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Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785485/peg-manipulation-capabilities-of-middle-aged-adults-have-a-greater-influence-on-pegboard-times-than-those-of-young-and-old-adults
#1
Awad M Almuklass, Daniel F Feeney, Diba Mani, Landon D Hamilton, Roger M Enoka
Declines in manual dexterity are frequently quantified as the time it takes to complete the grooved pegboard test. The test requires individuals to manipulate 25 pegs, one at a time, by removing them from a well and inserting them into a prescribed hole. The manipulation of each peg involves four phases: selection, transport, insertion, and return. The purpose of our study was to compare the times to complete the four phases of peg manipulation and the forces applied to the pegboard during peg insertion as young, middle-aged, and old adults performed the grooved pegboard test...
May 22, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779051/specificity-of-action-selection-modulates-the-perceived-temporal-order-of-action-and-sensory-events
#2
Andrea Desantis, Patrick Haggard, Yuji Ikegaya, Nobuhiro Hagura
The perceived temporal order of actions and changes in the environment is crucial for our inferences of causality. Sensory events presented shortly after an action are more likely considered as self-generated compared to the same events occurring before action execution. However, the estimation of when an action or a sensory change occurred is a challenge for the human brain. This estimation is formed from available sensory information combined with internal representations. Researchers suggested that internal signals associated with action preparation drive our awareness of initiating an action...
May 19, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779050/proprioceptive-loss-and-the-perception-control-and-learning-of-arm-movements-in-humans-evidence-from-sensory-neuronopathy
#3
R Chris Miall, Nick M Kitchen, Se-Ho Nam, Hannah Lefumat, Alix G Renault, Kristin Ørstavik, Jonathan D Cole, Fabrice R Sarlegna
It is uncertain how vision and proprioception contribute to adaptation of voluntary arm movements. In normal participants, adaptation to imposed forces is possible with or without vision, suggesting that proprioception is sufficient; in participants with proprioceptive loss (PL), adaptation is possible with visual feedback, suggesting that proprioception is unnecessary. In experiment 1 adaptation to, and retention of, perturbing forces were evaluated in three chronically deafferented participants. They made rapid reaching movements to move a cursor toward a visual target, and a planar robot arm applied orthogonal velocity-dependent forces...
May 19, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767295/violation-of-expectations-about-movement-and-goal-achievement-leads-to-sense-of-agency-reduction
#4
Riccardo Villa, Emmanuele Tidoni, Giuseppina Porciello, Salvatore Maria Aglioti
The control of one's own movements and of their impact on the external world generates a feeling of control referred to as Sense of Agency (SoA). SoA is experienced when actions match predictions and is reduced by unpredicted events. The present study investigated the contribution of monitoring two fundamental components of action-movement execution and goal achievement-that have been most often explored separately in previous research. We have devised a new paradigm in which participants performed goal-directed actions while viewing an avatar's hand in a mixed-reality scenario...
May 16, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761208/location-of-a-grasped-object-s-effector-influences-perception-of-the-length-of-that-object-via-dynamic-touch
#5
Madhur Mangalam, James D Conners, Dorothy M Fragaszy, Karl M Newell
Perception of properties of a grasped object via dynamic touch (wielding) contributes to dexterity in tool use (e.g., using a hammer, screwdriver) and sports (e.g., hockey, tennis). These activities differ from simple object manipulation in that they involve making contact with an intended target. In the present study, we examined whether and how making (percussive) contact with a target influences perception of the length of a grasped object via dynamic touch. Making contact with a target by the tip resulted in a more accurate perception of the length than simple wielding...
May 14, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754196/painful-stimulation-of-a-sensitized-site-in-the-forearm-inhibits-ipsilateral-trigeminal-nociceptive-blink-reflexes
#6
Peter D Drummond, Ashlea Bell, Lechi Vo
Exposure to moderate levels of ultraviolet B radiation (UVB) is painless but nevertheless induces an inflammatory response that sensitizes primary afferent nociceptors. Subsequently, heating the UVB-treated site can sensitize spinal nociceptors. We used a repeated-measures design to determine whether heating the UVB-treated site also triggers ipsilateral inhibitory controls. Specifically, a 2-cm diameter site on the forearm of 20 participants was exposed to UVB at twice the minimum erythema dose. 48 h later mechanical and thermal sensitivity had increased at the UVB-treated site, indicating primary hyperalgesia...
