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Journal of Abnormal Psychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29952598/borderline-personality-disorder-is-equally-trait-like-and-state-like-over-ten-years-in-adult-psychiatric-patients
#1
Christopher C Conway, Christopher J Hopwood, Leslie C Morey, Andrew E Skodol
Borderline personality disorder (PD) has historically been cast as an unabating condition. Longitudinal data, however, support a more variable time course marked by remission and relapse. In the present study, we tested the possibility that borderline PD has both stable (i.e., consistently present across time and situation, as modern diagnostic systems stipulate) and dynamic (i.e., episodic and situational) elements. Participants were 668 patients from the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study who were administered semistructured diagnostic interviews 5 times over a decade...
June 28, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927267/testing-mood-activated-psychological-markers-for-suicidal-ideation
#2
Christine B Cha, Rory C O'Connor, Olivia Kirtley, Seonaid Cleare, Karen Wetherall, Sarah Eschle, Katherine M Tezanos, Matthew K Nock
To what extent are death- and life-oriented psychological processes among suicidal individuals activated by mood? According to Teasdale's (1988) Differential Activation Hypothesis , we would expect that negative mood-activated psychological processes are maladaptive among suicide ideators (vs. non-ideators) and predictive of subsequent suicidal ideation. This, however, has never been prospectively studied. To address this knowledge gap, we conducted a prospective study assessing psychological risk factors via the Death/Life Implicit Association Test (IAT) and the Suicide Stroop task before and after a temporary negative mood induction...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927266/an-integrative-model-of-risk-for-high-school-disordered-eating
#3
Heather A Davis, Gregory T Smith
Binge eating and purging behaviors are associated with significant harm and distress among adolescents. The process by which these behaviors develop (often in the high school years) is not fully understood. We tested the Acquired Preparedness (AP) model of risk involving transactions among biological, personality, and psychosocial factors to predict binge eating and purging behavior in a sample of 1,906 children assessed in the spring of 5th grade (the last year of elementary school), the fall of 6th grade (the first year of middle school), spring of 6th grade, and spring of 10th grade (second year of high school)...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927265/estrogen-moderates-genetic-influences-on-binge-eating-during-puberty-disruption-of-normative-processes
#4
Kelly L Klump, Natasha Fowler, Laura Mayhall, Cheryl L Sisk, K M Culbert, S Alexandra Burt
Puberty is a critical period for changes in genetic effects for binge eating in girls. Previous twin studies show increases in genetic influences on binge eating from prepuberty (∼0%) to midpuberty and beyond (∼50%). However, little is known about the factors that drive these shifts in genetic effects. A small pilot study showed that pubertal activation of estrogen may contribute to increases in genetic influences, possibly via hormonally induced changes in gene expression. However, large-scale studies investigating hormone effects on genetic risk are lacking...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29847977/personality-and-learning-predictors-of-adolescent-alcohol-consumption-trajectories
#5
Sarah J Peterson, Heather A Davis, Gregory T Smith
In a sample of 1,897 youth studied across the last year of elementary school to the second year of high school, we identified five trajectories of drinking frequency. Three of those (nondrinkers, middle onset, and late onset drinkers) were not drinking in elementary school; two others (moderate drinkers and early high drinkers) were. Among originally nondrinking groups, multiple impulsigenic traits and the acquired preparedness risk model predicted membership in groups that subsequently began drinking. Membership in trajectory groups characterized by drinking during this age period was associated with (a) the experience of alcohol-related problems and (b) further increases in both impulsigenic traits and alcohol expectancies...
May 31, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29847976/response-inhibition-and-impulsive-decision-making-in-sexual-offenders-against-children
#6
Daniel Turner, Christian Laier, Matthias Brand, Tamara Bockshammer, Robin Welsch, Martin Rettenberger
Current theories view impulsivity as an important factor in the explanation of sexual offending. While impulsivity itself is a multidimensional construct, response inhibition and impulsive decision-making are frequently discussed subcomponents. Impulsivity in sexual offenders could be triggered by sexual cues with high emotional significance. The present study compared response inhibition abilities and the degree of impulsive decision-making between 63 child sexual abusers and 63 nonoffending controls. A Go/No-Go task was used to assess response inhibition, while the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and the Game of Dice Task (GDT) were used for the assessment of decision-making...
