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Neuropsychologia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527912/implicit-variations-of-temporal-predictability-shaping-the-neural-oscillatory-and-behavioural-response
#1
Sophie K Herbst, Jonas Obleser
Being able to predict when an event will occur (temporal predictability) can help us prepare and time our responses. We here sought to delineate the neural and behavioural corollaries of highly implicit, probabilistic temporal predictability in an auditory foreperiod paradigm. To this end, we measured electroencephalography (EEG) and response times in two independent experiments (total N = 46). Unbeknownst to participants, we induced a probabilistic variation of cue-target delays (i.e., foreperiods) in a pitch-discrimination task on a noise-embedded tone: The smaller the standard deviation of the underlying foreperiod distribution, the more predictable the time of target occurrence should be...
May 17, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522331/internal-mechanisms-underlying-anticipatory-language-processing-evidence-from-event-related-potentials-and-neural-oscillations
#2
Xiaoqing Li, Yuping Zhang, Jinyan Xia, Tamara Y Swaab
Although numerous studies have demonstrated that the language processing system can predict upcoming content during comprehension, there is still no clear picture of the anticipatory stage of predictive processing. This electroencephalograph study examined the cognitive and neural oscillatory mechanisms underlying anticipatory processing during language comprehension, and the consequences of this prediction for bottom-up processing of predicted/unpredicted content. Participants read Mandarin Chinese sentences that were either strongly or weakly constraining and that contained critical nouns that were congruent or incongruent with the sentence contexts...
May 15, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506807/phoneme-processing-skills-are-reflected-in-children-s-mmn-responses
#3
Tanja Linnavalli, Vesa Putkinen, Minna Huotilainen, Mari Tervaniemi
Phonological awareness (PA), the core contributor in phoneme processing abilities, has a link to later reading skills in children. However, the associations between PA and neural auditory discrimination are not clear. We used event-related potential (ERP) methodology and neuropsychological testing to monitor the neurocognitive basis of phonological awareness in typically developing children. We measured 5-6-year-old children's (N=70) phoneme processing, word completion and perceptual reasoning skills and compared their test results to their brain responses to phonemic changes, separately for each test...
May 12, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506806/selective-associative-phonagnosia-after-right-anterior-temporal-stroke
#4
Simona Luzzi, Michela Coccia, Gabriele Polonara, Carlo Reverberi, Gabriella Ceravolo, Mauro Silvestrini, Fabio Fringuelli, Sara Baldinelli, Leandro Provinciali, Guido Gainotti
We report the case of a 48 year old men who developed a selective impairment in famous voice recognition after ischemic stroke in right subcortical structures (lenticular nucleus and head of the caudate) and right anterior temporal lobe. He underwent fibrinolytic treatment. During the following days he progressively recovered and was discharged without neurological focal sign. Patent foramen ovale was found. When he got back to his house he noticed that he was unable to recognize the voice of his favoured singers and needed to ask who was the singer to his relatives...
May 12, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502633/remapping-nociceptive-stimuli-into-a-peripersonal-reference-frame-is-spatially-locked-to-the-stimulated-limb
#5
Annick L De Paepe, Geert Crombez, Valéry Legrain
The localization of harmful stimuli approaching our body is essential for survival. Here we investigated whether the mapping of nociceptive stimuli is based on a spatial representation that is anchored to the stimulated limb. In three experiments, we measured the effect of unilateral visual stimuli on the perceived temporal order of nociceptive stimuli, applied to each hand. Crucially, the position of the hands and the visual stimuli was manipulated, so that visual and nociceptive stimuli occurred in an adjacent or non-adjacent spatial position...
May 11, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502632/two-years-later-revisiting-autobiographical-memory-representations-in-vmpfc-and-hippocampus
#6
Heidi M Bonnici, Eleanor A Maguire
A long-standing question in memory neuroscience concerns how and where autobiographical memories of personal experiences are represented in the brain. In a previous high resolution multivoxel pattern analysis fMRI study, we examined two week old (recent) and ten year old (remote) autobiographical memories (Bonnici et al., 2012, J. Neurosci. 32:16982-16991). We found that remote memories were particularly well represented in ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) compared to recent memories. Moreover, while both types of memory were represented within anterior and posterior hippocampus, remote memories were more easily distinguished in the posterior portion...
May 11, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495601/structural-connectivity-subserving-verbal-fluency-revealed-by-lesion-behavior-mapping-in-stroke-patients
#7
Mingyang Li, Yumei Zhang, Luping Song, Ruiwang Huang, Junhua Ding, Yuxing Fang, Yangwen Xu, Zaizhu Han
Tests of verbal fluency have been widely used to assess the cognitive functioning of persons, and are typically classified into two categories (semantic and phonological fluency). While widely-distributed divergent and convergent brain regions have been found to be involved in semantic and phonological fluency, the anatomical connectivity underlying the fluency is not well understood. The present study aims to construct a comprehensive white-matter network associated with semantic and phonological fluency by investigating the relationship between the integrity of 22 major tracts in the whole brain and semantic fluency (measured by 3 cues) and phonological fluency (measured by 2 cues) in a group of 51 stroke patients...
