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Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733754/the-influence-of-imagery-capacity-in-motor-performance-improvement
#1
Célia Ruffino, Charalambos Papaxanthis, Florent Lebon
Motor imagery (MI) training improves motor performance, but the inter-individual variability of this improvement remains still unexplored. In this study, we tested the influence of imagery ability on the performance improvement following MI training. Twenty participants were randomly distributed into the MI or control group. They actually performed, at pre- and post-test sessions, a revisited version of the Nine Hole Peg Test, a speed-accuracy trade-off task, commonly used in clinics. Between the tests, the MI group mentally trained on the task (5 blocks of 10 trials), while the control group watched a non-emotional documentary...
July 21, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725925/characterisation-of-peptide5-systemic-administration-for-treating-traumatic-spinal-cord-injured-rats
#2
Yilin Mao, Tara Nguyen, Ryan S Tonkin, Justin G Lees, Caitlyn Warren, Simon J O'Carroll, Louise F B Nicholson, Colin R Green, Gila Moalem-Taylor, Catherine A Gorrie
Systemic administration of a Connexin43 mimetic peptide, Peptide5, has been shown to reduce secondary tissue damage and improve functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI). This study investigated safety measures and potential off-target effects of Peptide5 systemic administration. Rats were subjected to a mild contusion SCI using the New York University impactor. One cohort was injected intraperitoneally with a single dose of fluorescently labelled Peptide5 and euthanised at 2 or 4 h post-injury for peptide distribution analysis...
July 19, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725924/effect-of-training-status-on-beta-range-corticomuscular-coherence-in-agonist-vs-antagonist-muscles-during-isometric-knee-contractions
#3
Fabien Dal Maso, Marieke Longcamp, Sylvain Cremoux, David Amarantini
Antagonist muscle co-activation is thought to be partially regulated by cortical influences, but direct motor cortex involvement is not fully understood. Corticomuscular coherence (CMC) measures direct functional coupling of the motor cortex and muscles. As antagonist co-activation differs according to training status, comparison of CMC in agonist and antagonist muscles and in strength-trained and endurance-trained individuals may provide in-depth knowledge of cortical implication in antagonist muscle co-activation...
July 19, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721518/illusory-visual-depth-reversal-can-modulate-sensations-of-contact-surface
#4
Yuka Igarashi, Keiko Omori, Tetsuya Arai, Yasunori Aizawa
To perceive the external world stably, humans must integrate and manage continuous streams of information from various sensory modalities, in addition to drawing on past experiences and knowledge. In this study, we introduce a novel visuo-tactile illusion elicited by a visual-depth-reversal stimulus. The stimulus (a model of a building) was constructed so as to produce the same retinal image as an opaque cuboid, although it actually consisted of only three PVC boards forming a three-dimensional corner with the hollow inside facing the observer...
July 18, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721517/vision-for-action-and-perception-elicit-dissociable-adherence-to-weber-s-law-across-a-range-of-graspable-target-objects
#5
Matthew Heath, Joseph Manzone, Michaela Khan, Shirin Davarpanah Jazi
A number of studies have reported that grasps and manual estimations of differently sized target objects (e.g., 20 through 70 mm) violate and adhere to Weber's law, respectively (e.g., Ganel et al. 2008a, Curr Biol 18:R599-R601)-a result interpreted as evidence that separate visual codes support actions (i.e., absolute) and perceptions (i.e., relative). More recent work employing a broader range of target objects (i.e., 5 through 120 mm) has laid question to this claim and proposed that grasps for 'larger' target objects (i...
July 18, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721516/motor-cognitive-dual-tasking-under-hypoxia
#6
Dennis Hamacher, Marie Brennicke, Tom Behrendt, Prisca Alt, Alexander Törpel, Lutz Schega
Hypoxic conditions diminish motor performance and cognitive functions, especially when the motor task and the cognitive task are conducted simultaneously. Hypoxia does further increase prefrontal cortex activity which provokes a reduced capability of efficient resource utilisation. This, again, might evoke that the capacity of the limited mental resources of a dual task will be reached at an earlier stage of task complexity. The purpose of our study was to examine whether a cognitive task would increase gait variability to a higher extent under hypoxic as compared to normoxic conditions...
