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Journal of Abnormal Psychology

Rosemary J Marsh, Martin J Dorahy, Bruno Verschuere, Chandele Butler, Warwick Middleton, Rafaële J C Huntjens
Individuals with dissociative identity disorder (DID) often report having no access to autobiographical experiences encoded by other identities. This research used the autobiographical Implicit Association Test (aIAT) to determine whether there was transfer of episodic self-referential memory events across amnesic identities. Nineteen DID individuals, 16 DID simulators, and 41 comparison participants (divided into amnesic and nonamnesic groups) engaged with an audio vignette of embarrassing scenarios to produce the experience of episodic self-referential events...
October 22, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Brian P Keane, Danielle Paterno, Sabine Kastner, Bart Krekelberg, Steven M Silverstein
Visual shape completion is a fundamental process that constructs contours and shapes on the basis of the geometric relations between spatially separated edge elements. People with schizophrenia are impaired at distinguishing visually completed shapes, but when does the impairment emerge and how does it evolve with illness duration? The question bears on the debate as to whether cognition declines after illness onset. To address the issue, we tested healthy controls (n = 48), first-episode psychosis patients (n = 23), and chronic schizophrenia patients (n = 49) on a classic psychophysical task in which subjects discriminated the relative orientations of four sectored circles that either formed or did not form visually completed shapes (illusory and fragmented conditions, respectively)...
October 22, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Berta J Summers, Jesse R Cougle
Individuals with appearance concerns engage in "safety behaviors" (SBs) aimed at checking, hiding, fixing, and reducing threat associated with their perceived flaw in appearance. Appearance-related SBs are important in contemporary accounts of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), though they are also relevant to social anxiety (SAD) and eating disorders. The present study examined the extent to which appearance-related SBs contribute to the development of disorder-specific symptoms and maladaptive cognitions...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Thomas Forkmann, Lena Spangenberg, Dajana Rath, Nina Hallensleben, Ulrich Hegerl, Anette Kersting, Heide Glaesmer
Suicidal ideation is a major risk factor for suicidal behavior and has recently been shown to be fluctuating in studies applying ecological momentary assessments (EMAs). The aims of this study are to introduce a reliable and valid item set for assessing suicidal ideation and relevant proximal risk factors that can be used in future EMA studies within suicidology. Additionally, we provide data on the ability of the items to capture moment-to-moment variability and discuss feasibility aspects of EMA studies on suicidal ideation in a clinical sample...
October 8, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Jeffrey S Simons, Raluca M Simons, Jessica A Keith, Kevin J Grimm, Scott F Stoltenberg, Carol O'Brien, Kate Andal
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with elevated risk of both alcohol use disorder (AUD) and related conduct problems, which are associated with behavioral and emotional dysregulation. We conducted an intensive longitudinal burst design study with 10 weeks of experience sampling over the course of 1.5 years with 250 veterans of recent conflicts. We tested time-series models of daily associations between posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), alcohol dependence syndrome, and conduct problems. Exacerbations of PTSS predicted higher dependence syndrome and conduct problems the next day...
October 4, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Mateu Servera, Belén Sáez, G Leonard Burns, Stephen P Becker
This study (a) determined whether clinical elevations of sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom distributions in a large community sample of children would allow for identifying SCT-only, ADHD-only, and SCT + ADHD clinical groups; (b) examined co-occurrence of clinically elevated SCT and ADHD; (c) evaluated whether these clinical groups differed in their gender distribution, co-occurring mental health symptoms, or impairment in academic and social functioning; and (d) explored patterns of independence and overlap when clinically elevated depressive symptoms were considered in tandem with SCT and ADHD...
September 27, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Hanie Edalati, Mohammad H Afzali, Patricia J Conrod
Relationship between poor inhibitory control and adolescent interpersonal difficulties is well-documented. However, the way in which an emotionally neutral cognitive process (i.e., response inhibition) can lead to interpersonal difficulties is less clear. The current study is based on multimodal longitudinal data from 3,826 adolescents followed over a 4-year period. The main aim of this study was to examine an ecophenotype conceptualization of the association between response inhibition and bullying perpetration through increasing vulnerability of peer victimization and a negative attributional style toward self and others...