May 8, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495600/the-effect-of-cortical-and-subcortical-lesions-on-spontaneous-expression-of-memory-encoded-and-emotionally-infused-information-evidence-for-a-role-of-the-ventral-stream
#8
Efthymia Efthymiopoulou, Dimitrios S Kasselimis, Apostolia Ghika, Andreas Kyrozis, Christos Peppas, Ioannis Evdokimidis, Michael Petrides, Constantin Potagas
The ventral stream of language processing has been implicated in the spontaneous expression of memory-encoded and emotionally infused information. The present study investigated whether left hemispheric lesions in post-stroke right-handed aphasic patients may be selectively associated with specific language functions. Speech rate was assessed with two tasks, one based on autobiographical memory of an emotionally infused event (stroke story narration) and the other based on information that is visually available at the time of speech generation ("cookie theft" picture description)...
May 8, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495599/effects-of-the-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-val66met-polymorphism-and-resting-brain-functional-connectivity-on-individual-differences-in-tactile-cognitive-performance-in-healthy-young-adults
#9
Xuejuan Yang, Ziliang Xu, Lin Liu, Peng Liu, Jinbo Sun, Lingmin Jin, Yuanqiang Zhu, Ningbo Fei, Wei Qin
Cognitive processes involve input from multiple sensory modalities and obvious differences in the level of cognitive function can be observed between individuals. Evidence to date understanding the biological basis of tactile cognitive variability, however, is limited compared with other forms of sensory cognition. Data from auditory and visual cognition research suggest that variations in both genetics and intrinsic brain function might contribute to individual differences in tactile cognitive performance...
May 8, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495598/mental-arithmetic-in-the-bilingual-brain-language-matters
#10
Amandine Van Rinsveld, Laurence Dricot, Mathieu Guillaume, Bruno Rossion, Christine Schiltz
How do bilinguals solve arithmetic problems in each of their languages? We investigated this question by exploring the neural substrates of mental arithmetic in bilinguals. Critically, our population was composed of a homogeneous group of adults who were fluent in both of their instruction languages (i.e., German as first instruction language and French as second instruction language). Twenty bilinguals were scanned with fMRI (3T) while performing mental arithmetic. Both simple and complex problems were presented to disentangle memory retrieval occuring in very simple problems from arithmetic computation occuring in more complex problems...
May 8, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495597/the-learned-reinterpretation-of-fluency-in-amnesia
#11
Marie Geurten, Sylvie Willems
Fluency is one of many cues that are involved in memory decisions. To date, however, the extent to which fluency-based decisions are preserved in amnesia is not yet clear. In this study, we tested and found differences in how patients with amnesia (n=8) and control participants (n=16) use fluency when making recognition decisions (Experiment 1). Our results suggested that these differences could be due to changes in the readiness with which patients attribute the subjective feeling of fluency to pre-exposure when an alternative explanation is available (i...
May 8, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487250/sensitivity-to-structure-in-action-sequences-an-infant-event-related-potential-study
#12
Claire D Monroy, Sarah A Gerson, Estefanía Domínguez-Martínez, Katharina Kaduk, Sabine Hunnius, Vincent Reid
Infants are sensitive to structure and patterns within continuous streams of sensory input. This sensitivity relies on statistical learning, the ability to detect predictable regularities in spatial and temporal sequences. Recent evidence has shown that infants can detect statistical regularities in action sequences they observe, but little is known about the neural process that give rise to this ability. In the current experiment, we combined electroencephalography (EEG) with eye-tracking to identify electrophysiological markers that indicate whether 8-11-month-old infants detect violations to learned regularities in action sequences, and to relate these markers to behavioral measures of anticipation during learning...
May 6, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487249/combining-tdcs-with-prismatic-adaptation-for-non-invasive-neuromodulation-of-the-motor-cortex
#13
Martina Bracco, Giuseppa Renata Mangano, Patrizia Turriziani, Daniela Smirni, Massimiliano Oliveri
BACKGROUND: Prismatic adaptation (PA) shifts visual field laterally and induces lateralized deviations of spatial attention. Recently, it has been suggested that prismatic goggles are also able to modulate brain excitability, with cognitive after-effects documented even in tasks not necessarily spatial in nature. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to test whether neuromodulatory effects obtained from tDCS and prismatic goggles could interact and induce homeostatic changes in corticospinal excitability...