July 18, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717820/differences-between-endogenous-attention-to-spatial-locations-and-sensory-modalities
#7
J Vibell, C Klinge, M Zampini, A C Nobre, C Spence
Vibell et al. (J Cogn Neurosci 19:109-120, 2007) reported that endogenously attending to a sensory modality (vision or touch) modulated perceptual processing, in part, by the relative speeding-up of neural activation (i.e., as a result of prior entry). However, it was unclear whether it was the fine temporal discrimination required by the temporal-order judgment task that was used, or rather, the type of attentional modulation (spatial locations or sensory modalities) that was responsible for the shift in latencies that they observed...
July 17, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717819/atrophic-degeneration-of-cerebellum-impairs-both-the-reactive-and-the-proactive-control-of-movement-in-the-stop-signal-paradigm
#8
Giusy Olivito, Emiliano Brunamonti, Silvia Clausi, Pierpaolo Pani, Francesca R Chiricozzi, Margherita Giamundo, Marco Molinari, Maria Leggio, Stefano Ferraina
The cognitive control of movement suppression, including performance monitoring, is one of the core properties of the executive system. A complex cortical and subcortical network involving cerebral cortex, thalamus, subthalamus, and basal ganglia has been regarded as the neural substrate of inhibition of programmed movements. Using the countermanding task, a suitable tool to explore behavioral components of movement suppression, the contribution of the cerebellum in the proactive control and monitoring of voluntary action has been recently described in patients affected by focal lesions involving in particular the cerebellar dentate nucleus...
July 17, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712015/mechanisms-contributing-to-reduced-knee-stiffness-during-movement
#9
Daniel Ludvig, Maciej Plocharski, Piotr Plocharski, Eric J Perreault
The ability to modulate the mechanical properties of our limbs contributes to our ability to interact with the physical world in a consistent and predictable manner. An individual joint's contributions to whole limb mechanics can be quantified by its joint impedance, which characterizes the torque generated about a joint in response to external perturbations of position. A number of studies have estimated joint impedance during movement and have shown that it can be much lower than it is during posture. However, the mechanisms contributing to these differences remain unknown partly because conditions known to affect impedance, including muscle activation and joint angles, have not been carefully controlled across studies...
July 15, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707062/when-an-object-appears-unexpectedly-foot-placement-during-obstacle-circumvention-in-children-and-adults-with-developmental-coordination-disorder
#10
K Wilmut, A L Barnett
Adjustments to locomotion to avoid an obstacle require a change to the usual pattern of foot placement, i.e. changes to step length and/or step width. Previous studies have demonstrated a difficulty in individuals with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) in controlling stability while both stepping over and while circumventing an obstacle. In a previous study, we have considered the way in which individuals with DCD prepare for the possibility of an obstacle appearing (Wilmut and Barnett in Exp Brain Res 235:1531-1340, 2017)...
July 13, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702836/sequential-language-learning-and-language-immersion-in-bilingualism-diffusion-mri-connectometry-reveals-microstructural-evidence
#11
Farzaneh Rahmani, Soheila Sobhani, Mohammad Hadi Aarabi
Study of bilingual brain has provided evidence for probable advantageous outcomes of early second language learning and brain structural correlates to these outcomes. DMRI connectometry is a novel approach that tracts fibers based on correlation of the adjacent voxels with a variable of interest or group differences. Using the data deposited by Pliatsikas et al., we investigated through diffusion MRI connectometry and correlation analysis, the structural differences in white matter tracts of 20 healthy sequential bilingual adults who used English as a second language on a daily basis, compared to 25 age matched in fiber differentiation analyses...
July 12, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702835/early-response-activation-in-repetition-priming-an-lrp-study
#12
Christian Valt, Birgit Stürmer, Werner Sommer, Stephan Boehm
According to recent interpretations of repetition priming, response codes are automatically bound to a stimulus and retrieved during successive presentations of the stimulus, hence, affecting its current processing. Despite a solid corpus of behavioural evidence in line with this interpretation, electrophysiological studies have reported contrasting results regarding the nature and the timing of response code retrieval. The present experiment aims to establish at which stage of information processing decision and action codes are retrieved in repetition priming...
July 12, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702834/the-recalibration-of-tactile-perception-during-tool-use-is-body-part-specific
#13
Luke E Miller, Andrew Cawley-Bennett, Matthew R Longo, Ayse P Saygin
Two decades of research have demonstrated that using a tool modulates spatial representations of the body. Whether this embodiment is specific to representations of the tool-using limb or extends to representations of other body parts has received little attention. Several studies of other perceptual phenomena have found that modulations to the primary somatosensory representation of the hand transfers to the face, due in part to their close proximity in primary somatosensory cortex. In the present study, we investigated whether tool-induced recalibration of tactile perception on the hand transfers to the cheek...
