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Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439628/visual-salience-of-the-stop-signal-affects-movement-suppression-process
#1
Roberto Montanari, Margherita Giamundo, Emiliano Brunamonti, Stefano Ferraina, Pierpaolo Pani
We investigated how the ability to suppress an impending movement is affected by the visual salience of the stop-signal in a reaching countermanding task. We found that when the stop-signal was easy to detect, stop performance was better than when the stop-signal was difficult to detect. In an exploratory analysis, we also found that the change in salience of the stop-signal can have an effect on the speed of response in trials following the stop-signal. This effect occurred together with strategic slowing down after an error in inhibiting was committed and together with a repetition priming effect due to the stop-signal presented in the previous trial...
April 24, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439627/nigral-injection-of-a-proteasomal-inhibitor-lactacystin-induces-widespread-glial-cell-activation-and-shows-various-phenotypes-of-parkinson-s-disease-in-young-and-adult-mouse
#2
Mari H Savolainen, Katrina Albert, Mikko Airavaara, Timo T Myöhänen
Proteinaceous inclusions, called Lewy bodies, are used as a pathological hallmark for Parkinson's disease (PD). Lewy bodies contain insoluble α-synuclein (aSyn) and many other ubiquitinated proteins, suggesting a role for protein degradation system failure in the PD pathogenesis. Indeed, proteasomal dysfunction has been linked to PD but commonly used in vivo toxin models, such as 6-OHDA or MPTP, do not have a significant effect on the proteasomal system or protein aggregation. Therefore, we wanted to study the characteristics of a proteasomal inhibitor, lactacystin, as a PD model on young and adult mice...
April 24, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434022/effects-of-vestibular-disorders-on-vestibular-reflex-and-imagery
#3
B S Cohen, J Provasi, P Leboucher, I Israël
The aim of this study was to establish the effect of vestibular lesion on vestibular imagery. Subjects were required to estimate verbally their passively travelled rotation angles in complete darkness, i.e., to activate vestibular imagery. During motion, the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) was measured. Thus, we examined the coherence between the vestibulo-ocular reflex and self-rotation imagery, with vestibular-lesioned patients and healthy participants. Unilateral acute and chronic patients, bilateral patients, and healthy subjects were compared...
April 22, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432384/the-probability-of-object-scene-co-occurrence-influences-object-identification-processes
#4
Geneviève Sauvé, Mariane Harmand, Léa Vanni, Mathieu B Brodeur
Contextual information allows the human brain to make predictions about the identity of objects that might be seen and irregularities between an object and its background slow down perception and identification processes. Bar and colleagues modeled the mechanisms underlying this beneficial effect suggesting that the brain stocks information about the statistical regularities of object and scene co-occurrence. Their model suggests that these recurring regularities could be conceptualized along a continuum in which the probability of seeing an object within a given scene can be high (probable condition), moderate (improbable condition) or null (impossible condition)...
April 21, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421248/indications-for-cellular-migration-from-the-central-nervous-system-to-its-draining-lymph-nodes-in-cd11c-gfp-bone-marrow-chimeras-following-eae
#5
Fridtjof Schiefenhövel, Kerstin Immig, Carolin Prodinger, Ingo Bechmann
The concept as to how the brain maintains its immune privilege has initially been based on observations that it is lacking classical lymph vessels and later, the absence of dendritic cells (DC). This view has been challenged by several groups demonstrating drainage/migration of injected tracers and cells into cervical lymph nodes (CLNs) and the presence of brain antigens in CLNs in the course of various brain pathologies. Using CD11c-diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR)-green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic (tg) mice, we have shown the existence of CD11c(+) cells, a main DC marker, within the brain parenchyma...
April 18, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417146/repeated-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-in-female-rats-increases-lipid-peroxidation-in-neurons
#6
Nathanael J Yates, Stephen Lydiard, Brooke Fehily, Gillian Weir, Aaron Chin, Carole A Bartlett, Jacqueline Alderson, Melinda Fitzgerald
Negative outcomes of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) can be exacerbated by repeated insult. Animal models of repeated closed-head mTBI provide the opportunity to define acute pathological mechanisms as the number of mTBI increases. Furthermore, little is known about the effects of mTBI impact site, and how this may affect brain function. We use a closed head, weight drop model of mTBI that allows head movement following impact, in adult female rats to determine the role of the number and location of mTBI on brain pathology and behaviour...
April 17, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409319/the-effect-of-gamma-enhancing-binaural-beats-on-the-control-of-feature-bindings
#7
Lorenza S Colzato, Laura Steenbergen, Roberta Sellaro
Binaural beats represent the auditory experience of an oscillating sound that occurs when two sounds with neighboring frequencies are presented to one's left and right ear separately. Binaural beats have been shown to impact information processing via their putative role in increasing neural synchronization. Recent studies of feature-repetition effects demonstrated interactions between perceptual features and action-related features: repeating only some, but not all features of a perception-action episode hinders performance...
