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Raffaella Alò, Merylin Zizza, Gilda Fazzari, Rosa Maria Facciolo, Marcello Canonaco
Previous studies have pointed to the protective role of genistein against stress adaptations despite neuromolecular mechanisms are not yet fully known. With this work, we evaluated the influence of such a phytoestrogen on hamster behavioral and molecular activities following exposure to sub-chronic unpredictable mild stress (sCUMS). <br><br>Methods: Motor behaviors of hamsters (n = 28) were analyzed using elevated plus-maze (EPM), hole board test (HB) and forced swim test (FST). In addition, neurodegeneration events were assessed with amino cupric silver stain (ACS) while expression variations of tropomyosin receptor-B kinase (TrkB), nuclear factor kappa- light-chain-enhancer of activated B1 cells (NF-kB1), and heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) mRNAs were highlighted in limbic neuronal fields via in situ hybridization (ISH)...
November 8, 2018: Neuroendocrinology
Ilan Shimon
<br><br>Prolactin-secreting adenomas (prolactinomas) are the most common secreting adenomas of the pituitary. Microprolactinomas (diameter <10 mm) are frequently diagnosed in women whereas macroprolactinomas (maximum diameter >10 mm) are generally seen in men. Most macroprolactinomas measure between 10 and 40 mm. Giant prolactinomas, measuring >40 mm, are rare, accounting for only 1-5% of all prolactinomas. Although generally benign, giant prolactinomas are aggressive and invasive, extending into the suprasellar region and also involve the cavernous sinuses...
November 7, 2018: Neuroendocrinology
David Tai, Sze Huey Tan, Damien Tan, Kelvin Loke, David Ng, Sean Yan, Jacqueline Hwang, Kiat Hon Lim, Lih Ming Loh, Peng Chin Kek, Brian Goh, Ser Yee Lee, Alexander Y F Chung, Simon Ong
<br>Background Epidemiological evidence suggests there are differences in gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasm (GEPNEN) among population groups. We aimed to contribute to the current evidence by evaluating the clinicopathologic characteristics of GEPNEN in a multi-ethnic Asian group. Materials and methods This was a retrospective chart review of patients diagnosed with GEPNEN at a tertiary medical institution at Singhealth Outram Campus, Singapore between 1995 and 2015. Results Two hundred ninety-five patients were included in the evaluation; comprising of Chinese (74...
November 6, 2018: Neuroendocrinology
Cynthia Martin-Jiménez, Diana Gaitán-Vaca, Natalia Areiza, Valentina Echeverria, Ghulam Ashraf, Janneth González, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Luis Miguel Garcia-Segura, George E Barreto
<br>Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a serious public health problem. It may result in severe neurological disabilities and in a variety of cellular metabolic alterations for which available therapeutic strategies are limited. In the last decade, the use of estrogenic compounds, which activate protective mechanisms in astrocytes, has been explored as a potential experimental therapeutic approach. Previous works have suggested estradiol (E2) as a neuroprotective hormone that acts in the brain by binding to estrogen receptors (ERs)...
November 4, 2018: Neuroendocrinology
Nataly de Dios, Santiago Jordi Orrillo, Martin Irizarri, M Theas, Florence Boutillon, Marianela Candolfi, Adriana Seilicovich, Vincent Goffin, Daniel Pisera, Jimena Ferraris
Prolactinomas are increasingly viewed as a "problem of signal transduction". Consequently, the identification of factors and signalling pathways that control lactotrope cell turnover is needed in order to encourage new therapeutic developments. We have previously shown that prolactin (PRL) acts as a proapoptotic and <br>antiproliferative factor on lactotropes, maintaining anterior pituitary cell homeostasis, which contrasts with the classical antiapoptotic and/or proliferative actions exerted by PRL in most other target tissues...
October 30, 2018: Neuroendocrinology
Ghislaine Garrel, Chantal Denoyelle, David L'Hôte, Jean-Yves Picard, Jose Teixeira, Ursula B Kaiser, Jean-Noël Laverrière, Joëlle Cohen-Tannoudji
<br>Background/objectives: Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) signaling is critical for sexual differentiation and gonadal function. AMH receptor type 2 (AMHR2) is expressed in extragonadal sites such as brain and pituitary and emerging evidence indicates that AMH biological action is much broader than initially thought. We recently reported that AMH signaling enhances FSH synthesis in pituitary gonadotrope cells. However, mechanisms regulating AMHR2 expression in these extragonadal sites remain to be explored...
October 28, 2018: Neuroendocrinology
Eduardo Spinedi, Daniel P Cardinali
<br>Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with altered eating behavior and metabolic disruption. Amyloid plaques and neurofilament tangles are observed in many hypothalamic nuclei from AD brains. Some of these areas (suprachiasmatic nuclei, lateral hypothalamic area) also play a role in regulation of the sleep/wake cycle and may explain the comorbidity of eating and sleep disorders observed in AD patients. Inadequate sleep increases the neurodegenerative process, e.g. the decrease of slow wave sleep impairs clearance of β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) and tau protein from cerebral interstitial fluid...
