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Essays in Biochemistry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453323/rna-stabilization-factors-in-chloroplasts-of-vascular-plants
#1
REVIEW
Nikolay Manavski, Lisa-Marie Schmid, Jörg Meurer
In contrast to the cyanobacterial ancestor, chloroplast gene expression is predominantly governed on the post-transcriptional level such as modifications of the RNA sequence, decay rates, exo- and endonucleolytic processing as well as translational events. The concerted function of numerous chloroplast RNA-binding proteins plays a fundamental and often essential role in all these processes but our understanding of their impact in regulation of RNA degradation is only at the beginning. Moreover, metabolic processes and post-translational modifications are thought to affect the function of RNA protectors...
February 16, 2018: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273583/chloroplast-signaling-and-quality-control
#2
REVIEW
Jean-David Rochaix, Silvia Ramundo
Although chloroplasts contain their own genetic system and are semi-autonomous cell organelles, plastid biogenesis and homeostasis are heavily dependent on the nucleo-cytosolic compartment. These two cellular compartments are closely co-ordinated through a complex signaling network comprising both anterograde and retrograde signaling chains. Developmental changes or any perturbation in the chloroplast system induced by a particular stress resulting from changes in environmental conditions such as excess light, elevated temperature, nutrient limitation, pathogen infection, give rise to specific signals...
December 21, 2017: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273582/the-role-of-chloroplasts-in-plant-pathology
#3
REVIEW
Robert G Sowden, Samuel J Watson, Paul Jarvis
Plants have evolved complex tolerance systems to survive abiotic and biotic stresses. Central to these programmes is a sophisticated conversation of signals between the chloroplast and the nucleus. In this review, we examine the antagonism between abiotic stress tolerance (AST) and immunity: we propose that to generate immunogenic signals, plants must disable AST systems, in particular those that manage reactive oxygen species (ROS), while the pathogen seeks to reactivate or enhance those systems to achieve virulence...
December 21, 2017: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233882/dysregulation-of-autophagy-as-a-common-mechanism-in-lysosomal-storage-diseases
#4
REVIEW
Elena Seranova, Kyle J Connolly, Malgorzata Zatyka, Tatiana R Rosenstock, Timothy Barrett, Richard I Tuxworth, Sovan Sarkar
The lysosome plays a pivotal role between catabolic and anabolic processes as the nexus for signalling pathways responsive to a variety of factors, such as growth, nutrient availability, energetic status and cellular stressors. Lysosomes are also the terminal degradative organelles for autophagy through which macromolecules and damaged cellular components and organelles are degraded. Autophagy acts as a cellular homeostatic pathway that is essential for organismal physiology. Decline in autophagy during ageing or in many diseases, including late-onset forms of neurodegeneration is considered a major contributing factor to the pathology...
December 12, 2017: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233881/autophagy-in-health-and-disease-focus-on-the-cardiovascular-system
#5
REVIEW
Jeanne Mialet-Perez, Cécile Vindis
Autophagy is a highly conserved mechanism of lysosome-mediated protein and organelle degradation that plays a crucial role in maintaining cellular homeostasis. In the last few years, specific functions for autophagy have been identified in many tissues and organs. In the cardiovascular system, autophagy appears to be essential to heart and vessel homeostasis and function; however defective or excessive autophagy activity seems to contribute to major cardiovascular disorders including heart failure (HF) or atherosclerosis...
December 12, 2017: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233880/autophagy-impairment-in-parkinson-s-disease
#6
REVIEW
Cansu Karabiyik, Min Jae Lee, David C Rubinsztein
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a debilitating movement disorder typically associated with the accumulation of intracytoplasmic aggregate prone protein deposits. Over recent years, increasing evidence has led to the suggestion that the mutations underlying certain forms of PD impair autophagy. Autophagy is a degradative pathway that delivers cytoplasmic content to lysosomes for degradation and represents a major route for degradation of aggregated cellular proteins and dysfunctional organelles. Autophagy up-regulation is a promising therapeutic strategy that is being explored for its potential to protect cells against the toxicity of aggregate-prone proteins in neurodegenerative diseases...
