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Jennifer W Hill, Latrice D Faulkner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 11, 2016: Neuroendocrinology
Ismael González-García, Johan Fernø, Carlos Diéguez, Rubén Nogueiras, Miguel López
Hypothalamic lipid metabolism plays a major role in the physiological regulation of energy balance. Modulation of several enzymatic activities that control lipid biosynthesis, such as fatty acid synthase (FAS) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), impacts both feeding and energy expenditure. However, lipids can also cause pathological alterations in the hypothalamus. Lipotoxicity is promoted by excess lipids in tissues non suitable for their storage. A large amount of evidence has demonstrated that lipotoxicity is a pathophysiological mechanism leading to metabolic diseases, such as insulin resistance, cardiomyopathy, atherosclerosis and steatohepatitis...
October 11, 2016: Neuroendocrinology
Christopher J Marshall, Elodie Desroziers, Timothy McLennan, Rebecca E Campbell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 7, 2016: Neuroendocrinology
Michael Deuschle, Ulrike Gotthardt, Ulrich Schweiger, Michael Dettling, Florian Holsboer, Isabella Heuser
Animal studies suggest that repeated episodes of elevated glucocorticoids lead to a dysregulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system at a supra-pituitary level, and to impaired mnemonic function. We compared cognitive tests and both, feedback integrity and stress responsivity of the HPA system, between 11 elderly, male marathon runners - a model of repeated HPA system activation - and 10 sedentary controls. Marathon runners had significantly increased baseline, stress and post-stress ACTH, but not cortisol concentrations...
September 28, 2016: Neuroendocrinology
Ruth I Versteeg, Karin E Koopman, Jan Booij, Mariëtte T Ackermans, Unga A Unmehopa, Eric Fliers, Susanne E la Fleur, Mireille J Serlie
BACKGROUND: Altered brain dopaminergic and serotonergic pathways have been shown in obese rodents and humans, but it is unknown whether this is related to obesity per se or to the metabolic derangements associated with obesity. METHODS: We performed a case-control study in insulin sensitive obese (ISO) and insulin resistant obese (IRO) subjects (n = 12) and age-matched lean controls (n = 8) and measured serotonin transporter (SERT) binding in the whole diencephalon and specifically in the hypothalamus, as well as dopamine transporter (DAT) binding in the striatum using 123I-FP-CIT single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)...
September 14, 2016: Neuroendocrinology
Sanne E Franck, Linda Broer, Aart Jan van der Lely, Peter Kamenicky, Ignacio Bernabéu, Elena Malchiodi, Patric J D Delhanty, Fernando Rivadeneira, Sebastian J C M M Neggers
BACKGROUND: The common exon 3 deletion polymorphism of the growth hormone receptor (d3-GHR) is associated with disease severity in acromegaly patients. The GHR antagonist pegvisomant (PEGV) is highly effective in treating severe acromegaly. Response to PEGV treatment seems to be influenced by d3-GHR and appears to be more responsive to PEGV, although available results remain conflicting. OBJECTIVE: To assess the influence of d3-GHR on the responsiveness of acromegaly patients to PEGV by compiling the evidence derived from the largest available studies...
August 12, 2016: Neuroendocrinology
Helma Freitag, Friederike Christen, Florentine Lewens, Irina Grass, Franziska Briest, Sara Iwaszkiewicz, Britta Siegmund, Patricia Grabowski
INTRODUCTION: Characteristic clinical heterogeneity and mostly slow-growing behavior of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (GEP-NENs) cause problems in finding appropriate treatments. Thus, current therapy options are not satisfactory. PKI-587 is a highly potent novel dual inhibitor of PI3K and mTORC1/C2. AIM: We assessed the effects of PKI-587 in different GEP-NEN tumor models, including poorly differentiated cell line LCC-18, compared with the established mTORC1 inhibitor everolimus...
August 12, 2016: Neuroendocrinology
Sven C Mueller, Lionel Landré, Katrien Wierckx, Guy T'Sjoen
BACKGROUND: To date, research findings are inconsistent about whether neuroanatomy in transgender persons resembles that of their natal sex or their gender identity. Moreover, few studies have examined the effects of long-term, cross-sex hormonal treatment on neuroanatomy in this cohort. The purpose of the present study was to examine neuroanatomical differences in transgender persons after prolonged cross-sex hormone therapy. METHODS: Eighteen transgender men (female-to-male), 17 transgender women (male-to-female), 30 non-transgender men (natal men), and 27 non-transgender women (natal women) completed a high-resolution structural MRI scan at 3Tesla...