May 31, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792440/looking-at-the-eyes-interferes-with-facial-emotion-recognition-in-alexithymia
#7
Esther Fujiwara
Alexithymia refers to difficulties in identifying, differentiating, and describing feelings. This personality trait is highly prevalent in many psychiatric conditions and may drive associated social-emotional problems, including the ability to decode emotions in faces. This study probed alexithymic problems with identifying clear and ambiguous blends of emotions in faces and their underlying visual attention patterns. Using the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20, students with high alexithymia (HA, n = 73) or low alexithymia (LA, n = 76) were enrolled in this study...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781659/nicotine-deprivation-increases-pain-intensity-neurogenic-inflammation-and-mechanical-hyperalgesia-among-daily-tobacco-smokers
#8
Joseph W Ditre, Emily L Zale, Lisa R LaRowe, Jesse D Kosiba, Martin J De Vita
An evolving reciprocal model posits that pain and tobacco smoking behavior interact in the manner of a positive feedback loop, resulting in greater pain and the maintenance of nicotine dependence. There is also reason to believe that abstaining from smoking may increase pain during the early stages of smoking cessation. The goal of this study was to test the effects of nicotine deprivation on experimental pain reactivity. Daily tobacco cigarette smokers (N = 165; 43% female) were randomized to either extended nicotine deprivation (12-24 hr smoking abstinence), minimal deprivation (2 hr smoking abstinence), or continued smoking conditions, prior to undergoing pain induction via topical capsaicin...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781658/rapid-instruction-based-task-learning-ritl-in-schizophrenia
#9
Julia M Sheffield, Hannes Ruge, Sridhar Kandala, Deanna M Barch
Individuals with schizophrenia demonstrate broad impairments in neurocognitive functioning as measured through laboratory-based tasks. Neuropsychological measures depend on rapid instruction-based task learning (RITL), the ability to rapidly translate task instruction into goal-directed behavior. Here, the authors present the first known investigation of RITL in schizophrenia and aim to test whether RITL deficits exist in schizophrenia, are associated with abnormal brain activation, and contribute to the generalized cognitive deficit...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781657/longitudinal-stability-of-cognitive-control-in-early-psychosis-nondegenerative-deficits-across-diagnoses
#10
Jason Smucny, Tyler A Lesh, Ana-Maria Iosif, Tara A Niendam, Laura M Tully, Cameron S Carter
Cognitive impairment, particularly in the domain of cognitive control, is characteristic of schizophrenia (SZ) spectrum and bipolar disorders (BDs). The longitudinal trajectory of these impairments, however, remains unclear. Indeed, some studies have observed degeneration and others stability or even improvement over time in these illnesses. Here we examined the longitudinal stability of the AX-Continuous Performance Task (AX-CPT), a cognitive control task, in 52 patients with recent-onset SZ (<2 years from first study measurement), 20 patients with recent-onset BD Type I with psychotic features, and 70 healthy control subjects...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30010369/testing-formal-predictions-of-neuroscientific-theories-of-adhd-with-a-cognitive-model-based-approach
#11
Alexander Weigard, Cynthia Huang-Pollock, Scott Brown, Andrew Heathcote
Neuroscientific theories of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) alternately posit that cognitive aberrations in the disorder are due to acute attentional lapses, slowed neural processing, or reduced signal-to-noise ratios. However, they make similar predictions about behavioral summary statistics (response times [RTs] and accuracy), hindering the field's ability to produce strong and specific tests of these theories. The current study uses the linear ballistic accumulator (LBA; Brown & Heathcote, 2008), a mathematical model of choice RT tasks, to distinguish between competing theory predictions...
July 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30010368/the-bias-toward-intentionality-in-schizophrenia-automaticity-context-and-relationships-to-symptoms-and-functioning
#12
Benjamin Buck, Neil R Hester, Amy Pinkham, Philip D Harvey, L Fredrik Jarskog, David L Penn
Previous research on attributions in schizophrenia has focused on whether individuals make hostile, intentional attributions for ambiguous negative events. It is unclear, however, whether individuals with schizophrenia differ from controls in their general judgments of intentionality judgments in nonconflict and emotionally neutral situations. Research in social psychology suggests that nonclinical individuals present with an automatic bias to see intentionality and that this bias is regulated by the operation of controlled processes...
July 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30010367/narcissist-or-narcissistic-evaluation-of-the-latent-structure-of-narcissistic-personality-disorder
#13
Elizabeth N Aslinger, Stephen B Manuck, Paul A Pilkonis, Leonard J Simms, Aidan G C Wright
We investigated the latent structure of narcissistic personality disorder by comparing dimensional, hybrid, and categorical latent variable models, using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), nonparametric and semiparametric factor analysis, and latent class analysis, respectively. We first explored these models in a clinical sample and then preregistered replication analyses in 4 additional data sets (with national, undergraduate, community, and mixed community/clinical samples) to test whether the best-fitting model would generalize across different data sets with different sample compositions...
July 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30010366/frontoparietal-processing-of-stress-relevant-information-differs-in-individuals-with-a-negative-cognitive-style
#14
Cecilia Westbrook, Elena G Patsenko, Jeanette A Mumford, Lyn Y Abramson, Richard J Davidson
Prior research indicates that cognitive vulnerabilities can render individuals more susceptible to psychopathology in the wake of stressful events. However, little work has directly targeted the neural mechanisms involved. In this study, we examined functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activity as a function of negative cognitive style, a well-studied cognitive vulnerability for depression. We adapted a robust paradigm in which undergraduate students completed fMRI testing after a known ecologically valid stressor (a midterm exam)...