December 12, 2017: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233879/exploiting-cancer-vulnerabilities-mtor-autophagy-and-homeostatic-imbalance
#7
REVIEW
Charlotte E Johnson, Andrew R Tee
Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1) at lysosomes plays a pivotal role in cell growth control where an array of large multiprotein complexes relay nutrient, energy, and growth signal inputs through mTORC1. In cancer cells, such regulation often becomes disconnected, leading to uncontrolled cell growth and an elevation in cellular stress. Consequently, cancer cells often lose homeostatic balance as they grow in unfavorable conditions, i.e. when nutrients and energy are limited yet mTORC1 is still aberrantly activated...
December 12, 2017: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233878/host-pathogen-interactions-and-subversion-of-autophagy
#8
REVIEW
David G McEwan
Macroautophagy ('autophagy'), is the process by which cells can form a double-membraned vesicle that encapsulates material to be degraded by the lysosome. This can include complex structures such as damaged mitochondria, peroxisomes, protein aggregates and large swathes of cytoplasm that can not be processed efficiently by other means of degradation. Recycling of amino acids and lipids through autophagy allows the cell to form intracellular pools that aid survival during periods of stress, including growth factor deprivation, amino acid starvation or a depleted oxygen supply...
December 12, 2017: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233877/understanding-and-exploiting-autophagy-signaling-in-plants
#9
REVIEW
Henri Batoko, Yasin Dagdas, Frantisek Baluska, Agnieszka Sirko
Autophagy is an essential catabolic pathway and is activated by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli. In particular, autophagy is required to allow sessile organisms such as plants to cope with biotic or abiotic stress conditions. It is thought that these various environmental signaling pathways are somehow integrated with autophagy signaling. However, the molecular mechanisms of plant autophagy signaling are not well understood, leaving a big gap of knowledge as a barrier to being able to manipulate this important pathway to improve plant growth and development...
December 12, 2017: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233876/molecular-control-of-chaperone-mediated-autophagy
#10
REVIEW
Steve Catarino, Paulo Pereira, Henrique Girão
Chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) is a selective form of autophagy in which cytosolic proteins bearing a pentapeptide motif biochemically related to the KFERQ sequence, are recognized by the heat shock protein family A member 8 (HSPA8) chaperone, delivered to the lysomal membrane, and directly translocated across the lysosomal membrane by a protein complex containing lysosomal associated membrane protein 2a (Lamp2a). Since its discovery over two decades ago, the importance of this pathway in cell proteostasis has been made increasingly apparent...
December 12, 2017: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233875/to-be-or-not-to-be-cell-autonomous-autophagy-says-both
#11
REVIEW
Nina Fenouille, Anna Chiara Nascimbeni, Joëlle Botti-Millet, Nicolas Dupont, Etienne Morel, Patrice Codogno
Although cells are a part of the whole organism, classical dogma emphasizes that individual cells function autonomously. Many physiological and pathological conditions, including cancer, and metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases, have been considered mechanistically as cell-autonomous pathologies, meaning those that damage or defect within a selective population of affected cells suffice to produce disease. It is becoming clear, however, that cells and cellular processes cannot be considered in isolation...
December 12, 2017: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233874/autophagy-s-secret-life-secretion-instead-of-degradation
#12
REVIEW
Aurore Claude-Taupin, Jingyue Jia, Michal Mudd, Vojo Deretic
Autophagy is conventionally described as a degradative, catabolic pathway and a tributary to the lysosomal system where the cytoplasmic material sequestered by autophagosomes gets degraded. However, autophagosomes or autophagosome-related organelles do not always follow this route. It has recently come to light that autophagy can terminate in cytosolic protein secretion or release of sequestered material from the cells, rather than in their degradation. In this review, we address this relatively new but growing aspect of autophagy as a complex pathway, which is far more versatile than originally anticipated...
December 12, 2017: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233873/er-homeostasis-and-autophagy
#13
REVIEW
Matthew Smith, Simon Wilkinson
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a key site for lipid biosynthesis and folding of nascent transmembrane and secretory proteins. These processes are maintained by careful homeostatic control of the environment within the ER lumen. Signalling sensors within the ER detect perturbations within the lumen (ER stress) and employ downstream signalling cascades that engage effector mechanisms to restore homeostasis. The most studied signalling mechanism that the ER employs is the unfolded protein response (UPR), which is known to increase a number of effector mechanisms, including autophagy...
