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Journal of Abnormal Psychology

Heather McDonough-Caplan, Daniel N Klein, Theodore P Beauchaine
Despite nonoverlapping criterion sets, conduct disorder and depression co-occur at much higher rates than expected by chance. Contemporary model-based approaches to explaining heterotypic comorbidity use factor analysis and its variants to evaluate interrelations among symptoms in large population-based and twin samples. These analyses invariably yield broadband internalizing and externalizing factors, which load on a higher-order general liability factor-findings that are robust across age and informant. Although model-based approaches elucidate structural aspects of comorbidity, they are variable-centered, and usually cross-sectional...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Sally G Olderbak, Andreas Mokros, Joachim Nitschke, Elmar Habermeyer, Oliver Wilhelm
Psychopathy is characteristically associated with deficits in emotion perception; however, findings surrounding this deficit are actually quite mixed. This is most likely due to limitations of study methodology, including the use of tasks with unknown or poor psychometric properties, underpowered samples, and a lack of control for third variables. We present a study that addressed these limitations. A sample of men (n = 339) ranging across the psychopathy continuum, recruited in and out of the German prison system, completed three psychometrically validated tasks that assessed the ability to perceive facially expressed emotions...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Sarah W Whitton, Christina Dyar, Michael E Newcomb, Brian Mustanski
Sexual minority youth experience elevated rates of internalizing disorders; it is, therefore, important to identify protective factors that decrease risk for psychological distress in this population. In this study, we examined whether involvement in a romantic relationship, a well-established protective factor for mental health among heterosexual adults, is also protective for young sexual minorities. Using eight waves of data provided by a community sample of 248 racially diverse sexual minority youth (ages 16-20 years at baseline), we assessed within-person associations between relationship involvement and psychological distress...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Łukasz Okruszek, Aleksandra Piejka, Adam Wysokiński, Ewa Szczepocka, Valeria Manera
Social predictive coding is now a well-established phenomenon in healthy individuals. It has been demonstrated that the communicative gestures of one agent may be effectively used to predict the actions of other agents. Individuals with schizophrenia often present social-cognitive deficits. The aim of this paper is to examine interpersonal predictive coding in patients with schizophrenia. Forty-six participants with schizophrenia and 40 healthy controls (HC) completed a simultaneous masking detection task (Interpersonal Detection Task; IDT), during which they observed point-light displays of two agents (A and B)...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Andrea B Goldschmidt, Ross D Crosby, Li Cao, Markus Moessner, Kelsie T Forbush, Erin C Accurso, Daniel Le Grange
Classifying eating disorders in youth is challenging in light of developmental considerations and high rates of diagnostic migration. Understanding the transactional relationships among eating disorder symptoms, both across the transdiagnostic spectrum and within specific diagnostic categories, may clarify which core eating disorder symptoms contribute to, and maintain, eating-related psychopathology in youth. We utilized network analysis to investigate interrelationships among eating disorder symptoms in 636 treatment-seeking children and adolescents (90...
February 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Kristen M Culbert, Elaine B Sinclair, Britny A Hildebrandt, Kelly L Klump, Cheryl L Sisk
Exposure to testosterone early in life may contribute to sex differences and pubertal changes in risk for eating pathology (i.e., females > males, after pubertal onset). Specifically, perinatal testosterone permanently alters brain structure/function and drives the masculinization of several sex-differentiated behaviors. However, the effects of perinatal testosterone are often not evident until puberty when increases in gonadal hormones activate the expression of sex typical behavior, including eating behaviors (e...
February 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Jessica Overweg, Catharina A Hartman, Petra Hendriks
Pronoun reversals, saying you when meaning I, in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are generally viewed as manifesting in early development and speech production only. This study investigates pronoun reversals in later development (age 6-12) in interpretation in 48 Dutch-speaking children with ASD and 43 typically developing (TD) peers. We contrasted children's interpretation of I and you in indirect and direct speech reports, with the latter type requiring an additional perspective shift. To examine which cognitive processes are involved in pronoun interpretation, additional tasks were administered to measure Theory of Mind (ToM) understanding, cognitive inhibition, cognitive flexibility, and working memory...
