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Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918463/apoptotic-mechanisms-after-repeated-noise-trauma-in-the-mouse-medial-geniculate-body-and-primary-auditory-cortex
#1
Felix Fröhlich, Arne Ernst, Ira Strübing, Dietmar Basta, Moritz Gröschel
A correlation between noise-induced apoptosis and cell loss has previously been shown after a single noise exposure in the cochlear nucleus, inferior colliculus, medial geniculate body (MGB) and primary auditory cortex (AI). However, repeated noise exposure is the most common situation in humans and a major risk factor for the induction of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). The present investigation measured cell death pathways using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) in the dorsal, medial and ventral MGB (dMGB, mMGB and vMGB) and six layers of the AI (AI-1 to AI-6) in mice (NMRI strain) after a second noise exposure (double-exposure group)...
September 16, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913612/finger-tapping-and-pre-attentive-sensorimotor-timing-in-adults-with-adhd
#2
Michael J Hove, Nickolas Gravel, Rebecca M C Spencer, Eve M Valera
Sensorimotor timing deficits are considered central to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the tasks establishing timing impairments often involve interconnected processes, including low-level sensorimotor timing and higher level executive processes such as attention. Thus, the source of timing deficits in ADHD remains unclear. Low-level sensorimotor timing can be isolated from higher level processes in a finger-tapping task that examines the motor response to unexpected shifts of metronome onsets...
September 14, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900689/viewing-geometry-determines-the-contribution-of-binocular-vision-to-the-online-control-of-grasping
#3
Bruce D Keefe, Simon J Watt
Binocular vision is often assumed to make a specific, critical contribution to online visual control of grasping by providing precise information about the separation between digits and object. This account overlooks the 'viewing geometry' typically encountered in grasping, however. Separation of hand and object is rarely aligned precisely with the line of sight (the visual depth dimension), and analysis of the raw signals suggests that, for most other viewing angles, binocular feedback is less precise than monocular feedback...
September 12, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900673/eye-hand-coordination-during-visuomotor-adaptation-effects-of-hemispace-and-joint-coordination
#4
Miya K Rand, Sebastian Rentsch
We previously examined adaptive changes of eye-hand coordination during learning of a visuomotor rotation. Gazes during reaching movements were initially directed to a feedback cursor in early practice, but were gradually shifted toward the target with more practice, indicating an emerging gaze anchoring behavior. This adaptive pattern reflected a functional change of gaze control from exploring the cursor-hand relation to guiding the hand to the task goal. The present study further examined the effects of hemispace and joint coordination associated with target directions on this behavior...
September 12, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889178/music-and-speech-distractors-disrupt-sensorimotor-synchronization-effects-of-musical-training
#5
Anita Białuńska, Simone Dalla Bella
Humans display a natural tendency to move to the beat of music, more than to the rhythm of any other auditory stimulus. We typically move with music, but rarely with speech. This proclivity is apparent early during development and can be further developed over the years via joint dancing, singing, or instrument playing. Synchronization of movement to the beat can thus improve with age, but also with musical experience. In a previous study, we found that music perturbed synchronization with a metronome more than speech fragments; music superiority disappeared when distractors shared isochrony and the same meter (Dalla Bella et al...
September 9, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887626/probability-differently-modulating-the-effects-of-reward-and-punishment-on-visuomotor-adaptation
#6
Yanlong Song, Ann L Smiley-Oyen
Recent human motor learning studies revealed that punishment seemingly accelerated motor learning but reward enhanced consolidation of motor memory. It is not evident how intrinsic properties of reward and punishment modulate the potentially dissociable effects of reward and punishment on motor learning and motor memory. It is also not clear what causes the dissociation of the effects of reward and punishment. By manipulating probability of distribution, a critical property of reward and punishment, the present study demonstrated that probability had distinct modulation on the effects of reward and punishment in adapting to a sudden visual rotation and consolidation of the adaptation memory...
September 8, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884336/the-effects-of-constraining-vision-and-eye-movements-on-whole-body-coordination-during-standing-turns
#7
Rebecca K Robins, Mark A Hollands
Turning the body towards a new direction is normally achieved via a top-down synergy whereby gaze (eye direction in space) leads the upper body segments, which in turn lead the feet. These anticipatory eye movements are observable even in darkness and constraining the initial eye movements modifies the stereotyped top-down reorientation sequence. Our aim was to elucidate the relative contributions of vision and eye movements to whole-body coordination during large standing turns by observing the effects of separately removing visual information or suppressing eye movements throughout the turn...
