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Neuropsychologia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219620/brain-structural-correlates-of-executive-and-social-cognition-profiles-in-behavioral-variant-frontotemporal-dementia-and-elderly-bipolar-disorder
#1
Sandra Baez, Clara Pinasco, María Roca, Jesica Ferrari, Blas Couto, Indira García-Cordero, Agustín Ibañez, Francy Cruz, Pablo Reyes, Diana Matallana, Facundo Manes, Marcelo Cetcovich, Teresa Torralva
An early stage of behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) often displays a mix of behavioral disturbances and personality changes hindering a differential diagnosis from elderly bipolar disorder (BD), making this process a big challenge. However, no studies have compared these pathologies from neuropsychological and neuroanatomical perspectives. The aim of the present study was to compare the executive functions (EF) and social cognition profiles as well as the structural neuroimaging of bvFTD and elderly patients with BD...
February 17, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215698/decoding-the-time-course-of-object-recognition-in-the-human-brain-from-visual-features-to-categorical-decisions
#2
Erika W Contini, Susan G Wardle, Thomas A Carlson
Visual object recognition is a complex, dynamic process. Multivariate pattern analysis methods, such as decoding, have begun to reveal how the brain processes complex visual information. Recently, temporal decoding methods for EEG and MEG have offered the potential to evaluate the temporal dynamics of object recognition. Here we review the contribution of M/EEG time-series decoding methods to understanding visual object recognition in the human brain. Consistent with the current understanding of the visual processing hierarchy, low-level visual features dominate decodable object representations early in the time-course, with more abstract representations related to object category emerging later...
February 16, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215697/directed-network-discovery-with-dynamic-network-modeling
#3
Stefano Anzellotti, Dorit Kliemann, Nir Jacoby, Rebecca Saxe
Cognitive tasks recruit multiple brain regions. Understanding how these regions influence each other (the network structure) is an important step to characterize the neural basis of cognitive processes. Often, limited evidence is available to restrict the range of hypotheses a priori, and techniques that sift efficiently through a large number of possible network structures are needed (network discovery). This article introduces a novel modeling technique for network discovery (Dynamic Network Modeling or DNM) that builds on ideas from Granger Causality and Dynamic Causal Modeling introducing three key changes: (1) efficient network discovery is implemented with statistical tests on the consistency of model parameters across participants, (2) the tests take into account the magnitude and sign of each influence, and (3) variance explained in independent data is used as an absolute (rather than relative) measure of the quality of the network model...
February 16, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215450/corrigendum-to-overlapping-and-distinct-brain-regions-involved-in-estimating-the-spatial-position-of-numerical-and-non-numerical-magnitudes-an-fmri-study-neuropsychologia-51-5-2013-979-989
#4
Stephan E Vogel, Roland H Grabner, Michael Schneider, Robert S Siegler, Daniel Ansari
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 16, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209521/impaired-visual-competition-in-patients-with-homonymous-visual-field-defects
#5
A C Geuzebroek, A V van den Berg
Intense visual training can lead to partial recovery of visual field defects caused by lesions of the primary visual cortex. However, the standard visual detection and discrimination tasks, used to assess this recovery process tend to ignore the complexity of the natural visual environment, where multiple stimuli continuously interact. Visual competition is an essential component for natural search tasks and detecting unexpected events. Our study focused on visual decision-making and to what extent the recovered visual field can compete for attention with the 'intact' visual field...
February 13, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209520/deconstructing-empathy-neuroanatomical-dissociations-between-affect-sharing-and-prosocial-motivation-using-a-patient-lesion-model
#6
Suzanne M Shdo, Kamalini G Ranasinghe, Kelly A Gola, Clinton J Mielke, Paul V Sukhanov, Bruce L Miller, Katherine P Rankin
Affect sharing and prosocial motivation are integral parts of empathy that are conceptually and mechanistically distinct. We used a neurodegenerative disease (NDG) lesion model to more directly examine the neural correlates of these two aspects of real-world empathic responding. The study enrolled 275 participants, including 44 healthy older controls and 231 patients diagnosed with one of five neurodegenerative diseases (75 Alzheimer's disease, 58 behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), 42 semantic variant primary progressive aphasia (svPPA), 28 progressive supranuclear palsy, and 28 non-fluent variant (nfvPPA)...
