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Journal of Abnormal Psychology

Jaclyn P Maher, Chaelin K Ra, Adam M Leventhal, Donald Hedeker, Jimi Huh, Chih-Ping Chou, Genevieve F Dunton
Affective volatility (i.e., variability) is typically conceptualized as a marker of poor mental and behavioral health. The current research challenges this notion. Among individuals who typically experience low positive affect (PA), vacillation between bouts of joy and marked anhedonia may be associated with better behavioral health relative to a restricted range of PA experience. We therefore tested the hypothesis that mean levels of PA captured via an 8-day intensive repeated Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) would moderate the association of EMA-measured PA variability with behavioral health measured at intake among working mothers (N = 202) with young children-a population at risk for experiencing repeated stress- and reward-induced PA changes...
September 17, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Hanie Edalati, Mohammad H Afzali, Patricia J Conrod
Relationship between poor inhibitory control and adolescent interpersonal difficulties is well-documented. However, the way in which an emotionally neutral cognitive process (i.e., response inhibition) can lead to interpersonal difficulties is less clear. The current study is based on multimodal longitudinal data from 3,826 adolescents followed over a 4-year period. The main aim of this study was to examine an ecophenotype conceptualization of the association between response inhibition and bullying perpetration through increasing vulnerability of peer victimization and a negative attributional style toward self and others...
September 13, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Randy P Auerbach, Philippe Mortier, Ronny Bruffaerts, Jordi Alonso, Corina Benjet, Pim Cuijpers, Koen Demyttenaere, David D Ebert, Jennifer Greif Green, Penelope Hasking, Elaine Murray, Matthew K Nock, Stephanie Pinder-Amaker, Nancy A Sampson, Dan J Stein, Gemma Vilagut, Alan M Zaslavsky, Ronald C Kessler
Increasingly, colleges across the world are contending with rising rates of mental disorders, and in many cases, the demand for services on campus far exceeds the available resources. The present study reports initial results from the first stage of the WHO World Mental Health International College Student project, in which a series of surveys in 19 colleges across 8 countries (Australia, Belgium, Germany, Mexico, Northern Ireland, South Africa, Spain, United States) were carried out with the aim of estimating prevalence and basic sociodemographic correlates of common mental disorders among first-year college students...
September 13, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Lisa Liebke, Georgia Koppe, Melanie Bungert, Janine Thome, Sophie Hauschild, Nadine Defiebre, Natalie A Izurieta Hidalgo, Christian Schmahl, Martin Bohus, Stefanie Lis
Anxious preoccupation with real or imagined abandonment is a key feature of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Recent experimental research suggests that patients with BPD do not simply show emotional overreactivity to rejection. Instead, they experience reduced connectedness with others in situations of social inclusion. Resulting consequences of these features on social behavior are not investigated yet. The aim of the present study was to investigate the differential impact of social acceptance and rejection on social expectations and subsequent social behavior in BPD...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Mariel S Bello, Julia F McBeth, Joseph W Ditre, Matthew G Kirkpatrick, Lara A Ray, Kelly E Dunn, Adam M Leventhal
African Americans are subject to health disparities in smoking and chronic pain. Given that nicotine has analgesic properties, increases in acute pain may be an expression of the tobacco abstinence syndrome, particularly among African American smokers with chronic pain. This report is a secondary analysis of data from an ongoing study of individual differences in laboratory-derived tobacco abstinence phenotypes in African American smokers. We tested whether overnight smoking abstinence increased acute pain and whether abstinence-induced changes in acute pain were correlated with other expressions of tobacco abstinence and amplified among smokers with chronic pain...
August 2, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Toby M Nicholson, David M Williams, Catherine Grainger, Julia F Christensen, Beatriz Calvo-Merino, Sebastian B Gaigg
Quattrocki and Friston (2014) argued that abnormalities in interoception-the process of representing one's internal physiological states-could lie at the heart of autism, because of the critical role interoception plays in the ontogeny of social-affective processes. This proposal drew criticism from proponents of the alexithymia hypothesis, who argue that social-affective and underlying interoceptive impairments are not a feature of autism per se, but of alexithymia (a condition characterized by difficulties describing and identifying one's own emotions), which commonly co-occurs with autism...