December 12, 2017: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233872/regulation-of-selective-autophagy-the-p62-sqstm1-paradigm
#14
REVIEW
Trond Lamark, Steingrim Svenning, Terje Johansen
In selective autophagy, cytoplasmic components are selected and tagged before being sequestered into an autophagosome by means of selective autophagy receptors such as p62/SQSTM1. In this review, we discuss how selective autophagy is regulated. An important level of regulation is the selection of proteins or organelles for degradation. Components selected for degradation are tagged, often with ubiquitin, to facilitate recognition by autophagy receptors. Another level of regulation is represented by the autophagy receptors themselves...
December 12, 2017: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233871/interplay-of-autophagy-receptor-tyrosine-kinase-signalling-and-endocytic-trafficking
#15
REVIEW
Jane Fraser, Ainara G Cabodevilla, Joanne Simpson, Noor Gammoh
Vesicular trafficking events play key roles in the compartmentalization and proper sorting of cellular components. These events have crucial roles in sensing external signals, regulating protein activities and stimulating cell growth or death decisions. Although mutations in vesicle trafficking players are not direct drivers of cellular transformation, their activities are important in facilitating oncogenic pathways. One such pathway is the sensing of external stimuli and signalling through receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs)...
December 12, 2017: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233870/the-mammalian-ulk1-complex-and-autophagy-initiation
#16
REVIEW
Maria Zachari, Ian G Ganley
Autophagy is a vital lysosomal degradation pathway that serves as a quality control mechanism. It rids the cell of damaged, toxic or excess cellular components, which if left to persist could be detrimental to the cell. It also serves as a recycling pathway to maintain protein synthesis under starvation conditions. A key initial event in autophagy is formation of the autophagosome, a unique double-membrane organelle that engulfs the cytosolic cargo destined for degradation. This step is mediated by the serine/threonine protein kinase ULK1 (unc-51-like kinase 1), which functions in a complex with at least three protein partners: FIP200 (focal adhesion kinase family interacting protein of 200 kDa), ATG (autophagy-related protein) 13 (ATG13), and ATG101...
December 12, 2017: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233869/mtorc1-as-the-main-gateway-to-autophagy
#17
REVIEW
Yoana Rabanal-Ruiz, Elsje G Otten, Viktor I Korolchuk
Cells and organisms must coordinate their metabolic activity with changes in their environment to ensure their growth only when conditions are favourable. In order to maintain cellular homoeostasis, a tight regulation between the synthesis and degradation of cellular components is essential. At the epicentre of the cellular nutrient sensing is the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) which connects environmental cues, including nutrient and growth factor availability as well as stress, to metabolic processes in order to preserve cellular homoeostasis...
December 12, 2017: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233868/signalling-mechanisms-in-autophagy-an-introduction-to-the-issue
#18
EDITORIAL
Jon D Lane, Viktor I Korolchuk, James T Murray
Essays in Biochemistry volume 61 (issue 6), entitled Signalling Mechanisms in Autophagy, covers a range of topics in autophagy signalling, touching on emerging new details on the mechanisms of autophagy regulation, novel aspects of selective autophagy and how autophagy functions in organelle homeostasis. It also looks at how autophagy research is leading to better understanding of human disease and plant biology that can be exploited for the benefit of society.
December 12, 2017: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118099/the-potential-of-cryo-electron-microscopy-for-structure-based-drug-design
#19
REVIEW
Andreas Boland, Leifu Chang, David Barford
Structure-based drug design plays a central role in therapeutic development. Until recently, protein crystallography and NMR have dominated experimental approaches to obtain structural information of biological molecules. However, in recent years rapid technical developments in single particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) have enabled the determination to near-atomic resolution of macromolecules ranging from large multi-subunit molecular machines to proteins as small as 64 kDa. These advances have revolutionized structural biology by hugely expanding both the range of macromolecules whose structures can be determined, and by providing a description of macromolecular dynamics...
November 8, 2017: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118098/x-ray-free-electron-laser-opportunities-for-drug-discovery
#20
REVIEW
Robert K Y Cheng, Rafael Abela, Michael Hennig
Past decades have shown the impact of structural information derived from complexes of drug candidates with their protein targets to facilitate the discovery of safe and effective medicines. Despite recent developments in single particle cryo-electron microscopy, X-ray crystallography has been the main method to derive structural information. The unique properties of X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) with unmet peak brilliance and beam focus allow X-ray diffraction data recording and successful structure determination from smaller and weaker diffracting crystals shortening timelines in crystal optimization...
November 8, 2017: Essays in Biochemistry
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