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Journal of Abnormal Psychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333488/the-hierarchical-taxonomy-of-psychopathology-hitop-a-dimensional-alternative-to-traditional-nosologies
#1
Roman Kotov, Robert F Krueger, David Watson, Thomas M Achenbach, Robert R Althoff, R Michael Bagby, Timothy A Brown, William T Carpenter, Avshalom Caspi, Lee Anna Clark, Nicholas R Eaton, Miriam K Forbes, Kelsie T Forbush, David Goldberg, Deborah Hasin, Steven E Hyman, Masha Y Ivanova, Donald R Lynam, Kristian Markon, Joshua D Miller, Terrie E Moffitt, Leslie C Morey, Stephanie N Mullins-Sweatt, Johan Ormel, Christopher J Patrick, Darrel A Regier, Leslie Rescorla, Camilo J Ruggero, Douglas B Samuel, Martin Sellbom, Leonard J Simms, Andrew E Skodol, Tim Slade, Susan C South, Jennifer L Tackett, Irwin D Waldman, Monika A Waszczuk, Thomas A Widiger, Aidan G C Wright, Mark Zimmerman
The reliability and validity of traditional taxonomies are limited by arbitrary boundaries between psychopathology and normality, often unclear boundaries between disorders, frequent disorder co-occurrence, heterogeneity within disorders, and diagnostic instability. These taxonomies went beyond evidence available on the structure of psychopathology and were shaped by a variety of other considerations, which may explain the aforementioned shortcomings. The Hierarchical Taxonomy Of Psychopathology (HiTOP) model has emerged as a research effort to address these problems...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277736/evidence-of-systematic-attenuation-in-the-measurement-of-cognitive-deficits-in-schizophrenia
#2
Michael L Thomas, Virginie M Patt, Andrew Bismark, Joyce Sprock, Melissa Tarasenko, Gregory A Light, Gregory G Brown
Cognitive tasks that are too hard or too easy produce imprecise measurements of ability, which, in turn, attenuates group differences and can lead to inaccurate conclusions in clinical research. We aimed to illustrate this problem using a popular experimental measure of working memory-the N-back task-and to suggest corrective strategies for measuring working memory and other cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Samples of undergraduates (n = 42), community controls (n = 25), outpatients with schizophrenia (n = 33), and inpatients with schizophrenia (n = 17) completed the N-back...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277735/the-core-symptoms-of-bulimia-nervosa-anxiety-and-depression-a-network-analysis
#3
Cheri A Levinson, Stephanie Zerwas, Benjamin Calebs, Kelsie Forbush, Hans Kordy, Hunna Watson, Sara Hofmeier, Michele Levine, Ross D Crosby, Christine Peat, Cristin D Runfola, Benjamin Zimmer, Markus Moesner, Marsha D Marcus, Cynthia M Bulik
Bulimia nervosa (BN) is characterized by symptoms of binge eating and compensatory behavior, and overevaluation of weight and shape, which often co-occur with symptoms of anxiety and depression. However, there is little research identifying which specific BN symptoms maintain BN psychopathology and how they are associated with symptoms of depression and anxiety. Network analyses represent an emerging method in psychopathology research to examine how symptoms interact and may become self-reinforcing. In the current study of adults with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) diagnosis of BN (N = 196), we used network analysis to identify the central symptoms of BN, as well as symptoms that may bridge the association between BN symptoms and anxiety and depression symptoms...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277734/death-anxiety-and-its-relationship-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#4
Rachel E Menzies, Ilan Dar-Nimrod
The studies presented in this article explored the relevance of death fears to Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD). In Study 1, the relationships between death anxiety and a variety of markers of psychopathology were examined in 171 treatment-seeking participants with OCD. Moderate to large correlations between Collett-Lester Fear of Death scale scores, taken at initial assessment, and clinical ratings of OCD severity, number of hospitalizations, number of medications, and total number of lifetime anxiety-related diagnoses identified in structured diagnostic interviews were obtained...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277733/a-new-paradigm-to-measure-probabilistic-reasoning-and-a-possible-answer-to-the-question-why-psychosis-prone-individuals-jump-to-conclusions