August 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Lauren T Catalano, Erin A Heerey, James M Gold
Social impairment in schizophrenia is often thought to reflect poor social cognition. Here we examine responses to social rewards, an aspect of social functioning that is not featured prominently in the literature. The goal of this experiment was to explore whether people with schizophrenia (a) undervalue social rewards, and (b) whether the undervaluation of social rewards was related to motivation and pleasure deficits in schizophrenia and decreased social functioning. People with schizophrenia and healthy participants completed a game (Shore & Heerey, 2011) to explore preferences for different types of social (polite and genuine smiles) and nonsocial (monetary) rewards from computerized opponents...
August 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Eva Naumann, Jennifer Svaldi, Tanja Wyschka, Markus Heinrichs, Bernadette von Dawans
Stress is known to be a trigger for binge eating in individuals with binge eating disorder (BED). However, the influence of stressful situations on BED patients' body image is less understood. Our study objective was to gain insight into the effects of inducing psychosocial stress on body dissatisfaction in women with BED. Overweight women with BED (n = 29) and without an eating disorder (control group, CG; n = 38) underwent the Trier Social Stress Test for Groups (TSST-G stress) and a nonstressful control task (TSST-G no stress)...
August 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Samantha J Moshier, Michelle J Bovin, Natalie G Gay, Blair E Wisco, Karen S Mitchell, Daniel J Lee, Denise M Sloan, Frank W Weathers, Paula P Schnurr, Terence M Keane, Brian P Marx
Network theory, which conceptualizes psychiatric disorders as networks of interacting symptoms, may provide a useful framework for understanding psychopathology. However, questions have arisen regarding the stability and generalizability of network analytic methods, with some researchers arguing that symptom networks have limited replicability. The aim of this study was to evaluate assessment modality as one possible source of instability in the estimation of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom networks...
August 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Christopher C Conway, Christopher J Hopwood, Leslie C Morey, Andrew E Skodol
Borderline personality disorder (PD) has historically been cast as an unabating condition. Longitudinal data, however, support a more variable time course marked by remission and relapse. In the present study, we tested the possibility that borderline PD has both stable (i.e., consistently present across time and situation, as modern diagnostic systems stipulate) and dynamic (i.e., episodic and situational) elements. Participants were 668 patients from the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study who were administered semistructured diagnostic interviews 5 times over a decade...
August 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Heather A Davis, Gregory T Smith
Binge eating and purging behaviors are associated with significant harm and distress among adolescents. The process by which these behaviors develop (often in the high school years) is not fully understood. We tested the Acquired Preparedness (AP) model of risk involving transactions among biological, personality, and psychosocial factors to predict binge eating and purging behavior in a sample of 1,906 children assessed in the spring of 5th grade (the last year of elementary school), the fall of 6th grade (the first year of middle school), spring of 6th grade, and spring of 10th grade (second year of high school)...
August 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Esther Fujiwara
Alexithymia refers to difficulties in identifying, differentiating, and describing feelings. This personality trait is highly prevalent in many psychiatric conditions and may drive associated social-emotional problems, including the ability to decode emotions in faces. This study probed alexithymic problems with identifying clear and ambiguous blends of emotions in faces and their underlying visual attention patterns. Using the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20, students with high alexithymia (HA, n = 73) or low alexithymia (LA, n = 76) were enrolled in this study...
August 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Joseph W Ditre, Emily L Zale, Lisa R LaRowe, Jesse D Kosiba, Martin J De Vita
An evolving reciprocal model posits that pain and tobacco smoking behavior interact in the manner of a positive feedback loop, resulting in greater pain and the maintenance of nicotine dependence. There is also reason to believe that abstaining from smoking may increase pain during the early stages of smoking cessation. The goal of this study was to test the effects of nicotine deprivation on experimental pain reactivity. Daily tobacco cigarette smokers (N = 165; 43% female) were randomized to either extended nicotine deprivation (12-24 hr smoking abstinence), minimal deprivation (2 hr smoking abstinence), or continued smoking conditions, prior to undergoing pain induction via topical capsaicin...
