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Neuropsychologia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322906/creativity-as-a-distinct-trainable-mental-state-an-eeg-study-of-musical-improvisation
#1
Joel A Lopata, Elizabeth A Nowicki, Marc F Joanisse
Alpha-band EEG was used to index how creative mental states relate to the creation of artistic works in skilled musicians. We contrasted differences in frontal upper alpha-band activity between tasks with high and low creativity demands by recording EEGs while skilled musicians listened to, played back, and improvised jazz melodies. Neural responses were compared for skilled musicians with training in musical improvisation versus those who had no formal improvisation training. Consistent with our hypotheses, individuals showed increased frontal upper alpha-band activity during more creative tasks (i...
March 18, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322907/different-underlying-mechanisms-for-face-emotion-and-gender-processing-during-feature-selective-attention-evidence-from-event-related-potential-studies
#2
Hailing Wang, Chengteng Ip, Shimin Fu, Pei Sun
Face recognition theories suggest that our brains process invariant (e.g., gender) and changeable (e.g., emotion) facial dimensions separately. To investigate whether these two dimensions are processed in different time courses, we analyzed the selection negativity (SN, an event-related potential component reflecting attentional modulation) elicited by face gender and emotion during a feature selective attention task. Participants were instructed to attend to a combination of face emotion and gender attributes in Experiment 1 (bi-dimensional task) and to either face emotion or gender in Experiment 2 (uni-dimensional task)...
March 17, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322905/bilingualism-delays-the-onset-of-behavioural-but-not-aphasic-forms-of-frontotemporal-dementia
#3
Suvarna Alladi, Thomas H Bak, Mekala Shailaja, Divyaraj Gollahalli, Amuya Rajan, Bapiraju Surampudi, Michael Hornberger, Vasanta Duggirala, Jaydip Ray Chaudhuri, Subhash Kaul
Bilingualism has been found to delay onset of dementia and this has been attributed to an advantage in executive control in bilinguals. However, the relationship between bilingualism and cognition is complex, with costs as well as benefits to language functions. To further explore the cognitive consequences of bilingualism, the study used Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) syndromes, to examine whether bilingualism modifies the age at onset of behavioural and language variants of Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) differently...
March 17, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315696/auditory-deficits-in-amusia-extend-beyond-poor-pitch-perception
#4
Kelly L Whiteford, Andrew J Oxenham
Congenital amusia is a music perception disorder believed to reflect a deficit in fine-grained pitch perception and/or short-term or working memory for pitch. Because most measures of pitch perception include memory and segmentation components, it has been difficult to determine the true extent of pitch processing deficits in amusia. It is also unclear whether pitch deficits persist at frequencies beyond the range of musical pitch. To address these questions, experiments were conducted with amusics and matched controls, manipulating both the stimuli and the task demands...
March 15, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315367/perturbation-of-old-knowledge-precedes-integration-of-new-knowledge
#5
Xiaoping Fang, Charles A Perfetti
The importance of memory consolidation in integrating new knowledge has received much recent attention in the field of word learning. Less examined is the change in existing word knowledge as a result of learning, which we hypothesize to occur prior to the opportunity for consolidation. To test this, we had participants learn new meanings for known words and novel words. Then they performed a one-back task on a list of words that included the trained words followed by words that probed either their new or original meanings while EEGs were recorded...
March 14, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315366/amygdala-functional-connectivity-is-associated-with-locus-of-control-in-the-context-of-cognitive-aging
#6
Ping Ren, Mia Anthony, Benjamin P Chapman, Kathi Heffner, Feng Lin
Locus of control (LOC) measures the extent to which individuals perceive control over their lives. Those with a more "internal" LOC feel self-sufficient and able to determine important aspects of their own future, while those with a more "external" LOC feel that their lives are governed by events beyond their control. Reduced internal LOC and increased external LOC have been found in cognitive disorders, but the neural substrates of these control perceptions are yet unknown. In the present study, we explored the relationship between amygdala functional connectivity and LOC in 18 amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and age-, sex-, and education-matched, 22 cognitively healthy controls (HC)...
March 14, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300582/electrophysiological-correlates-of-semantic-anticipation-during-speech-comprehension
#7
Patricia León Cabrera, Antoni Rodríguez-Fornells, Joaquín Morís
Words that are more predictable given a previous context show facilitated processing over low predictable ones. Such facilitation has been traditionally viewed as associated with reduced amplitudes in the N400 component. However, this effect is observed during the presentation of the target word, and it does not provide direct information about the prediction processes engaged before. To overcome this, we investigated neural correlates of anticipation prior to target words using an auditory paradigm. The semantic context of the sentences varied in the degree of contextual constraint, with sentences of high, low or no constraint...
