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Meaghan Perdue, Sara Mascheretti, Sergey A Kornilov, Kaja K Jasinska, Kayleigh Ryherd, W Einar Mencl, Stephen J Frost, Elena L Grigorenko, Kenneth R Pugh, Nicole Landi
Epidemiological population studies highlight the presence of substantial individual variability in reading skill, with approximately 5-10% of individuals characterized as having specific reading disability (SRD). Despite reported substantial heritability, typical for a complex trait, the specifics of the connections between reading and the genome are not understood. Recently, the SETBP1 gene has been implicated in several complex neurodevelopmental syndromes and disorders that impact language. Here, we examined the relationship between common polymorphisms in this gene, reading, and reading associated behaviors using data from an ongoing project on the genetic basis of SRD (n=135)...
July 13, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Kayla D Stone, Femke Bullock, Anouk Keizer, H Chris Dijkerman
Body ownership (the feeling that my body belongs to me) can be easily perturbed in healthy individuals by inducing bodily illusions. For example, dis-integrating vision, touch, and proprioception can produce the feeling that your limb is 'lost', such as in "the disappearing hand trick" (DHT). Following this illusion, participants report that the hand feels as though it is no longer part of the body, that it does not belong to them anymore, and that they do not know its location. However, it remains unknown whether this illusion can also be applied to the feet...
July 12, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Bobby Stojanoski, Kathleen M Lyons, Alexandra A A Pearce, Adrian M Owen
There is strong incentive to improve our cognitive abilities, and brain training has emerged as a promising approach for achieving this goal. While the idea that extensive 'training' on computerized tasks will improve general cognitive functioning is appealing, the evidence to support this remains contentious. This is, in part, because of poor criteria for selecting training tasks and outcome measures resulting in inconsistent definitions of what constitutes transferable improvement to cognition. The current study used a targeted training approach to investigate whether training on two different, but related, working memory tasks (across two experiments, with 72 participants) produced transferable benefits to similar (quantified based on cognitive and neural profiles) untrained test tasks...
July 12, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Laurie S Glezer, Jill Weisberg, Cindy O'Grady Farnady, Stephen McCullough, Katherine J Midgley, Phillip J Holcomb, Karen Emmorey
People who are born deaf often have difficulty learning to read. Recently, several studies have examined the neural substrates involved in reading in deaf people and found a left lateralized reading system similar to hearing people involving temporo-parietal, inferior frontal, and ventral occipito-temporal cortices. Previous studies in typical hearing readers show that within this reading network there are separate regions that specialize in processing orthography and phonology. We used fMRI rapid adaptation in deaf adults who were skilled readers to examine neural selectivity in three functional ROIs in the left hemisphere: temporoparietal cortex (TPC), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), and the visual word form area (VWFA)...
July 10, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Sanjay Manohar, Kinan Muhammed, Sean J Fallon, Masud Husain
Motivation improves performance, pushing us beyond our normal limits. One general explanation for this is that the effects of neural noise can be reduced, at a cost. If this were possible, reward would promote investment in resisting noise. But how could the effects of noise be attenuated, and why should this be costly? Negative feedback may be employed to compensate for disturbances in a neural representation. Such feedback would increase the robustness of neural representations to internal signal fluctuations, producing a stable attractor...
July 10, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Nils Rosjat, Liqing Liu, Bin A Wang, Svitlana Popovych, Tibor Tóth, Shivakumar Viswanathan, Christian Grefkes, Gereon R Fink, Silvia Daun
Motor performance declines with normal aging. Previous neuroimaging work revealed aging-related general increases in neural activity, especially in the prefrontal and pre-motor areas, associated with a loss of hemispheric lateralization. However, the functional mechanisms underlying these changes and their relation to aging-associated motor decline to date remain elusive. To further elucidate the neural processes underlying aging-related motor decline, we recorded EEG from younger and older subjects while they performed a finger-tapping task...
