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Giovanna Lagravinese, Ambra Bisio, Piero Ruggeri, Marco Bove, Laura Avanzino
The present study was designed to explore the changes in motor performance and motor resonance after multiple sessions of action observation (AO) training. Subjects were exposed to the observation of a video showing finger tapping movements executed at 3Hz, a frequency higher than the spontaneous one (2Hz) for four consecutive days. Motor performance and motor resonance were tested before the AO training on the first day, and on the last day. Results showed that multiple sessions of AO training induced a shift of the speed of execution of finger tapping movements toward the observed one and a change in motor resonance...
October 18, 2016: Neuropsychologia
Tosoni Annalisa, Guidotti Roberto, Del Gratta Cosimo, Committeri Giorgia, Sestieri Carlo
The human ventral occipito-temporal cortex (OTC) contains areas specialized for particular perceptual/semantic categories, such as faces (fusiform face area, FFA) and places (parahippocampal place area, PPA). This organization has been interpreted as reflecting the visual structure of the world, i.e. perceptual similarity and/or eccentricity biases. However, recent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have shown not only that regions of the OTC are modulated by non-visual, action-related object properties but also by motor planning and execution, although the functional role and specificity of this motor-related activity are still unclear...
October 15, 2016: Neuropsychologia
Michael C Trumbo, Laura E Matzen, Brian A Coffman, Michael A Hunter, Aaron P Jones, Charles S H Robinson, Vincent P Clark
Although working memory (WM) training programs consistently result in improvement on the trained task, benefit is typically short-lived and extends only to tasks very similar to the trained task (i.e., near transfer). It is possible that pairing repeated performance of a WM task with brain stimulation encourages plasticity in brain networks involved in WM task performance, thereby improving the training benefit. In the current study, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) was paired with performance of a WM task (n-back)...
October 15, 2016: Neuropsychologia
Nathalie Tzourio-Mazoyer, Mohamed L Seghier
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 15, 2016: Neuropsychologia
Elisa Straulino, Tomaso Scaravilli, Maria Bulgheroni, Enrico D'Amico, Umberto Castiello
Increasing evidence suggests that a dysfunctional dopaminergic system affects the ability to socially interact. Since Parkinson's disease (PD) provides a model for assessing dopaminergic dysfunctions in humans, our study was designed to investigate social interactions in PD patients receiving dopamine replacement therapy (Levodopa = l-Dopa) and in neurologically healthy controls. We focused on the kinematics of one action, reaching to grasp a wooden block, which was performed within the context of two basic modes of social cognition, namely cooperation and competition...
October 15, 2016: Neuropsychologia
Kristina Kasparian, Karsten Steinhauer
First language (L1) attrition is a socio-linguistic circumstance where second language (L2) learning coincides with changes in exposure and use of the native-L1. Attriters often report experiencing a decline in automaticity or proficiency in their L1 after a prolonged period in the L2 environment, while their L2 proficiency continues to strengthen. Investigating the neurocognitive correlates of attrition alongside those of late L2 acquisition addresses the question of whether the brain mechanisms underlying both L1 and L2 processing are strongly determined by proficiency, irrespective of whether the language was acquired from birth or in adulthood...
October 14, 2016: Neuropsychologia
Zhenghan Qi, Sara D Beach, Amy S Finn, Jennifer Minas, Calvin Goetz, Brian Chan, John D E Gabrieli
Language learning aptitude during adulthood varies markedly across individuals. An individual's native-language ability has been associated with success in learning a new language as an adult. However, little is known about how native-language processing affects learning success and what neural markers of native-language processing, if any, are related to success in learning. We therefore related variation in electrophysiology during native-language processing to success in learning a novel artificial language...
