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Essays in Biochemistry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980095/metabolomics-in-nutrition-research-a-powerful-window-into-nutritional-metabolism
#1
REVIEW
Lorraine Brennan
Metabolomics is the study of small molecules present in biological samples. In recent years it has become evident that such small molecules, called metabolites, play a key role in the development of disease states. Furthermore, metabolomic applications can reveal information about alterations in certain metabolic pathways under different conditions. Data acquisition in metabolomics is usually performed using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based approaches or mass spectrometry (MS)-based approaches with a more recent trend including the application of multiple platforms in order to maximise the coverage in terms of metabolites measured...
December 15, 2016: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980094/adipose-tissue-development-and-the-molecular-regulation-of-lipid-metabolism
#2
REVIEW
Arthe Raajendiran, Thomas Tsiloulis, Matthew J Watt
The production of new adipocytes is required to maintain adipose tissue mass and involves the proliferation and differentiation of adipocyte precursor cells (APCs). In this review, we outline new developments in understanding the phenotype of APCs and provide evidence suggesting that APCs differ between distinct adipose tissue depots and are affected by obesity. Post-mitotic mature adipocytes regulate systemic lipid homeostasis by storing and releasing free fatty acids, and also modulate energy balance via the secretion of adipokines...
December 15, 2016: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980093/the-application-of-metabolomics-for-herbal-medicine-pharmacovigilance-a-case-study-on-ginseng
#3
REVIEW
Elly Crighton, Ian Mullaney, Robert Trengove, Michael Bunce, Garth Maker
Herbal medicines are growing in popularity, use and commercial value; however, there remain problems with the quality and consequently safety of these products. Adulterated, contaminated and fraudulent products are often found on the market, a risk compounded by the fact that these products are available to consumers with little or no medical advice. Current regulations and quality control methods are lacking in their ability to combat these serious problems. Metabolomics is a biochemical profiling tool that may help address these issues if applied to quality control of both raw ingredients and final products...
December 15, 2016: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980092/solution-state-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-for-biological-metabolism-and-pathway-intermediate-analysis
#4
REVIEW
Gareth L Nealon, Mark J Howard
Using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in the study of metabolism has been immensely popular in medical- and health-related research but has yet to be widely applied to more fundamental biological problems. This review provides some NMR background relevant to metabolism, describes why (1)H NMR spectra are complex as well as introducing relevant terminology and definitions. The applications and practical considerations of NMR metabolic profiling and (13)C NMR-based flux analyses are discussed together with the elegant 'enzyme trap' approach for identifying novel metabolic pathway intermediates...
December 15, 2016: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980091/metabolism-of-bile-acids-in-the-post-prandial-state
#5
REVIEW
Jarlei Fiamoncini, Rui Curi, Hannelore Daniel
The modulation of energy expenditure by dietary administration of cholic acid in mice promoted interest in studying bile acid(s) (BA) as adjuvants in the treatment of metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes. Bile acids can modulate intermediary metabolism by acting directly on nuclear as well as G-protein-coupled receptors or indirectly through changes in gut microbiota. Despite the potential of BA to affect intermediary metabolism, plasma kinetics and changes in individual BA in blood in the post-prandial state have been neglected for a long time...
December 15, 2016: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980090/overview-metabolomics-and-lipidomics-in-nutrition-and-metabolism-research
#6
REVIEW
Philip Newsholme
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 15, 2016: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903826/synthetic-biology-approaches-to-biological-containment-pre-emptively-tackling-potential-risks
#7
REVIEW
Leticia Torres, Antje Krüger, Eszter Csibra, Edoardo Gianni, Vitor B Pinheiro
Biocontainment comprises any strategy applied to ensure that harmful organisms are confined to controlled laboratory conditions and not allowed to escape into the environment. Genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs), regardless of the nature of the modification and how it was established, have potential human or ecological impact if accidentally leaked or voluntarily released into a natural setting. Although all evidence to date is that GEMs are unable to compete in the environment, the power of synthetic biology to rewrite life requires a pre-emptive strategy to tackle possible unknown risks...