#5
Steffen Moritz, Anja S Göritz, Ryan P Balzan, Łukasz Gawęda, Susan C Kulagin, Christina Andreou
Jumping to conclusions (JTC) distinguishes patients with schizophrenia from both healthy and psychiatric controls. JTC is typically assessed using the beads task, which, however, faces a number of limitations as to its interpretability and reliability. The present study set out to validate a new paradigm to assess JTC: the box task. We adopted a psychometric psychosis proneness approach and divided a large population sample into participants who scored high versus low on a scale tapping psychosis-like experiences...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191985/network-models-of-dsm-5-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-implications-for-icd-11
#6
Karen S Mitchell, Erika J Wolf, Michelle J Bovin, Lewina O Lee, Jonathan D Green, Raymond C Rosen, Terence M Keane, Brian P Marx
Recent proposals for revisions to the 11th edition of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnostic criteria have argued that the current symptom constellation under the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 is unwieldy and includes many symptoms that overlap with other disorders. The newly proposed criteria for the ICD-11 include only 6 symptoms. However, restricting the symptoms to those included in the ICD-11 has implications for PTSD diagnosis prevalence estimates, and it remains unclear whether these 6 symptoms are most strongly associated with a diagnosis of PTSD...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191984/explicit-and-implicit-self-evaluations-in-social-anxiety-disorder
#7
Eva Gilboa-Schechtman, Hadar Keshet, Tamar Livne, Uri Berger, Reut Zabag, Haggai Hermesh, Sofi Marom
Cognitive models of social anxiety disorder (SAD) emphasize the role of explicit and implicit self-evaluations (SEs) in the etiology and maintenance of this condition. Whereas individuals with SAD consistently report lower explicit SEs as compared with nonanxious individuals, findings concerning implicit SEs are mixed. To gain a more nuanced understanding of the nature of SEs in SAD, we examined explicit and implicit SEs in two significant interpersonal domains: social rank and affiliation. Consistent with cognitive theorizing, we predicted that, compared to nonclinical controls (NCCs), individuals with SAD would exhibit lower explicit and implicit SEs in both domains...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182445/state-dependent-alterations-in-inhibitory-control-and-emotional-face-identification-in-seasonal-affective-disorder
#8
Liv V Hjordt, Dea S Stenbæk, Kathrine Skak Madsen, Brenda Mc Mahon, Christian G Jensen, Martin Vestergaard, Ida Hageman, David Meder, Steen G Hasselbalch, Gitte M Knudsen
BACKGROUND: Depressed individuals often exhibit impaired inhibition to negative input and identification of positive stimuli, but it is unclear whether this is a state or trait feature. We here exploited a naturalistic model, namely individuals with seasonal affective disorder (SAD), to study this feature longitudinally. AIM: The goal of this study was to examine seasonal changes in inhibitory control and identification of emotional faces in individuals with SAD...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182444/a-network-approach-to-modeling-comorbid-internalizing-and-alcohol-use-disorders
#9
Justin J Anker, Miriam K Forbes, Zack W Almquist, Jeremiah S Menk, Paul Thuras, Amanda S Unruh, Matt G Kushner
Internalizing disorders co-occur with alcohol use disorder (AUD) at a rate that exceeds chance and compromise conventional AUD treatment. The "vicious cycle" model of comorbidity specifies drinking to cope (DTC) as a link between these disorders that, when not directly addressed, undermines the effectiveness of conventional treatments. Interventions based on this model have proven successful but there is no direct evidence for how and to what extent DTC contributes to the maintenance of comorbidity. In the present study, we used network analysis to depict associations between syndrome-specific groupings of internalizing symptoms, alcohol craving, and drinking behavior, as well as DTC and other extradiagnostic variables specified in the vicious cycle model (e...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165261/altered-experiential-but-not-hypothetical-delay-discounting-in-schizophrenia