July 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745707/proactive-control-as-a-double-edged-sword-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#15
Jeremy Hogeveen, Marie K Krug, Matthew V Elliott, Cameron S Carter, Marjorie Solomon
Proactive control refers to the active representation of contextual information to bias cognitive processing and facilitate goal-directed behavior. Despite research suggesting that proactive control may be impaired in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), the associations between proactive control and clinical symptoms of ASD remain underspecified. Here, we combined a children's version of the AX Continuous Performance Task (AX-CPT) with gold standard clinical assessments in children with ASD (N = 34) or typical development (TYP; N = 45)...
May 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745706/electroretinographic-anomalies-in-schizophrenia
#16
Docia L Demmin, Quentin Davis, Matthew Roché, Steven M Silverstein
Flash electroretinography (fERG) has been used to identify anomalies in retinal cell function in schizophrenia. Several consistent findings have now emerged, but several potentially important parameters have not yet been investigated. In this study, we recorded light- (photopic) and dark-adapted (scotopic) fERG data from 25 schizophrenia patients and 25 healthy control subjects to (1) determine if past key findings on abnormal photoreceptor and bipolar cell signaling could be replicated; (2) for the first time, examine retinal ganglion cell functioning using the photopic negative response of the fERG; (3) also for the first time, determine responsiveness of schizophrenia patients to a flickering stimulus, as an additional method to isolate cone photoreceptor function; and (4) determine if schizophrenia-related changes in the fERG could be detected using a portable hand-held ERG device...
May 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745705/course-of-ante-and-postnatal-depressive-symptoms-related-to-mothers-hpa-axis-regulation
#17
Heidemarie Laurent, Sherryl H Goodman, Zachary N Stowe, Meeka Halperin, Faaiza Khan, Dorianne Wright, Benjamin W Nelson, D Jeffrey Newport, James C Ritchie, Catherine Monk, Bettina Knight
Given high health costs of depression during pregnancy and the first postnatal year, it is important to understand mechanisms involved in the emergence and perpetuation of symptoms during this time. In a series of 2 studies, we aim to clarify bidirectional relations between mothers' physiological stress regulation-stress-related activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis-and their course of depressive symptoms. In Study 1, 230 pregnant women recruited from a women's mental health program gave 3 saliva samples in the context of psychosocial stress at 24, 30, and 36-weeks gestation...
May 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745704/positive-and-negative-effects-of-internalizing-on-alcohol-use-problems-from-childhood-to-young-adulthood-the-mediating-and-suppressing-role-of-externalizing
#18
Katherine T Foster, Brian M Hicks, Robert A Zucker
A longstanding hypothesis is that some alcohol use problems (AUP) develop and are maintained through the "self-medication" of internalizing (INT; depression and anxiety) problems. However, their high rate of co-occurrence with one another and with externalizing (EXT; antisocial behavior and impulse control) problems obscures any causal association because EXT may account for the INT-AUP link. Using a large community sample, we estimated prospective effects of INT and EXT on AUP via latent cross-lagged mediation panel spanning 14 years from childhood (ages 9-11) to young adulthood (ages 21-23)...
May 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745703/negative-urgency-moderates-reactivity-to-laboratory-stress-inductions
#19
Max M Owens, Michael T Amlung, Monika Stojek, James MacKillop
Impulsive personality traits refer to a group of self-reported dispositions about self-regulatory capacity, several of which have been linked to diverse forms of psychopathology. One of these is negative urgency (NUR), the propensity to act out when experiencing negative emotions, which has been linked to substance use disorders and eating disorders. However, few laboratory studies have investigated the extent to which self-reported NUR relates to an individual's in vivo emotional and behavioral responses. Harmonizing two archival data sets on alcohol and high-energy-dense (HED) food motivation, the current study investigated NUR as a moderator of reactivity to stressful situations elicited by two commonly used stress manipulations, the Trier Social Stress Test and a stress imagery induction...
May 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745702/a-longitudinal-twin-study-of-callous-unemotional-traits-during-childhood
#20
Jeffrey Henry, Ginette Dionne, Essi Viding, Amélie Petitclerc, Bei Feng, Frank Vitaro, Mara Brendgen, Richard E Tremblay, Michel Boivin
Previous research indicates that genetic factors largely account for the stability of callous-unemotional (CU) traits in adolescence. However, the genetic-environmental etiology of the development of CU traits has not been extensively investigated in childhood, despite work showing the reliable measurement and stability of CU traits from a young age. The aim of this study was to investigate the temporal pattern of genetic and environmental etiology of CU traits across primary school, from school entry (7 years) to middle (9 and 10 years) and late childhood (12 years)...
May 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
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