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Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638996/smooth-at-one-end-and-rough-at-the-other-influence-of-object-texture-on-grasping-behaviour
#1
Catharina Glowania, L C J van Dam, E Brenner, M A Plaisier
When picking up objects using a pinch grip, there are usually numerous places at which one could place the thumb and index finger. Yet, people seem to consistently place them at or close to the centre of mass (COM), presumably to minimize torque and therefore the required grip force. People also prefer to grasp objects by parallel surfaces and ones with higher friction coefficients (rough surfaces), to prevent the object from slipping when they lift it. Here, we examine the trade-off between friction and COM...
June 21, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634889/the-efficacy-of-airflow-and-seat-vibration-on-reducing-visually-induced-motion-sickness
#2
Sarah D'Amour, Jelte E Bos, Behrang Keshavarz
Visually induced motion sickness (VIMS) is a well-known sensation in virtual environments and simulators, typically characterized by a variety of symptoms such as pallor, sweating, dizziness, fatigue, and/or nausea. Numerous methods to reduce VIMS have been previously introduced; however, a reliable countermeasure is still missing. In the present study, the effect of airflow and seat vibration to alleviate VIMS was investigated. Eighty-two participants were randomly assigned to one of four groups (airflow, vibration, combined airflow and vibration, and control) and then exposed to a 15 min long video of a bicycle ride shot from first-person view...
June 20, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634888/saccades-evoked-in-response-to-electrical-stimulation-of-the-posterior-bank-of-the-arcuate-sulcus
#3
E Neromyliotis, A K Moschovakis
To test the hypothesis that the premotor cortex in and behind the caudal bank of the arcuate sulcus can generate saccades, we stimulated electrically the periarcuate region of alert rhesus monkeys. We were able to produce saccades from sites of the premotor cortex that were contiguous with the frontal eye fields and extended up to 2 mm behind the smooth pursuit area. However, premotor sites often elicited saccades with ipsiversive characteristic vectors, lower peak velocities, and flatter velocity profiles when compared to saccades evoked from the frontal eye field...
June 20, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634887/aberrant-connections-between-climbing-fibres-and-purkinje-cells-induce-alterations-in-the-timing-of-an-instrumental-response-in-the-rat
#4
Lorena Gaytán-Tocavén, Miguel Ángel López-Vázquez, Miguel Ángel Guevara, María Esther Olvera-Cortés
Cerebellar participation in timing and sensory-motor sequences has been supported by several experimental and clinical studies. A relevant role of the cerebellum in timing of conditioned responses in the range of milliseconds has been demonstrated, but less is known regarding the role of the cerebellum in supra-second timing of operant responses. A dissociated role of the cerebellum and striatum in timing in the millisecond and second range had been reported, respectively. The climbing fibre-Purkinje cell synapse is crucial in timing models; thus, the aberrant connection between these cellular elements is a suitable model for evaluating the contribution of the cerebellum in timing in the supra-second range...
June 20, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634886/subcortical-brain-atrophy-in-gulf-war-illness
#5
Peka Christova, Lisa M James, Brian E Engdahl, Scott M Lewis, Adam F Carpenter, Apostolos P Georgopoulos
Gulf War Illness (GWI) is a multisystem disorder that has affected a substantial number of veterans who served in the 1990-1991 Gulf War. The brain is prominently affected, as manifested by the presence of neurological, cognitive and mood symptoms. Although brain dysfunction in GWI has been well documented (EBioMedicine 12:127-32, 2016), abnormalities in brain structure have been debated. Here we report a substantial (~10%) subcortical brain atrophy in GWI comprising mainly the brainstem, cerebellum and thalamus, and, to a lesser extent, basal ganglia, amygdala and diencephalon...
June 20, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631147/the-motor-cortical-representation-of-a-muscle-is-not-homogeneous-in-brain-connectivity
#6
Jo Armour Smith, Alaa Albishi, Sarine Babikian, Skulpan Asavasopon, Beth E Fisher, Jason J Kutch
Functional connectivity patterns of the motor cortical representational area of single muscles have not been extensively mapped in humans, particularly for the axial musculature. Functional connectivity may provide a neural substrate for adaptation of muscle activity in axial muscles that have both voluntary and postural functions. The purpose of this study was to combine brain stimulation and neuroimaging to both map the cortical representation of the external oblique (EO) in primary motor cortex (M1) and supplementary motor area (SMA), and to establish the resting-state functional connectivity associated with this representation...