February 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Susan S Kuo, Laura Almasy, Ruben C Gur, Konasale Prasad, David R Roalf, Raquel E Gur, Vishwajit L Nimgaonkar, Michael F Pogue-Geile
Although cognition is one of the most important predictors of community functioning in schizophrenia, little is known about the causes of this correlation. To our knowledge, this study is the first to examine the extent to which this correlation is genetically mediated and whether the genetic correlation is specific to schizophrenia. Six hundred thirty-six participants from 43 multigenerational families with at least two relatives with schizophrenia and 135 unrelated controls underwent diagnostic interview and cognition and functioning assessment...
February 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Marcel Riehle, Tania M Lincoln
People with schizophrenia show marked reductions in their emotional expressiveness, generally known as blunted affect. In this study, we tested whether interaction partners would evaluate community-dwelling participants with schizophrenia less favorably than healthy controls and whether this difference would be explained by reduced smiling behavior related to schizophrenia. We also tested whether deficient affect recognition would predict reduced smiling. We created 3 study groups, consisting of 28 participants each, participants with schizophrenia (SZ), healthy controls (HC), and naive healthy interaction partners (IP)...
February 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Travis T Mallard, James R Ashenhurst, K Paige Harden, Kim Fromme
GABRA2, the gene encoding the α2 subunit of the GABAA receptor, potentially plays a role in the etiology of problematic drinking, as GABRA2 genotype has been associated with subjective response to alcohol and other alcohol-related reward processes. The GABRA2 gene has also been associated with illicit drug use, but the extent to which associations with drug use are independent of associations with alcohol use remains unclear, partly because most previous research has used a cross-sectional design that cannot discriminate comorbidity at the between-person level and co-occurrence within-persons...
February 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Johanna Hepp, Sean P Lane, Andrea M Wycoff, Ryan W Carpenter, Timothy J Trull
Affective instability and interpersonal stress are key features of borderline personality disorder (BPD). They were shown to covary in the daily lives of patients in a recent ambulatory assessment study (Hepp et al., 2017) that observed comparatively larger positive associations between interpersonal stressors and negative affect in individuals with BPD than those with depressive disorders. The present study sought to replicate these findings, collecting data on hostility, sadness, fear, and rejection or disagreement events from 56 BPD and 60 community control participants for 21 days, 6 times a day...
February 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Jonathan Preszler, David K Marcus, John F Edens, Barbara E McDermott
The question of which features represent the most central components of psychopathy remains unresolved and is the subject of considerable debate. Network analysis, which is a relatively new way to conceptualize mental disorders that emphasizes complex causal systems, provides a means to graphically and quantitatively describe the centrality of the various symptoms of a disorder. We applied association and adaptive LASSO networks on two samples of forensic patients. The first sample included forensic inpatients (N = 277) who were administered the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (Hare, 2003), and the second sample included patients who previously had been civilly committed (N = 1136), who were administered the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (Hart, Cox, & Hare, 1995)...
February 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Adam Bryant Miller, Margaret A Sheridan, Jamie L Hanson, Katie A McLaughlin, John E Bates, Jennifer E Lansford, Gregory S Pettit, Kenneth A Dodge
Prior research demonstrates a link between exposure to childhood adversity and psychopathology later in development. However, work on mechanisms linking adversity to psychopathology fails to account for specificity in these pathways across different types of adversity. Here, we test a conceptual model that distinguishes deprivation and threat as distinct forms of childhood adversity with different pathways to psychopathology. Deprivation involves an absence of inputs from the environment, such as cognitive and social stimulation, that influence psychopathology by altering cognitive development, such as verbal abilities...
