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Neuropsychologia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093279/obesity-and-insulin-resistance-are-associated-with-reduced-activity-in-core-memory-regions-of-the-brain
#1
Lucy G Cheke, Heidi M Bonnici, Nicola S Clayton, Jon S Simons
Increasing research in animals and humans suggests that obesity may be associated with learning and memory deficits, and in particular with reductions in episodic memory. Rodent models have implicated the hippocampus in obesity-related memory impairments, but the neural mechanisms underlying episodic memory deficits in obese humans remain undetermined. In the present study, lean and obese human participants were scanned using fMRI while completing a What-Where-When episodic memory test (the "Treasure-Hunt Task") that assessed the ability to remember integrated item, spatial, and temporal details of previously encoded complex events...
January 16, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095313/prefrontal-mediation-of-emotion-regulation-in-social-anxiety-disorder-during-laughter-perception
#2
Benjamin Kreifelts, Carolin Brück, Thomas Ethofer, Jan Ritter, Lena Weigel, Michael Erb, Dirk Wildgruber
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized by negatively biased perception of social cues and deficits in emotion regulation. While negatively biased perception is thought to maintain social anxiety, emotion regulation represents an ability necessary to overcome both biased perception and social anxiety. Here, we used laughter as a social threat in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study to identify cerebral mediators linking SAD with attention and interpretation biases and their modification through cognitive emotion regulation in the form of reappraisal...
January 14, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095312/neural-correlates-of-babyish-adult-face-processing-in-men
#3
Hirokazu Doi, Minoru Morikawa, Nobuyuki Inadomi, Katsuhiko Aikawa, Masataka Uetani, Kazuyuki Shinohara
The morphological characteristics of an infant's face are collectively referred to as baby schema or babyishness. It has been well established that infant traits are implicitly projected, or overgeneralized, to adults with babyish facial features. However, few studies to date have investigated the neural underpinnings of such overgeneralization. In the present study, we addressed this issue by comparing neural activations elicited by baby-faced and mature-faced adult faces in men using fMRI. We found increased activations in clusters surrounding the bilateral insula, bilateral anterior cingulate cortex, and right inferior frontal gyrus, which have been previously linked to the processing of facial attractiveness and infant-related information...
January 14, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093276/asymmetry-in-visual-information-processing-depends-on-the-strength-of-eye-dominance
#4
Romain Chaumillon, Nadia Alahyane, Patrice Senot, Judith Vergne, Christelle Lemoine-Lardennois, Jean Blouin, Karine Doré-Mazars, Alain Guillaume, Dorine Vergilino-Perez
Unlike handedness, sighting eye dominance, defined as the eye unconsciously chosen when performing monocular tasks, is very rarely considered in studies investigating cerebral asymmetries. We previously showed that sighting eye dominance has an influence on visually triggered manual action with shorter reaction time (RT) when the stimulus appears in the contralateral visual hemifield with respect to the dominant eye (Chaumillon et al. 2014). We also suggested that eye dominance may be more or less pronounced depending on individuals and that this eye dominance strength could be evaluated through saccadic peak velocity analysis in binocular recordings (Vergilino-Perez et al...
January 14, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093278/similar-patterns-of-brain-activation-abnormalities-during-emotional-and-non-emotional-judgments-of-faces-in-a-schizophrenia-family-study
#5
Michael J Spilka, Vina M Goghari
Schizophrenia patients have impaired performance and abnormal brain activation during facial emotion recognition, which may represent a marker of genetic liability to schizophrenia. However, it remains unclear whether the impairment is specific to recognizing emotion from faces or is instead attributable to more generalized dysfunction. The current study aimed to distinguish between specific and generalized neural dysfunction underlying impaired facial emotion recognition in schizophrenia and examine associations with genetic liability...
January 13, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093277/evaluating-the-relationship-between-sublexical-and-lexical-processing-in-speech-perception-evidence-from-aphasia
#6
Heather Dial, Randi Martin
Several studies have reported that aphasic patients may perform substantially better on lexical than sublexical perception tasks (e.g., Miceli, Gainotti, Caltagirone, & Masullo, 1980). These findings challenge claims made by models of speech perception which assume obligatory sublexical processing (e.g., McClelland & Elman, 1986; Norris, 1994). However, prior studies have not closely matched the phonological similarity of targets and distractors or task demands of the sublexical and lexical perception tasks...
