescents with dyslexia. Our aim in this study was to investigate the effect of tDCS on variables of temporal resolution and speech long-latency auditory-evoked potentials with two electrode arrays on superior temporal gyrus (STG). A total of 17 children and adolescents with dyslexia (age 9-12 years) were included in our study. All participants underwent the gap in noise (GIN) test and long-latency auditory-evoked potentials recording at baseline without applying tDCS, sham (placebo), and after 20 min of exposure to two different tDCS polarities: anode of tDCS on left STG/cathode on the right shoulder and anode on the left STG/cathode on right STG to enhance left lateralization...
January 12, 2019: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30635703/beyond-rambling-and-trembling-effects-of-visual-feedback-on-slow-postural-drift
#2
Momoko Yamagata, Marta Popow, Mark L Latash
We explored one of the unusual predictions of the concept of back-coupling within the theoretical scheme of the control of posture and movement with setting referent coordinates for the effectors. This concept implies slow drifts of referent coordinates toward actual coordinates leading to unintentional drift in performance. During standing, such slow drifts may lead to a protective step or even a fall and, therefore, corrections are expected leading to body sway at frequencies under 0.1 Hz. Young healthy subjects stood on the force platform quietly for 60 s under two single-task conditions, with eyes open and closed, and two double-task conditions, matching an irrelevant muscle activation signal to a target (MATCH) and performing a subtraction task...
January 11, 2019: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30617745/enhanced-audio-tactile-multisensory-interaction-in-a-peripersonal-task-after-echolocation
#3
Alessia Tonelli, Claudio Campus, Andrea Serino, Monica Gori
Peripersonal space (PPS) is created by a multisensory interaction between different sensory modalities and can be modified by experience. In this article, we investigated whether an auditory training, inside the peripersonal space area, can modify the PPS around the head in sighted participants. The auditory training was based on echolocation. We measured the participant's reaction times to a tactile stimulation on the neck, while task-irrelevant looming auditory stimuli were presented. Sounds more strongly affect tactile processing when located within a limited distance from the body...
January 7, 2019: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30610265/rapid-online-corrections-for-upper-limb-reaches-to-perturbed-somatosensory-targets-evidence-for-non-visual-sensorimotor-transformation-processes
#4
Gerome A Manson, Jean Blouin, Animesh S Kumawat, Valentin A Crainic, Luc Tremblay
When performing upper limb reaches, the sensorimotor system can adjust to changes in target location even if the reaching limb is not visible. To accomplish this task, sensory information about the new target location and the current position of the unseen limb are used to program online corrections. Previous researchers have argued that, prior to the initiation of corrections, somatosensory information from the unseen limb must be transformed into a visual reference frame. However, most of these previous studies involved movements to visual targets...
January 5, 2019: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30610264/change-in-effectivity-yields-recalibration-of-affordance-geometry-to-preserve-functional-dynamics
#5
Xiaoye Michael Wang, Geoffrey P Bingham
Mon-Williams and Bingham (Exp Brain Res 211(1):145-160, 2011) developed a geometrical affordance model for reaches-to-grasp, and identified a constant scaling relationship, P, between safety margins (SM) and available apertures (SM) that are determined by the sizes of the objects and the individual hands. Bingham et al. (J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 40(4):1542-1550, 2014) extended the model by introducing a dynamical component that scales the geometrical relationship to the stability of the reaching-to-grasp...
January 4, 2019: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30610263/corticospinal-excitability-is-enhanced-while-preparing-for-complex-movements
#6
Michael Kennefick, Joel S Burma, Paul van Donkelaar, Chris J McNeil
Movement complexity is known to increase reaction time (RT). More recently, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the motor cortex has revealed that movement complexity can alter corticospinal excitability. However, the impact of a sequential addition of movement components on corticospinal excitability during the preparatory phase of a simple RT task is unknown. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine how motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in the premotor period were affected by the complexity of a movement in a simple RT paradigm...
January 4, 2019: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30607472/adaptation-and-spatial-generalization-to-a-triaxial-visuomotor-perturbation-in-a-virtual-reality-environment
#7
Catherine Lefrançois, Julie Messier
We explored visuomotor adaptation and spatial generalization of three-dimensional reaching movements performed in a virtual reality environment. We used a multiphase learning paradigm. First, subjects performed reaching movements to six targets without visual feedback (VF) (pre-exposure phase). Next, participants aimed at one target with veridical VF (baseline phase). Immediately after, they were required to adapt their movements to a triaxial visuomotor perturbation (horizontal, vertical, and sagittal translations) between actual hand motion and VF of hand motion in the virtual environment (learning phase)...