June 19, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623390/disturbed-cervical-proprioception-affects-perception-of-spatial-orientation-while-in-motion
#7
Eva-Maj Malmström, Per-Anders Fransson, Terese Jaxmar Bruinen, Semir Facic, Fredrik Tjernström
The proprioceptive, visual and vestibular sensory systems interact to maintain dynamic stability during movement. The relative importance and interplay between these sensory systems is still not fully understood. Increased knowledge about spatial perception and postural orientation would provide better understanding of balance disorders, and their rehabilitation. Displacement of the body in space was recorded in 16 healthy subjects performing a sequence of stepping-in-place tests without any visual or auditory cues...
June 17, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623389/moving-higher-and-higher-imitators-movements-are-sensitive-to-observed-trajectories-regardless-of-action-rationality
#8
Paul A G Forbes, Antonia F de C Hamilton
Humans sometimes perform actions which, at least superficially, appear suboptimal to the goal they are trying to achieve. Despite being able to identify these irrational actions from an early age, humans display a curious tendency to copy them. The current study recorded participants' movements during an established imitation task and manipulated the rationality of the observed action in two ways. Participants observed videos of a model point to a series of targets with either a low, high or 'superhigh' trajectory either in the presence or absence of obstacles between her targets...
June 17, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608244/action-ability-modulates-time-to-collision-judgments
#9
Eleonora Vagnoni, Vasiliki Andreanidou, Stella F Lourenco, Matthew R Longo
Time-to-collision (TTC) underestimation has been interpreted as an adaptive response that allows observers to have more time to engage in a defensive behaviour. This bias seems, therefore, strongly linked to action preparation. There is evidence that the observer's physical fitness modulates the underestimation effect so that people who need more time to react (i.e. those with less physical fitness) show a stronger underestimation effect. Here we investigated whether this bias is influenced by the momentary action capability of the observers...
June 12, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608243/voluntary-reduction-of-force-variability-via-modulation-of-low-frequency-oscillations
#10
Seoung Hoon Park, Agostina Casamento-Moran, Basma Yacoubi, Evangelos A Christou
Visual feedback can influence the force output by changing the power in frequencies below 1 Hz. However, it remains unknown whether visual guidance can help an individual reduce force variability voluntarily. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to determine whether an individual can voluntarily reduce force variability during constant contractions with visual guidance, and whether this reduction is associated with a decrease in the power of low-frequency oscillations (0-1 Hz) in force and muscle activity...
June 12, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597294/grasping-occluded-targets-investigating-the-influence-of-target-visibility-allocentric-cue-presence-and-direction-of-motion-on-gaze-and-grasp-accuracy
#11
Ryan W Langridge, Jonathan J Marotta
Participants executed right-handed reach-to-grasp movements toward horizontally translating targets. Visual feedback of the target when reaching, as well as the presence of additional cues placed above and below the target's path, was manipulated. Comparison of average fixations at reach onset and at the time of the grasp suggested that participants accurately extrapolated the occluded target's motion prior to reach onset, but not after the reach had been initiated, resulting in inaccurate grasp placements...
June 9, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589233/altered-tuning-in-primary-motor-cortex-does-not-account-for-behavioral-adaptation-during-force-field-learning
#12
Matthew G Perich, Lee E Miller
Although primary motor cortex (M1) is intimately involved in the dynamics of limb movement, its inputs may be more closely related to higher-order aspects of movement and multi-modal sensory feedback. Motor learning is thought to result from the adaption of internal models that compute transformations between these representations. While the psychophysics of motor learning has been studied in many experiments, the particular role of M1 in the process remains the subject of debate. Studies of learning-related changes in the spatial tuning of M1 neurons have yielded conflicting results...
June 6, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589232/lingual-tactile-sensitivity-effect-of-age-group-sex-and-fungiform-papillae-density
#13
Ronald G Bangcuyo, Christopher T Simons
Despite its contribution to food perception, lingual tactile sensitivity has been understudied. We hypothesized that sensitivity to threshold and suprathreshold tactile stimuli varies in the population and sought to determine proximate sources of variability. Forty-eight adults were tested for lingual threshold sensitivity via a modified letter identification task and suprathreshold sensitivity via estimation of stimulus size using magnitude estimation. In addition, taste bud density on the anterior tip of each panelist's tongue was estimated by counting the number of fungiform papillae in a 0...