July 12, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695280/effect-of-post-weaning-isolation-on-anxiety-and-depressive-like-behaviors-of-c57bl-6j-mice
#14
Qian Huang, Ying Zhou, Lin-Yun Liu
Effects of post-weaning isolation on depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors in rodents have been well studied in the past. However, few studies included both sexes in a single experiment to study the sex difference in this animal model. The present study investigated the effect of post-weaning isolation on anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors in both male and female C57BL/6 J mice. Mice were individually or grouped housed from postnatal day 21 for 5 weeks until behavioral tests began. The results showed that social isolation resulted in increased anxiety in the open field...
July 10, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687855/decreased-spontaneous-activity-and-altered-evoked-nociceptive-response-of-rat-thalamic-submedius-neurons-to-lumbar-vertebra-thrust
#15
William R Reed, Jamie T Cranston, Stephen M Onifer, Joshua W Little, Randall S Sozio
The thalamus is a central structure important to modulating and processing all mechanoreceptor input destined for the cortex. A large number of diverse mechanoreceptor endings are stimulated when a high velocity low amplitude thrust is delivered to the lumbar spine during spinal manipulation. The objective of this study was to determine if a lumbar thrust alters spontaneous and/or evoked nociceptive activity in medial thalamic submedius (Sm) neurons. Extracellular recordings were obtained from 94 thalamic Sm neurons in 54 urethane-anesthetized adult Wistar rats...
July 7, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685178/time-based-event-expectancies-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#16
Marina Kunchulia, Tamari Tatishvili, Nino Lomidze, Khatuna Parkosadze, Roland Thomaschke
Here, we studied the time-based event expectancies in children with Autism spectrum disorder. Nine children with Autism spectrum disorders and ten (6-11 years) typically developing children participated. In a choice-response task with two different pre-target intervals, participants had to indicate the left or right direction of a target stimulus. The target was predicted by the duration of the pre-target interval with 80% validity. We found that, in children with Autism spectrum disorder, in contrast to typically developing children, the formation of time-based event expectancies was restricted to the relatively longer pre-target interval...
July 6, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676921/electrophysiological-evidence-for-a-self-processing-advantage-during-audiovisual-speech-integration
#17
Avril Treille, Coriandre Vilain, Sonia Kandel, Marc Sato
Previous electrophysiological studies have provided strong evidence for early multisensory integrative mechanisms during audiovisual speech perception. From these studies, one unanswered issue is whether hearing our own voice and seeing our own articulatory gestures facilitate speech perception, possibly through a better processing and integration of sensory inputs with our own sensory-motor knowledge. The present EEG study examined the impact of self-knowledge during the perception of auditory (A), visual (V) and audiovisual (AV) speech stimuli that were previously recorded from the participant or from a speaker he/she had never met...
July 4, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676920/retinal-and-visual-cortex-distance-from-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-of-the-vertex-affects-phosphene-perception
#18
Kelly Webster, Tony Ro
Recent studies claim that the perception of flashes of light (i.e., phosphenes) can be induced by stimulation of higher visual areas, including parietal cortex, suggesting a critical role of these regions in generating visual percepts. In this study, we show that transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of even the vertex can induce phosphenes, but that their neural origins are likely to be a consequence of current spread into visual areas (e.g., retina or visual cortex). After vertex stimulation, subjects with smaller head circumferences-for whom the distances from the coil to retina and visual cortex are smaller-report a two-fold increase in perceiving phosphenes...
July 4, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676919/erratum-to-orienting-attention-in-visual-space-by-nociceptive-stimuli-investigation-with-a-temporal-order-judgment-task-based-on-the-adaptive-psi-method
#19
Lieve Filbrich, Andrea Alamia, Soline Burns, Valéry Legrain
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 4, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660285/exploring-the-quiet-eye-in-archery-using-field-and-laboratory-based-tasks
#20
Claudia C Gonzalez, Joe Causer, Michael J Grey, Glyn W Humphreys, R Chris Miall, A Mark Williams
The 'quiet eye' (QE)-a period of extended gaze fixation on a target-has been reported in many tasks that require accurate aiming. Longer quiet eye durations (QEDs) are reported in experts compared to non-experts and on successful versus less successful trials. The QE has been extensively studied in the field; however, the cognitive mechanisms underlying the QE are not yet fully understood. We investigated the QEDs of ten expert and ten novice archers in the field and in the laboratory using a computer-based archery task...
June 28, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
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