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Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159420/smoothness-of-stimulus-motion-can-affect-vection-strength
#1
Yoshitaka Fujii, Takeharu Seno, Robert S Allison
We examined the effect of the smoothness of motion on vection strength. The smoothness of stimulus motion was modulated by varying the number of frames comprising the movement. In this study, a horizontal grating translated through 360° of phase in 1 s divided into steps of 3, 4, 6, 12, 20, 30, or 60 frames. We hypothesized that smoother motion should induce stronger vection because the smoother stimulus is more natural and contains more motion energy. We examined this effect of frame number on vection for both downward (Experiment 1) and expanding (Experiment 2) optical flow...
November 20, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151141/mechanical-perturbations-can-elicit-triggered-reactions-in-the-absence-of-a-startle-response
#2
Christopher J Forgaard, Ian M Franks, Kimberly Bennett, Dana Maslovat, Romeo Chua
Perturbations delivered to the upper limbs elicit reflexive responses in stretched muscle at short- (M1: 25-50 ms) and long- (M2: 50-100 ms) latencies. When presented in a simple reaction time (RT) task, the perturbation can also elicit a preprogrammed voluntary response at a latency (< 100 ms) that overlaps the M2 response. This early appearance of the voluntary response following a proprioceptive stimulus causing muscle stretch is called a triggered reaction. Recent work has demonstrated that a perturbation also elicits activity in sternocleidomastoid (SCM) over a time-course consistent with the startle response and it was, therefore, proposed that the StartReact effect underlies triggered reactions (Ravichandran et al...
November 18, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150757/invisible-side-of-emotions-somato-motor-responses-to-affective-facial-displays-in-alexithymia
#3
Cristina Scarpazza, Elisabetta Làdavas, Luigi Cattaneo
According to recent theories, the detection of emotions involves somatic experiences. In this study, we investigated the relation between somatic responses to affective stimuli, emotion perception, and alexithymia. Variations in automatic rapid facial reactions (RFRs) were measured in a selected population of participants with high and low levels of alexithymia (HA and LA, respectively). Electromyographic activity was recorded from the corrugator supercilii and the zygomaticus major, while participants performed a gender classification task on faces expressing various emotional states...
November 17, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147731/the-influence-of-cervical-movement-on-eye-stabilization-reflexes-a-randomized-trial
#4
Britta K Ischebeck, Jurryt de Vries, Jan Paul van Wingerden, Gert Jan Kleinrensink, Maarten A Frens, Jos N van der Geest
To investigate the influence of the amount of cervical movement on the cervico-ocular reflex (COR) and vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) in healthy individuals. Eye stabilization reflexes, especially the COR, are changed in neck pain patients. In healthy humans, the strength of the VOR and the COR are inversely related. In a cross-over trial the amplitude of the COR and VOR (measured with a rotational chair with eye tracking device) and the active cervical range of motion (CROM) was measured in 20 healthy participants (mean age 24...
November 17, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147730/on-the-skilled-plantar-flexor-motor-action-and-unique-electromyographic-activity-of-ballet-dancers
#5
Sakiko Saito, Hiroki Obata, Mayumi Kuno-Mizumura, Kimitaka Nakazawa
The study aimed to compare the ability of dance and non-dance subjects to perform fine control of a simple heel-raising/lowering movement, and to determine if there are any differences in motor unit activity in the primary plantar flexor muscles during the movement. Subjects were instructed to accurately track a sinusoidal trace with a heel-raising and lowering movement at four controlled frequencies (1, 0.5, 0.25, and 0.125 Hz). The ankle joint angle was used to characterize movement errors from the target...
November 16, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143125/rapid-temporal-recalibration-to-visuo-tactile-stimuli
#6
Joachim Lange, Katharina Kapala, Holger Krause, Thomas J Baumgarten, Alfons Schnitzler
For a comprehensive understanding of the environment, the brain must constantly decide whether the incoming information originates from the same source and needs to be integrated into a coherent percept. This integration process is believed to be mediated by temporal integration windows. If presented with temporally asynchronous stimuli for a few minutes, the brain adapts to this new temporal relation by recalibrating the temporal integration windows. Such recalibration can occur even more rapidly after exposure to just a single trial of asynchronous stimulation...