September 13, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Qiandong Wang, Li Lu, Qiang Zhang, Fang Fang, Xiaobing Zou, Li Yi
Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit a reduced duration of eye contact compared with typically developing (TD) individuals. This reduced eye contact has been theorized to be a strategy to relieve discomfort elicited by direct eye contact (Tanaka & Sung, 2016). Looking at threatening facial expressions may elicit more discomfort and consequently more eye avoidance in ASD individuals than looking at nonthreatening expressions. We explored whether eye avoidance in children with ASD is modulated by the social threat level of emotional expressions...
October 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Zhuo-Ya Yang, Dong-Jie Xie, Ying-Min Zou, Yi Wang, Ying Li, Hai-Song Shi, Rui-Ting Zhang, Wen-Xiu Li, Eric F C Cheung, Ann M Kring, Raymond C K Chan
Previous research has revealed anticipatory pleasure deficits in people with schizophrenia and people with social anhedonia but who do not have schizophrenia. Prospection is an important component of anticipatory pleasure, but little is known about the role of prospection in social anhedonia. In 2 studies, we investigated prospection and anticipatory pleasure in people with schizophrenia and people with social anhedonia using an affective prospection task and a self-report measure, the Temporal Experience of Pleasure Scale (TEPS)...
October 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Youngsun T Cho, Norman H Lam, Martina Starc, Nicole Santamauro, Aleksandar Savic, Caroline K Diehl, Charles H Schleifer, Flora Moujaes, Vinod H Srihari, Grega Repovs, John D Murray, Alan Anticevic
Reward processing and cognition are disrupted in schizophrenia (SCZ), yet how these processes interface is unknown. In SCZ, deficits in reward representation may affect motivated, goal-directed behaviors. To test this, we examined the effects of monetary reward on spatial working memory (WM) performance in patients with SCZ. To capture complimentary effects, we tested biophysically grounded computational models of neuropharmacologic manipulations onto a canonical fronto-parietal association cortical microcircuit capable of WM computations...
October 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Femke Lamers, Joel Swendsen, Lihong Cui, Mathilde Husky, Jordan Johns, Vadim Zipunnikov, Kathleen R Merikangas
The application of ecological momentary assessment (EMA) in community settings provides a powerful opportunity to obtain measures of emotional reactivity to daily life events, as well as emotional dynamics in real time. This investigation examines the association between emotional reactivity to daily events and emotional experience in mood and anxiety disorders in a large community-based sample. Two-hundred and 87 participants with a lifetime history of bipolar I disorder (BPI; n = 33), bipolar II disorder (BPII; n = 37), major depression (MDD; n = 116), anxiety disorders without a mood disorder (ANX; n = 36), and controls without a lifetime history of mood, anxiety, or substance use disorder (n = 65) completed a 2-week EMA evaluation period concerning mood states and daily events...
October 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Matthew K Nock, Georges Han, Alexander J Millner, Peter M Gutierrez, Thomas E Joiner, Irving Hwang, Andrew King, James A Naifeh, Nancy A Sampson, Alan M Zaslavsky, Murray B Stein, Robert J Ursano, Ronald C Kessler
Persistent suicide ideation (SI) is known to be a risk factor for subsequent suicidal behaviors. Reducing SI persistence among people with a history of SI consequently might be a useful target for preventive intervention; however, basic information is lacking about patterns and predictors of SI persistence. We report preliminary retrospective data on annual SI persistence in a representative sample of 3,501 U.S. Army soldiers with lifetime SI from the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS)...
October 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Children with autism spectrum disorder show pronoun reversals in interpretation" by Jessica Overweg, Catharina A. Hartman and Petra Hendriks ( Journal of Abnormal Psychology , 2018[Feb], Vol 127[2], 228-238). In the article there is an error in Figure 2. The Dutch sentence "Varken zei dat hij de auto krijgt" should be "Varken zei dat ik de auto krijg" (with the first-person pronoun "ik" instead of the third-person pronoun "hij" and the first-person inflected verb "krijg" instead of the third-person inflected verb "krijgt")...
October 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Jaclyn P Maher, Chaelin K Ra, Adam M Leventhal, Donald Hedeker, Jimi Huh, Chih-Ping Chou, Genevieve F Dunton
Affective volatility (i.e., variability) is typically conceptualized as a marker of poor mental and behavioral health. The current research challenges this notion. Among individuals who typically experience low positive affect (PA), vacillation between bouts of joy and marked anhedonia may be associated with better behavioral health relative to a restricted range of PA experience. We therefore tested the hypothesis that mean levels of PA captured via an 8-day intensive repeated Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) would moderate the association of EMA-measured PA variability with behavioral health measured at intake among working mothers (N = 202) with young children-a population at risk for experiencing repeated stress- and reward-induced PA changes...