October 28, 2018: Neuroendocrinology
Ashley Grossman, Shaunak Navalkissoor
<br>Neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) are being seen increasingly frequently, but to date only complete surgical resection is curative. However, among the various therapeutic options, peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT), linking a radioactive moiety to an octreotide derivative, has been shown to be highly efficacious and a well-tolerated therapy, improving progression-free survival and probably overall survival. Nevertheless, the current radionuclides in use are β-particle emitters with non-optimal radiobiological properties...
October 23, 2018: Neuroendocrinology
Stephanie Kim, Emma McIlwraith, Jennifer Chalmers, Denise Belsham
<br>Background and Objectives: Elevated levels of saturated fatty acids (SFA) induce a state of neuroinflammation in the hypothalamus. It has been suggested that microglia sense palmitate, a prevalent circulating SFA, and act as mediators of this inflammatory process by communicating with neurons particularly those involved in appetite regulation. In this study, we examined the inflammatory response to palmitate in immortalized microglial cell lines, BV-2 and IMG, and the subsequent effects on inflammatory gene expression in a model of NPY/AgRP neurons, mHypoE-46...
October 23, 2018: Neuroendocrinology
Sandra Pekić, Milica Medic Stojanoska, Vera Popovic
<br>Hyperprolactinemia is not a common finding in post-menopausal women. Prolactinomas detected after menopause are usually macroadenomas. Due to atypical clinical features they may remain un-recognized for a long period of time. Interestingly the growth potential of prolactinomas remains after menopause. Most tumors are invasive and present with high prolactin levels. They respond to medical treatment with dopamine agonists both in terms of prolactin normalization, tumor shrinkage and improvement in pituitary function...
October 22, 2018: Neuroendocrinology
Sakina Mhaouty-Kodja, Lydie Naulé, Daphne Capela
Sexual behavior constitutes a chain of behavioral responses beginning with courtship and leading to copulation. These responses, which are exhibited in a sexually dimorphic manner by the two partners, are tightly regulated by sex steroid hormones as early as the perinatal period. Hormonal changes or exposure to exogenous factors exhibiting hormone-mimetic activities such as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDC) can therefore interfere with their expression. Here we review the experimental studies in rodents performed to address the potential effects of exposure to EDC on sexual behavior and underlying mechanisms, with a particular attention to molecules with estrogenic and/or anti-androgenic activities...
October 16, 2018: Neuroendocrinology
Clara Roujeau, Ralf Jockers, Julie Dam
Endospanin 1 (Endo1), a protein encoded, in humans by the same gene than the leptin receptor (ObR), and increased by diet induced obesity, is an important regulator of ObR trafficking and cell surface exposure, determining leptin signaling strength. Defective intracellular trafficking of the leptin receptor to the neuronal plasma membrane has been proposed as a mechanism underlying the development of leptin resistance observed in human obesity. More recently, Endo1 has emerged as a mediator of "selective leptin resistance"...
October 16, 2018: Neuroendocrinology
Guido Rindi, Catherine Klersy, Luca Albarello, Eric Baudin, Antonio Bianchi, Markus W Büchler, Martyn Caplin, Anne Couvelard, Jérôme Cros, Wouter W de Herder, Gianfranco Delle Fave, Claudio Doglioni, Birgitte Federspiel, Lars Fischer, Giuseppe Fusai, Francesca Gavazzi, Carsten Hansen, Frediano Inzani, Henning Jann, Paul Komminoth, Ulrich Knigge, Luca Landoni, Stefano La Rosa, Rita Lawlor, Tu Luong, Ilaria Marinoni, F Panzuto, Ulrich-Frank Pape, Stefano Partelli, Aurel Perren, Maria Rinzivillo, Corrado Rubini, Philippe Ruszniewski, Aldo Scarpa, Anja Maria Schmitt, Giovanni Schinzari, Jean-Yves Scoazec, Fausto Sessa, Enrico Solcia, Paola Spaggiari, Christos Toumpanakis, Alessandro Vanoli, Bertram Wiedenmann, Giuseppe Zamboni, Wouter Zandee, Alessandro Zerbi, Massimo Falconi
<br>Background: the World Health Organization (WHO) and the American Joint Cancer Committee (AJCC) modified the grading of pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms from a three-tiers (WHO-AJCC 2010) to a four-tiers system by introducing the novel category of NET G3 (WHO-AJCC 2017). OBJECTIVES: This study aims at validating the WHO-AJCC 2017 and identifying the most effective grading system. METHOD: 2102 patients were enrolled; entry criteria were i) performed surgery; ii) at least two years of follow-up; iii) observation time up to 2015...