October 11, 2016: Neuropsychologia
Heidi A Baseler, Andrew W Young, Rob Jenkins, A Mike Burton, Timothy J Andrews
Familiar face recognition is remarkably invariant across huge image differences, yet little is understood concerning how image-invariant recognition is achieved. To investigate the neural correlates of invariance, we localized the core face-responsive regions and then compared the pattern of fMR-adaptation to different stimulus transformations in each region to behavioural data demonstrating the impact of the same transformations on familiar face recognition. In Experiment 1, we compared linear transformations of size and aspect ratio to a non-linear transformation affecting only part of the face...
October 10, 2016: Neuropsychologia
Clément François, Toni Cunillera, Enara Garcia, Matti Laine, Antoni Rodriguez-Fornells
Learning a new language requires the identification of word units from continuous speech (the speech segmentation problem) and mapping them onto conceptual representation (the word to world mapping problem). Recent behavioral studies have revealed that the statistical properties found within and across modalities can serve as cues for both processes. However, segmentation and mapping have been largely studied separately, and thus it remains unclear whether both processes can be accomplished at the same time and if they share common neurophysiological features...
October 9, 2016: Neuropsychologia
Elise B Barbeau, Xiaoqian J Chai, Jen-Kai Chen, Jennika Soles, Jonathan Berken, Shari Baum, Kate E Watkins, Denise Klein
Research to date suggests that second language acquisition results in functional and structural changes in the bilingual brain, however, in what way and how quickly these changes occur remains unclear. To address these questions, we studied fourteen English-speaking monolingual adults enrolled in a twelve-week intensive French language-training program in Montreal. Using functional MRI, we investigated the neural changes associated with new language acquisition. The participants were scanned before the start of the immersion program and at the end of the 12 weeks...
October 7, 2016: Neuropsychologia
Connor Quinn, J S H Taylor, Matthew H Davis
Understanding the neural processes that underlie learning to read can provide a scientific foundation for literacy education but studying these processes in real-world contexts remains challenging. We present behavioural data from adult participants learning to read artificial words and name artificial objects over two days. Learning profiles and generalisation confirmed that componential learning of visual-verbal associations distinguishes reading from object naming. Functional MRI data collected on the second day allowed us to identify the neural systems that support componential reading as distinct from systems supporting holistic visual-verbal associations in object naming...
October 6, 2016: Neuropsychologia
Patrick C M Wong, Loan Vuong, Kevin Liu
Variability in drug responsivity has prompted the development of Personalized Medicine, which has shown great promise in utilizing genotypic information to develop safer and more effective drug regimens for patients. Similarly, individual variability in learning outcomes has puzzled researchers who seek to create optimal learning environments for students. "Personalized Learning" seeks to identify genetic, neural and behavioral predictors of individual differences in learning and aims to use predictors to help create optimal teaching paradigms...
October 5, 2016: Neuropsychologia
Yael Arbel, Hao Wu
The efficiency with which one processes external feedback contributes to the speed and quality of one's learning. Previous findings that the feedback related negativity (FRN) event related potential (ERP) is modulated by learning outcomes suggested that this ERP reflects the extent to which feedback is used by the learner to improve performance. To further test this suggestion, we measured whether the FRN and the fronto-central positivity (FCP) that follows it are modulated by learning slopes, and as a function of individual differences in learning outcomes...
October 4, 2016: Neuropsychologia
Marit F L Ruitenberg, Wout Duthoo, Patrick Santens, Rachael D Seidler, Wim Notebaert, Elger L Abrahamse
Previous studies on movement sequence learning in Parkinson's disease (PD) have produced mixed results. A possible explanation for the inconsistent findings is that some studies have taken dopaminergic medication into account while others have not. Additionally, in previous studies the response modalities did not allow for an investigation of the action dynamics of sequential movements as they unfold over time. In the current study we investigated sequence learning in PD by specifically considering the role of medication status in a sequence learning task where mouse movements were performed...