April 13, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396907/target-bottom-up-strength-determines-the-extent-of-attentional-modulations-on-conscious-perception
#8
Fabiano Botta, Estrella Ródenas, Ana B Chica
A sufficient level of alerting, bottom-up stimulus strength, and attention have been proposed as important pre-requisites for conscious perception (Dehaene et al. in Trends Cogn Sci 10:204-211, 2006). The combination of different levels of each of these processes might differentially bias the access to consciousness, so that the impact of a specific factor on conscious access would depend on the levels of the other factors. To explore this possibility, we measured how the interaction between different levels of (phasic and tonic) alerting, stimulus bottom-up activation, and endogenous spatial attention, influences conscious perception...
April 10, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386713/the-effect-of-age-on-the-homotopic-motor-cortical-long-term-potentiation-like-effect-induced-by-quadripulse-stimulation
#9
Ritsuko Hanajima, Nobuyuki Tanaka, Ryosuke Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki Enomoto, Mitsunari Abe, Koichiro Nakamura, Shunsuke Kobayashi, Masashi Hamada, Takahiro Shimizu, Yasuo Terao, Yoshikazu Ugawa
The reduction of plasticity with age has been shown by many previous papers in animal experiments. This issue can be studied in humans because several non-invasive brain stimulation techniques induce synaptic plasticity in the human brain. We investigated the influence of individuals' age on the responder rate of the long-term potentiation (LTP)-like effect induced by quadripulse magnetic stimulation (QPS). The participants were 107 healthy volunteers: 53 older participants (Mean ± SD 65.0 ± 1.5 years) and 54 younger participants (37...
April 6, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386712/vision-adds-to-haptics-when-dyads-perform-a-whole-body-joint-balance-task
#10
Eric Eils, Rouwen Cañal-Bruland, Leonie Sieverding, Marc H E de Lussanet, Karen Zentgraf
When two or more people aim to produce joint action outcomes they need to coordinate their individual actions in space and time. Successful joint action performance has been reported to depend, among others, on visual and somatosensory information provided to the joint actors. This study investigated whether and how the systematic manipulation of visual information modulates real-time joint action when dyads performed a whole-body joint balance task. To this end, we introduced the Joint Action Board (JAB) where partners guided a ball through a maze towards a virtual hole by jointly shifting their weight on the board under three visual conditions: (1) the Follower had neither visual access to the Leader nor to the maze; (2) the Follower had no visual access to the maze but to the Leader; (3) the Follower had full visual access to both the Leader and to the maze...
April 6, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386711/helping-and-sharing-in-preschool-children-with-autism
#11
Markus Paulus, Bibiana Rosal-Grifoll
Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in social-cognitive and social-communicative behaviors. Yet, little is known about the extent to which children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) engage in prosocial action. We assessed helping and sharing behaviors in 3- to 6-year-old neurotypically (NT) developing children and children diagnosed with ASD. Children with ASD were more inclined to show spontaneous helping in the absence of the helpee than NT children. In the sharing task, NT children shared the resources equally between themselves and the recipients...
April 6, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374088/experimental-investigations-of-control-principles-of-involuntary-movement-a-comprehensive-review-of-the-kohnstamm-phenomenon
#12
REVIEW
Jack De Havas, Hiroaki Gomi, Patrick Haggard
The Kohnstamm phenomenon refers to the observation that if one pushes the arm hard outwards against a fixed surface for about 30 s, and then moves away from the surface and relaxes, an involuntary movement of the arm occurs, accompanied by a feeling of lightness. Central, peripheral and hybrid theories of the Kohnstamm phenomenon have been advanced. Afferent signals may be irrelevant if purely central theories hold. Alternatively, according to peripheral accounts, altered afferent signalling actually drives the involuntary movement...
April 3, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374087/orienting-attention-in-visual-space-by-nociceptive-stimuli-investigation-with-a-temporal-order-judgment-task-based-on-the-adaptive-psi-method
#13
Lieve Filbrich, Andrea Alamia, Soline Burns, Valéry Legrain
Despite their high relevance for defending the integrity of the body, crossmodal links between nociception, the neural system specifically coding potentially painful information, and vision are still poorly studied, especially the effects of nociception on visual perception. This study investigated if, and in which time window, a nociceptive stimulus can attract attention to its location on the body, independently of voluntary control, to facilitate the processing of visual stimuli occurring in the same side of space as the limb on which the visual stimulus was applied...