November 30, 2016: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903825/synthetic-biology-routes-to-bio-artificial-intelligence
#8
REVIEW
Darren N Nesbeth, Alexey Zaikin, Yasushi Saka, M Carmen Romano, Claudiu V Giuraniuc, Oleg Kanakov, Tetyana Laptyeva
The design of synthetic gene networks (SGNs) has advanced to the extent that novel genetic circuits are now being tested for their ability to recapitulate archetypal learning behaviours first defined in the fields of machine and animal learning. Here, we discuss the biological implementation of a perceptron algorithm for linear classification of input data. An expansion of this biological design that encompasses cellular 'teachers' and 'students' is also examined. We also discuss implementation of Pavlovian associative learning using SGNs and present an example of such a scheme and in silico simulation of its performance...
November 30, 2016: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903824/societal-impact-of-synthetic-biology-responsible-research-and-innovation-rri
#9
REVIEW
Daniel Gregorowius, Anna Deplazes-Zemp
Synthetic biology is an emerging field at the interface between biology and engineering, which has generated many expectations for beneficial biomedical and biotechnological applications. At the same time, however, it has also raised concerns about risks or the aim of producing new forms of living organisms. Researchers from different disciplines as well as policymakers and the general public have expressed the need for a form of technology assessment that not only deals with technical aspects, but also includes societal and ethical issues...
November 30, 2016: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903823/in%C3%A2-vitro-skin-models-and-tissue-engineering-protocols-for-skin-graft-applications
#10
REVIEW
Lucas B Naves, Chetna Dhand, Luis Almeida, Lakshminarayanan Rajamani, Seeram Ramakrishna
In this review, we present a brief introduction of the skin structure, a concise compilation of skin-related disorders, and a thorough discussion of different in vitro skin models, artificial skin substitutes, skin grafts, and dermal tissue engineering protocols. The advantages of the development of in vitro skin disorder models, such as UV radiation and the prototype model, melanoma model, wound healing model, psoriasis model, and full-thickness model are also discussed. Different types of skin grafts including allografts, autografts, allogeneic, and xenogeneic are described in detail with their associated applications...
November 30, 2016: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903822/synthetic-biology-and-the-prospects-for-responsible-innovation
#11
REVIEW
Phil Macnaghten, Richard Owen, Roland Jackson
In this article we provide a short review of the debate on responsible innovation and its intersection with synthetic biology, focusing on initiatives we have witnessed and been involved with in the UK. First, we describe the ways in which responsibility in science has been reconfigured institutionally, from an internal focus on the provision of objective and reliable knowledge, to a more external view that embraces the ways in which it has an impact on society. Secondly, we introduce a framework for responsible innovation as a (partial) response to this shift, highlighting its constituent dimensions and the capacities and competencies that are needed to put it into practice...
November 30, 2016: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903821/construction-of-a-minimal-genome-as-a-chassis-for-synthetic-biology
#12
REVIEW
Bong Hyun Sung, Donghui Choe, Sun Chang Kim, Byung-Kwan Cho
Microbial diversity and complexity pose challenges in understanding the voluminous genetic information produced from whole-genome sequences, bioinformatics and high-throughput '-omics' research. These challenges can be overcome by a core blueprint of a genome drawn with a minimal gene set, which is essential for life. Systems biology and large-scale gene inactivation studies have estimated the number of essential genes to be ∼300-500 in many microbial genomes. On the basis of the essential gene set information, minimal-genome strains have been generated using sophisticated genome engineering techniques, such as genome reduction and chemical genome synthesis...
November 30, 2016: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903820/agent-based-modelling-in-synthetic-biology
#13
REVIEW
Thomas E Gorochowski
Biological systems exhibit complex behaviours that emerge at many different levels of organization. These span the regulation of gene expression within single cells to the use of quorum sensing to co-ordinate the action of entire bacterial colonies. Synthetic biology aims to make the engineering of biology easier, offering an opportunity to control natural systems and develop new synthetic systems with useful prescribed behaviours. However, in many cases, it is not understood how individual cells should be programmed to ensure the emergence of a required collective behaviour...