May 12, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754195/three-different-motor-task-strategies-to-assess-neuromuscular-adjustments-during-fatiguing-muscle-contractions-in-young-and-older-men
#7
Laura Kyguoliene, Albertas Skurvydas, Nerijus Eimantas, Neringa Baranauskiene, Rasa Steponaviciute, Laura Daniuseviciute, Henrikas Paulauskas, Margarita Cernych, Marius Brazaitis
Healthy aging is associated with a marked decline in motor performance. The functional consequences of applying varying novel or unexpected motor stimuli during intermittent isometric prolonged (fatiguing) motor tasks for lower limb neuromuscular fatigability and steadiness, perception of effort, and blood markers of stress in healthy aged men compared with young men have not been investigated. The participants in this study were 15 young men (aged 22 ± 4 years) and 10 older men (aged 67 ± 6 years)...
May 12, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752486/effects-of-speed-and-direction-of-perturbation-on-electroencephalographic-and-balance-responses
#8
Rahul Goel, Recep A Ozdemir, Sho Nakagome, Jose L Contreras-Vidal, William H Paloski, Pranav J Parikh
The modulation of perturbation-evoked potential (PEP) N1 as a function of different biomechanical characteristics of perturbation has been investigated before. However, it remains unknown whether the PEP N1 modulation contributes to the shaping of the functional postural response. To improve this understanding, we examined the modulation of functional postural response in relation to the PEP N1 response in ten healthy young subjects during unpredictable perturbations to their upright stance-translations of the support surface in a forward or backward direction at two different amplitudes of constant speed...
May 11, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748696/the-effect-of-mild-acute-psychological-stress-on-attention-processing-an-erp-study
#9
Mingming Qi, Heming Gao, Guangyuan Liu
We aimed to investigate the effect of mild acute psychological stress on attention processing by adopting a consecutive task paradigm. In each trial, a probe stimulus (left or right arrow) was presented immediately after a mental arithmetic task (psychological stressor). Participants were asked to estimate whether the product of a multiplication term was above 10 or not, either with (stress block) or without (control block) time pressure and social-evaluative threat. When the probe was presented, participants were asked to judge the direction of the arrows...
May 10, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744566/the-influence-of-awareness-on-explicit-and-implicit-contributions-to-visuomotor-adaptation-over-time
#10
Kristin-Marie Neville, Erin K Cressman
Explicit (strategic) and implicit (unconscious) processes play a role in visuomotor adaptation (Bond and Taylor, J Neurophysiol 113:3836-3849, https://doi.org/10.1152/jn.00009.2015 , 2015; Werner et al., PLoS ONE 10:1-18, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0123321 , 2015). We investigated the contributions of explicit and implicit processes to visuomotor adaptation when awareness was manipulated directly vs. indirectly, and asked how these contributions changed over time. Participants were assigned to a Strategy or No-Strategy group...
May 9, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744565/different-patterns-of-confabulation-in-left-visuo-spatial-neglect
#11
Gianfranco Dalla Barba, Marta Brazzarola, Claudia Barbera, Sara Marangoni, Francesco Causin, Paolo Bartolomeo, Michel Thiebaut de Schotten
Confabulating patients produce statements and actions that are unintentionally incongruous to their history, background, present and future situation. Here we present the very unusual case of a patient with right hemisphere damage and signs of left visual neglect, who, when presented with visual stimuli, confabulated both for consciously undetected and for consciously detected left-sided details. Advanced anatomical investigation suggested a disconnection between the parietal and the temporal lobes in the right hemisphere...
May 9, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737378/trunk-head-and-pelvis-interactions-in-healthy-children-when-performing-seated-daily-arm-tasks
#12
L H C Peeters, I Kingma, G S Faber, J H van Dieën, I J M de Groot
Development of trunk and head supportive devices for children with neuromuscular disorders requires detailed information about pelvis, trunk and head movement in interaction with upper extremity movement, as these are crucial for daily activities when seated in a wheelchair. Twenty-five healthy subjects (6-20 years old) were included to obtain insight in the physiological interactions between these segments and to assess maturation effects. Subjects performed a maximum range of trunk and head movement tasks and several daily tasks, including forward and lateral reaching...
May 8, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730752/unilateral-wrist-extension-training-after-stroke-improves-strength-and-neural-plasticity-in-both-arms
#13
Yao Sun, Noah M H Ledwell, Lara A Boyd, E Paul Zehr
Stroke induces bilateral neurological impairment and muscle weakness yielding neurologically more (MA; paretic) and less affected (LA; non-paretic) sides. "Cross-education" refers to training one side of the body to increase strength in the same muscles on the untrained side. Past work showed dorsiflexion training of the LA side produced bilateral strength increases after stroke. The current study explored the presence and extent of cross-education after arm strength training in chronic stroke. Twenty-four chronic stroke participants completed 5 weeks of maximal wrist extension training using their LA arm...