March 11, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288787/evolution-of-autobiographical-memory-impairments-in-alzheimer-s-disease-and-frontotemporal-dementia-a-longitudinal-neuroimaging-study
#8
Muireann Irish, Ramon Landin-Romero, Annu Mothakunnel, Siddharth Ramanan, Sharpley Hsieh, John R Hodges, Olivier Piguet
Compromised autobiographical memory (ABM) retrieval is well established in dementia, attributable to degeneration of a core memory brain network. It remains unclear, however, how the progressive spread of atrophy with advancing disease severity impacts ABM retrieval across life epochs. To this end, we conducted a longitudinal study of recent and remote ABM in Alzheimer's disease (AD, n =11), and a frontotemporal lobar degeneration group (FTD, n =13) comprising 7 behavioral variant FTD and 6 semantic dementia patients, in comparison with 23 healthy older Controls...
March 10, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286259/the-life-stories-of-adults-with-amnesia-insights-into-the-contribution-of-the-medial-temporal-lobes-to-the-organization-of-autobiographical-memory
#9
Matthew D Grilli, Aubrey A Wank, Mieke Verfaellie
Autobiographical memories are not stored in isolation but rather are organized into life chapters, higher-order knowledge structures that represent major themes conveying the arc of one's life. Neuropsychological studies have revealed that both episodic memory and some aspects of personal semantic memory are impaired in adults with medial temporal lobe (MTL) damage. However, whether such impairment compromises the retrieval and formation of life chapters is unknown. Therefore, we had 10 adults with MTL amnesia and 20 control participants narrate their life stories, and we extracted life chapters from these narratives using a novel scoring protocol...
March 10, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284986/it-s-all-about-timing-an-electrophysiological-examination-of-feedback-based-learning-with-immediate-and-delayed-feedback
#10
Yael Arbel, Lucia Hong, Travis E Baker, Clay B Holroyd
Feedback regarding an individual's action can occur immediately or with a temporal delay. Processing of feedback that varies in its delivery time is proposed to engage different brain mechanisms. fMRI data implicate the striatum in the processing of immediate feedback, and the medial temporal lobe (MTL) in the processing of delayed feedback. The present study offers an electrophysiological examination of feedback processing in the context of timing, by studying the effects of feedback timing on the feedback-related negativity (FRN), a product of the midbrain dopamine system, and elucidating whether the N170 ERP component could capture MTL activation associated with the processing of delayed feedback...
March 9, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284985/deficits-in-inhibitory-force-control-in-young-adults-with-adhd
#11
Kristina A Neely, Peiyuan Wang, Amanda P Chennavasin, Shaadee Samimy, Jacqueline Tucker, Andrea Merida, Koraly Perez-Edgar, Cynthia Huang-Pollock
Poor inhibitory control is a well-established cognitive correlate of adults with ADHD. However, the simple reaction time (RT) task used in a majority of studies records performance errors only via the presence or absence of a single key press. This all-or-nothing response makes it impossible to capture subtle differences in underlying processes that shape performance. Subsequently, all-or-nothing tasks may underestimate the prevalence of executive function deficits in ADHD. The current study measured inhibitory control using a standard Go/No-Go RT task and a more sensitive continuous grip force task among adults with (N=51, 22 female) and without (N=51, 29 female) ADHD...
March 9, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284987/orienting-of-attention-with-and-without-cue-awareness
#12
Laura Herreros, Anthony J Lambert, Ana B Chica
Many cognitive processes operate without consciousness, and exogenous attentional capture seems to be one of them. While endogenously attending to the opposite location of a cue cannot occur without cue awareness, attending the cued location in an exogenous or stimulus driven form can occur even when participants are not aware of the presence of the cue (McCormick, 1997). Orienting attention to a specific location shortens reaction times to supra-threshold stimuli, and increases the likelihood of consciously perceiving near-threshold stimuli in that location...
March 8, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283318/changes-in-predictive-cuing-modulate-the-hemispheric-distribution-of-the-p1-inhibitory-response-to-attentional-targets
#13
Stefano Lasaponara, Marianna D' Onofrio, Alessio Dragone, Mario Pinto, Ludovica Caratelli, Fabrizio Doricchi
Brain activity related to orienting of attention with spatial cues and brain responses to attentional targets are influenced the probabilistic contingency between cues and targets. Compared to predictive cues, cues predicting at chance the location of targets reduce the filtering out of uncued locations and the costs in reorienting attention to targets presented at these locations. Slagter et al. (2016) have recently suggested that the larger target related P1 component that is found in the hemisphere ipsilateral to validly cued targets reflects stimulus-driven inhibition in the processing of the unstimulated side of space contralateral to the same hemisphere...