April 3, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365800/effects-of-visual-deprivation-on-primary-motor-cortex-excitability-a-study-on-healthy-subjects-based-on-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation
#14
Chiara Cambieri, Elisa Iacovelli, Maria Cristina Gori, Emanuela Onesti, Marco Ceccanti, Vittorio Frasca, Maurizio Inghilleri
We investigated whether rapid changes in visual input or dark adaptation modify primary motor cortex (M1) excitability in healthy subjects. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), consisting of 10 stimuli delivered at 5 Hz at 120% of the resting motor threshold, was delivered over the M1 in 14 healthy volunteers. They were instructed to relax under eyes-open (EO) and eyes-closed (EC) resting conditions. Two experimental sessions were performed. In the first session, subjects were tested under both EO and EC conditions in order to determine whether short visual deprivation affected M1 excitability as tested through changes in the motor-evoked potential (MEP) amplitude during rTMS...
April 1, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357463/age-specific-neural-strategies-to-maintain-motor-performance-after-an-acute-social-stress-bout
#15
Ranjana K Mehta, Rhee Joohyun
Stress due to cognitive demands and fatigue have shown to impair motor performance in older adults; however, the effect of social stress and its influence on prefrontal cortex (PFC) functioning in older adults during upper extremity motor performance tasks is not known. The present study explored the after-effects of an acute social stress bout on neural strategies, measured using PFC and hand/arm muscle activation, and adopted by younger and older adults to maintain handgrip force control. Nine older [74.1 (6...
March 29, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352948/visual-information-from-observing-grasping-movement-in-allocentric-and-egocentric-perspectives-development-in-typical-children
#16
Francesca Tinelli, Giovanni Cioni, Giulio Sandini, Marco Turi, Maria Concetta Morrone
Development of the motor system lags behind that of the visual system and might delay some visual properties more closely linked to action. We measured the developmental trajectory of the discrimination of object size from observation of the biological motion of a grasping action in egocentric and allocentric viewpoints (observing action of others or self), in children and adolescents from 5 to 18 years of age. Children of 5-7 years of age performed the task at chance, indicating a delayed ability to understand the goal of the action...
March 28, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352947/the-knowns-and-unknowns-of-boredom-a-review-of-the-literature
#17
Quentin Raffaelli, Caitlin Mills, Kalina Christoff
Despite the ubiquitous nature of boredom, the definition, function, and correlates of boredom are still poorly understood. In this review, we summarize the "known" (consistent evidence) and "unknown" (inconsistent evidence) correlates of boredom. We show that boredom is consistently related to negative affect, task-unrelated thought, over-estimation of elapsed time, reduced agency, as well as to over- and under-stimulation. Activation of the default mode network was consistent across the few available fMRI studies, while the recruitment of other brain areas such as the hippocampus and anterior insular cortex, was a notable but less consistent correlate of boredom...
March 28, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343308/the-nociceptive-withdrawal-response-of-the-foot-in-the-spinalized-rat-exhibits-limited-dependence-on-stimulus-location
#18
Corey L Cleland, Craig E Esquivel, Heath T Davis
The nociceptive withdrawal response (NWR) of the limb is a protective, multi-joint movement in response to noxious stimulation of the homonymous limb. Previous studies in animal models differed as to the dependence of the response direction and magnitude on stimulus location. The specific aim of our research was to use three-dimensional high-speed video to determine whether movement of the foot in response to heat stimuli delivered to the foot and lower leg depended on the location of the stimulus. In particular, we sought to determine whether the movement strategy was categorical or continuous...
March 25, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343307/modular-organization-of-muscle-activity-patterns-in-the-leading-and-trailing-limbs-during-obstacle-clearance-in-healthy-adults
#19
Michael J MacLellan
Human locomotor patterns require precise adjustments to successfully navigate complex environments. Studies suggest that the central nervous system may control such adjustments through supraspinal signals modifying a basic locomotor pattern at the spinal level. To explore this proposed control mechanism in the leading and trailing limbs during obstructed walking, healthy young adults stepped over obstacles measuring 0.1 and 0.2 m in height. Unobstructed walking with no obstacle present was also performed as a baseline...
March 25, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326440/effects-of-visual-motion-consistent-or-inconsistent-with-gravity-on-postural-sway
#20
Priscilla Balestrucci, Elena Daprati, Francesco Lacquaniti, Vincenzo Maffei
Vision plays an important role in postural control, and visual perception of the gravity-defined vertical helps maintaining upright stance. In addition, the influence of the gravity field on objects' motion is known to provide a reference for motor and non-motor behavior. However, the role of dynamic visual cues related to gravity in the control of postural balance has been little investigated. In order to understand whether visual cues about gravitational acceleration are relevant for postural control, we assessed the relation between postural sway and visual motion congruent or incongruent with gravity acceleration...
March 22, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
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