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Journal of Abnormal Psychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530410/correction-to-kujawa-proudfit-and-klein-2014
#1
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Neural reactivity to rewards and losses in offspring of mothers and fathers with histories of depressive and anxiety disorders" by Autumn Kujawa, Greg Hajcak Proudfit and Daniel N. Klein (Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 2014[May], Vol 123[2], 287-297). In the original article, there was an error in the Measures section. The article stated that the EEG data were band-pass filtered with cutoffs of 0.1 and 30 Hz and baseline corrected using the 200 ms interval prior to feedback. Instead, the data were actually filtered with cutoffs of 0...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481571/examination-of-real-time-fluctuations-in-suicidal-ideation-and-its-risk-factors-results-from-two-ecological-momentary-assessment-studies
#2
Evan M Kleiman, Brianna J Turner, Szymon Fedor, Eleanor E Beale, Jeff C Huffman, Matthew K Nock
Two studies examined 2 important but previously unanswered questions about the experience of suicidal ideation: (a) How does suicidal ideation vary over short periods of time?, and (b) To what degree do risk factors for suicidal ideation vary over short periods and are such changes associated with changes in suicidal ideation? Participants in Study 1 were 54 adults who had attempted suicide in the previous year and completed 28 days of ecological momentary assessment (EMA; average of 2.51 assessments per day; 2,891 unique assessments)...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471212/hierarchical-structure-of-emotional-disorders-from-individual-symptoms-to-the-spectrum
#3
Monika A Waszczuk, Roman Kotov, Camilo Ruggero, Wakiza Gamez, David Watson
Classification of emotional disorders faces challenges of within-disorder heterogeneity and between-disorder comorbidity. The current study addressed these issues by analyzing all emotional disorder symptoms to identify homogeneous dimensions that characterize this domain. These dimensions were, in turn, used to define coherent syndromes and higher order factors. All of the emotional disorder symptoms specified in diagnostic manuals were assessed by interview in 2 treatment-seeking samples (N = 426 and 305), alongside clinical diagnoses and functioning measures...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447804/heightened-attentional-capture-by-visual-food-stimuli-in-anorexia-nervosa
#4
Renate A M Neimeijer, Anne Roefs, Peter J de Jong
The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that anorexia nervosa (AN) patients are relatively insensitive to the attentional capture of visual food stimuli. Attentional avoidance of food might help AN patients to prevent more elaborate processing of food stimuli and the subsequent generation of craving, which might enable AN patients to maintain their strict diet. Participants were 66 restrictive AN spectrum patients and 55 healthy controls. A single-target rapid serial visual presentation task was used with food and disorder-neutral cues as critical distracter stimuli and disorder-neutral pictures as target stimuli...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447803/psychometrics-and-the-neuroscience-of-individual-differences-internal-consistency-limits-between-subjects-effects
#5
Greg Hajcak, Alexandria Meyer, Roman Kotov
In the clinical neuroscience literature, between-subjects differences in neural activity are presumed to reflect reliable measures-even though the psychometric properties of neural measures are almost never reported. The current article focuses on the critical importance of assessing and reporting internal consistency reliability-the homogeneity of "items" that comprise a neural "score." We demonstrate how variability in the internal consistency of neural measures limits between-subjects (i.e., individual differences) effects...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425737/time-varying-and-time-invariant-dimensions-of-depression-in-children-and-adolescents-implications-for-cross-informant-agreement
#6
David A Cole, Joan M Martin, Farrah M Jacquez, Jane M Tram, Rachel Zelkowitz, Elizabeth A Nick, Jason D Rights
The longitudinal structure of depression in children and adolescents was examined by applying a Trait-State-Occasion structural equation model to 4 waves of self, teacher, peer, and parent reports in 2 age groups (9 to 13 and 13 to 16 years old). Analyses revealed that the depression latent variable consisted of 2 longitudinal factors: a time-invariant dimension that was completely stable over time and a time-varying dimension that was not perfectly stable over time. Different sources of information were differentially sensitive to these 2 dimensions...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425736/implicit-approach-and-avoidance-in-patients-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#7