March 7, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279670/normal-voice-processing-after-posterior-superior-temporal-sulcus-lesion
#14
Guo Jiahui, Lúcia Garrido, Ran R Liu, Tirta Susilo, Jason J S Barton, Bradley Duchaine
The right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) shows a strong response to voices, but the cognitive processes generating this response are unclear. One possibility is that this activity reflects basic voice processing. However, several fMRI and magnetoencephalography findings suggest instead that pSTS serves as an integrative hub that combines voice and face information. Here we investigate whether right pSTS contributes to basic voice processing by testing Faith, a patient whose right pSTS was resected, with eight behavioral tasks assessing voice identity perception and recognition, voice sex perception, and voice expression perception...
March 6, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279669/contribution-of-visuospatial-attention-short-term-memory-and-executive-functions-to-performance-in-number-interval-bisection
#15
Mariagrazia Ranzini, Katia Carbè, Wim Gevers
Number interval bisection consists of estimating the mid-number within a pair (1-9=>5). Healthy adults and right-brain damage patients can show biased performance in this task, underestimating and overestimating the mid-number, respectively. The role of visuospatial attention during this task, and its interplay with other cognitive abilities (e.g., working memory) is still object of debate. In this study we explored the relation between visuospatial attention and individual differences in working memory and executive functions during number interval bisection...
March 6, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279668/exogenous-attention-to-fear-differential-behavioral-and-neural-responses-to-snakes-and-spiders
#16
Sandra C Soares, Dominique Kessel, María Hernández-Lorca, María J García-Rubio, Paulo Rodrigues, Nuno Gomes, Luis Carretié
Research has consistently shown that threat stimuli automatically attract attention in order to activate the defensive response systems. Recent findings have provided evidence that snakes tuned the visual system of evolving primates for their astute detection, particularly under challenging perceptual conditions. The goal of the present study was to measure behavioral and electrophysiological indices of exogenous attention to snakes, compared with spiders - matched for rated fear levels but for which sources of natural selection are less well grounded, and to innocuous animals (birds), which were presented as distracters, while participants were engaged in a letter discrimination task...
March 6, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263799/aging-changes-3d-perception-evidence-for-hemispheric-rebalancing-of-lateralized-processes
#17
Bridget Andrews, Giovanni d'Avossa, Ayelet Sapir
When judging the 3D shape of a shaded image, young observers assume that the light source is placed above and to the left. This leftward bias has been attributed to hemispheric lateralization or experiential factors. Since aging is associated with loss of hemispheric lateralization, in the current study we measured the effect of aging on the assumed light source direction. Older participants exhibited, on average, a decreased left bias compared to young participants, as well as greater within-group variability in the distribution of assumed light source directions...
March 3, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263798/lesions-to-polar-orbital-prefrontal-cortex-selectively-impair-reasoning-about-emotional-material
#18
Vinod Goel, Elaine Lam, Kathleen W Smith, Amit Goel, Vanessa Raymont, Frank Krueger, Jordan Grafman
While it is widely accepted that lesions to orbital prefrontal cortex lead to emotion related disruptions and poor decision-making, there is very little patient data on this issue involving actual logical reasoning tasks. We tested patients with circumscribed, focal lesions largely confined to polar/orbital prefrontal cortex (BA 10 & 11) (N=17) on logical reasoning tasks involving neutral and emotional content, and compared their performance to that of an age and education-matched normal control group (N=22) and a posterior lesion control group (N=24)...
March 3, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263797/do-graphemes-attract-spatial-attention-in-grapheme-color-synesthesia
#19
G Volberg, A S Chockley, M W Greenlee
Grapheme-color synesthetes perceive concurrent colors for some objectively achromatic graphemes (inducers). Using oscillatory responses in the electroencephalogram, we tested the hypothesis that inducers automatically attract spatial attention and, thus, favor a conscious experience of color. Achromatic inducers and real-colored non-inducers were presented to the left or to the right visual hemifield and orientation judgments were required for subsequently presented Gabor patches. The graphemes were irrelevant for the task so that the related brain response was purely stimulus-driven...
March 3, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263800/the-role-of-the-retina-in-visual-hallucinations-a-review-of-the-literature-and-implications-for-psychosis
#20
REVIEW
Florent Bernardin, Raymund Schwan, Laurence Lalanne, Fabienne Ligier, Karine Angioi-Duprez, Thomas Schwitzer, Vincent Laprevote
Visual hallucinations are a psychotic symptom present in numerous clinical conditions such as eye disease, Parkinsonian syndromes, neurodegenerative disorders and psychosis. Alteration of low level visual processing is a common feature in these clinical conditions, and various stages of processing from the retina to visual cortices are involved. We undertook a literature review of abnormalities of the retina and their potential link with the occurrence of VHs in these clinical conditions of interest. We found that structural and functional abnormalities of the retina are frequently present...
March 2, 2017: Neuropsychologia
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