October 9, 2018: Neuroendocrinology
Noora Karppinen, Riikka Lindén, Harri Sintonen, Maija Tarkkanen, Risto Roine, Ilkka Heiskanen, Niina Matikainen, Camilla Schalin-Jäntti
The prevalence of small intestine neuroendocrine tumours (SI-NETs) is increasing. Disease progression is often slow and treatment options and long-term survival rates have improved, but little is known about health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in these patients. <br>Objective: To assess HRQoL and its predictors in SI-NET patients receiving contemporary treatments. <br>Methods: We measured HRQoL with 15D and SF-36 questionnaires in 134 SI-NET patients and compared the 15D results to those of age- and gender-standardized general population (n = 1153)...
October 5, 2018: Neuroendocrinology
Robert T Jensen, Lisa Bodei, J Capdevila, Anne Couvelard, Massimo Falconi, Simona Grozinsky-Glasberg, Günter Klöppel, Steven W J Lamberts, Marc Peeters, Guido Rindi, Anja Rinke, M Rothmund, Anders Sundin, Staffan Welin, Nicola Fazio
Recently, European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society (ENETS )held working sessions composed of members of the advisory board and other Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN) experts to attempt to identify unmet needs in NENs in different locations or with advanced/poorly differentiated NENs. This section briefly summarizes the main proposed areas of unmet needs in patients with functional and non-functional pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (PanNENs).
October 3, 2018: Neuroendocrinology
Karen Flores, Arieh A Katz, Suresh Singh Yadav, Rony Seger
The MAPK cascades are central signaling pathways that play a central role in the regulation of most stimulated cellular processes including proliferation, differentiation, stress response and apoptosis. Currently four such cascades are known, each termed by its downstream MAPK components: the ERK1/2, JNK, p38 and ERK5. One of the hallmarks of these cascades is the stimulated nuclear translocation of their MAPK components using distinct mechanisms. ERK1/2 are shuttled into the nucleus by importin7, JNK and p38 by a dimer of importin3 with either importin9 or importin7, and ERK5 by importin-α/β...
September 27, 2018: Neuroendocrinology
Hanne Hoffmann, Erica Pandolfi, Rachel Larder, Pamela Mellon
Haploinsufficiency occurs when loss of one copy of a diploid gene (hemizygosity) causes a phenotype. It is relatively rare, in that most genes can produce sufficient mRNA and protein from a single copy to prevent any loss of normal activity and function. Reproduction is a complex process relying on migration of GnRH neurons from the olfactory placode to the hypothalamus during development. We have studied three different homeodomain genes Otx2, Vax1, and Six3, and found that deletion of one allele for any of these genes in mice produces subfertility or infertility in one or both sexes, despite the presence of one intact allele...
September 27, 2018: Neuroendocrinology
Eric Baudin, Aimee Hayes, Jean-Yves Scoazec, Pier Luigi Filosso, Eric Lim, Gregory Kaltsas, Andrea Frilling, Jie Chen, Beata Kos-Kudla, Vera Gorbounova, Bertram Wiedenmann, Els Nieveen van Dijkum, Jaroslaw Cwikla, Jenny Falkerby, Juan W Valle, Matthew H Kulke, Martyn Caplin
Pulmonary carcinoids (PCs) display the common features of all well-differentiated neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN) and are classified as low- and intermediate-grade malignant tumours (i.e. typical (TC) and atypical carcinoid (AC), respectively). There is a paucity of randomised studies dedicated to advanced PCs and management principles are drawn from the larger gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) NEN experience. There is growing evidence that NEN anatomic subgroups have different biology and different responses to treatment and, therefore, should be investigated as separate entities in clinical trials...
September 24, 2018: Neuroendocrinology
Kosmas Daskalakis, Gregory Kaltsas, Kjell Öberg, Apostolos V Tsolakis
Lung carcinoids (LCs) are often diagnosed at an early stage and are then eligible for surgical intervention. To date, there is a lack of long-term follow-up data after surgery and prognostication based on WHO classification criteria and evolving prognostic markers, particularly the expression of somatostatin receptors (SSR). <br><br>Methods: We included 102 consecutive patients (72 women; age at baseline 51±16 years [mean ± SD]) with LCs, who underwent thoracic surgery (n=99) and/or laser treatment (n=8)...
September 23, 2018: Neuroendocrinology
Christos Toumpanakis, Nicola Fazio, Eva Tiensuu Janson, Dieter Hörsch, Andreas Pascher, Nicholas Reed, Dermot O'Toole, Els Nieveen van Dijkum, Stefano Partelli, Anja Rinke, Beata Kos-Kudla, Frederico Costa, Ulrich-Frank Pape, Simona Grozinsky-Glasberg, Jean-Yves Scoazec
Appendiceal neuroendocrine neoplasms (ANEN) are mostly discovered coincidentally during appendicectomy and usually have a benign clinical course, thus appendicectomy alone is considered as curative. However in some cases a malignant potential is suspected and therefore additional operations, such as completion right hemicolectomy, are considered. The existing European Neuroendocrine Tumour Society (ENETS) guidelines provide quite useful data about epidemiology and prognosis, as well as, practical recommendations with regards to the risk factors for a more aggressive disease course and the indications for a secondary operation...
September 20, 2018: Neuroendocrinology
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