November 15, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138873/effects-of-cognitive-load-on-the-amount-and-temporal-structure-of-postural-sway-variability-in-stroke-survivors
#7
Hajar Mehdizadeh, Kinda Khalaf, Hamed Ghomashchi, Ghorban Taghizadeh, Ismaeil Ebrahimi, Parvaneh Taghavi Azar Sharabiani, Seyed Javad Mousavi, Mohamad Parnianpour
This study aimed to investigate the variability in postural sway patterns during quiet standing in stroke survivors. The postural sway was measured in 19 stroke survivors, as well as 19 healthy demographically matched participants, at 3 levels of postural difficulty (rigid surface with closed and open eyes, and foam surface with closed eyes), and 3 levels of cognitive difficulty (without a cognitive task, easy and difficult cognitive tasks). Both linear analyses (the amount of postural sway variability, including the standard deviation of the COP velocity in both the anteroposterior (AP) and mediolateral (ML) directions), as well as non-linear analyses [the temporal structure of the COP variability, including % Recurrence, % Determinism, Shannon Entropy, Trend and the maximum diagonal line (D max)] were employed...
November 14, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138872/cognitively-and-socially-induced-stress-affects-postural-control
#8
Michail Doumas, Kinga Morsanyi, William R Young
Postural control is an adaptive process that can be affected by many aspects of human behavior, including emotional contexts. The main emotional contexts that affect postural control are postural threat and passive viewing of aversive or threatening images, both of which produce a reduction in postural sway. The aim of the present study was to assess whether similar stress-related changes in postural sway can be observed using stress induced by social evaluative threat (SET) while performing arithmetic tasks...
November 14, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128978/on-the-influence-of-informational-content-and-key-response-effect-mapping-on-implicit-learning-and-error-monitoring-in-the-serial-reaction-time-srt-task
#9
Jascha Rüsseler, Thomas F Münte, Daniel Wiswede
The present experiment was designed to enhance our understanding of how response effects with varying amounts of useful information influence implicit sequence learning. We recorded event-related brain potentials, while participants performed a modified version of the serial reaction time task (SRTT). In this task, participants have to press one of four keys corresponding to four letters on a computer screen. Unknown to participants, in some parts of the experimental blocks, the stimuli appear in a repetitive (structured) deterministic sequence, whereas in other parts, stimuli were determined randomly...
November 11, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128977/dissociating-object-based-from-egocentric-transformations-in-mental-body-rotation-effect-of-stimuli-size
#10
Hamdi Habacha, David Moreau, Mohamed Jarraya, Laure Lejeune-Poutrain, Corinne Molinaro
The effect of stimuli size on the mental rotation of abstract objects has been extensively investigated, yet its effect on the mental rotation of bodily stimuli remains largely unexplored. Depending on the experimental design, mentally rotating bodily stimuli can elicit object-based transformations, relying mainly on visual processes, or egocentric transformations, which typically involve embodied motor processes. The present study included two mental body rotation tasks requiring either a same-different or a laterality judgment, designed to elicit object-based or egocentric transformations, respectively...
November 11, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128976/neurons-in-the-crow-nidopallium-caudolaterale-encode-varying-durations-of-visual-working-memory-periods
#11
Konstantin Hartmann, Lena Veit, Andreas Nieder
Adaptive sequential behaviors rely on the bridging and integration of temporally separate information for the realization of prospective goals. Corvids' remarkable behavioral flexibility is thought to depend on the workings of the nidopallium caudolaterale (NCL), a high-level avian associative forebrain area. We trained carrion crows to remember visual items for three alternating delay durations in a delayed match-to-sample task and recorded single-unit activity from the NCL. Sample-selective delay activity, a correlate of visual working memory, was maintained throughout different working memory durations...
November 11, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128975/transcutaneous-vagus-nerve-stimulation-tvns-modulates-flow-experience
#12
Lorenza S Colzato, Gina Wolters, Corinna Peifer
Flow has been defined as a pleasant psychological state that people experience when completely absorbed in an activity. Previous correlative evidence showed that the vagal tone (as indexed by heart rate variability) is a reliable marker of flow. So far, it has not yet been demonstrated that the vagus nerve plays a causal role in flow. To explore this we used transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS), a novel non-invasive brain stimulation technique that increases activation of the locus coeruleus (LC) and norepinephrine release...
November 11, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119209/relationship-between-spasticity-and-spinal-neural-circuits-in-patients-with-chronic-hemiparetic-stroke
#13
Kohei Okuyama, Michiyuki Kawakami, Miho Hiramoto, Kaori Muraoka, Toshiyuki Fujiwara, Meigen Liu
Spasticity is a common problem in patients with stroke that contributes to motor dysfunction. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying spasticity are not fully understood. The purpose of the present study was to explain the relationship between features of spinal neural circuits assessed using electrophysiological techniques and the clinical manifestations of stroke. The participants were 71 patients with chronic hemiparetic stroke. To assess spinal neural circuits, Hmax/Mmax of the forearm flexor muscles and reciprocal inhibition (RI) between forearm extensor and flexor muscles with the H reflex conditioning-test paradigm were measured...