August 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Alexander Weigard, Cynthia Huang-Pollock, Scott Brown, Andrew Heathcote
Neuroscientific theories of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) alternately posit that cognitive aberrations in the disorder are due to acute attentional lapses, slowed neural processing, or reduced signal-to-noise ratios. However, they make similar predictions about behavioral summary statistics (response times [RTs] and accuracy), hindering the field's ability to produce strong and specific tests of these theories. The current study uses the linear ballistic accumulator (LBA; Brown & Heathcote, 2008), a mathematical model of choice RT tasks, to distinguish between competing theory predictions...
July 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Benjamin Buck, Neil R Hester, Amy Pinkham, Philip D Harvey, L Fredrik Jarskog, David L Penn
Previous research on attributions in schizophrenia has focused on whether individuals make hostile, intentional attributions for ambiguous negative events. It is unclear, however, whether individuals with schizophrenia differ from controls in their general judgments of intentionality judgments in nonconflict and emotionally neutral situations. Research in social psychology suggests that nonclinical individuals present with an automatic bias to see intentionality and that this bias is regulated by the operation of controlled processes...
July 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Elizabeth N Aslinger, Stephen B Manuck, Paul A Pilkonis, Leonard J Simms, Aidan G C Wright
We investigated the latent structure of narcissistic personality disorder by comparing dimensional, hybrid, and categorical latent variable models, using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), nonparametric and semiparametric factor analysis, and latent class analysis, respectively. We first explored these models in a clinical sample and then preregistered replication analyses in 4 additional data sets (with national, undergraduate, community, and mixed community/clinical samples) to test whether the best-fitting model would generalize across different data sets with different sample compositions...
July 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Cecilia Westbrook, Elena G Patsenko, Jeanette A Mumford, Lyn Y Abramson, Richard J Davidson
Prior research indicates that cognitive vulnerabilities can render individuals more susceptible to psychopathology in the wake of stressful events. However, little work has directly targeted the neural mechanisms involved. In this study, we examined functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activity as a function of negative cognitive style, a well-studied cognitive vulnerability for depression. We adapted a robust paradigm in which undergraduate students completed fMRI testing after a known ecologically valid stressor (a midterm exam)...
July 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Christine B Cha, Rory C O'Connor, Olivia Kirtley, Seonaid Cleare, Karen Wetherall, Sarah Eschle, Katherine M Tezanos, Matthew K Nock
To what extent are death- and life-oriented psychological processes among suicidal individuals activated by mood? According to Teasdale's (1988) Differential Activation Hypothesis , we would expect that negative mood-activated psychological processes are maladaptive among suicide ideators (vs. non-ideators) and predictive of subsequent suicidal ideation. This, however, has never been prospectively studied. To address this knowledge gap, we conducted a prospective study assessing psychological risk factors via the Death/Life Implicit Association Test (IAT) and the Suicide Stroop task before and after a temporary negative mood induction...
July 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Kelly L Klump, Natasha Fowler, Laura Mayhall, Cheryl L Sisk, K M Culbert, S Alexandra Burt
Puberty is a critical period for changes in genetic effects for binge eating in girls. Previous twin studies show increases in genetic influences on binge eating from prepuberty (∼0%) to midpuberty and beyond (∼50%). However, little is known about the factors that drive these shifts in genetic effects. A small pilot study showed that pubertal activation of estrogen may contribute to increases in genetic influences, possibly via hormonally induced changes in gene expression. However, large-scale studies investigating hormone effects on genetic risk are lacking...
July 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Sarah J Peterson, Heather A Davis, Gregory T Smith
In a sample of 1,897 youth studied across the last year of elementary school to the second year of high school, we identified five trajectories of drinking frequency. Three of those (nondrinkers, middle onset, and late onset drinkers) were not drinking in elementary school; two others (moderate drinkers and early high drinkers) were. Among originally nondrinking groups, multiple impulsigenic traits and the acquired preparedness risk model predicted membership in groups that subsequently began drinking. Membership in trajectory groups characterized by drinking during this age period was associated with (a) the experience of alcohol-related problems and (b) further increases in both impulsigenic traits and alcohol expectancies...
July 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
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