September 7, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884226/the-disengagement-of-visual-attention-in-the-gap-paradigm-across-adolescence
#8
S Van der Stigchel, R S Hessels, J C van Elst, C Kemner
Attentional disengagement is important for successful interaction with our environment. The efficiency of attentional disengagement is commonly assessed using the gap paradigm. There is, however, a sharp contrast between the number of studies applying the gap paradigm to clinical populations and the knowledge about the underlying developmental trajectory of the gap effect. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to investigate attentional disengagement in a group of children aged 9-15. Besides the typically deployed gap and the overlap conditions, we also added a baseline condition in which the fixation point was removed at the moment that the target appeared...
September 7, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884209/neural-correlates-of-implicit-knowledge-about-statistical-regularities
#9
Sachio Otsuka, Jun Saiki
In this study, we examined the neural correlates of implicit knowledge about statistical regularities of temporal order and item chunks using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In a familiarization scan, participants viewed a stream of scenes consisting of structured (i.e., three scenes were always presented in the same order) and random triplets. In the subsequent test scan, participants were required to detect a target scene. Test sequences included both forward order of scenes presented during the familiarization scan and backward order of scenes (i...
September 7, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879596/interaction-between-attentional-systems-and-episodic-memory-encoding-the-impact-of-conflict-on-binding-of-information
#10
Marco Sperduti, Allan Armougum, Dominique Makowski, Philippe Blondé, Pascale Piolino
Episodic memory (EM) is defined as a long-term memory system that stores information that can be retrieved along with details of the context of the original events (binding). Several studies have shown that manipulation of attention during encoding can impact subsequent memory performance. An influential model of attention distinguishes between three partially independent attentional networks: the alerting, the orienting and the executive or conflict resolution component. To date, the impact of the engagement of these sub-systems during encoding on item and relational context binding has not been investigated...
September 6, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879541/postural-perturbation-does-not-reset-stepping-rhythm-in-humans-but-brief-intermission-does
#11
Koichi Hiraoka, Atsushi Kinoshita, Hiroshi Kunimura, Masakazu Matsuoka, Naoki Hamada
In the present study, we tested a hypothesis that the rhythm generator in humans keeps the rhythm of periodic motor output during brief inactivation of the pattern generator. This investigation was made through testing whether the step rhythm was reset after an interruptive event. A reset of the step rhythm was defined as an observation that the step re-emerges at random timing after an interruptive event regardless of the step rhythm before the interruption. This observation reflects an intermission of rhythm-keeping activity...
September 6, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879510/examining-impairment-of-adaptive-compensation-for-stabilizing-motor-repetitions-in-stroke-survivors
#12
Yushin Kim, Kyung Koh, BumChul Yoon, Woo-Sub Kim, Joon-Ho Shin, Hyung-Soon Park, Jae Kun Shim
The hand, one of the most versatile but mechanically redundant parts of the human body, suffers more and longer than other body parts after stroke. One of the rehabilitation paradigms, task-oriented rehabilitation, encourages motor repeatability, the ability to produce similar motor performance over repetitions through compensatory strategies while taking advantage of the motor system's redundancy. The previous studies showed that stroke survivors inconsistently performed a given motor task with limited motor solutions...
September 6, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861596/effects-of-lesions-in-different-nuclei-of-the-amygdala-on-conditioned-taste-aversion
#13
Andrés Molero-Chamizo, Guadalupe Nathzidy Rivera-Urbina
Conditioned taste aversion (CTA) is an adaptive learning that depends on brain mechanisms not completely identified. The amygdala is one of the structures that make up these mechanisms, but the involvement of its nuclei in the acquisition of CTA is unclear. Lesion studies suggest that the basolateral complex of the amygdala, including the basolateral and lateral amygdala, could be involved in CTA. The central amygdala has also been considered as an important nucleus for the acquisition of CTA in some studies...