November 8, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119208/failures-in-adaptive-locomotion-trial-and-error-exploration-to-determine-adequate-foot-elevation-over-obstacles
#14
Michel J H Heijnen, Shirley Rietdyk
Lifting the limb sufficiently to clear an obstacle seems like a straightforward task, yet trips are a common cause of falls across all ages. Examination of obstacle contacts in the lab revealed a progressive decrease in foot elevation with repeated exposures, ultimately resulting in failure (Heijnen et al. Exp Brain Res 23:219-231, 2012). The purpose of this study was to determine if the progressive decrease in foot elevation continued when knowledge of obstacle contact was removed. Twenty-one young adults (mean 20...
November 8, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103132/vertically-arrayed-stimuli-and-responses-transfer-of-incompatible-spatial-mapping-to-simon-task-occurs-regardless-of-response-device-orientation
#15
Qi Zhong, Aiping Xiong, Kim-Phuong L Vu, Robert W Proctor
Conde et al. (Exp Brain Res 233:3313-3321, 2015) found that the Simon effect for vertically arrayed stimuli and responses was reduced after 100 prior practice trials with an incompatible mapping of the stimulus locations and responses. This finding was contrary to Vu's (Mem Cognit 35:1463-1471, 2007) finding of no transfer effect with 72 trials of prior practice. Conde et al. proposed that the different results were due to their responses being coded as top and bottom in the frontal plane, whereas Vu's were coded as far and near in the transverse plane...
November 4, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098315/peripersonal-space-boundaries-around-the-lower-limbs
#16
K D Stone, M Kandula, A Keizer, H C Dijkerman
Neurophysiological investigations in non-human primates have shown that bi- and tri-modal fronto-parietal neurons exist that respond to touch on the body and visual (and/or auditory) stimuli near the body. The receptive fields of these neurons extend into space around the body, producing a zone wherein multisensory information is readily integrated. This space around the body, known as peripersonal space (PPS), has also been investigated behaviourally in humans. Some studies have focused on how far into depth the spatial boundaries of PPS extend...
November 2, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098314/acute-and-repetitive-fronto-cerebellar-tdcs-stimulation-improves-mood-in-non-depressed-participants
#17
Simon Newstead, Hayley Young, David Benton, Gabriela Jiga-Boy, Maria L Andrade Sienz, R M Clement, Frédéric Boy
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive form of brain stimulation, which allows for selective inhibition or excitation of neural structures. It has demonstrated some efficacy in the treatment of mood disorders. However, these studies have predominately focused on stimulation of the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The cerebellum has an increasingly recognized role in emotional control, affective state, and some psychopathologies. As such, tDCS research into mood modulation needs to expand beyond conventional PFC-focused paradigms...
November 2, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080100/effects-of-free-choice-and-outcome-valence-on-the-sense-of-agency-evidence-from-measures-of-intentional-binding-and-feelings-of-control
#18
Zeynep Barlas, William E Hockley, Sukhvinder S Obhi
Everyday actions can be characterized by whether they are freely chosen or commanded by external stimuli, and whether they produce pleasant or unpleasant outcomes. To assess how these aspects of actions affect the sense of agency, we asked participants to perform freely selected or instructed key presses which could produce pleasant or unpleasant chords. We obtained estimates of the key press-chord intervals and ratings of the feeling of control (FoC) over the outcomes. Interval estimates were used to assess intentional binding-the perceived temporal attraction between actions and their outcomes...
October 27, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080099/inter-limb-coupling-of-proximal-and-distal-hand-actions
#19
Lari Vainio, Mikko Tiainen
Past studies have revealed connections in directional programming between hands. The present study investigated whether there could also be interaction in programming proximal and distal components of a prehensile hand action. In Experiment 1, the participants performed simultaneously either a push or pull response with the left hand and the grip closure or opening with the right hand. In Experiment 2, the push and pull responses of the left hand were performed together with the precision or power grip responses of the right hand...
October 27, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080098/gait-bradykinesia-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-change-in-the-motor-program-which-controls-the-synergy-of-gait
#20
Tateo Warabi, Hiroyasu Furuyama, Eri Sugai, Masamichi Kato, Nobuo Yanagisawa
This study examined how gait bradykinesia is changed by the motor programming in Parkinson's disease. Thirty-five idiopathic Parkinson's disease patients and nine age-matched healthy subjects participated in this study. After the patients fixated on a visual-fixation target (conditioning-stimulus), the voluntary-gait was triggered by a visual on-stimulus. While the subject walked on a level floor, soleus, tibialis anterior EMG latencies, and the y-axis-vector of the sole-floor reaction force were examined. Three paradigms were used to distinguish between the off-/on-latencies...
October 27, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
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