January 13, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089697/effects-of-mild-cognitive-impairment-on-emotional-scene-memory
#7
J D Waring, H R Dimsdale-Zucker, S Flannery, A E Budson, E A Kensinger
Young and older adults experience benefits in attention and memory for emotional compared to neutral information, but this memory benefit is greatly diminished in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Little is known about whether this impairment arises early or late in the time course between healthy aging and AD. This study compared memory for positive, negative, and neutral items with neutral backgrounds between patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and healthy older adults. We also used a divided attention condition in older adults as a possible model for the deficits observed in MCI patients...
January 12, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089696/differential-sensory-cortical-involvement-in-auditory-and-visual-sensorimotor-temporal-recalibration-evidence-from-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-tdcs
#8
Ali Aytemür, Nathalia Almeida, Kwang-Hyuk Lee
Adaptation to delayed sensory feedback following an action produces a subjective time compression between the action and the feedback (temporal recalibration effect, TRE). TRE is important for sensory delay compensation to maintain a relationship between causally related events. It is unclear whether TRE is a sensory modality-specific phenomenon. In 3 experiments employing a sensorimotor synchronization task, we investigated this question using cathodal transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS). We found that cathodal tDCS over the visual cortex, and to a lesser extent over the auditory cortex, produced decreased visual TRE...
January 12, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087234/interference-from-related-actions-in-spoken-word-production-behavioural-and-fmri-evidence
#9
Greig de Zubicaray, Douglas Fraser, Kori Ramajoo, Katie McMahon
Few investigations of lexical access in spoken word production have investigated the cognitive and neural mechanisms involved in action naming. These are likely to be more complex than the mechanisms involved in object naming, due to the ways in which conceptual features of action words are represented. The present study employed a blocked cyclic naming paradigm to examine whether related action contexts elicit a semantic interference effect akin to that observed with categorically related objects. Participants named pictures of intransitive actions to avoid a confound with object processing...
January 10, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077311/cortical-thickness-increases-after-simultaneous-interpretation-training
#10
Alexis Hervais-Adelman, Barbara Moser-Mercer, Micah M Murray, Narly Golestani
Simultaneous interpretation is a complex cognitive task that not only demands multilingual language processing, but also requires application of extreme levels of domain-general cognitive control. We used MRI to longitudinally measure cortical thickness in simultaneous interpretation trainees before and after a Master's program in conference interpreting. We compared them to multilingual control participants scanned at the same interval of time. Increases in cortical thickness were specific to trainee interpreters...
January 9, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077329/body-schema-plasticity-after-stroke-subjective-and-neurophysiological-correlates-of-the-rubber-hand-illusion
#11
Roberto Llorens, Adrián Borrego, Priscila Palomo, Ausiàs Cebolla, Enrique Noé, Sergi Bermúdez I Badia, Rosa Baños
Stroke can lead to motor impairments that can affect the body structure and restraint mobility. We hypothesize that brain lesions and their motor sequelae can distort the body schema, a sensorimotor map of body parts and elements in the peripersonal space through which human beings embody the reachable space and ready the body for forthcoming movements. Two main constructs have been identified in the embodiment mechanism: body-ownership, the sense that the body that one inhabits is his/her own, and agency, the sense that one can move and control his/her body...
January 8, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077328/dissociation-between-working-memory-performance-and-proactive-interference-control-in-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#12
Diane Swick, Julien Cayton, Victoria Ashley, And U Turken
Deficits in working memory (WM) and cognitive control processes have been reported in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), in addition to clinical symptoms such as hypervigilance, re-experiencing, and avoidance of trauma reminders. Given the uncontrollable nature of intrusive memories, an important question is whether PTSD is associated with altered control of interference in WM. Some studies also suggest that episodic memory shows a material-specific dissociation in PTSD, with greater impairments in verbal memory and relative sparing of nonverbal memory...
January 7, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077327/eliminating-stroop-effects-with-post-hypnotic-instructions-brain-mechanisms-inferred-from-eeg
#13
Anoushiravan Zahedi, Birgit Stuermer, Javad Hatami, Reza Rostami, Werner Sommer
The classic Stroop task demonstrates the persistent and automatic effects of the meaning of color words that are very hard to inhibit when the task is to name the word color. Post-hypnotic instructions may enable highly-hypnotizable participants to inhibit the automatic access to word meaning. Here we compared the consequences of hypnosis alone and hypnosis with post-hypnotic instructions on the Stroop effect and its facilitation and inhibition components. Importantly, we studied the mechanisms of the hypnosis effects at the neural level by analyzing EEG frequencies...
