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Nursing Clinics of North America

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30100011/those-conditions-you-may-not-be-expecting
#1
EDITORIAL
Benjamin A Smallheer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Nursing Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30100010/paroxysmal-sympathetic-hyperactivity-syndrome-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#2
REVIEW
Elizabeth Compton
Paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity (PSH) is a syndrome classified by episodic presentation of abnormal sympathetic and motor symptoms observed in patients with acquired brain injuries. Although the exact physiologic mechanism of PSH is not fully understood, its clinical significance has been well-established. PSH diagnosis depends on the identification of symptom presence, severity, and patterns. Treatment of PSH is rooted in pharmacologic management of targeted symptoms. Although complex, recognition and management of PSH has meaningful implications on the hospitalization and recovery trajectory for adult patients with traumatic brain injuries...
September 2018: Nursing Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30100009/degenerative-or-debilitative-neurologic-syndromes
#3
REVIEW
Abby Luck Parish
Neurodegenerative disorders are progressive, debilitating impairments of neurologic function. Dementia affects cognition and function. Persons with cognitive deficits should undergo a full workup and may be treated with cholinesterase inhibitors and/or memantine. Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia may be assessed and treated individually. Parkinson disease is a disorder of movement. Levodopa is the standard treatment of dopamine-related movement symptoms. Associated symptoms should be assessed and treated...
September 2018: Nursing Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30100008/evaluation-and-treatment-of-restless-legs-syndrome-in-the-primary-care-environment
#4
REVIEW
Benjamin A Smallheer
Restless legs syndrome/Willis-Ekbon disease (RLS/WED) is a common sensorimotor disorder characterized by an irresistible urge to move and is associated with an uncomfortable sensation typically in the lower extremities. Dopaminergic neurotransmission abnormalities, genetics, sleep deprivation, and iron deficiency all play key roles in the pathogenesis of primary RLS. Secondary RLS has been associated with other medical conditions and medication usage. A thorough subjective evaluation and complete neurologic examination are key in the diagnosis of RLS/WED...
September 2018: Nursing Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30100007/chest-pain-if-it-is-not-the-heart-what-is-it
#5
REVIEW
Sharron Rushton, Margaret J Carman
Noncardiac chest pain is an angina-type discomfort without indication of ischemia. Diagnosis can be difficult because of its heterogeneous nature. Classification varies by specialty; gastroenterology uses the terminology gastroesophageal reflux disease related versus non-gastroesophageal reflux disease related. Other disciplines recognize noncardiac chest pain etiologies as having gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal, psychiatric, or pulmonary/other as underlying etiologies. Diagnostics yield a specific cause for effective treatment, which is aimed at the underlying etiology, but it is not always possible...
September 2018: Nursing Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30100006/polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#6
REVIEW
Renate K Meier
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a commonly occurring endocrine disorder characterized by hirsutism, anovulation, and polycystic ovaries. Often comorbid with insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and obesity, it also carries significant risk for the development of cardiovascular and metabolic sequelae, including diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Traditionally, the treatment of patients with PCOS has focused on relief of symptoms. Here, the criteria for the diagnosis of PCOS are reviewed with an emphasis on the stratification of subtypes by metabolic features...
September 2018: Nursing Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30100005/male-and-female-hypogonadism
#7
REVIEW
Angela Richard-Eaglin
Hypogonadism is a clinical syndrome that results in hormone deficiency in men and women. Primary hypogonadism is caused by gonadal (testicular or ovarian) failure. Secondary hypogonadism is the result of a dysfunction within the hypothalamus and/or pituitary. Diagnosis of hypogonadism requires a comprehensive health history, evaluation of the signs and symptoms, complete physical examination, as well as laboratory and diagnostic testing for both sexes. Hormone replacement is the hallmark of hypogonadism treatment...
September 2018: Nursing Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30100004/evaluation-and-treatment-of-adrenal-dysfunction-in-the-primary-care-environment
#8
REVIEW
Shannon Cole
Adrenal insufficiency (Addison's disease) and Cushing's syndrome are rare disorders characterized by abnormal secretion of adrenal hormones. All patients with adrenal insufficiency and many with Cushing's syndrome require life-long therapy with the potential to impact the quality of life. Management requires gain of a significant amount of knowledge related to treatment, self-care, and how to react quickly in critical situations. Knowledge deficits related to management may cause patients to become critically ill and may even cause death...
September 2018: Nursing Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30100003/an-overview-of-munchausen-syndrome-and-munchausen-syndrome-by-proxy
#9
REVIEW
Brittany Abeln, Rene Love
Munchausen syndrome and Munchausen syndrome by proxy are complex diseases that are difficult to diagnose and treat. To assist in this process, an overview of diagnostic criteria with common characteristics and red flags are discussed, with case studies illustrating identification and diagnosis of these disorders. Treatment options are addressed within the context of each of these complex syndromes. The provider's knowledge of diagnostic criteria and treatment options for Munchausen syndrome and Munchausen syndrome by proxy promotes better outcomes for patients...
September 2018: Nursing Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30100002/malabsorption-syndromes
#10
REVIEW
Ricketta Clark, Ragan Johnson
Malabsorption syndrome refers to the small intestines' inability to absorb certain nutrients and fluids. There are several common associated disorders, which may present with subtle and/or overt symptoms. With subtle symptoms, it is difficult to determine the cause, making diagnosis difficult or even inaccurate. Malabsorption can originate from an immune response, an inflammatory process, or alternation of the small intestines by surgical methods. This article reviews common malabsorption disease processes of the small bowel and the resulting pathophysiology...