August 5, 2016: Neuroendocrinology
Claudia Fischer, Tanja Mueller, Martina Pfeffer, Helmut Wicht, Charlotte von Gall, Horst-Werner Korf
BACKGROUND/METHODS: Melatonin, the neurohormone for darkness, mediates photoperiod dependent changes in physiology and behavior by targeting specific membrane bound receptors (MT1 and MT2). In the present study, we investigated the impact of MT1 receptor-deficiency on feeding behavior, locomotor activity and mRNA expression levels encoding for the polypeptide Pomc and neuropeptide Y (Npy) in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) and the adenohypophysis (pars distalis, PD and pars intermedia, PI) in a comparison between wild-type (WT) and MT1-deficient (MT1-/-) mice...
August 5, 2016: Neuroendocrinology
Sanne E Franck, Federico Gatto, Aart Jan van der Lely, Joseph A M J L Janssen, Alof H G Dallenga, A Paul Nagtegaal, Leo J Hofland, Sebastian J C M M Neggers
BACKGROUND: Growth hormone secreting pituitary adenomas (somatotroph adenoma) predominantly express somatostatin receptors (SSTRs) subtypes 2 and 5. Higher SSTR2 expression on somatotroph adenomas results in a better response to somatostatin analogues (SSAs), which preferentially bind, but also down regulate, SSTR2. The effect of the combined treatment with SSAs and the GH receptor antagonist pegvisomant (PEGV) on SSTR expression in somatotroph adenomas is currently unknown. AIM OF THE STUDY: To assess SSTR2 and SSTR5 expression in three groups of somatotroph adenomas: drug-naive, treated with long-acting (LA) SSA monotherapy, or LA-SSA/PEGV combination therapy before surgery...
July 25, 2016: Neuroendocrinology
Marcela Vargas Trujillo, Bruna Kalil, Suresh Ramaswamy, Tony M Plant
The aim of this immunohistochmical study was to evaluate the distribution of kisspeptin neurons in the pre-optic area (POA) of gonadally intact adult male and female rhesus monkeys, and to determine whether imposition of an estradiol (E2) positive feedback signal in the castrate male increased kisspeptin in the POA. Additionally, kisspeptin in POA of the intact female was examined during an LH surge induced prematurely by E2 administered in the early follicular phase. The number of kisspeptin neurons in POA of males and females was similar...
July 25, 2016: Neuroendocrinology
Christina Dimopoulou, Sarah M Leistner, Marcus Ising, Harald J Schneider, Jochen Schopohl, Sandra Rutz, Robert Kosilek, Richard Frohner, Gunter K Stalla, Caroline Sievers
OBJECTIVE: Diagnosis of acromegaly is delayed up to 10 years after disease onset despite obvious external/objective changes such as bone and soft-tissue deformities. We hypothesized that a lack of subjective perception of the disease state, possibly mediated by psychiatric or cognitive alterations, might contribute to the delayed initiation of a diagnostic work-up. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: We investigated perceived body image by standardized questionnaires (FKB-20: Fragebogen zum Körperbild; FBeK: Fragebogen zur Beurteilung des eigenen Körpers) in 81 acromegalic patients and contrasted them to a) a clinical control group of 60 patients with non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPA) who lack severe facial and physical alterations and b) healthy controls...
July 25, 2016: Neuroendocrinology
Jean-Yves Scoazec, Anne Couvelard, Geneviève Monges, Serge Guyétant, Segolène Bisot-Locard, Xavier Parot, Côme Lepage
INTRODUCTION: Many changes have recently occurred in the practice of NET pathology. We therefore aimed to evaluating how pathologists have adapted their daily practice to the most recent international guidelines for diagnostic and prognostic evaluation. PROCEDURES: A 12-month prospective study (PRONET) was carried out among French pathologists between August 2010 and July 2011. Data were collected using an anonymous electronic case report form. OBSERVATIONS: 500 laboratories were invited, 149 accepted to participate, 80 were active and 59 provided eligible cases...
July 21, 2016: Neuroendocrinology
Di Yu, Justyna Leja-Jarblad, Angelica Loskog, Per Hellman, Valeria Giandomenico, Kjell Oberg, Magnus Essand
Cancer immunotherapy is becoming a cornerstone in the clinical care of cancer patients due to the breakthrough trials with immune checkpoint blockade antibodies and chimeric antigen receptor T cells. The next breakthrough in cancer immunotherapy is likely to be oncolytic viruses engineered to selectively kill tumor cells and deceive the immune system to believe that the tumor is a foreign entity that needs to be eradicated. We have developed AdVince, an oncolytic adenovirus for treatment of liver metastases from neuroendocrine tumor (NET)...
