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Essays in Biochemistry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717060/cell-cell-communication-via-ciliary-extracellular-vesicles-clues-from-model-systems
#1
REVIEW
Juan Wang, Maureen M Barr
In this short review, we will focus on the uniqueness of ciliary extracellular vesicles (EVs). In particular, we will review what has been learned regarding EVs produced by cilia of model organisms. Model systems including Chlamydomonas, Caenorhabditis elegans , and mouse revealed the fundamental biology of cilia and flagella and provide a paradigm to understand the roles of cilia and flagella in human development, health, and disease. Likewise, we propose that general principles learned from model systems regarding ciliary EV biogenesis and functions may provide a framework to explore the roles of ciliary EVs in human development, health, and disease...
May 1, 2018: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717058/exosomes-and-cardiovascular-cell-cell-communication
#2
REVIEW
Adam J Poe, Anne A Knowlton
Exosomes have become an important player in intercellular signaling. These lipid microvesicles can stably transfer miRNA, protein, and other molecules between cells and circulate throughout the body. Exosomes are released by almost all cell types and are present in most if not all biological fluids. The biologically active cargo carried by exosomes can alter the phenotype of recipient cells. Exosomes increasingly are recognized as having an important role in the progression and treatment of cardiac disease states...
May 1, 2018: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717057/to-be-or-not-to-be-secreted-as-exosomes-a-balance-finely-tuned-by-the-mechanisms-of-biogenesis
#3
REVIEW
Roberta Palmulli, Guillaume van Niel
The release of extracellular vesicles such as exosomes provides an attractive intercellular communication pathway. Exosomes are 30- to 150-nm membrane vesicles that are generated in endosomal compartment and act as intercellular mediators in both physiological and pathological context. Despite the growing interest in exosome functions, the mechanisms responsible for their biogenesis and secretion are still not completely understood. Knowledge about these mechanisms is important because they control the composition, and hence the function and secretion, of exosomes...
May 1, 2018: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666212/extracellular-vesicles-important-collaborators-in-cancer-progression
#4
REVIEW
Shinya Sato, Alissa M Weaver
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane vesicles that are released from cells and mediate cell-cell communication. EVs carry protein, lipid, and nucleic acid cargoes that interact with recipient cells to alter their phenotypes. Evidence is accumulating that tumor-derived EVs can play important roles in all steps of cancer progression. Here, we review recent studies reporting critical roles for EVs in four major areas of cancer progression: promotion of cancer invasiveness and motility, enhancement of angiogenesis and vessel permeability, conditioning premetastatic niches, and immune suppression...
April 17, 2018: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666211/drivers-of-persistent-infection-pathogen-induced-extracellular-vesicles
#5
REVIEW
Michael J Cipriano, Stephen L Hajduk
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are produced by invading pathogens and also by host cells in response to infection. The origin, composition, and function of EVs made during infection are diverse and provide effective vehicles for localized and broad dissimilation of effector molecules in the infected host. Extracellular pathogens use EVs to communicate with each other by sensing the host environment contributing to social motility, tissue tropism, and persistence of infection. Pathogen-derived EVs can also interact with host cells to influence the adhesive properties of host membranes and to alter immune recognition and response...
April 17, 2018: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563222/enhancing-photosynthesis-in-plants-the-light-reactions
#6
REVIEW
Tanai Cardona, Shengxi Shao, Peter J Nixon
In this review, we highlight recent research and current ideas on how to improve the efficiency of the light reactions of photosynthesis in crops. We note that the efficiency of photosynthesis is a balance between how much energy is used for growth and the energy wasted or spent protecting the photosynthetic machinery from photodamage. There are reasons to be optimistic about enhancing photosynthetic efficiency, but many appealing ideas are still on the drawing board. It is envisioned that the crops of the future will be extensively genetically modified to tailor them to specific natural or artificial environmental conditions...
March 21, 2018: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563221/ties-that-bind-the-integration-of-plastid-signalling-pathways-in-plant-cell-metabolism
#7
REVIEW
Jacob O Brunkard, Tessa M Burch-Smith
Plastids are critical organelles in plant cells that perform diverse functions and are central to many metabolic pathways. Beyond their major roles in primary metabolism, of which their role in photosynthesis is perhaps best known, plastids contribute to the biosynthesis of phytohormones and other secondary metabolites, store critical biomolecules, and sense a range of environmental stresses. Accordingly, plastid-derived signals coordinate a host of physiological and developmental processes, often by emitting signalling molecules that regulate the expression of nuclear genes...