September 2018: Nursing Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30100001/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-common-pain-syndromes-and-disorders
#11
REVIEW
Brett Morgan, Steve Wooden
Management of chronic pain has become a significant challenge for primary care providers, and the population of patients with chronic pain is expected to increase. Common syndromes seen in the primary care setting include myofascial pain syndrome, fibromyalgia, chronic postsurgical pain, complex regional pain syndrome, and painful diabetic neuropathy. This article describes these syndromes and presents current treatment options.
September 2018: Nursing Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30100000/fat-embolism-syndrome
#12
REVIEW
Lauren E Fukumoto, Kathryn D Fukumoto
Fat embolisms are fat globules that enter the circulatory system, typically through trauma, that may or may not lead to the development of fat embolism syndrome (FES), a rare and ill-defined diagnosis that can cause multiorgan failure and death. The exact mechanism of FES remains unknown, although several theories support the involvement of inflammatory response activation that contributes to characteristic clinical findings. There is no gold standard for diagnosis of FES, and treatment at this time remains primarily supportive...
September 2018: Nursing Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30099999/immunosuppressive-autoimmune-disorders
#13
REVIEW
Angela Richard-Eaglin, Benjamin A Smallheer
Autoimmune disorders are a category of diseases in which the immune system attacks healthy cells as a result of a dysfunction of the acquired immune system. Clinical presentation and diagnosis are disease specific and often correspond with the degree of inflammation, as well as the systems involved. Treatment varies based on the specific disease, its stage of presentation, and patient symptoms. The primary goal of treatment is to decrease inflammation, minimize symptoms, and lessen the potential for relapse...
September 2018: Nursing Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30099998/hyperglycemia-syndromes
#14
REVIEW
Kathryn Evans Kreider, Angelika A Gabrielski, Felisa B Hammonds
Diabetes mellitus and its complications are among the leading causes of organ failure around the world. It is imperative that timely, patient-centered care is provided to avoid microvascular and macrovascular damage. People with well-controlled diabetes can live long and healthy lives through interprofessional management, emphasizing optimal, individualized care.
September 2018: Nursing Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779521/female-health-across-the-lifespan
#15
EDITORIAL
Alice L March
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Nursing Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779520/person-centered-care-for-patients-with-pessaries
#16
REVIEW
Gwendolyn L Hooper
Pelvic organ prolapse is a common condition affecting women of any age but more likely to occur in the aging woman. Prolapse has a significant impact on quality of life, sexuality, and body image. Vaginal support pessaries have been used since ancient times and are a safe and effective nonsurgical treatment option. Fitting a pessary results in immediate symptom improvement. A comprehensive evaluation for pessary fitting is time intensive but necessary. Nurse providers perform direct pessary care and have a role in caring for women with prolapse expanding access to care...
June 2018: Nursing Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779519/sexuality-and-intimacy-in-the-older-adult-woman
#17
REVIEW
Alice L March
In the United States, people older than 65 attend approximately 248 million health care visits each year, or 7 visits per older adult annually. One in every 5 older adults reports recent sexual activity, yet health care professionals do not ask, and patients do not tell when it comes to sexuality. The desire to engage in sex and intimate behaviors to meet important quality-of-life needs is present in people of all ages. Because it is important to communicate in a nonjudgmental manner, health care professionals must first examine their own personal attitudes and values regarding sexuality in older women...
June 2018: Nursing Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779518/menopause-symptom-management-in-the-united-kingdom
#18
REVIEW
Debra Holloway
Menopause is a complex time in a woman's life. It is an increasingly a midlife event, when health care professionals should be aiming to optimize a woman's health for the next 30 years or so. Nurses need to be able to give up-to-date information and evidence for all forms of treatment based on a background of complex and ever-changing research. This article covers the main presenting complaints and treatments, from lifestyle to hormone replacement therapy, by drawing on guidelines from national bodies.
June 2018: Nursing Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779517/helping-mothers-reach-personal-breastfeeding-goals
#19
REVIEW
Diane L Spatz
Professional organizations worldwide recommend exclusive human milk/breastfeeding for the first 6 months of life, and continued breastfeeding with appropriate complementary foods for 1 year or more. This article focuses on the importance of prenatal messaging and goal setting to ensure that mothers are able to optimize their milk supply during the critical window of opportunity in first 2 weeks after delivery. Research data in the United States indicate that the largest categories of why women stopped breastfeeding were for reasons related to milk supply or concerns that the infant was not getting enough nutrition or gaining enough weight...
June 2018: Nursing Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779516/high-risk-pregnancy
#20
REVIEW
Nola Holness
Any unexpected or unanticipated medical or obstetric condition associated with a pregnancy with an actual or potential hazard to the health or well-being of the mother or fetus is considered a high-risk pregnancy. There is no exact definition of risk in pregnancy, as risk may be perceived in different ways by the woman and her health care provider. Women with complicated pregnancies may require lifestyle changes, medication regimens, technical support, and even hospitalization. Nurses can foster an environment of security and trust during preconception, antenatal, intrapartal, and postnatal care to enhance the health and well-being of mother and fetus...
June 2018: Nursing Clinics of North America
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