January 3, 2019: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30607471/use-of-imperceptible-wrist-vibration-to-modulate-sensorimotor-cortical-activity
#8
Na Jin Seo, Kishor Lakshminarayanan, Abigail W Lauer, Viswanathan Ramakrishnan, Brian D Schmit, Colleen A Hanlon, Mark S George, Leonardo Bonilha, Ryan J Downey, Will DeVries, Tibor Nagy
Peripheral sensory stimulation has been used as a method to stimulate the sensorimotor cortex, with applications in neurorehabilitation. To improve delivery modality and usability, a new stimulation method has been developed in which imperceptible random-frequency vibration is applied to the wrist concurrently during hand activity. The objective of this study was to investigate effects of this new sensory stimulation on the sensorimotor cortex. Healthy adults were studied. In a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) study, resting motor threshold, short-interval intracortical inhibition, and intracortical facilitation for the abductor pollicis brevis muscle were compared between vibration on vs...
January 3, 2019: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30604022/the-neural-basis-of-the-senses-of-effort-force-and-heaviness
#9
REVIEW
Uwe Proske, Trevor Allen
Effort, force and heaviness are related terms, having in common that they are all sensations associated with the generation of voluntary muscle contractions. Traditionally they have been thought to originate in the brain, as a result of copies of motor commands relayed to sensory areas. A stumbling block for the central hypothesis has been the lack of proportionality between the fall in muscle force from fatigue or paralysis and the increase in sensation generated while trying to achieve the required force...
January 2, 2019: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30604021/cognitive-style-modulates-semantic-interference-effects-evidence-from-field-dependency
#10
Raffaele Nappo, Cristina Romani, Giulia De Angelis, Gaspare Galati
The so-called semantic interference effect is a delay in selecting an appropriate target word in a context where semantic neighbours are strongly activated. Semantic interference effect has been described to vary from one individual to another. These differences in the susceptibility to semantic interference may be due to either differences in the ability to engage in lexical-specific selection mechanisms or to differences in the ability to engage more general, top-down inhibition mechanisms which suppress unwanted responses based on task-demands...
January 2, 2019: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30604020/community-dwelling-adults-with-a-history-of-falling-report-lower-perceived-postural-stability-during-a-foam-eyes-closed-test-than-non-fallers
#11
E Anson, S Studenski, P J Sparto, Y Agrawal
Perceived postural stability has been reported to decrease as sway area increases on firm surfaces. However, changes in perceived stability under increasingly challenging conditions (e.g., removal of sensory inputs) and the relationship with sway area are not well characterized. Moreover, whether perceived stability varies as a function of age or history of falls is unknown. Here we investigate how perceived postural stability is related to sway area and whether this relationship varies as a function of age and fall history while vision and proprioceptive information are manipulated...
January 2, 2019: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30604019/h-reflex-modulation-preceding-changes-in-soleus-emg-activity-during-balance-perturbation
#12
Zoé Miranda, Annie Pham, Guillaume Elgbeili, Dorothy Barthélemy
When balance is compromised, postural strategies are induced to quickly recover from the perturbation. However, neuronal mechanisms underlying these strategies are not fully understood. Here, we assessed the amplitude of the soleus (SOL) H-reflex during forward and backward tilts of the support surface during standing (n = 15 healthy participants). Electrical stimulation of the tibial nerve was applied randomly before platform tilt (control) and 0, 25, 50, 75, 100 or 200 ms after tilt onset. During backward tilt, a significant decrease in H-reflex amplitude was observed at 75, 100 and 200 ms...
January 2, 2019: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30600336/does-dance-training-influence-beat-sensorimotor-synchronization-differences-in-finger-tapping-sensorimotor-synchronization-between-competitive-ballroom-dancers-and-nondancers
#13
Xinhong Jin, Biye Wang, Yuanxin Lv, Yingzhi Lu, Jiacheng Chen, Chenglin Zhou
Sensorimotor synchronization is the coordination of rhythmic movement with an external beat. Dancers often synchronize each beat of their motion with an external rhythm. Compared with social dancing, competitive ballroom dancing requires a higher level of sensorimotor ability. Although previous studies have found that dance experience may facilitate sensorimotor synchronization, they did not examine this in competitive ballroom dancers. Thus, the present study compared sensorimotor synchronization in 41 nondancers and 41 skilled, competitive ballroom dancers as they performed a simple beat synchronization finger-tapping task...
January 2, 2019: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30560507/correcting-for-natural-visuo-proprioceptive-matching-errors-based-on-reward-as-opposed-to-error-feedback-does-not-lead-to-higher-retention
#14
Irene A Kuling, Anouk J de Brouwer, Jeroen B J Smeets, J Randall Flanagan
When asked to move their unseen hand-to-visual targets, people exhibit idiosyncratic but reliable visuo-proprioceptive matching errors. Unsurprisingly, vision and proprioception quickly align when these errors are made apparent by providing visual feedback of the position of the hand. However, retention of this learning is limited, such that the original matching errors soon reappear when visual feedback is removed. Several recent motor learning studies have shown that reward feedback can improve retention relative to error feedback...
