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New Zealand Veterinary Journal

S A Biasutti, A J Dart
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 8, 2018: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
T S Waghorn, Clg Bouchet, K Bekelaar, D M Leathwick
AIMS: To investigate the timing of infection of beef calves with sheep nematode species on three sheep and beef farms, and to determine the prevalence of cross-infection in calves before weaning across a larger number of farms. METHODS: Farms in the Far North, Gisborne and Tararua districts, in the North Island of New Zealand, were enrolled in 2014. Fresh faecal samples were collected from approximately 10 calves on each farm between birth and up to 5 months after weaning...
October 7, 2018: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
A M Wong, E Uquillas, E Hall, C M Dart, A J Dart
AIMS: To compare the effect of oxygen supplementation using flow-by or a face mask on the partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2 ) in sedated dogs. METHODS: Twenty healthy dogs weighing >15 kg, of mixed sex and breed, were enrolled in a randomised cross-over study. Each dog was sedated with I/M 0.015 mg/kg medetomidine and 0.5 mg/kg methadone. Twenty minutes later dogs were exposed to two 5-minute treatment periods of oxygen supplementation separated by a 15-minute washout period during which dogs were allowed to breathe room air...
September 26, 2018: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
K I Roberts, S McDougall
AIMS: To estimate the herd-level prevalence of subclinical hypocalcaemia within 3 days of calving, to determine cow and herd-level risk factors for this condition, and associations with reproductive performance, in pasture-based cows in New Zealand. METHODS: Between 10 and 15 clinically healthy cows ≥3-years-old (n=1,051) were enrolled from 76 spring-calving dairy herds. Blood samples were collected from all cows on 1 or 2 days within 3 days of calving, and assayed for total concentrations of Ca in serum...
September 24, 2018: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
K J Stanger, H McGregor, M Marenda, J M Morton, Jwa Larsen
AIMS: To assess the efficacy of an autogenous vaccine against Yersinia pseudotuberculosis III in preventing clinical disease and deaths due to yersiniosis in young Merino sheep, and to determine the effect of vaccination on the prevalence of faecal shedding of pathogenic Yersinia spp., daily liveweight gain, and development of antibodies to Yersinia spp. following vaccination and natural exposure. METHODS: In six groups (three groups each from two farms) of young Merino sheep, 148-150 animals were systematically allocated to be vaccinated twice with an autogenous, formalin- killed bacterin vaccine containing Y...
September 16, 2018: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
K I Roberts, J Bennison, S McDougall
AIMS: To assess the effect of the administration of two oral Ca boluses on concentrations of total Ca, β-hydoxybutyrate (BHB) and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) in serum, and urine pH, in recently calved pasture-fed dairy cows. METHODS: Friesian or Friesian cross Jersey cows from one dairy farm were blocked by age and randomly assigned to no treatment (control; n=14), or treatment (n=13) with two oral Ca boluses administered approximately 12 hours apart, with the first bolus being given within 14 hours of calving...
September 12, 2018: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
M R Alley, B D Gartrell
Our knowledge of diseases in New Zealand wildlife has expanded rapidly in the last two decades. Much of this is due to a greater awareness of disease as a cause of mortality in some of our highly threatened species or as a limiting factor to the successful captive rearing of intensely managed species such as hihi (Notiomystis cincta), kiwi (Apteryx spp.) and kakapo (Strigops habroptilus). An important factor contributing to the increase of our knowledge has been the development of new diagnostic techniques in the fields of molecular biology and immunohistochemistry, particularly for the diagnosis and epidemiology of viral and protozoan diseases...
September 9, 2018: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
H A Volk, K D Bayley, N Fiani, F M Billson
CASE HISTORY: Thirteen cats developed ophthalmic complications following dental procedures in Australia and New Zealand between December 2014 and February 2018. All cats had at least one maxillary tooth extracted and some received a transoral maxillary nerve block. CLINICAL FINDINGS Ocular signs were identified at a median of 1.5 (min 0, max 14) days following elective dental procedures and included fibrin in the anterior chamber, aqueous flare, vision loss and miosis. Response to medical management was poor overall, with 7/13 (54%) cats undergoing subsequent enucleation and one cat was subjected to euthanasia shortly after the dental procedure due to ocular disease...