Barbara Cludius, Anne Katrin Külz, Sarah Landmann, Steffen Moritz, Charlotte E Wittekind
Avoidance is regarded as an important feature for the development and maintenance of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and is usually assessed using explicit measures such as self-report scales. However, some behavioral schemata are unavailable to introspection, making them partially inaccessible by explicit measures. We used an approach-avoidance task (AAT) as an implicit measure to examine behavioral tendencies in patients with OCD, including patients with checking- and contamination-related symptoms (n = 63), compared with a healthy control group (n = 30)...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406662/explicit-and-implicit-reinforcement-learning-across-the-psychosis-spectrum
#8
Deanna M Barch, Cameron S Carter, James M Gold, Sheri L Johnson, Ann M Kring, Angus W MacDonald, Diego A Pizzagalli, J Daniel Ragland, Steven M Silverstein, Milton E Strauss
Motivational and hedonic impairments are core features of a variety of types of psychopathology. An important aspect of motivational function is reinforcement learning (RL), including implicit (i.e., outside of conscious awareness) and explicit (i.e., including explicit representations about potential reward associations) learning, as well as both positive reinforcement (learning about actions that lead to reward) and punishment (learning to avoid actions that lead to loss). Here we present data from paradigms designed to assess both positive and negative components of both implicit and explicit RL, examine performance on each of these tasks among individuals with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and bipolar disorder with psychosis, and examine their relative relationships to specific symptom domains transdiagnostically...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414478/enhancing-effects-of-contingency-instructions-on-fear-acquisition-and-extinction-in-anxiety-disorders
#9
Puck Duits, Jan Richter, Johanna M P Baas, Iris M Engelhard, Anke Limberg-Thiesen, Ivo Heitland, Alfons O Hamm, Danielle C Cath
Explicit instructions regarding stimulus-threat associations increase acquisition and extinction of fear in healthy participants. The current study aimed to investigate the effect of contingency instructions on fear acquisition and extinction in patients with anxiety disorders. Patients with various anxiety disorders (N = 104) and healthy comparison participants (N = 93) participated in a differential fear conditioning task (within-subjects design). Approximately halfway through the acquisition phase, participants were instructed about the stimulus-threat association, and approximately halfway through the extinction phase, participants were informed that the unconditioned stimulus (US) would no longer be administered...
May 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394145/increased-startle-potentiation-to-unpredictable-stressors-in-alcohol-dependence-possible-stress-neuroadaptation-in-humans
#10
Christine A Moberg, Daniel E Bradford, Jesse T Kaye, John J Curtin
Stress plays a key role in addiction etiology and relapse. Rodent models posit that following repeated periods of alcohol and other drug intoxication, compensatory allostatic changes occur in the central nervous system (CNS) circuits involved in behavioral and emotional response to stressors. We examine a predicted manifestation of this neuroadaptation in recently abstinent alcohol-dependent humans. Participants completed a translational laboratory task that uses startle potentiation to unpredictable (vs. predictable) stressors implicated in the putative CNS mechanisms that mediate this neuroadaptation...
May 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383936/borderline-personality-disorder-symptoms-and-aggression-a-within-person-process-model
#11
Lori N Scott, Aidan G C Wright, Joseph E Beeney, Sophie A Lazarus, Paul A Pilkonis, Stephanie D Stepp
Theoretical and empirical work suggests that aggression in those with borderline personality disorder (BPD) occurs primarily in the context of emotional reactivity, especially anger and shame, in response to perceived rejection. Using intensive repeated measures, we examined a within-person process model in which perceived rejection predicts increases in aggressive urges and behaviors via increases in negative affect (indirect effect) and in which BPD symptoms exacerbate this process (moderated mediation). Participants were 117 emerging adult women (ages 18-24) with recent histories of aggressive behavior who were recruited from a community-based longitudinal study of at-risk youth...