December 17, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30554255/playing-super-mario-increases-oculomotor-inhibition-and-frontal-eye-field-grey-matter-in-older-adults
#15
Moussa Diarra, Benjamin Rich Zendel, Jessica Benady-Chorney, Caroll-Ann Blanchette, Franco Lepore, Isabelle Peretz, Sylvie Belleville, Greg L West
Aging is associated with cognitive decline and decreased capacity to inhibit distracting information. Video game training holds promise to increase inhibitory mechanisms in older adults. In the current study, we tested the impact of 3D-platform video game training on performance in an antisaccade task and on related changes in grey matter within the frontal eye fields (FEFs) of older adults. An experimental group (VID group) engaged in 3D-platform video game training over a period of 6 months, while an active control group was trained on piano lessons (MUS group), and a no-contact control group did not participate in any intervention (CON group)...
December 15, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30552451/power-and-phase-coherence-in-sensorimotor-mu-and-temporal-lobe-alpha-components-during-covert-and-overt-syllable-production
#16
Andrew Bowers, Tim Saltuklaroglu, David Jenson, Ashley Harkrider, David Thornton
The sensorimotor dorsal stream is known to activate in both overt and covert speech production. However, overt production produces sensory consequences that are absent during covert production. Thus, the purpose of the current study is to investigate differences in dorsal stream activity between these two production conditions across the time course of utterances. Electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded from 68 channels while 23 participants overtly (Op) and covertly (Cp) produced orthographically cued bisyllabic targets...
December 14, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30542755/self-face-and-self-body-advantages-in-congenital-prosopagnosia-evidence-for-a-common-mechanism
#17
Manuela Malaspina, Andrea Albonico, Roberta Daini
Prosopagnosia is a disorder leading to difficulties in recognizing faces. However, recent evidence suggests that individuals with congenital prosopagnosia can achieve considerable accuracy when they have to recognize their own faces (self-face advantage). Yet, whether this advantage is face-specific or not is still unclear. Here, we aimed to investigate whether individuals with congenial prosopagnosia show a self-advantage also in recognizing other self body-parts and, if so, whether the advantage for the body parts differs from the one characterizing the self-face...
December 12, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30542754/variable-and-intermittent-grip-force-control-in-response-to-differing-load-force-dynamics
#18
Francis M Grover, Patrick Nalepka, Paula L Silva, Tamara Lorenz, Michael A Riley
A recent study (Grover et al. Exp Brain Res 236(10):2531-2544, 2018) found that the grip force applied to maintain grasp of a hand-held object exhibited intermittent coupling to the changing load forces exerted by the object as it was oscillated. In particular, the strength and consistency of grip force response to load force oscillations was tied to overall load force levels and the prominence of load force oscillations. This contrasts with previous reports of grip force-load force coupling as generally continuous and stable and, therefore, has implications for theoretical accounts of grip force control that are predicated on these prior understandings of the coupling...
December 12, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30539211/judging-risk-magnitude-walking-to-the-left-and-base-jumping-to-the-right
#19
Anne Macnamara, Tobias Loetscher, Hannah A D Keage
When thinking about quantifiable domains such as numbers, pitch, and size, they are implicitly mapped on to representational space with small/low/less and large/high/more of the respective domain represented on the left and right sides of representational space, respectively. Recent research has also demonstrated that more abstract domains (colours, language, political party names) are also mapped in the same way. This study investigated a new abstract domain, risk, to examine if this same pattern of effects is apparent (left = low risk/right = high risk) to get a better understanding of how risk magnitudes are processed...
December 11, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30539210/the-effect-of-light-touch-on-standing-sway-when-the-stability-of-the-external-touch-reference-becomes-unreliable
#20
Megan A Bryanton, Sydney D C Chodan, Jesse Vander Meulen, Keith K Fenrich, John E Misiaszek
Lightly touching a stable reference is associated with sway reduction during standing. Unexpected displacement of the touch reference results in a false-positive balance reaction in some participants, but only with the first such disturbance. This study investigated whether light touch reduces standing sway (1) after the touch reference becomes unreliable, and (2) when participants are aware the touch reference is unreliable. 40 healthy adults, 20 that were naïve to the possibility of a touch reference displacement and 20 that were made aware prior to testing, were asked to stand while lightly touching (< 1 N) a reference with normal vision or vision occluded...
December 11, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
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