May 6, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483485/sensory-motor-relationships-in-speech-production-in-post-lingually-deaf-cochlear-implanted-adults-and-normal-hearing-seniors-evidence-from-phonetic-convergence-and-speech-imitation
#14
Lucie Scarbel, Denis Beautemps, Jean-Luc Schwartz, Marc Sato
Speech communication can be viewed as an interactive process involving a functional coupling between sensory and motor systems. One striking example comes from phonetic convergence, when speakers automatically tend to mimic their interlocutor's speech during communicative interaction. The goal of this study was to investigate sensory-motor linkage in speech production in postlingually deaf cochlear implanted participants and normal hearing elderly adults through phonetic convergence and imitation. To this aim, two vowel production tasks, with or without instruction to imitate an acoustic vowel, were proposed to three groups of young adults with normal hearing, elderly adults with normal hearing and post-lingually deaf cochlear-implanted patients...
May 5, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479187/brain-based-individual-difference-measures-of-reading-skill-in-deaf-and-hearing-adults
#15
Alison S Mehravari, Karen Emmorey, Chantel S Prat, Lindsay Klarman, Lee Osterhout
Most deaf children and adults struggle to read, but some deaf individuals do become highly proficient readers. There is disagreement about the specific causes of reading difficulty in the deaf population, and consequently, disagreement about the effectiveness of different strategies for teaching reading to deaf children. Much of the disagreement surrounds the question of whether deaf children read in similar or different ways as hearing children. In this study, we begin to answer this question by using real-time measures of neural language processing to assess if deaf and hearing adults read proficiently in similar or different ways...
May 4, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478242/physical-coldness-enhances-racial-in-group-bias-in-empathy-electrophysiological-evidence
#16
Siyang Luo, Xiaochun Han, Na Du, Shihui Han
Empathy for others' pain plays a key role in prosocial behavior and is influenced by intergroup relationships. Increasing evidence suggests greater empathy for racial in-group than out-group individuals' pain and the racial in-group bias undergoes sociocultural and biological influences. The present study further investigated whether and how physical environments influence racial in-group bias in empathy by testing the hypothesis that sensory experiences of physical coldness versus warmth enhance differential empathic neural responses to racial in-group vs...
May 3, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478241/observing-back-pain-provoking-lifting-actions-modulates-corticomotor-excitability-of-the-observer-s-primary-motor-cortex
#17
Rea Lehner, Raf Meesen, Nicole Wenderoth
Observing another person experiencing exogenously inflicted pain (e.g. by a sharp object penetrating a finger) modulates the excitability of the observer' primary motor cortex (M1). By contrast, far less is known about the response to endogenously evoked pain such as sudden back pain provoked by lifting a heavy object. Here, participants (n=26) observed the lifting of a heavy object. During this action the actor (1) flexed and extended the legs (LEG), (2) flexed and extended the back (BACK) or (3) flexed and extended the back which caused visible pain (BACKPAIN)...
May 3, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476573/modality-independent-encoding-of-individual-concepts-in-the-left-parietal-cortex
#18
Giacomo Handjaras, Andrea Leo, Luca Cecchetti, Paolo Papale, Alessandro Lenci, Giovanna Marotta, Pietro Pietrini, Emiliano Ricciardi
The organization of semantic information in the brain has been mainly explored through category-based models, on the assumption that categories broadly reflect the organization of conceptual knowledge. However, the analysis of concepts as individual entities, rather than as items belonging to distinct superordinate categories, may represent a significant advancement in the comprehension of how conceptual knowledge is encoded in the human brain. Here, we studied the individual representation of thirty concrete nouns from six different categories, across different sensory modalities (i...
May 3, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472628/hippocampal-dentation-structural-variation-and-its-association-with-episodic-memory-in-healthy-adults
#19
Julia Fleming Beattie, Roy C Martin, Rajesh K Kana, Hrishikesh Deshpande, Seongtaek Lee, Joel Curé, Lawrence Ver Hoef
While the hippocampus has long been identified as a structure integral to memory, the relationship between morphology and function has yet to be fully explained. We present an analysis of hippocampal dentation, a morphological feature previously unexplored in regard to its relationship with episodic memory. "Hippocampal dentation" in this case refers to surface convolutions, primarily present in the CA1/subiculum on the inferior aspect of the hippocampus. Hippocampal dentation was visualized using ultra-high resolution structural MRI and evaluated using a novel visual rating scale...
May 1, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472627/neuroimaging-markers-associated-with-maintenance-of-optimal-memory-performance-in-late-life
#20
Maria Dekhtyar, Kathryn V Papp, Rachel Buckley, Heidi I L Jacobs, Aaron P Schultz, Keith A Johnson, Reisa A Sperling, Dorene M Rentz
BACKGROUND: Age-related memory decline has been well-documented; however, some individuals reach their 8th-10th decade while maintaining strong memory performance. OBJECTIVE: To determine which demographic and biomarker factors differentiated top memory performers (aged 75+, top 20% for memory) from their peers and whether top memory performance was maintained over 3 years. METHODS: Clinically normal adults (n=125, CDR=0; age: 79.5±3.57 years) from the Harvard Aging Brain Study underwent cognitive testing and neuroimaging (amyloid PET, MRI) at baseline and 3-year follow-up...
May 1, 2017: Neuropsychologia
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