May 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368150/genetic-and-environmental-influences-on-diagnostic-and-statistical-manual-of-mental-disorders-fifth-edition-dsm-5-maladaptive-personality-traits-and-their-connections-with-normative-personality-traits
#12
Zara E Wright, Shandell Pahlen, Robert F Krueger
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition (DSM-5) proposes an alternative model for personality disorders, which includes maladaptive-level personality traits. These traits can be operationalized by the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 (PID-5). Although there has been extensive research on genetic and environmental influences on normative level personality, the heritability of the DSM-5 traits remains understudied. The present study addresses this gap in the literature by assessing traits indexed by the PID-5 and the International Personality Item Pool NEO (IPIP-NEO) in adult twins (N = 1,812 individuals)...
May 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358526/default-mode-functional-connectivity-is-associated-with-social-functioning-in-schizophrenia
#13
Jaclyn M Fox, Samantha V Abram, James L Reilly, Shaun Eack, Morris B Goldman, John G Csernansky, Lei Wang, Matthew J Smith
Individuals with schizophrenia display notable deficits in social functioning. Research indicates that neural connectivity within the default mode network (DMN) is related to social cognition and social functioning in healthy and clinical populations. However, the association between DMN connectivity, social cognition, and social functioning has not been studied in schizophrenia. For the present study, the authors used resting-state neuroimaging data to evaluate connectivity between the main DMN hubs (i.e., the medial prefrontal cortex [mPFC] and the posterior cingulate cortex-anterior precuneus [PPC]) in individuals with schizophrenia (n = 28) and controls (n = 32)...
May 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333488/the-hierarchical-taxonomy-of-psychopathology-hitop-a-dimensional-alternative-to-traditional-nosologies
#14
Roman Kotov, Robert F Krueger, David Watson, Thomas M Achenbach, Robert R Althoff, R Michael Bagby, Timothy A Brown, William T Carpenter, Avshalom Caspi, Lee Anna Clark, Nicholas R Eaton, Miriam K Forbes, Kelsie T Forbush, David Goldberg, Deborah Hasin, Steven E Hyman, Masha Y Ivanova, Donald R Lynam, Kristian Markon, Joshua D Miller, Terrie E Moffitt, Leslie C Morey, Stephanie N Mullins-Sweatt, Johan Ormel, Christopher J Patrick, Darrel A Regier, Leslie Rescorla, Camilo J Ruggero, Douglas B Samuel, Martin Sellbom, Leonard J Simms, Andrew E Skodol, Tim Slade, Susan C South, Jennifer L Tackett, Irwin D Waldman, Monika A Waszczuk, Thomas A Widiger, Aidan G C Wright, Mark Zimmerman
The reliability and validity of traditional taxonomies are limited by arbitrary boundaries between psychopathology and normality, often unclear boundaries between disorders, frequent disorder co-occurrence, heterogeneity within disorders, and diagnostic instability. These taxonomies went beyond evidence available on the structure of psychopathology and were shaped by a variety of other considerations, which may explain the aforementioned shortcomings. The Hierarchical Taxonomy Of Psychopathology (HiTOP) model has emerged as a research effort to address these problems...
May 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277734/death-anxiety-and-its-relationship-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#15
Rachel E Menzies, Ilan Dar-Nimrod
The studies presented in this article explored the relevance of death fears to Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD). In Study 1, the relationships between death anxiety and a variety of markers of psychopathology were examined in 171 treatment-seeking participants with OCD. Moderate to large correlations between Collett-Lester Fear of Death scale scores, taken at initial assessment, and clinical ratings of OCD severity, number of hospitalizations, number of medications, and total number of lifetime anxiety-related diagnoses identified in structured diagnostic interviews were obtained...