March 21, 2018: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765007/from-intra-to-extracellular-vesicles-extracellular-vesicles-in-developmental-signalling
#8
REVIEW
Ana-Citlali Gradilla, Eléanor Simon, Gustavo Aguilar, Isabel Guerrero
Signalling from cell-to-cell is fundamental for determining differentiation and patterning. This communication can occur between adjacent and distant cells. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane-based structures thought to facilitate the long-distance movement of signalling molecules. EVs have recently been found to allow the transport of two major developmental signalling pathways: Hedgehog and Wnt. These signalling molecules undergo crucial post-translational lipid modifications, which anchor them to membranes and impede their free release into the extracellular space...
May 15, 2018: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765006/exosomes-and-extracellular-vesicles-the-path-forward
#9
REVIEW
Philip D Stahl, Graça Raposo
Over the course of the past several decades, the concept that extracellular vesicles, exosomes and microvesicles, operate as cellular "housekeepers" and as agents for communication between and among cells and tissues, has emerged into one of the most promising yet vexing problems facing the biomedical community. Already, extracellular vesicles from biological fluids are being used for diagnostic purposes and hopes abound for their use as therapeutic agents. However, the most basic mechanistic questions surrounding their biogenesis and function in cellular and tissue homeostasis remain largely unexplored...
May 15, 2018: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717059/fed-exosome-extracellular-vesicles-and-cell-cell-communication-in-metabolic-regulation
#10
REVIEW
Isabella Samuelson, Antonio J Vidal-Puig
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have emerged as a novel messaging system of the organism, mediating cell-cell and interorgan communication. Through their content of proteins and nucleic acids, as well as membrane proteins and lipid species, EVs can interact with and modulate the function of their target cells. The regulation of whole-body metabolism requires cross-talk between key metabolic tissues including adipose tissue (AT), the liver and skeletal muscle. Furthermore, the regulation of nutrient/energy allocation during pregnancy requires co-ordinated communication between the foetus and metabolic organs of the mother...
May 15, 2018: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666210/regulation-and-mechanisms-of-extracellular-vesicle-biogenesis-and-secretion
#11
REVIEW
Crislyn D'Souza-Schorey, Jeffrey S Schorey
EV (extracellular vesicle) biology is a rapidly expanding field. These heterogeneous membrane vesicles, which are shed from virtually all cell types, collectively represent a new dimension of intercellular communication in normal physiology and disease. They have been shown to deliver infectious and pathogenic agents to non-infected cells whereas in cancers they are thought to condition the tumor microenvironment. Their presence in body fluids and inherent capacity for systemic delivery point to their clinical promise...
May 15, 2018: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653967/increasing-metabolic-potential-c-fixation
#12
REVIEW
P John Andralojc, Elizabete Carmo-Silva, Gustaf E Degen, Martin A J Parry
Due to the growing world population, crop yields must increase to meet the rising demand. Crop plants also require adaptation to optimize performance in the changing environments caused by climate change. Improving photosynthetic carbon fixation is a promising, albeit technically challenging, strategy whose potential has only just begun to be considered in breeding programmes. Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco), a fundamental enzyme of carbon fixation, is extremely inefficient and many strategies to improve photosynthesis focus on overcoming the limitations of this enzyme, either by improving Rubisco activity and regulation or by improving the supply of substrates...
April 13, 2018: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653966/the-impact-of-a-changing-atmosphere-on-chloroplast-function-photosynthesis-yield-and-food-security
#13
REVIEW
Steven Gutteridge
A convergence of global factors is adding to the difficulties of securing a sustainable supply of food and feed to support the increasing global population. The positive impact of the rise in atmospheric CO2 on photosynthesis is more than offset by the increase in average global temperatures accompanying the change in atmospheric composition. This article provides a brief overview of how these adverse events affect some of the critical molecular processes of the chloroplast and by extension how this impacts the yields of the major crops...
April 13, 2018: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487196/structural-components-involved-in-plastid-protein-import
#14
REVIEW
Serena Schwenkert, Sophie Dittmer, Jürgen Soll
Import of preproteins into chloroplasts is an essential process, requiring two major multisubunit protein complexes that are embedded in the outer and inner chloroplast envelope membrane. Both the translocon of the outer chloroplast membrane (Toc), as well as the translocon of the inner chloroplast membrane (Tic) have been studied intensively with respect to their individual subunit compositions, functions and regulations. Recent advances in crystallography have increased our understanding of the operation of these proteins in terms of their interactions and regulation by conformational switching...