October 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Randy P Auerbach, Philippe Mortier, Ronny Bruffaerts, Jordi Alonso, Corina Benjet, Pim Cuijpers, Koen Demyttenaere, David D Ebert, Jennifer Greif Green, Penelope Hasking, Elaine Murray, Matthew K Nock, Stephanie Pinder-Amaker, Nancy A Sampson, Dan J Stein, Gemma Vilagut, Alan M Zaslavsky, Ronald C Kessler
Increasingly, colleges across the world are contending with rising rates of mental disorders, and in many cases, the demand for services on campus far exceeds the available resources. The present study reports initial results from the first stage of the WHO World Mental Health International College Student project, in which a series of surveys in 19 colleges across 8 countries (Australia, Belgium, Germany, Mexico, Northern Ireland, South Africa, Spain, United States) were carried out with the aim of estimating prevalence and basic sociodemographic correlates of common mental disorders among first-year college students...
October 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Lisa Liebke, Georgia Koppe, Melanie Bungert, Janine Thome, Sophie Hauschild, Nadine Defiebre, Natalie A Izurieta Hidalgo, Christian Schmahl, Martin Bohus, Stefanie Lis
Anxious preoccupation with real or imagined abandonment is a key feature of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Recent experimental research suggests that patients with BPD do not simply show emotional overreactivity to rejection. Instead, they experience reduced connectedness with others in situations of social inclusion. Resulting consequences of these features on social behavior are not investigated yet. The aim of the present study was to investigate the differential impact of social acceptance and rejection on social expectations and subsequent social behavior in BPD...
October 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Mariel S Bello, Julia F McBeth, Joseph W Ditre, Matthew G Kirkpatrick, Lara A Ray, Kelly E Dunn, Adam M Leventhal
African Americans are subject to health disparities in smoking and chronic pain. Given that nicotine has analgesic properties, increases in acute pain may be an expression of the tobacco abstinence syndrome, particularly among African American smokers with chronic pain. This report is a secondary analysis of data from an ongoing study of individual differences in laboratory-derived tobacco abstinence phenotypes in African American smokers. We tested whether overnight smoking abstinence increased acute pain and whether abstinence-induced changes in acute pain were correlated with other expressions of tobacco abstinence and amplified among smokers with chronic pain...
October 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Toby M Nicholson, David M Williams, Catherine Grainger, Julia F Christensen, Beatriz Calvo-Merino, Sebastian B Gaigg
Quattrocki and Friston (2014) argued that abnormalities in interoception-the process of representing one's internal physiological states-could lie at the heart of autism, because of the critical role interoception plays in the ontogeny of social-affective processes. This proposal drew criticism from proponents of the alexithymia hypothesis, who argue that social-affective and underlying interoceptive impairments are not a feature of autism per se, but of alexithymia (a condition characterized by difficulties describing and identifying one's own emotions), which commonly co-occurs with autism...
August 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Lauren T Catalano, Erin A Heerey, James M Gold
Social impairment in schizophrenia is often thought to reflect poor social cognition. Here we examine responses to social rewards, an aspect of social functioning that is not featured prominently in the literature. The goal of this experiment was to explore whether people with schizophrenia (a) undervalue social rewards, and (b) whether the undervaluation of social rewards was related to motivation and pleasure deficits in schizophrenia and decreased social functioning. People with schizophrenia and healthy participants completed a game (Shore & Heerey, 2011) to explore preferences for different types of social (polite and genuine smiles) and nonsocial (monetary) rewards from computerized opponents...
August 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Eva Naumann, Jennifer Svaldi, Tanja Wyschka, Markus Heinrichs, Bernadette von Dawans
Stress is known to be a trigger for binge eating in individuals with binge eating disorder (BED). However, the influence of stressful situations on BED patients' body image is less understood. Our study objective was to gain insight into the effects of inducing psychosocial stress on body dissatisfaction in women with BED. Overweight women with BED (n = 29) and without an eating disorder (control group, CG; n = 38) underwent the Trier Social Stress Test for Groups (TSST-G stress) and a nonstressful control task (TSST-G no stress)...
August 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
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