February 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Daniel W Russell, Frederick D Clavél, Carolyn E Cutrona, W Todd Abraham, Rebecca G Burzette
This study examined the impact of neighborhood racial discrimination on the development of major depressive disorder (MDD) in a sample of African American women. Participants were 499 women from Georgia and Iowa with no history of MDD who were followed for 9 to 11 years. Several neighborhood characteristics (community social disorder, community cohesion, and community racism) and individual characteristics (negative life events, financial strain, personal outlook, religious involvement, relationship quality, negative affectivity, and individual experiences of racism) were employed as predictors of whether or not the women met criteria for MDD during this period of time...
February 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Matthew K Nock, Alexander J Millner, Thomas E Joiner, Peter M Gutierrez, Georges Han, Irving Hwang, Andrew King, James A Naifeh, Nancy A Sampson, Alan M Zaslavsky, Murray B Stein, Robert J Ursano, Ronald C Kessler
Prior research has shown that most known risk factors for suicide attempts in the general population actually predict suicide ideation rather than attempts among ideators. Yet clinical interest in predicting suicide attempts often involves the evaluation of risk among patients with ideation. We examined a number of characteristics of suicidal thoughts hypothesized to predict incident attempts in a retrospective analysis of lifetime ideators (N = 3,916) drawn from a large (N = 29,982), representative sample of United States Army soldiers...
February 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Annabel D Nijhof, Monica Dhar, Judith Goris, Marcel Brass, Jan R Wiersema
Diminished responding to hearing one's own name is one of the earliest and strongest predictors of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Here, we studied, for the first time, the neural correlates of hearing one's own name in ASD. Based on existing research, we hypothesized enhancement of late parietal positive activity specifically for the own name in neurotypicals, and for this effect to be reduced in adults with ASD. Source localization analyses were conducted to estimate group differences in brain regions underlying this effect...
January 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Daniel Fulford, Michael Treadway, Joshua Woolley
Experiential negative symptoms-including diminished motivation-have a profound impact on functional outcomes in schizophrenia. Animal research suggests that abnormalities in dopaminergic regulation can negatively impact effort exertion, a translational model that has been applied to individuals with schizophrenia. Paradigms that assess effort-based decision making, for example, suggest less likelihood of choosing high effort tasks that are high in probability of success, and this preference varies with negative symptoms and impaired functioning...
January 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
S Alexandra Burt, Brooke L Slawinski, Kelly L Klump
Sex differences in the etiology of youth antisocial behavior are an intuitively appealing hypothesis given the consistently higher prevalence of antisocial behavior in boys versus girls. Although a few early studies supported this possibility, reporting stronger genetic influences in females and stronger environmental influences in males, subsequent meta-analyses found that antisocial behavior was equally heritable in males and females. Critically however, none of the meta-analyses evaluated whether sex differences in etiology might be enhanced in particular subpopulations or contexts...
January 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Monika Dargis, Richard C Wolf, Michael Koenigs
Impairments in processing fearful faces have been documented in both children and adults with psychopathic traits, suggesting a potential mechanism by which psychopathic individuals develop callous and manipulative interpersonal and affective traits. Recently, research has demonstrated that psychopathic traits are associated with reduced fixations to the eye regions of faces in samples of children and community-dwelling adults, however this relationship has not yet been established in an offender sample with high levels of psychopathy...
January 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Xiaochen Luo, Amy K Nuttall, Kenneth D Locke, Christopher J Hopwood
Despite wide recognition of the importance of interpersonal problems in binge eating disorder (BED), the nature of this association remains unclear. Examining the direction of this longitudinal relationship is necessary to clarify the role that interpersonal problems play in the course of binge eating problems, and thus to specify treatment targets and mechanisms. This study aimed to articulate the bidirectional, longitudinal associations between BED and both the general severity of interpersonal problems as well as warm and dominant interpersonal styles...
January 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
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