May 5, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730751/the-sensory-origin-of-the-sense-of-effort-is-context-dependent
#14
Florian Monjo, Jonathan Shemmell, Nicolas Forestier
The origin of the sense of effort has been debated for several decades and there is still no consensus among researchers regarding the underlying neural mechanisms. Some advocate that effort perception mainly arises from an efference copy originating within the brain while others believe that it is predominantly carried by muscle afferent signals. To move the debate forward, we here tested the hypothesis that there is not one but several senses of effort which depend on the way it is evaluated. For this purpose, we used two different psychophysical tests designed to test effort perception in elbow flexors...
May 5, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725704/substituting-anticipatory-locomotor-adjustments-online-is-time-constrained
#15
Bradford J McFadyen, Félix Fiset, Caroline Charette
Two crucial, multi-articular strategies for anticipatory locomotor adjustments (ALA) are knee flexor generation to step over obstacles and hip flexor generation to step up. While lower limb control can be adapted online to modify an already planned obstacle avoidance, or to avoid the sudden appearance of an obstacle, it is not known whether a planned ALA can be substituted by different one online. The present objective was to study such ALA substitutions at two specific timepoints: the final planning stage and the initiation of ALA execution...
May 3, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713757/availability-of-attention-affects-time-to-contact-estimation
#16
Robin Baurès, François Maquestiaux, Patricia R DeLucia, Alexis Defer, Elise Prigent
To estimate the time-to-contact (TTC) of a moving object, numerous studies have focused on the type of information or gaze strategy used by the observer. However, it remains to be determined whether and how attention could affect TTC estimation. In particular, how does TTC estimation operate when less attention is available? To answer this question, we conducted two experiments in which the participants had to perform an absolute (Experiment 1) or relative (Experiment 2) prediction-motion task, either alone (i...
April 30, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713756/perceptual-manifestations-of-auditory-modulation-during-speech-planning
#17
Yaser Merrikhi, Reza Ebrahimpour, Ayoub Daliri
Recent studies have provided electrophysiological evidence that the auditory system's response to externally generated auditory stimuli during speech planning is modulated in comparison to its responses to identical stimuli during no-speaking control conditions. In this study, we examined whether such neural modulations during speech planning result in measurable perceptual modulations. In a two-interval forced choice intensity discrimination paradigm, participants were asked to judge the intensity of a standard tone (with constant intensity), played during a fixation period, relative to the intensity of a comparison tone (with varying intensity), played during speech planning or during no-speaking conditions (silent reading and passive listening)...
April 30, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704034/the-effect-of-concurrent-hand-movement-on-estimated-time-to-contact-in-a-prediction-motion-task
#18
Ran Zheng, Brian K V Maraj
In many activities, we need to predict the arrival of an occluded object. This action is called prediction motion or motion extrapolation. Previous researchers have found that both eye tracking and the internal clocking model are involved in the prediction motion task. Additionally, it is reported that concurrent hand movement facilitates the eye tracking of an externally generated target in a tracking task, even if the target is occluded. The present study examined the effect of concurrent hand movement on the estimated time to contact in a prediction motion task...
April 27, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700577/audiovisual-integration-in-depth-multisensory-binding-and-gain-as-a-function-of-distance
#19
Jean-Paul Noel, Kahan Modi, Mark T Wallace, Nathan Van der Stoep
The integration of information across sensory modalities is dependent on the spatiotemporal characteristics of the stimuli that are paired. Despite large variation in the distance over which events occur in our environment, relatively little is known regarding how stimulus-observer distance affects multisensory integration. Prior work has suggested that exteroceptive stimuli are integrated over larger temporal intervals in near relative to far space, and that larger multisensory facilitations are evident in far relative to near space...
April 26, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696316/attention-demands-of-postural-control-in-non-specific-chronic-low-back-pain-subjects-with-low-and-high-pain-related-anxiety
#20
Sanaz Shanbehzadeh, Mahyar Salavati, Saeed Talebian, Khosro Khademi-Kalantari, Mahnaz Tavahomi
Impaired postural control in chronic low back pain (CLBP) has been attributed to deficits in sensory and motor functions. However, it is not known if pain-related anxiety affects motor and cognitive function of postural control. The aim of this study was to compare the interactive effects of postural and cognitive function in CLBP patients with high and low pain-related anxiety and healthy subjects. Thirty-eight patients with nonspecific CLBP (19 with low and 19 with high pain-related anxiety levels) and 20 asymptomatic subjects participated...
April 25, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
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