February 13, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202336/functional-connectivity-in-resting-state-as-a-phonemic-fluency-ability-measure
#7
Anna Miró-Padilla, Elisenda Bueichekú, Noelia Ventura-Campos, María-Ángeles Palomar-García, César Ávila
There is some evidence that functional connectivity (FC) measures obtained at rest may reflect individual differences in cognitive capabilities. We tested this possibility by using the FAS test as a measure of phonemic fluency. Seed regions of the main brain areas involved in this task were extracted from meta-analysis results (Wagner et al., 2014) and used for pairwise resting-state FC analysis. Ninety-three undergraduates completed the FAS test outside the scanner. A correlation analysis was conducted between the F-A-S scores (behavioral testing) and the pairwise FC pattern of verbal fluency regions of interest...
February 12, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189494/motor-activation-during-action-perception-depends-on-action-interpretation
#8
Barbara Pomiechowska, Gergely Csibra
Since the discovery of motor mirroring, the involvement of the motor system in action interpretation has been widely discussed. While some theories proposed that motor mirroring underlies human action understanding, others suggested that it is a corollary of action interpretation. We put these two accounts to the test by employing superficially similar actions that invite radically different interpretations of the underlying intentions. Using an action-observation task, we assessed motor activation (as indexed by the suppression of the EEG mu rhythm) in response to actions typically interpreted as instrumental (e...
February 9, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189493/strategic-use-of-reminders-in-an-intention-offloading-task-do-individuals-with-autism-spectrum-conditions-compensate-for-memory-difficulties
#9
Mouslim Cherkaoui, Sam J Gilbert
Previous studies have found that individuals with autism spectrum conditions (ASC) can have difficulty remembering to execute delayed intentions. However, in these studies participants were prevented from setting external reminders, whereas the use of such reminders in everyday life is commonplace (e.g. calendars, to-do lists, smartphone alerts). In the present study, 28 participants with ASC and 24 matched neurotypicals performed a task requiring them to remember delayed intentions. In the first phase participants were required to use unaided memory, whereas in the second they had the option to offload their intentions by setting reminders if they wished...
February 8, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174049/subthalamic-nucleus-deep-brain-stimulation-affects-distractor-interference-in-auditory-working-memory
#10
Corrie R Camalier, Alice Y Wang, Lindsey G McIntosh, Sohee Park, Joseph S Neimat
Computational and theoretical accounts hypothesize the basal ganglia play a supramodal "gating" role in the maintenance of working memory representations, especially in preservation from distractor interference. There are currently two major limitations to this account. The first is that supporting experiments have focused exclusively on the visuospatial domain, leaving questions as to whether such "gating" is domain-specific. The second is that current evidence relies on correlational measures, as it is extremely difficult to causally and reversibly manipulate subcortical structures in humans...
February 5, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167121/assessing-motor-imagery-in-brain-computer-interface-training-psychological-and-neurophysiological-correlates
#11
Anatoly Vasilyev, Sofya Liburkina, Lev Yakovlev, Olga Perepelkina, Alexander Kaplan
Motor imagery (MI) is considered to be a promising cognitive tool for improving motor skills as well as for rehabilitation therapy of movement disorders. It is believed that MI training efficiency could be improved by using the brain-computer interface (BCI) technology providing real-time feedback on person's mental attempts. While BCI is indeed a convenient and motivating tool for practicing MI, it is not clear whether it could be used for predicting or measuring potential positive impact of the training. In this study, we are trying to establish whether the proficiency in BCI control is associated with any of the neurophysiological or psychological correlates of motor imagery, as well as to determine possible interrelations among them...
February 4, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167120/switching-direction-affects-switching-costs-behavioral-erp-and-time-frequency-analyses-of-intra-sentential-codeswitching
#12
Kaitlyn A Litcofsky, Janet G van Hell
Bilinguals have the unique ability to produce utterances that switch between languages. Most language switching research has focused on isolated, unrelated items, which emphasizes separation of the languages. Fewer studies examined the cognitive and neural mechanisms of switching languages in natural discourse. The present study examined the effect of codeswitching direction on the comprehension of intra-sentential codeswitching in Spanish-English bilinguals, using self-paced reading behavioral measurements (Experiment 1) and electroencephalography (EEG) measurements (Experiment 2), analyzed via both event-related potentials (ERPs) and time-frequency analysis (TFR)...
February 3, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163007/vestibular-contributions-to-high-level-sensorimotor-functions
#13
W Pieter Medendorp, Luc J P Selen
The vestibular system, which detects motion and orientation of the head in space, is known to be important in controlling gaze to stabilize vision, to ensure postural stability and to provide our sense of self-motion. While the brain's computations underlying these functions are extensively studied, the role of the vestibular system in higher level sensorimotor functions is less clear. This review covers new research on the vestibular influence on perceptual judgments, motor decisions, and the ability to learn multiple motor actions...