November 30, 2016: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903819/towards-designing-new-nano-scale-protein-architectures
#14
REVIEW
Jana Aupič, Fabio Lapenta, Žiga Strmšek, Roman Jerala
The complexity of designed bionano-scale architectures is rapidly increasing mainly due to the expanding field of DNA-origami technology and accurate protein design approaches. The major advantage offered by polypeptide nanostructures compared with most other polymers resides in their highly programmable complexity. Proteins allow in vivo formation of well-defined structures with a precise spatial arrangement of functional groups, providing extremely versatile nano-scale scaffolds. Extending beyond existing proteins that perform a wide range of functions in biological systems, it became possible in the last few decades to engineer and predict properties of completely novel protein folds, opening the field of protein nanostructure design...
November 30, 2016: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903818/properties-of-alternative-microbial-hosts-used-in-synthetic-biology-towards-the-design-of-a-modular-chassis
#15
REVIEW
Juhyun Kim, Manuel Salvador, Elizabeth Saunders, Jaime González, Claudio Avignone-Rossa, Jose Ignacio Jiménez
The chassis is the cellular host used as a recipient of engineered biological systems in synthetic biology. They are required to propagate the genetic information and to express the genes encoded in it. Despite being an essential element for the appropriate function of genetic circuits, the chassis is rarely considered in their design phase. Consequently, the circuits are transferred to model organisms commonly used in the laboratory, such as Escherichia coli, that may be suboptimal for a required function...
November 30, 2016: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784777/the-immune-system
#16
REVIEW
Lindsay B Nicholson
All organisms are connected in a complex web of relationships. Although many of these are benign, not all are, and everything alive devotes significant resources to identifying and neutralizing threats from other species. From bacteria through to primates, the presence of some kind of effective immune system has gone hand in hand with evolutionary success. This article focuses on mammalian immunity, the challenges that it faces, the mechanisms by which these are addressed, and the consequences that arise when it malfunctions...
October 31, 2016: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784776/photosynthesis
#17
REVIEW
Matthew P Johnson
Photosynthesis sustains virtually all life on planet Earth providing the oxygen we breathe and the food we eat; it forms the basis of global food chains and meets the majority of humankind's current energy needs through fossilized photosynthetic fuels. The process of photosynthesis in plants is based on two reactions that are carried out by separate parts of the chloroplast. The light reactions occur in the chloroplast thylakoid membrane and involve the splitting of water into oxygen, protons and electrons...
October 31, 2016: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744339/chaperone-families-and-interactions-in-metazoa
#18
Yael Bar-Lavan, Netta Shemesh, Anat Ben-Zvi
Quality control is an essential aspect of cellular function, with protein folding quality control being carried out by molecular chaperones, a diverse group of highly conserved proteins that specifically identify misfolded conformations. Molecular chaperones are thus required to support proteins affected by expressed polymorphisms, mutations, intrinsic errors in gene expression, chronic insult or the acute effects of the environment, all of which contribute to a flux of metastable proteins. In this article, we review the four main chaperone families in metazoans, namely Hsp60 (where Hsp is heat-shock protein), Hsp70, Hsp90 and sHsps (small heat-shock proteins), as well as their co-chaperones...
October 15, 2016: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744338/protein-quality-control-at-the-endoplasmic-reticulum
#19
Kathleen McCaffrey, Ineke Braakman
The ER (endoplasmic reticulum) is the protein folding 'factory' of the secretory pathway. Virtually all proteins destined for the plasma membrane, the extracellular space or other secretory compartments undergo folding and maturation within the ER. The ER hosts a unique PQC (protein quality control) system that allows specialized modifications such as glycosylation and disulfide bond formation essential for the correct folding and function of many secretory proteins. It is also the major checkpoint for misfolded or aggregation-prone proteins that may be toxic to the cell or extracellular environment...
October 15, 2016: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744337/protein-quality-control-at-the-mitochondrion
#20
REVIEW
Wolfgang Voos, Witold Jaworek, Anne Wilkening, Michael Bruderek
Mitochondria are essential constituents of a eukaryotic cell by supplying ATP and contributing to many mayor metabolic processes. As endosymbiotic organelles, they represent a cellular subcompartment exhibiting many autonomous functions, most importantly containing a complete endogenous machinery responsible for protein expression, folding and degradation. This article summarizes the biochemical processes and the enzymatic components that are responsible for maintaining mitochondrial protein homoeostasis. As mitochondria lack a large part of the required genetic information, most proteins are synthesized in the cytosol and imported into the organelle...
October 15, 2016: Essays in Biochemistry
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