May 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277733/a-new-paradigm-to-measure-probabilistic-reasoning-and-a-possible-answer-to-the-question-why-psychosis-prone-individuals-jump-to-conclusions
#16
Steffen Moritz, Anja S Göritz, Ryan P Balzan, Łukasz Gawęda, Susan C Kulagin, Christina Andreou
Jumping to conclusions (JTC) distinguishes patients with schizophrenia from both healthy and psychiatric controls. JTC is typically assessed using the beads task, which, however, faces a number of limitations as to its interpretability and reliability. The present study set out to validate a new paradigm to assess JTC: the box task. We adopted a psychometric psychosis proneness approach and divided a large population sample into participants who scored high versus low on a scale tapping psychosis-like experiences...
May 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368159/personality-disorder-symptom-severity-predicts-onset-of-mood-episodes-and-conversion-to-bipolar-i-disorder-in-individuals-with-bipolar-spectrum-disorder
#17
Tommy H Ng, Taylor A Burke, Jonathan P Stange, Patricia D Walshaw, Rachel B Weiss, Snezana Urosevic, Lyn Y Abramson, Lauren B Alloy
Although personality disorders (PDs) are highly comorbid with bipolar spectrum disorders (BSDs), little longitudinal research has been conducted to examine the prospective impact of PD symptoms on the course of BSDs. The aim of this study is to examine whether PD symptom severity predicts shorter time to onset of bipolar mood episodes and conversion to bipolar I disorder over time among individuals with less severe BSDs. Participants (n = 166) with bipolar II disorder, cyclothymia, or bipolar disorder not otherwise specified completed diagnostic interview assessments of PD symptoms and self-report measures of mood symptoms at baseline...
April 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277736/evidence-of-systematic-attenuation-in-the-measurement-of-cognitive-deficits-in-schizophrenia
#18
Michael L Thomas, Virginie M Patt, Andrew Bismark, Joyce Sprock, Melissa Tarasenko, Gregory A Light, Gregory G Brown
Cognitive tasks that are too hard or too easy produce imprecise measurements of ability, which, in turn, attenuates group differences and can lead to inaccurate conclusions in clinical research. We aimed to illustrate this problem using a popular experimental measure of working memory-the N-back task-and to suggest corrective strategies for measuring working memory and other cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Samples of undergraduates (n = 42), community controls (n = 25), outpatients with schizophrenia (n = 33), and inpatients with schizophrenia (n = 17) completed the N-back...
April 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277735/the-core-symptoms-of-bulimia-nervosa-anxiety-and-depression-a-network-analysis
#19
Cheri A Levinson, Stephanie Zerwas, Benjamin Calebs, Kelsie Forbush, Hans Kordy, Hunna Watson, Sara Hofmeier, Michele Levine, Ross D Crosby, Christine Peat, Cristin D Runfola, Benjamin Zimmer, Markus Moesner, Marsha D Marcus, Cynthia M Bulik
Bulimia nervosa (BN) is characterized by symptoms of binge eating and compensatory behavior, and overevaluation of weight and shape, which often co-occur with symptoms of anxiety and depression. However, there is little research identifying which specific BN symptoms maintain BN psychopathology and how they are associated with symptoms of depression and anxiety. Network analyses represent an emerging method in psychopathology research to examine how symptoms interact and may become self-reinforcing. In the current study of adults with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) diagnosis of BN (N = 196), we used network analysis to identify the central symptoms of BN, as well as symptoms that may bridge the association between BN symptoms and anxiety and depression symptoms...
April 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191985/network-models-of-dsm-5-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-implications-for-icd-11
#20
Karen S Mitchell, Erika J Wolf, Michelle J Bovin, Lewina O Lee, Jonathan D Green, Raymond C Rosen, Terence M Keane, Brian P Marx
Recent proposals for revisions to the 11th edition of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnostic criteria have argued that the current symptom constellation under the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 is unwieldy and includes many symptoms that overlap with other disorders. The newly proposed criteria for the ICD-11 include only 6 symptoms. However, restricting the symptoms to those included in the ICD-11 has implications for PTSD diagnosis prevalence estimates, and it remains unclear whether these 6 symptoms are most strongly associated with a diagnosis of PTSD...
April 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
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