September 9, 2018: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
G C Lindsay, C A Morris, M Boucher, K Capundan, T W Jordan
AIMS To investigate the effects of sporidesmin on cells cultured from the epithelial surface of sheep gallbladder walls, and to examine cellular responses to sporidesmin using cultures prepared from the gallbladders of sheep from selection lines that differed in sensitivity to sporidesmin-induced liver damage. METHODS Gallbladders were obtained following slaughter of lambs that were selected for resistance or susceptibility to sporidesmin-induced liver damage, or were not selected (controls). Monolayer cell cultures were established after incubation of excised gallbladders with protease to detach the lining epithelial cells from the muscular and connective tissue of the gallbladder wall...
November 2018: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
A Tikekar, M Soo, N Lopez-Villalobos, A J Worth
AIM To obtain provisional estimates of the heritability (h2 ) of passive laxity of the coxofemoral joints of a breeding colony of German Shepherd dogs, measured using the PennHIP distraction index (DI). METHODS Records were obtained of the PennHIP DI of right and left hips of 195 German Shepherd dogs (377 DI records) from the dog breeding colony of the New Zealand Police Dog Breeding Centre between 2003 and 2016, as well as pedigree records of 884 animals over four generations. Estimates of h2 and variance components for the log transformed DI data were obtained using restricted maximum likelihood procedures with a single trait sire model...
November 2018: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
A Dreyfus, P Wilson, J Benschop, J Collins-Emerson, C Verdugo, C Heuer
AIMS To determine seroprevalence of Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo and L. interrogans serovar Pomona in beef cattle, sheep and deer in New Zealand and the association between farm-level risk factors and seroprevalence. METHODS Between June 2009 and July 2010, 20 serum samples per flock or herd were collected from 162 sheep flocks, and 116 beef cattle and 99 deer herds from 238 farms, along with farm data by interview. Samples were tested for antibodies to serovars Hardjo and Pomona by microscopic agglutination testing, with a titre ≥48 being positive...
November 2018: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
K Gohary, S McDougall
AIMS To evaluate the Rapid Mastitis test (RMT, or California Mastitis test) and electrical conductivity (EC) at drying off when used alone or in combination with herd test data (maximum or last herd test somatic cell counts (SCC) before drying off), to define cows or quarters with intramammary infection, using microbiological culture as the gold standard. METHODS Quarter-level milk samples (n=609) from clinically healthy cows (n=153), in three herds in the Waikato region of New Zealand, were tested at drying off using the RMT and EC, and were collected for microbiological culture...
November 2018: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
J-H Han, A M Weir, J F Weston, C Heuer, M C Gates
The major impacts of bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) on cattle health and production have prompted many countries to embark on national elimination programmes. These programmes typically involve identifying and removing persistently infected (PI) cattle in infected herds and implementing biosecurity measures, such as pre- or post-movement testing. In order to design a systematic national control programme to eliminate BVD in New Zealand, which achieves the greatest benefits to the industries at the lowest cost to individual farmers, an accurate understanding is necessary of the epidemiology, economics and social motivation for BVD control in New Zealand...
November 2018: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
S L Loomis, E B Okrasinski
AIMS To compare cuffed silicone endotracheal tubes with self-sealing baffled silicone endotracheal tubes in an ex vivo canine tracheal model, to determine whether the tubes differed in their maintenance of a seal and their effectiveness in removing fluid from the tracheal lumen, and whether the self-sealing endotracheal tubes would release pressure when a closed anaesthetic circuit reached ≥30 cm H2 O. METHODS Twelve cadaver tracheae were randomly selected to be intubated with either cuffed or self-sealing baffled endotracheal tubes...