July 21, 2016: Neuroendocrinology
Amandine Berdelou, Valérie Boige, Julia Arfi-Rouche, David Malka, Stéphane Ederhy, Hassan Izzedine, Sophie Leboulleux, Cécile N Chougnet, Pascal Burtin, Thierry De Baere, Agnès Laplanche, Dominique Elias, Martin Schlumberger, Jean-Yves Scoazec, Michel Ducreux, Eric Baudin
BACKGROUND: At least 9 therapeutic options are recommended or approved for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumour (pNET). The primary endpoint of this study was to determine the number of therapeutic lines given before death. Secondary endpoints were to determine toxic events as a function of number of therapeutic lines and of time. METHODS: Patients with pNET treated between 1998 and 2010 at our Centre were characterized. All therapeutic lines were recorded as well as tumour- or, toxic-related deaths...
May 26, 2016: Neuroendocrinology
Danielle S Bessa, Delanie B Macedo, Vinícius N Brito, Monica M França, Luciana R Montenegro, Marina C Silva, Leticia G Silveira, Tiago Hummel, Ignacio Bergadá, Debora Braslavsky, Ana Paula Abreu, Andrew Dauber, Berenice B Mendonca, Ursula B Kaiser, Ana Claudia Latronico
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Recently, loss-of-function mutations in the MKRN3 gene were implicated in the etiology of familial central precocious puberty (CPP) in both sexes. We aimed to analyze the frequency of MKRN3 mutations in boys with CPP and to compare the clinical and hormonal features of boys with and without MKRN3 mutations. METHODS: This was a retrospective review of clinical, hormonal and genetic features of 20 male patients with idiopathic CPP evaluated at an academic medical center...
May 26, 2016: Neuroendocrinology
Maike Nieser, Tobias Henopp, Joachim Brix, Laura Stoß, Barbara Sitek, Wael Naboulsi, Martin Anlauf, Anna M Schlitter, G Klöppel, Thomas Gress, R Moll, Detlef K Bartsch, Anna E Heverhagen, Wolfram T Knoefel, Daniel Kaemmerer, Johannes Haybaeck, F Fend, Jan Sperveslage, Bence Sipos
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Neuroendocrine tumors of the small intestine (SI-NETs) exhibit an increasing incidence and high mortality rate. Until now, no fundamental molecular event has been linked to the tumorigenesis and progression of these tumors. Only the loss of Chromosome 18 (Chr18) has been shown in up to two-thirds of SI-NETs, whereby the significance of this alteration is still not understood. We therefore performed the first comprehensive study to identify Chr18-related events at genetic, epigenetic and gene/protein expression levels...
May 25, 2016: Neuroendocrinology
Fangzhen Xia, Ningjian Wang, Bin Han, Qin Li, Yi Chen, Chunfang Zhu, Yingchao Chen, Xiaoqi Pu, Zhen Cang, Chaoxia Zhu, Meng Lu, Ying Meng, Hui Guo, Chi Chen, Dongping Lin, Junke Zheng, Lin Kuang, Weiping Tuc, Bin Li, Lin Hu, Zhoujun Shen, Yingli Lu
BACKGROUND: Aging is associated with variations in hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis hormones. However, how aging changes these hormones is not clear. This study examined the natural alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in aging men and women in China. METHODS: Data were obtained from our cross-sectional study (SPECT-China) in 16 areas of three provinces in East China between February and June 2014. There were 6,825 subjects selected, including 2,908 men and 3,917 women aged 25-93 who had no diseases affecting HPG hormones and did not take exogenous supplements...
May 14, 2016: Neuroendocrinology
S Chiloiro, T Tartaglione, F Angelini, A Bianchi, V Arena, A Giampietro, M Mormando, M C Scianda, M E Laino, L De Marinis
INTRODUCTION: Autoimmune hypophysitis (AH) is a rare disease with a not well known natural progression Aim: To collect representative data on clinical features of AH and better characterize the disease. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A monocentric prospective study was designed. AH affected patients, evaluated at our tertiary care Pituitary Unit from 2011 were enrolled. After ruling out other pituitary mass and secondary causes of hypophysitis, AH was the exclusion diagnosis...
May 11, 2016: Neuroendocrinology
Daniel P Cardinali, Rüdiger Hardeland
The metabolic syndrome (MS) is a collection of risk factors for cardiovascular disease, including obesity, hypertension, hyperinsulinemia, glucose intolerance and dyslipidemia. MS is associated with low-grade inflammation of the white adipose tissue, which can subsequently lead to insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes. Adipocytes secrete proinflammatory cytokines as well as leptin and trigger a vicious circle which leads to additional weight gain largely as fat. The imbalance between inflammatory and anti-inflammatory signals is crucial to aging...
May 11, 2016: Neuroendocrinology
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