#10
William P Horan, Matthew W Johnson, Michael F Green
Delay discounting (DD) is a future-oriented decision-making process that refers to whether one is willing to forego a smaller, sooner reward for the sake of a larger, later reward. It can be assessed using hypothetical tasks, which involve choices between hypothetical rewards of varying amounts over delay periods of days to years, or experiential tasks, which involve receiving actual rewards in real time over delay periods of seconds to minutes. Initial studies in schizophrenia have only used hypothetical tasks and have been mixed in finding either elevated or normal levels of DD...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192011/core-dimensions-of-anxiety-and-depression-change-independently-during-adolescence
#11
Christopher C Conway, Richard E Zinbarg, Susan Mineka, Michelle G Craske
The developmental trajectories of emotional disorder symptoms during adolescence remain elusive, owing in part to a shortage of intensive longitudinal data. In the present study, we charted the temporal course of the tripartite model of anxiety and depression-which posits an overarching negative affect dimension and specific anhedonia and anxious arousal dimensions-over adolescence and emerging adulthood to construct a developmental map of the core dimensions of emotional disorders. We recruited 604 high school juniors, overselecting those at high risk for emotional disorders, and assessed the tripartite symptom domains 5 times annually...
February 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045282/executive-functions-and-substance-use-relations-in-late-adolescence-and-early-adulthood
#12
Daniel E Gustavson, Michael C Stallings, Robin P Corley, Akira Miyake, John K Hewitt, Naomi P Friedman
Poor executive functions (EFs) have been linked to substance use and abuse across multiple substances. However, it is unclear whether these associations are stronger for some EFs over others and/or some stages of substance use over others (e.g., ever using substances vs. dependence). It is also unknown whether such patterns change from adolescence to early adulthood, a transition that is characterized by changes to both EFs and substance use behaviors. In this longitudinal study of approximately 850 twins, we examined the relations between multiple EF abilities (including a common EF factor predicting 9 EF tasks) and measures of general substance use and dependence/abuse in late adolescence (mean age 17 years) and early adulthood (mean age 23 years)...
February 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004948/smoking-induced-affect-modulation-in-nonwithdrawn-smokers-with-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-depression-and-in-those-with-no-psychiatric-disorder
#13
Jessica W Cook, Timothy B Baker, Jean C Beckham, Miles McFall
This research sought to determine whether smoking influences affect by means other than withdrawal reduction. Little previous evidence suggests such an effect. We surmised that such an effect would be especially apparent in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder (MDD), 2 disorders that are frequently comorbid with smoking and that involve dysregulated affect. Participants were U.S. veterans who were regular smokers (N = 159): 52 with PTSD (58% with comorbid MDD), 51 with MDD, and 56 controls with no psychiatric disorder...
February 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991808/suicide-and-self-injury-related-implicit-cognition-a-large-scale-examination-and-replication
#14
Jeffrey J Glenn, Alexandra J Werntz, S J Katarina Slama, Shari A Steinman, Bethany A Teachman, Matthew K Nock
Suicide and self-injury are difficult to predict because at-risk individuals are often unable or unwilling to report their intentions. Therefore, tools to reliably assess risk without reliance on self-report are critically needed. Prior research suggests that people who engage in suicidal and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) often implicitly (i.e., outside conscious control) associate themselves with self-harm and death, indicating that self-harm-related implicit cognition may serve as a useful behavioral marker for suicide risk...