November 2018: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
K J Griffiths, A L Ridler, C Heuer, R A Corner-Thomas, P R Kenyon
AIMS Firstly, to investigate associations between liveweight and body condition score (BCS) of two-tooth ewes (18-months-old at breeding) at breeding, pregnancy diagnosis (PD) and pre-lambing and the risk of being dry at docking, on commercial New Zealand sheep farms. Secondly, to investigate the association between previous reproductive outcomes as ewe lambs, and risk of being dry at docking as two-tooth ewes. METHODS Two-tooth ewes (n=9,006) were enrolled in four cohorts from three commercial sheep farms between 2010-14...
November 2018: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
M D Combs, S H Edwards, J M Scherpenhuizen, E J Narayan, A E Kessell, J Piltz, S R Raidal, J Ramsay, J C Quinn
AIMS To develop a clinical model of perennial ryegrass toxicosis (PRGT) based on feeding a known dose of lolitrem B and ergotamine, and to produce a consistent clinical presentation for assessment of disease pathophysiology, neurological changes and neurohistopathology. METHODS Male lambs, aged between 10-12 months, were randomly assigned to either Treatment (n=9) or Control (n=9) groups. Lambs in the Treatment group received feed containing a novel endophyte-infested perennial ryegrass seed, commencing on Day 0 of the Feeding phase with a low induction dose, then increasing after 3 days to provide 0...
November 2018: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
Y M Leung, N J Cave, Bas Hodgson
AIMS To develop an equation that accurately estimates fat-free mass (FFM) and the ratio of FFM to skeletal size or mass, using morphometric measurements in lean working farm dogs, and to examine the association between FFM derived from body condition score (BCS) and FFM measured using isotope dilution. METHODS Thirteen Huntaway and seven Heading working dogs from sheep and beef farms in the Waikato region of New Zealand were recruited based on BCS (BCS < 3, 3-4, > 4) using a nine-point scale. Bodyweight, BCS, and morphometric measurements (head length and circumference, body length, thoracic girth, and fore and hind limb length) were recorded for each dog, and body composition was measured using an isotopic dilution technique...
September 2018: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
Z M Matthews, M G Collett, J C Marshall, A C Partridge, P J Derrick, Pjb Edwards
AIMS To investigate the effects on milk yield in lactating dairy cows of a single dose of sporidesmin, and to categorise the responses based on clinical signs and differing degrees of liver damage, as assessed by activities of γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) and post-mortem liver histopathology. METHODS Adult lactating dairy cows (n=17) were given a single intra-ruminal dose of 0.24 mg/kg of sporidesmin dissolved in ethanol and diluted in water on Day 0; an additional three cows served as untreated controls...
September 2018: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
R A Squires
Bacteriophages (or phages) are naturally-occurring viruses that can infect and kill bacteria. They are remarkably diverse, numerous and widespread. Each phage has a narrow host range yet a large majority of bacteria studied so far play host to bacteriophages, hence the remarkable phage diversity. Phages were discovered just over 100 years ago and they have been used for treatment of bacterial infections in humans and other animals since the 1920s. They have also been studied intensively and this has led to, and continues to lead to, major insights in the fields of molecular biology and recombinant DNA technology, including that DNA is the genetic material, nucleotides are arranged in triplets to make codons, and messenger RNA is needed for protein synthesis...
September 2018: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
H R Sowman, N J Cave, M Dunowska
AIMS To determine which of the common canine respiratory pathogens circulate among selected populations of healthy and diseased dogs in New Zealand. METHODS Coagulated blood samples for serology and oropharyngeal swabs for virology were collected from healthy dogs (n=47) and from dogs with acute respiratory disease (n=49). For diseased dogs a convalescent blood sample was also collected 3-4 weeks later. Oropharyngeal swabs were subjected to virus isolation and tested for canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV), canine adenovirus (CAdV) 2, canine herpesvirus (CHV), canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV), canine influenza virus (CIV), canine distemper virus (CDV), Bordetella bronchiseptica, Streptococcus equi subsp...
September 2018: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
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