February 2, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161367/age-related-differences-in-sleep-based-memory-consolidation-a-meta-analysis
#14
Wen-Jun Gui, Hui-Jie Li, Yu-Hua Guo, Peng Peng, Xu Lei, Jing Yu
A period of post-learning sleep benefits memory consolidation compared with an equal-length wake interval. However, whether this sleep-based memory consolidation changes as a function of age remains controversial. Here we report a meta-analysis that investigates the age differences in the sleep-based memory consolidation in two types of memory: declarative memory and procedural memory. The meta-analysis included 22 comparisons of the performance between young adults (N =640) and older adults (N =529) on behavioral tasks measuring sleep-based memory consolidation...
February 2, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159618/musical-anhedonia-after-focal-brain-damage
#15
Amy M Belfi, Erin Evans, Jonah Heskje, Joel Bruss, Daniel Tranel
People listen to music because it is pleasurable. However, there are individual differences in the reward value of music. At the extreme low end of this continuum, individuals who derive no pleasure from music are said to have 'musical anhedonia.' Cases of acquired musical anhedonia following focal brain damage are rare, with only a handful having been reported in the scientific literature. Here, we surveyed a large sample of patients with focal brain damage to identify the frequency, specificity, and neural correlates of acquired musical anhedonia...
January 31, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159617/a-brief-comparative-review-of-primate-posterior-parietal-cortex-a-novel-hypothesis-on-the-human-toolmaker
#16
S Kastner, Q Chen, S K Jeong, R E B Mruczek
The primate visual system contains two major cortical pathways: a ventral-temporal pathway that has been associated with object processing and recognition, and a dorsal-parietal pathway that has been associated with spatial processing and action guidance. Our understanding of the role of the dorsal pathway, in particular, has greatly evolved within the framework of the two-pathway hypothesis since its original conception. Here, we present a comparative review of the primate dorsal pathway in humans and monkeys based on electrophysiological, neuroimaging, neuropsychological, and neuroanatomical studies...
January 31, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153640/neural-bases-of-congenital-amusia-in-tonal-language-speakers
#17
Caicai Zhang, Gang Peng, Jing Shao, William S-Y Wang
Congenital amusia is a lifelong neurodevelopmental disorder of fine-grained pitch processing. In this fMRI study, we examined the neural bases of congenial amusia in speakers of a tonal language - Cantonese. Previous studies on non-tonal language speakers suggest that the neural deficits of congenital amusia lie in the music-selective neural circuitry in the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). However, it is unclear whether this finding can generalize to congenital amusics in tonal languages. Tonal language experience has been reported to shape the neural processing of pitch, which raises the question of how tonal language experience affects the neural bases of congenital amusia...
January 31, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153639/parkinson-s-disease-alters-multisensory-perception-insights-from-the-rubber-hand-illusion
#18
Catherine Ding, Colin J Palmer, Jakob Hohwy, George J Youssef, Bryan Paton, Naotsugu Tsuchiya, Julie C Stout, Dominic Thyagarajan
BACKGROUND: Manipulation of multisensory integration induces illusory perceptions of body ownership. Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), a neurodegenerative disorder characterised by striatal dopamine deficiency, are prone to illusions and hallucinations and have sensory deficits. Dopaminergic treatment also aggravates hallucinations in PD. Whether multisensory integration in body ownership is altered by PD is unexplored. OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of dopamine neurotransmission on illusory perceptions of body ownership...
January 31, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132858/lingering-representations-of-stimuli-influence-recall-organization
#19
Stephanie C Y Chan, Marissa C Applegate, Neal W Morton, Sean M Polyn, Kenneth A Norman
Several prominent theories posit that information about recent experiences lingers in the brain and organizes memories for current experiences, by forming a temporal context that is linked to those memories at encoding. According to these theories, if the thoughts preceding an experience X resemble the thoughts preceding an experience Y, then X and Y should show an elevated probability of being recalled together. We tested this prediction by using multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) of fMRI data to measure neural evidence for lingering processing of preceding stimuli...
January 26, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131811/activation-of-writing-specific-brain-regions-when-reading-chinese-as-a-second-language-effects-of-training-modality-and-transfer-to-novel-characters
#20
Aurélie Lagarrigue, Marieke Longcamp, Jean Luc Anton, Bruno Nazarian, Laurent Prévot, Jean-Luc Velay, Fan Cao, Cheryl Frenck-Mestre
We examined the implication of training modality on the cortical representation of Chinese words in adult learners of Chinese. In particular, we tested the implication of the neural substrates of writing in a reading task. The brain network sustaining finger writing was defined neuroanatomically based on an independent functional localizer, and brain activations during reading were analysed according to the position of the activation peaks in this localizer. We compared the brain activation elicited by Chinese words learned via writing vs...
January 25, 2017: Neuropsychologia
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