July 9, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Klara Hagelweide, Anna Schönberger, Lutz Kracht, Theo Gründler, Gereon R Fink, Ricarda I Schubotz
Recent fMRI findings revealed that impairment in a serial prediction task in patients suffering from Parkinson's disease (PD) results from hypoactivity of the SMA. Furthermore, hyperactivity of the lateral premotor cortex sustained performance after withdrawal of medication. To further explore these findings, we here examined the impact of deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus on the activity of the putamen and premotor areas while performing the serial prediction task. To this end, we measured eight male PD patients ON and OFF deep brain stimulation and eight healthy age-matched male controls using [15 O] water positron emission tomography to measure regional cerebral blood flow...
July 9, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Vincent Hoofs, Myrthe M Princen, Ervin Poljac, Arjen Stolk, Edita Poljac
One of the main symptoms of Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC) is experiencing cognitive inflexibility when adjustments of behaviour are required. While this so-called behavioural rigidity is broadly recognised in ASC, finding evidence for the underlying neurocognitive mechanisms remains challenging. In this electroencephalographic (EEG) study, participants with ASC and matched controls were instructed to choose between two cognitive tasks in each trial, and to respond to the subsequently presented target stimulus according to their task choice...
July 7, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Ana A Francisco, Atsuko Takashima, James M McQueen, Mark van den Bunt, Alexandra Jesse, Margriet A Groen
The aim of the present fMRI study was to investigate whether typical and dyslexic adult readers differed in the neural correlates of audiovisual speech processing. We tested for Blood Oxygen-Level Dependent (BOLD) activity differences between these two groups in a 1-back task, as they processed written (word, illegal consonant strings) and spoken (auditory, visual and audiovisual) stimuli. When processing written stimuli, dyslexic readers showed reduced activity in the supramarginal gyrus, a region suggested to play an important role in phonological processing, but only when they processed strings of consonants, not when they read words...
July 7, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Yue Leng, Xing Qian, Yanmei Zhu
A number of studies have explored how rejection sensitivity (RS) affects the neural and physiological responses to stimuli with implicit rejection clues. Peer rejection during social interaction conveys explicit rejection feedback. The current event-related potentials (ERP) study using Chatroom task aimed to test to what extent RS modulated individuals' psychological and neural response to explicit rejection feedback. The subjective ratings mainly demonstrated that RS modulated ostracism distress and negative mood following rejection feedback...
July 5, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Seda Akbıyık, Ayşenur Karaduman, Tilbe Göksun, Anjan Chatterjee
Brain damage is associated with linguistic deficits and might alter co-speech gesture production. Gesture production after focal brain injury has been mainly investigated with respect to intrasentential rather than discourse-level linguistic processing. In this study, we examined 1) spontaneous gesture production patterns of people with left hemisphere damage (LHD) or right hemisphere damage (RHD) in a narrative setting, 2) the neural structures associated with deviations in spontaneous gesture production in these groups, and 3) the relationship between spontaneous gesture production and discourse level linguistic processes (narrative complexity and evaluation competence)...
July 5, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Laura Kaczer, Luz Bavassi, Agustín Petroni, Rodrigo S Fernández, Julieta Laurino, Sofía Degiorgi, Eithan Hochman, Cecilia Forcato, María E Pedreira
Learning novel words is a challenging process for our memory systems; we must be able to recall new word forms and meanings in order to communicate. However, the dynamics of the word memory formation is still unclear. Here, we addressed the temporal profile of two key cognitive markers of memory consolidation in the domain of word learning: i) the susceptibility of recently learned novel words to memory interference; ii) their lexical integration using a semantic judgment task while recording the ERPs responses...
July 5, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Jade D Frost, Katherine Haasnoot, Kelly McDonnell, István Winkler, Juanita Todd
Auditory perceptual inference engages learning of complex statistical information about the environment. Inferences assist us to simplify perception highlighting what can be predicted on the basis of prior learning (through the formation of internal "prediction" models) and what might be new, potentially necessitating an investment of resources to remodel predictions. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that sound sequences with multiple levels of predictability may rely on cognitive resources and be cognitively penetrable to a greater extent than was previously shown by studies presenting simpler sound sequences...