October 1, 2016: Neuropsychologia
Christina E Webb, Indira C Turney, Nancy A Dennis
The current study used a novel scene paradigm to investigate the role of encoding schemas on memory. Specifically, the study examined the influence of a strong encoding schema on retrieval of both schematic and non-schematic information, as well as false memories for information associated with the schema. Additionally, the separate roles of recollection and familiarity in both veridical and false memory retrieval were examined. The study identified several novel results. First, while many common neural regions mediated both schematic and non-schematic retrieval success, schematic recollection exhibited greater activation in visual cortex and hippocampus, regions commonly shown to mediate detailed retrieval...
September 30, 2016: Neuropsychologia
Jessica Peter, Jannis Kaiser, Verena Landerer, Lena Köstering, Christoph P Kaller, Bernhard Heimbach, Michael Hüll, Tobias Bormann, Stefan Klöppel
The exploration and retrieval of words during category fluency involves different strategies to improve or maintain performance. Deficits in that task, which are common in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), mirror either impaired semantic memory or dysfunctional executive control mechanisms. Relating category fluency to tasks that place greater demands on either semantic knowledge or executive functions might help to determine the underlying cognitive process. The aims of this study were to compare performance and strategy use of 20 patients with aMCI to 30 healthy elderly controls (HC) and to identify the dominant component (either executive or semantic) for better task performance in category fluency...
September 30, 2016: Neuropsychologia
Roger Ratcliff, Per Sederberg, Troy Smith, Russ Childers
Recent work in perceptual decision-making has shown that although two distinct neural components differentiate experimental conditions (e.g., did you see a face or a car), only one tracked the evidence guiding the decision process. In the memory literature, there is a distinction between a fronto-central evoked potential measured with EEG beginning at 350 ms that seems to track familiarity and a late parietal evoked potential that peaks at 600 ms that tracks recollection. Here, we applied single-trial regressor analysis (similar to multivariate pattern analysis MVPA) and diffusion decision modeling to EEG and behavioral data from two recognition memory experiments to test whether these two components contribute to the recognition decision process...
September 29, 2016: Neuropsychologia
Liwen Zhang, Lisette van der Meer, Esther M Opmeer, Jan-Bernard C Marsman, Henricus G Ruhé, André Aleman
Disturbances in implicit self-processing have been reported both in psychotic patients with bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia. It remains unclear whether these two psychotic disorders show disturbed functional connectivity during explicit self-reflection, which is associated with social functioning and illness symptoms. Therefore, we investigated functional connectivity during explicit self-reflection in BD with past psychosis and schizophrenia. Twenty-three BD-patients, 17 schizophrenia-patients and 21 health controls (HC) performed a self-reflection task, including the conditions self-reflection, close other-reflection and semantic control...
September 27, 2016: Neuropsychologia
Florian Lange, Caroline Seer, Sebastian Loens, Florian Wegner, Christoph Schrader, Dirk Dressler, Reinhard Dengler, Bruno Kopp
Cognitive inflexibility is a hallmark of executive dysfunction in Parkinson's disease (PD). This deficit consistently manifests itself in a PD-related increase in the number of perseverative errors committed on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). However, the neural processes underlying perseverative WCST performance in PD are still largely unknown. The present study is the first to investigate the event-related potential (ERP) correlates of cognitive inflexibility on the WCST in PD patients. Thirty-two PD patients and 35 matched control participants completed a computerized version of the WCST while the electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded...
September 27, 2016: Neuropsychologia
M Beigi, L Wilkinson, F Gobet, A Parton, M Jahanshahi
Empirical evidence suggests that levodopa medication used to treat the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) may either improve, impair or not affect specific cognitive processes. This evidence led to the 'dopamine overdose' hypothesis that levodopa medication impairs performance on cognitive tasks if they recruit fronto-striatal circuits which are not yet dopamine-depleted in early PD and as a result the medication leads to an excess of dopamine. This hypothesis has been supported for various learning tasks including conditional associative learning, reversal learning, classification learning and intentional deterministic sequence learning, on all of which PD patients demonstrated significantly worse performance when tested on relative to off dopamine medication...
September 26, 2016: Neuropsychologia
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