April 13, 2018: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487195/non-photosynthetic-plastids-as-hosts-for-metabolic-engineering
#15
REVIEW
Silas Busck Mellor, James B Y H Behrendorff, Agnieszka Zygadlo Nielsen, Poul Erik Jensen, Mathias Pribil
Using plants as hosts for production of complex, high-value compounds and therapeutic proteins has gained increasing momentum over the past decade. Recent advances in metabolic engineering techniques using synthetic biology have set the stage for production yields to become economically attractive, but more refined design strategies are required to increase product yields without compromising development and growth of the host system. The ability of plant cells to differentiate into various tissues in combination with a high level of cellular compartmentalization represents so far the most unexploited plant-specific resource...
April 13, 2018: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453323/rna-stabilization-factors-in-chloroplasts-of-vascular-plants
#16
REVIEW
Nikolay Manavski, Lisa-Marie Schmid, Jörg Meurer
In contrast to the cyanobacterial ancestor, chloroplast gene expression is predominantly governed on the post-transcriptional level such as modifications of the RNA sequence, decay rates, exo- and endonucleolytic processing as well as translational events. The concerted function of numerous chloroplast RNA-binding proteins plays a fundamental and often essential role in all these processes but our understanding of their impact in regulation of RNA degradation is only at the beginning. Moreover, metabolic processes and post-translational modifications are thought to affect the function of RNA protectors...
April 13, 2018: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273583/chloroplast-signaling-and-quality-control
#17
REVIEW
Jean-David Rochaix, Silvia Ramundo
Although chloroplasts contain their own genetic system and are semi-autonomous cell organelles, plastid biogenesis and homeostasis are heavily dependent on the nucleo-cytosolic compartment. These two cellular compartments are closely co-ordinated through a complex signaling network comprising both anterograde and retrograde signaling chains. Developmental changes or any perturbation in the chloroplast system induced by a particular stress resulting from changes in environmental conditions such as excess light, elevated temperature, nutrient limitation, pathogen infection, give rise to specific signals...
December 21, 2017: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273582/the-role-of-chloroplasts-in-plant-pathology
#18
REVIEW
Robert G Sowden, Samuel J Watson, Paul Jarvis
Plants have evolved complex tolerance systems to survive abiotic and biotic stresses. Central to these programmes is a sophisticated conversation of signals between the chloroplast and the nucleus. In this review, we examine the antagonism between abiotic stress tolerance (AST) and immunity: we propose that to generate immunogenic signals, plants must disable AST systems, in particular those that manage reactive oxygen species (ROS), while the pathogen seeks to reactivate or enhance those systems to achieve virulence...
December 21, 2017: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233882/dysregulation-of-autophagy-as-a-common-mechanism-in-lysosomal-storage-diseases
#19
REVIEW
Elena Seranova, Kyle J Connolly, Malgorzata Zatyka, Tatiana R Rosenstock, Timothy Barrett, Richard I Tuxworth, Sovan Sarkar
The lysosome plays a pivotal role between catabolic and anabolic processes as the nexus for signalling pathways responsive to a variety of factors, such as growth, nutrient availability, energetic status and cellular stressors. Lysosomes are also the terminal degradative organelles for autophagy through which macromolecules and damaged cellular components and organelles are degraded. Autophagy acts as a cellular homeostatic pathway that is essential for organismal physiology. Decline in autophagy during ageing or in many diseases, including late-onset forms of neurodegeneration is considered a major contributing factor to the pathology...
December 12, 2017: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233881/autophagy-in-health-and-disease-focus-on-the-cardiovascular-system
#20
REVIEW
Jeanne Mialet-Perez, Cécile Vindis
Autophagy is a highly conserved mechanism of lysosome-mediated protein and organelle degradation that plays a crucial role in maintaining cellular homeostasis. In the last few years, specific functions for autophagy have been identified in many tissues and organs. In the cardiovascular system, autophagy appears to be essential to heart and vessel homeostasis and function; however defective or excessive autophagy activity seems to contribute to major cardiovascular disorders including heart failure (HF) or atherosclerosis...
December 12, 2017: Essays in Biochemistry
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