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Neuroendocrinology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763903/central-precocious-puberty-caused-by-a-heterozygous-deletion-in-the-mkrn3-promoter-region
#1
Delanie Macedo, Monica M França, Luciana Montenegro, Marina Cunha-Silva, Danielle S Bessa, Ana Paula Abreu, Ursula B Kaiser, Berenice B Mendonca, Alexander A L Jorge, Vinicius N Brito, Ana C Latronico
<br>Context: Loss-of-function mutations in the coding region of MKRN3, a maternally imprinted gene at chromosome 15q11.2, are a common cause of familial central precocious puberty (CPP). Whether MKRN3 alterations in regulatory regions can cause CPP has not been explored to date. We aimed to investigate potential pathogenic variants in the promoter region of MKRN3 in patients with idiopathic CPP. Patients/ Methods: A cohort of 110 patients with idiopathic CPP was studied. Family history of precocious sexual development was present in 25%...
May 15, 2018: Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660735/the-anorexigenic-neural-pathways-of-oxytocin-and-its-clinical-implication
#2
Yuko Maejima, Shoko Yokota, Katsuhiko Nishimori, Kenju Shimomura
<br>Oxytocin was discovered in 1906 as a peptide that promotes delivery and milk ejection; however, its additional physiological functions were determined 100 years later. Many recent articles have reported newly discovered effects of oxytocin on social communication, bonding, reward-related behavior, adipose tissue, and muscle and food intake regulation. Because oxytocin neurons project to various regions in the brain that contribute to both feeding reward (hedonic feeding) and the regulation of energy balance (homeostatic feeding), the mechanisms of oxytocin on food intake regulation are complicated and largely unknown...
April 16, 2018: Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660734/interpretation-of-serum-gonadotropin-levels-in-hyperprolactinemia
#3
Ali Abbara, Sophie A Clarke, Alexander Nesbitt, Sabreen Ali, Alexander N Comninos, Emma Hatfield, Niamh Martin, Amir Sam, Karim Meeran, Waljit S Dhillo
<br>Background/Aims: Hyperprolactinemia is a common cause of amenorrhea due to hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Prolactin is hypothesized to impede the reproductive axis through an inhibitory action at the hypothalamus. However, limited data exists to aid the interpretation of serum gonadotropins in the context of hyperprolactinemia. METHODS: Serum gonadotropin values were reviewed in 243 patients with elevated serum monomeric prolactin due to discrete etiologies at a tertiary reproductive endocrine centre between 2012 and 2015...
April 16, 2018: Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29635226/the-role-of-central-androgen-receptor-actions-in-regulating-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian-axis
#4
Kirsty A Walters, Melissa C Edwards, Dijana Tesic, Aimee S L Caldwell, Mark Jimenez, Jeremy T Smith, David J Handelsman
The androgen receptor (AR) is expressed throughout the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, and findings from female global AR knockout mice confirm that AR-mediated androgen actions play important roles in regulating female reproductive function. We generated neuron-specific AR knockout mice (NeurARKO) to investigate the functional role of neuronal AR-mediated androgen action in regulating the female HPG axis and fertility. Relative to control females, NeurARKO females exhibited elevated luteinizing hormone (LH) levels at diestrus (p < 0...
April 10, 2018: Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566385/a-comprehensive-assessment-of-the-role-of-mirnas-as-biomarkers-in-gastroenteropancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumors
#5
Anna Malczewska, Mark Kidd, Somer Matar, Beata Kos-Kudla, Irvin M Modlin
BACKGROUND/AIMS: A key issue in neuroendocrine neoplasia management is the identification of blood signatures that specifically define the activity of a cancer or local tumor microenvironment. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) may represent such a candidate. To evaluate their clinical utility as biomarkers in gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs), we assessed their expression in tissue and blood. METHODS: A systematic review of PubMed was undertaken to identify studies investigating miRNAs in GEP-NETs and their utility as blood or tissue biomarkers...
March 22, 2018: Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550809/presenting-symptoms-and-delay-in-diagnosis-of-gastrointestinal-and-pancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumours
#6
Ron Basuroy, Cathy Bouvier, John Ramage, Maia Sissons, Alexandra Kent, Raj Srirajaskanthan
<br>Introduction The gastrointestinal tract and pancreas are common primary sites for neuroendocrine tumours (NETs). Patients often report long duration of non-specific symptoms in the year prior to diagnosis. The aims of this study were to establish pre-diagnosis patterns of symptoms. Secondly, to determine the time from onset of symptoms to NET diagnosis and understand the interaction with primary and secondary healthcare providers. Method A survey was designed on a web-based survey platform with the focus on patient symptoms prior to diagnosis and a screen for functional diarrhoea (Rome III criteria (C4))...