February 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977232/interpersonal-callousness-and-co-occurring-anxiety-developmental-validity-of-an-adolescent-taxonomy
#15
Alan J Meehan, Barbara Maughan, Charlotte A M Cecil, Edward D Barker
Growing evidence suggests heterogeneity within interpersonal-callous (IC) youth based on co-occurring anxiety. The developmental validity of this proposed taxonomy remains unclear however, as most previous research is cross-sectional and/or limited to adolescence. We aimed to identify low-anxiety (IC/ANX-) and high-anxiety (IC/ANX+) IC variants, and compare these groups on (a) early risk exposures, (b) psychiatric symptoms from midchildhood to early adolescence, and (c) school-based functioning. Using the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), a prospective epidemiological birth cohort, model-based cluster analysis was performed on children with complete age-13 IC and anxiety scores (n = 6,791)...
February 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936838/anticipatory-and-consummatory-pleasure-and-displeasure-in-major-depressive-disorder-an-experience-sampling-study
#16
Haijing Wu, Jutta Mata, Daniella J Furman, Anson J Whitmer, Ian H Gotlib, Renee J Thompson
Pleasure and displeasure can be parsed into anticipatory and consummatory phases. However, research on pleasure and displeasure in major depressive disorder (MDD), a disorder characterized by anhedonia, has largely focused on deficits in the consummatory phase. Moreover, most studies in this area have been laboratory-based, raising the question of how component processes of pleasure and displeasure are experienced in the daily lives of depressed individuals. Using experience sampling, we compared anticipatory and consummatory pleasure and displeasure for daily activities reported by adults with MDD (n = 41) and healthy controls (n = 39)...
February 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935730/patterns-of-pregnancy-and-postpartum-depressive-symptoms-latent-class-trajectories-and-predictors
#17
Eivor Fredriksen, Tilmann von Soest, Lars Smith, Vibeke Moe
Depressive symptoms among pregnant and postpartum women are common. However, recent studies indicate that depressive symptoms in the perinatal period do not follow a uniform course, and investigations of the heterogeneity of time courses and associated factors are needed. The aim of this study was to explore whether depressive symptoms in the perinatal period could be categorized into several distinct trajectories of symptom development among subgroups of perinatal women, and to identify predictors of these trajectory groups...
February 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929304/enduring-mental-health-prevalence-and-prediction
#18
Jonathan D Schaefer, Avshalom Caspi, Daniel W Belsky, Honalee Harrington, Renate Houts, L John Horwood, Andrea Hussong, Sandhya Ramrakha, Richie Poulton, Terrie E Moffitt
We review epidemiological evidence indicating that most people will develop a diagnosable mental disorder, suggesting that only a minority experience enduring mental health. This minority has received little empirical study, leaving the prevalence and predictors of enduring mental health unknown. We turn to the population-representative Dunedin cohort, followed from birth to midlife, to compare people never-diagnosed with mental disorder (N = 171; 17% prevalence) to those diagnosed at 1-2 study waves, the cohort mode (N = 409)...
February 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869460/-neural-responses-to-gains-and-losses-in-children-of-suicide-attempters-correction-to-tsypes-et-al-2016
#19
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Neural Responses to Gains and Losses in Children of Suicide Attempters" by Aliona Tsypes, Max Owens, Greg Hajcak and Brandon E. Gibb (Journal of Abnormal Psychology, Advanced Online Publication, Nov 3, 2016, np). In the article, Figure 1 had incorrect axis labels. There was also an error in the abstract, which did not state that ΔFN was calculated as FN to losses minus FN to gains. All versions of this article have been corrected. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2016-53087-001...
February 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868421/sex-moderates-the-impact-of-birth-weight-on-child-externalizing-psychopathology
#20
Allison M Momany, Jaclyn M Kamradt, Josie M Ullsperger, Alexis L Elmore, Joel T Nigg, Molly A Nikolas
Low birth weight (LBW) has consistently been associated with childhood attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and a similar association has been found for childhood externalizing disorders, such as oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD), albeit to a lesser degree. Although the association between LBW and these disorders has been robustly replicated, few studies have adequately controlled for confounding variables, such as parental age at birth and prenatal tobacco use, examined the specificity of the risk of LBW for ADHD symptoms, or investigated potential nonlinear (i...
February 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
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