July 4, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Kesong Hu
Emotion studies show that ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) plays a critical role in negative affect evaluation. Here we investigate two questions: Does the neural sensitivity to threat of bodily harm in vmPFC alter as anxiety levels increase? If the neural sensitivity to threat in vmPFC reflects a kind of general emotional processing, does it predict reward processing? To address these questions, we first recorded participants' self-reported anxiety. In an investigation of neural responses in vmPFC (Session 1), we measured brain activity (fMRI) associated with the anticipation of threat, using a sphere based ROI approach...
July 4, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Loraine Georgy, Bert Jans, Marco Tamietto, Alain Ptito
Blindsight refers to the ability of some patients with destruction of the primary visual cortex (V1) to respond to stimuli presented in their clinically blind visual field despite lack of visual awareness. Here we tested a rare and well-known patient with blindsight following hemispherectomy, DR, who has had the entire cortex in the right hemisphere removed, and in whom the right superior colliculus is the only post-chiasmatic visual structure remaining intact. Compared to more traditional cases of blindsight after damage confined to V1, the study of blindsight in hemispherectomy has offered the invaluable opportunity to examine directly two outstanding questions: the contribution of the intact hemisphere to visual processing without awareness, and the nature of plastic and compensatory changes in these remaining contralesional visual areas...
June 30, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Silvia Bona, Juha Silvanto, Zaira Cattaneo
In addition to its well-documented role in processing of faces, the occipital face area in the right hemisphere (rOFA) may also play a role in identifying specific individuals within a class of objects. Here we explored this issue by using fMRI-guided TMS. In a first experiment, participants had to judge whether two sequentially presented images of faces or objects represented exactly the same exemplar or two different exemplars of the same class, while receiving online TMS over either the rOFA, the right lateral occipital cortex (rLO) or the Vertex (control)...
June 29, 2018: Neuropsychologia
John A E Anderson, Ashley Chung-Fat-Yim, Buddhika Bellana, Gigi Luk, Ellen Bialystok
Neuroimaging studies have reported overlapping neural circuits for cognitive control when engaging in tasks that involve verbal and nonverbal stimuli in young adult bilinguals. However, no study to date has examined the neural basis of verbal and nonverbal task switching in both monolinguals and bilinguals due to the inherent challenge of testing verbal task switching with monolinguals. Therefore, it is not clear whether the finding for overlapping networks is unique to bilingualism or indicative of general cognitive control...
June 27, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Siddharth Jha, Silven Read, Peter Hurd, Bernard Crespi
Common alleles associated with psychiatric disorders are often regarded as deleterious genes that influence vulnerability to disease, but they may also be considered as mediators of variation in adaptively structured cognitive phenotypes among healthy individuals. The schizophrenia-associated gene GRIN2A (glutamate ionotropic receptor NMDA type subunit 2a) codes for a protein subunit of the NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptor that underlies central aspects of human cognition. Pharmacological NMDA blockage recapitulates the major features of schizophrenia in human subjects, and represents a key model for the neurological basis of this disorder...
June 26, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Béatrice Garcin, Emmanuelle Volle, Aurélie Funkiewiez, Bruce L Miller, Bruno Dubois, Richard Levy
BACKGROUND: Patients with neurodegenerative diseases affecting the frontal lobes have difficulties in categorization tasks, such as the similarity tasks. They give two types of unusual response to the question: "In what way are an orange and a banana alike?", either a differentiation ("one is yellow, the other is orange") or a concrete similarity ("they are sweet"). OBJECTIVE: To characterize the categorization deficit of frontal patients and develop a short diagnostic tool to assess the nature of these difficulties...
June 26, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Ceyda Sayalı, David Badre
Cognitive effort is typically aversive, evident in people's tendency to avoid cognitively demanding tasks. The 'cost of control' hypothesis suggests that engagement of cognitive control systems of the brain makes a task costly and the currency of that cost is a reduction in anticipated rewards. However, prior studies have relied on binary hard versus easy task subtractions to manipulate cognitive effort and so have not tested this hypothesis in "dose-response" fashion. In a sample of 50 participants, we parametrically manipulated the level of effort during fMRI scanning by systematically increasing cognitive control demands during a demand-selection paradigm over six levels...
June 23, 2018: Neuropsychologia
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