March 18, 2018: Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544222/hypothalamic-response-to-kisspeptin-and-pituitary-response-to-gnrh-are-preserved-in-healthy-older-men
#7
Ali Abbara, Shakunthala Narayanaswamy, Chioma Izzi-Engbeaya, Alexander N Comninos, Sophie Clarke, Zainab Malik, Deborah Papadopoulou, Ailish Clobentz, Zubair Sarang, Paul Bassett, Channa Jayasena, Waljit S Dhillo
<br>Background: Male testosterone levels decline by 1% per year from the age of 40yrs. Whilst a primary testicular deficit occurs, hypothalamic or pituitary dysregulation may also coexist. This study aimed to compare the hypothalamic response to kisspeptin and the pituitary response to GnRH of older men with those of young men. METHODS: Following 1 hour of baseline sampling, healthy older men (n=5, mean age 59.3±2.9yrs) received a 3 hour intravenous infusion (IVI) of either: vehicle, kisspeptin-54 0...
March 15, 2018: Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29539624/basic-research-advances-on-pituitary-stem-cell-function-and-regulation
#8
John Russell, Emily Lodge, Cynthia Andoniadou
<br>As a central regulator of major physiological processes, the pituitary gland is a highly dynamic organ, capable of responding to hormonal demand and hypothalamic influence, through adapting secretion as well as remodelling cell numbers among its seven populations of differentiated cells. Stem cells of the pituitary have been shown to actively generate new cells during postnatal development but remain mostly quiescent during adulthood, where they persist as a long-lived population. Despite a significant body of research characterising attributes of anterior pituitary stem cells, the regulation of this population is poorly understood...
March 14, 2018: Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29539613/follow-up-for-resected-gastroenteropancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumours-gep-nets-a-practice-survey-of-the-commonwealth-neuroendocrine-collaboration-commnets-and-north-american-neuroendocrine-tumor-society-nanets
#9
David L Chan, Lesley Moody, Eva Segelov, David Metz, Jonathan Strosberg, Nick Pavlakis, Simron Singh
<br>Objectives: There is no consensus regarding optimal follow-up in resected GEP-NETS. We aimed to perform a practice survey to ascertain follow-up patterns by health care practitioners and highlight areas of variation that may benefit from further quantitative research. METHODS: A web-based survey targeted at NET health care providers in Australia, New Zealand, Canada and the United States was developed by a steering committee of medical oncologists and a research methodologist...
March 14, 2018: Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518779/clinical-and-biomarker-evaluations-of-sunitinib-in-patients-with-grade-3-digestive-neuroendocrine-neoplasms
#10
Anna Pellat, Chantal Dreyer, Camille Couffignal, Thomas Walter, Catherine Lombard-Bohas, Patricia Niccoli, Jean François Seitz, Olivia Hentic, Thierry André, Romain Coriat, Sandrine Faivre, Magaly Zappa, Philippe Ruszniewski, Nicolas Pote, Anne Couvelard, Eric Raymond
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Angiogenesis is extensively developed in well-differentiated pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (PanNET) where sunitinib was shown to prolong progression-free survival, leading to nationwide approval. However, clinical experience in patients with grade 3 gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (GEPNEN-G3) remains limited. This prospective phase II trial evaluated potential predictive biomarkers of sunitinib activity in patients with advanced GEPNEN-G3. METHODS: Sunitinib was given at a dose of 37...
March 8, 2018: Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506015/ng2-glia-a-new-player-in-energy-balance
#11
Sarah Robins, Maia Kokoeva
<br>There is increasing evidence that glia act not only as neuronal support cells, but that they can also influence physiological outcomes via effects on neural signalling. The role of NG2-glia in this regard is especially enigmatic, as they are known to interact with neural circuits but their precise functions other than as oligodendrocyte progenitor cells remain elusive. Here we summarise recent evidence suggesting that NG2-glia play a role in the maintenance of energy homeostasis, most notably via the support of leptin sensing neural circuits...
March 5, 2018: Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506013/influence-of-sleep-stage-on-lh-pulse-initiation-in-the-normal-late-follicular-phase-and-in-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#12
Christine Lu, Eleanor Hutchens, Leon Farhy, Heather Bonner, Paul Suratt, Christopher McCartney
<br>Objective: During the early follicular phase, sleep-related luteinizing hormone (LH) pulse initiation is positively associated with brief awakenings but negatively associated with random eye movement (REM) sleep. The relationship between sleep architecture and LH pulse initiation has not been assessed in other cycle stages or in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). DESIGN AND METHODS: We performed concomitant frequent blood sampling (LH pulse analysis) and polysomnography in 8 normal women (cycle day 7-11) and 7 women with PCOS (at least cycle day 7)...