August 31, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861592/increased-alertness-better-than-posture-prioritization-explains-dual-task-performance-in-prosthesis-users-and-controls-under-increasing-postural-and-cognitive-challenge
#14
Charla L Howard, Bonnie Perry, John W Chow, Chris Wallace, Dobrivoje S Stokic
Sensorimotor impairments after limb amputation impose a threat to stability. Commonly described strategies for maintaining stability are the posture first strategy (prioritization of balance) and posture second strategy (prioritization of concurrent tasks). The existence of these strategies was examined in 13 below-knee prosthesis users and 15 controls during dual-task standing under increasing postural and cognitive challenge by evaluating path length, 95% sway area, and anterior-posterior and medial-lateral amplitudes of the center of pressure...
August 31, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856393/comments-on-when-neuroscience-gets-wet-and-hardcore-neurocognitive-markers-obtained-during-whole-body-water-immersion
#15
LETTER
Xavier C E Vrijdag
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 30, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856387/relative-vibrotactile-spatial-acuity-of-the-torso
#16
Ómar I Jóhannesson, Rebekka Hoffmann, Vigdís Vala Valgeirsdóttir, Rúnar Unnþórsson, Alin Moldoveanu, Árni Kristjánsson
While tactile acuity for pressure has been extensively investigated, far less is known about acuity for vibrotactile stimulation. Vibrotactile acuity is important however, as such stimulation is used in many applications, including sensory substitution devices. We tested discrimination of vibrotactile stimulation from eccentric rotating mass motors with in-plane vibration. In 3 experiments, we tested gradually decreasing center-to-center (c/c) distances from 30 mm (experiment 1) to 13 mm (experiment 3). Observers judged whether a second vibrating stimulator ('tactor') was to the left or right or in the same place as a first one that came on 250 ms before the onset of the second (with a 50-ms inter-stimulus interval)...
August 30, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28849394/learning-dynamic-balancing-in-the-roll-plane-with-and-without-gravitational-cues
#17
Vivekanand Pandey Vimal, Paul DiZio, James R Lackner
We determined the relative contributions of gravity-dependent positional cues and motion cues to the learning of roll balance control. We hypothesized that gravity-dependent otolith and somatosensory shear forces related to body orientation would yield better initial performance, more rapid learning, and better retention. Blindfolded subjects rode in a device programmed to roll with inverted pendulum dynamics in a vertical (UPRIGHT) or horizontal plane (SUPINE), and used a joystick to align themselves with the direction of balance...
August 28, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28849332/peg-manipulation-capabilities-during-a-test-of-manual-dexterity-differ-for-persons-with-multiple-sclerosis-and-healthy-individuals
#18
Awad M Almuklass, Daniel F Feeney, Diba Mani, Landon D Hamilton, Roger M Enoka
Manual dexterity declines with advancing age and the development of neurological disorders. Changes in manual dexterity are frequently quantified as the time it takes to complete the grooved pegboard test, which requires individuals to manipulate 25 pegs. The manipulation of each peg involves four phases: selection, transport, insertion, and return. The purpose of the study was to compare the times to complete the four phases of manipulating each peg and the forces applied to the pegboard during peg selection and insertion in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) and age- and sex-matched healthy adults...
August 28, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840283/role-of-point-of-application-of-perturbation-in-control-of-vertical-posture
#19
Bing Chen, Yun-Ju Lee, Alexander S Aruin
The role of point of application of perturbation in the anticipatory (APAs) and compensatory (CPAs) postural control was studied. Twelve healthy participants stood on a sliding board (that was either locked and as such motionless or unlocked and as such free to move in the anterior-posterior direction). The body perturbations were applied either to the shoulders (by a pendulum impact) or the feet (by the movement of the sliding board). Electromyographic activity (EMG) of the trunk and lower extremity muscles was recorded...
August 24, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840275/the-effects-of-a-two-step-transfer-on-a-visuomotor-adaptation-task
#20
Christopher A Aiken, Zhujun Pan, Arend W A Van Gemmert
The literature has shown robust effects of transfer-of-learning to the contralateral side and more recently transfer-of-learning effects to a new effector type on the ipsilateral side. Few studies have investigated the effects of transfer-of-learning when skills transfer to both a new effector type and the contralateral side (two-step transfer). The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of two-step transfer and to examine which aspects of the movement transfer and which aspects do not...
August 24, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
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