June 6, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585080/visuo-locomotor-control-in-persons-with-spinal-cord-injury-in-a-manual-or-power-wheelchair-for-direction-change-and-obstacle-circumvention
#14
Caroline Charette, François Routhier, Bradford J McFadyen
Many individuals, such as persons with spinal cord injury (SCI), rely on wheeled locomotion involving manual (MWC) or power (PWC) wheelchairs to navigate their environments. Yet, visuo-locomotor control underlying WC navigation in experienced users is not well understood. The objective of this study was to compare the visuo-locomotor control between MWC and PWC in individuals with SCI while changing direction and circumventing an obstacle. Participants with SCI using a MWC (n = 12, 38.5 ± 10.7 years) or a PWC (n = 10, 47...
June 5, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578478/smooth-pursuits-decrease-balance-control-during-locomotion-in-young-and-older-healthy-females
#15
Neil M Thomas, Susan Dewhurst, Theodoros M Bampouras, Tim Donovan, Andrea Macaluso, Giuseppe Vannozzi
Dynamic balance control-characterised as movement of the trunk and lower limbs-was assessed during fixation of a fixed target, smooth pursuits and saccadic eye movements in ten young (22.9 ± 1.5 years) and ten older (72.1 ± 8.2 years) healthy females walking overground. Participants were presented with visual stimuli to initiate eye movements, and posture and gaze were assessed with motion analysis and eye tracking equipment. The results showed an increase in medial/lateral (ML) trunk movement (C7: p = 0...
June 3, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577024/voluntary-movement-reverses-the-effect-of-cathodal-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-tdcs-on-corticomotor-excitability
#16
Esra Erkoc Ataoglu, Hale Batur Caglayan, Bülent Cengiz
Motor cortex activity level is a critical part of the effect of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on corticomotor excitability. Based on homeostatic plasticity, the state of the stimulated cortical area influences the direction of neuroplastic changes induced by stimuli. Owing to homeostatic plasticity, cathodal tDCS (c-tDCS) would likely have a pronounced inhibitory effect on corticomotor excitability during a motor task, compared with the resting state. To test this hypothesis, we detected motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitude changes before and during c-tDCS with voluntary movement...
June 2, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573311/kinematics-in-the-brain-unmasking-motor-control-strategies
#17
Liesjet E H Van Dokkum, D Mottet, I Laffont, A Bonafé, N Menjot de Champfleur, J Froger, E Le Bars
In rhythmical movement performance, our brain has to sustain movement while correcting for biological noise-induced variability. Here, we explored the functional anatomy of brain networks during voluntary rhythmical elbow flexion/extension using kinematic movement regressors in fMRI analysis to verify the interest of method to address motor control in a neurological population. We found the expected systematic activation of the primary sensorimotor network that is suggested to generate the rhythmical movement...
June 2, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573310/inhibition-of-neuropathic-hyperalgesia-by-intrathecal-bone-marrow-stromal-cells-is-associated-with-alteration-of-multiple-soluble-factors-in-cerebrospinal-fluid
#18
Gregory Fischer, Fei Wang, Hongfei Xiang, Xiaowen Bai, Hongwei Yu, Quinn H Hogan
Injury-induced neuropathic pain remains a serious clinical problem. Recent studies indicate that bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) effectively attenuate chronic neuropathic pain in animal models. Here, we examined the therapeutic effect of intrathecal administration of BMSCs isolated from young (1-month-old) rats on pain hypersensitivity induced by tibial nerve injury. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was collected and analyzed to examine the effect of BMSC administration on the expression of 67 soluble factors in CSF...
June 1, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573309/neurophysiological-features-of-tactile-versus-visual-guidance-of-ongoing-movement
#19
Patrick J Lee, Sahana N Kukke
Although studies have investigated tactile and visual processing for perception, sensory processing for ongoing action remains poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to explore modality-specific patterns of cortical activation and functional connectivity in a practiced trajectory tracking task. Participants traced irregular shapes with their index finger using either touch or vision for guidance. In 60 tactile-motor (TM) trials, movement was guided only by tactile feedback of semicircular bumps on a plastic tile...
June 1, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573308/serial-practice-impairs-motor-skill-consolidation
#20
Kristin-Marie Neville, Maxime Trempe
Recent reports have revealed that motor skill learning is impaired if two skills are practiced one after the other, that is before the first skill has had the time to become consolidated. This suggests that motor skills should be practiced in isolation from one another to minimize interference. At the moment, little is known about the effect of practice schedules high in contextual interference on motor skill consolidation. In Experiment 1, we investigated whether a serial practice schedule impairs motor skill consolidation...
June 1, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
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