March 5, 2018: Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439247/mutual-relationship-between-tau-and-central-insulin-signalling-consequences-for-ad-and-tauopathies
#13
Maud Gratuze, Aurélie Joly-Amado, Didier Vieau, Luc Buée, David Blum
<br>Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder mainly characterized by cognitive deficits and neuropathological changes such as Tau lesions and amyloid plaques, but also associated with non-cognitive symptomatology. Metabolic and neuroendocrine abnormalities, such as alterations in body weight, brain insulin impairments and lower brain glucose metabolism, that often precede clinical diagnosis, have been extensively reported in AD patients. However, the origin of these symptoms and their relation to pathology and cognitive impairments remain misunderstood...
February 13, 2018: Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320780/the-evolution-of-neuroendocrine-tumor-treatment-reflected-by-enets-guidelines
#14
Wouter T Zandee, Wouter W de Herder
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 10, 2018: Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320779/prognostic-factors-for-survival-in-patients-with-small-bowel-neuroendocrine-tumours-associated-with-mesenteric-desmoplasia
#15
Faidon-Marios Laskaratos, Leonidas Diamantopoulos, Martin Walker, Henry Walton, Mohamed Khalifa, Fatima El-Khouly, Apostolos Koffas, George Demetriou, Martyn Caplin, Christos Toumpanakis, Dalvinder Mandair
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 10, 2018: Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439262/erratum
#16
Melinda A Mittelman-Smith
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866668/emerging-roles-of-kisspeptin-in-sexual-and-emotional-brain-processing
#17
Alexander N Comninos, Waljit S Dhillo
The emergence of kisspeptin as a crucial regulator of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis over the last 14 years has answered many questions as to the control of reproductive hormone secretion from the hypothalamus. More recently, the role of kisspeptin outside the HPG axis has received increasing attention in the hope of delineating the pathways linking various sensory and social behaviours to reproduction. These studies, in a range of species from zebrafish to humans, have identified a role for kisspeptin in behavioural networks related to reproduction including olfaction, audition, fear, anxiety, mood, and sexual arousal...
2018: Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803235/18f-fdg-uptake-in-well-differentiated-neuroendocrine-tumors-correlates-with-both-ki-67-and-vhl-pathway-inactivation
#18
Margot Bucau, Astrid Laurent-Bellue, Nicolas Poté, Olivia Hentic, Jérôme Cros, Nidaa Mikail, Vinciane Rebours, Philippe Ruszniewski, Rachida Lebtahi, Anne Couvelard
BACKGROUND: 18F-FDG-PET scan positivity correlates with poor prognosis in neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN). Glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) and carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA9) are markers of aggressiveness in tumors. Together with von Hippel-Lindau protein (pVHL), they are involved in tumor cell metabolism via the hypoxia-inducible factor signaling pathway. The aim of this study was to compare, in a series of well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors (NET), the 18F-FDG uptake and expression of the proliferation markers Ki-67, GLUT1, CA9, and pVHL...
2018: Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797000/new-molecular-biological-and-immunological-agents-inducing-hypophysitis
#19
Anna Angelousi, Eleftherios Chatzellis, Gregory Kaltsas
Hypophysitis is a relatively rare disease that exerts a strong autoimmune component encompassing different etiologies. Immunomodulatory drugs, such as interferon-α, are known to rarely induce hypophysitis. In recent years, a large number of new biological and immunomodulatory agents have been introduced into clinical practice. Although immune-suppressing agents used for the treatment of autoimmune disorders only rarely are associated with hypophysitis, it is commonly encountered with immunomodulatory agents used for the treatment of cancer...
2018: Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772276/the-hypothalamic-preoptic-area-and-body-weight-control
#20
Sangho Yu, Marie François, Clara Huesing, Heike Münzberg
The preoptic area (POA) of the hypothalamus is involved in many physiological and behavioral processes thanks to its interconnections to many brain areas and ability to respond to diverse humoral factors. One main function of the POA is to manage body temperature homeostasis, e.g. in response to ambient temperature change, which is achieved in part by controlling brown adipose tissue thermogenesis. The POA is also importantly involved in modulating food intake in response to temperature change, thus making it relevant for body weight homeostasis and obesity research...
2018: Neuroendocrinology
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