January 7, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069444/rhythmic-entrainment-as-a-musical-affect-induction-mechanism
#14
REVIEW
W J Trost, C Labbé, D Grandjean
One especially important feature of metrical music is that it contains periodicities that listeners' bodily rhythms can adapt to. Recent psychological frameworks have introduced the notion of rhythmic entrainment, among other mechanisms, as an emotion induction principle. In this review paper, we discuss rhythmic entrainment as an affect induction mechanism by differentiating four levels of entrainment in humans-perceptual, autonomic physiological, motor, and social-all of which could contribute to a subjective feeling component...
January 7, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069445/person-perception-involves-functional-integration-between-the-extrastriate-body-area-and-temporal-pole
#15
Inez M Greven, Richard Ramsey
The majority of human neuroscience research has focussed on understanding functional organisation within segregated patches of cortex. The ventral visual stream has been associated with the detection of physical features such as faces and body parts, whereas the theory-of-mind network has been associated with making inferences about mental states and underlying character, such as whether someone is friendly, selfish, or generous. To date, however, it is largely unknown how such distinct processing components integrate neural signals...
January 6, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063992/cross-modal-influences-on-attentional-asymmetries-additive-effects-of-attentional-orienting-and-arousal
#16
Nicole A Thomas, Alexander J Barone, Alexandra H Flew, Michael E R Nicholls
Attention is asymmetrically distributed across the visual field, such that left side stimuli are more salient, which causes a spatial bias known as pseudoneglect. Although auditory cues can be used to direct visual attention to a location, the influence of auditory distractors on visuospatial asymmetries remains unknown. We examined whether attentional orienting or arousal effects occur when either left or right auditory distractors are presented during the landmark task. We also categorised participants based on the baseline direction of pseudoneglect...
January 5, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057458/the-inferior-parietal-lobule-and-temporoparietal-junction-a-network-perspective
#17
Kajsa M Igelström, Michael S A Graziano
Information processing in specialized, spatially distributed brain networks underlies the diversity and complexity of our cognitive and behavioral repertoire. Networks converge at a small number of hubs - highly connected regions that are central for multimodal integration and higher-order cognition. We review one major network hub of the human brain: the inferior parietal lobule and the overlapping temporoparietal junction (IPL/TPJ). The IPL is greatly expanded in humans compared to other primates and matures late in human development, consistent with its importance in higher-order functions...
January 2, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041948/pre-stimulus-alpha-oscillations-over-somatosensory-cortex-predict-tactile-misperceptions
#18
Matt Craddock, Ellen Poliakoff, Wael El-Deredy, Ekaterini Klepousniotou, Donna M Lloyd
Fluctuations of pre-stimulus oscillatory activity in the somatosensory alpha band (8-14Hz) observed using human EEG and MEG have been shown to influence the detection of supra- and peri-threshold somatosensory stimuli. However, some reports of touch occur even without a stimulus. We investigated the possibility that pre-stimulus alpha oscillations might also influence these false reports of touch - known as tactile misperceptions. We recorded EEG while participants performed the Somatic Signal Detection Task (SSDT), in which participants must detect brief, peri-threshold somatosensory targets...
December 29, 2016: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041947/cognitive-reserve-and-cognitive-performance-of-patients-with-focal-frontal-lesions
#19
Sarah E MacPherson, Colm Healy, Michael Allerhand, Barbara Spanò, Carina Tudor-Sfetea, Mark White, Daniela Smirni, Tim Shallice, Edgar Chan, Marco Bozzali, Lisa Cipolotti
The Cognitive reserve (CR) hypothesis was put forward to account for the variability in cognitive performance of patients with similar degrees of brain pathology. Compensatory neural activity within the frontal lobes has often been associated with CR. For the first time we investigated the independent effects of two CR proxies, education and NART IQ, on measures of executive function, fluid intelligence, speed of information processing, verbal short term memory (vSTM), naming, and perception in a sample of 86 patients with focal, unilateral frontal lesions and 142 healthy controls...
December 29, 2016: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041946/hyperactive-performance-monitoring-as-a-transdiagnostic-marker-results-from-health-anxiety-in-comparison-to-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#20
Anja Riesel, Stefanie Goldhahn, Norbert Kathmann
Hyperactive error-related brain activity has been found in individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), generalized and social anxiety as well as depression and has been proposed as a transdiagnostic marker. The specific phenotype to which it is related is still debated and anxious apprehension, threat sensitivity and checking have been proposed as promising candidates. To validate the idea that hyperactive performance monitoring is shared by anxiety and anxiety-related disorders and to refine our knowledge about its specificity, data from further anxiety and anxiety-related disorders are required...
December 29, 2016: Neuropsychologia
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