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Sheida Rabipour, Allan D Wu, Patrick S R Davidson, Marco Iacoboni
Growing interest surrounds transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) as a safe and inexpensive method for improving cognitive functions and mood. Nevertheless, tDCS studies rarely examine psychological factors such as expectations of outcomes, which may influence tDCS responsiveness through placebo-like effects. Here we sought to evaluate the potential influence of expectations on tDCS intervention outcomes. We assessed expectations of tDCS outcomes in 88 healthy young adults on three occasions: i) at baseline; ii) after reading information implying either high or low effectiveness of stimulation; and iii) after a single-session of sham-controlled anodal tDCS applied to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, during working memory (WM) training...
September 15, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Matthew Ainsworth, Helen Browncross, Daniel J Mitchell, Anna S Mitchell, Richard E Passingham, Mark J Buckley, John Duncan, Andrew H Bell
Damage following traumatic brain injury or stroke can often extend beyond the boundaries of the initial insult and can lead to maladaptive cortical reorganisation. On the other hand, beneficial cortical reorganisation leading to recovery of function can also occur. We used resting state FMRI to investigate how cortical networks in the macaque brain change across time in response to lesions to the prefrontal cortex, and how this reorganisation correlated with changes in behavioural performance in cognitive tasks...
September 12, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Sven Thönes, Michael Falkenstein, Patrick D Gajewski
With large inter-individual variability, older adults show a decline in cognitive performance in dual-task situations. Differences in attentional processes, working memory, response selection, and general speed of information processing have been discussed as potential sources of this decline and its between-subject variability. In comparison to young subjects (n = 36, mean age: 25 years), we analyzed the performance of a large group of healthy elderly subjects (n = 138, mean age: 70 years) in a conflicting dual-task situation (PRP paradigm)...
September 12, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Irene van de Vijver, Hein T van Schie, Harm Veling, Roel van Dooren, Rob W Holland
The mere perception of high-calorie food items can trigger strong action tendencies towards these foods. Go/no-go training has successfully been applied to reduce such action tendencies. This study investigated the electrophysiological mechanisms that may underlie the beneficial effects of go/no-go training on food consumption. EEG was measured while 19 participants passively observed pictures of food and non-food items, both before and after the go/no-go training. During training, 50% of the food and non-food items were consistently paired with a go/no-go response...
September 7, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Megan S Barker, Nicole L Nelson, John D O'Sullivan, Robert Adam, Gail A Robinson
Energization is the process of initiating and sustaining a response over time. It has been described as one of three key "supervisory" attentional control processes associated with the frontal lobes. Attentional mechanisms, such as energization, are critical for a range of cognitive functions, such as spontaneous speech and other higher-order tasks. We aimed to investigate the process of energization in a case series of patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). Patients with a diagnosis of PSP (N = 5), patient controls with a neurodegenerative condition (Alzheimer's disease N = 3, frontotemporal dementia N = 2) and healthy older adult controls (N = 30) were assessed on a standard neuropsychological battery, including executive tasks and standard attention and language tests...
September 5, 2018: Neuropsychologia
O Scott Gwinn, Courtney N Matera, Sean F O'Neil, Michael A Webster
Face recognition requires identifying both the invariant characteristics that distinguish one individual from another and the variations within the individual that correspond to emotional expressions. Both have been postulated to be represented via a norm-based code, in which identity or expression are represented as deviations from an average or neutral prototype. We used Fast Periodic Visual Stimulation (FPVS) with electroencephalography (EEG) to compare neural responses for neutral faces, expressions and anti-expressions...
September 4, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Hanno Andreas Ohmann, Niclas Kuper, Jan Wacker
BACKGROUND: A growing body of literature indicates a correlation between asymmetrical activity of frontal brain sites and approach versus withdrawal motivation. Yet the causal status of this relationship is presently unclear. Here we examined the effect of anodal tDCS applied over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) on approach motivation, operationalized as effort allocation during the Effort-Expenditure for Reward Task (EEfRT). HYPOTHESIS: We expected left frontal anodal transcranial direct current simulation (tDCS) to increase participants' willingness to allocate more effort during the EEfRT...
September 4, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Kenta Kimura, Hiroki Sawada, Jun'ichi Katayama
The present study aimed to investigate whether coincidence of opinion affects the evaluative processing of outcomes in group decision-making under authority rule. For this purpose, we examined the effects of the opinion coincidence on feedback-related negativity (FRN), an event-related brain potential (ERP) reflecting the evaluative processing of outcomes. Six three-person groups performed a group decision-making task in which one member acting as a leader (leader blocks) made a group decision to choose one of two cards after he/she observed opinions of the other members acting as followers (follower blocks), and monetary gain or loss was contingent on the group decision...
September 3, 2018: Neuropsychologia
André Lindsey, Jennifer Mozeiko, Frank Krueger, Jordan Grafman, Carl Coelho
The objective of the present study was to investigate structural changes in the narrative discourse of individuals with penetrating traumatic brain injury (pTBI) following immediate and delayed story retellings. Additionally, the potential influence of immediate memory, working memory, and executive functions on narrative discourse performance were examined. The narrative discourse of two groups, 123 with pTBI and 44 non-brain injured (NBI), was sampled. Participants were asked to retell a wordless picture story immediately after viewing it and again 30-min later...
September 1, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Guillermo Recio, Werner Sommer
In social situations facial expressions are often strategically employed. Despite the many research on motor control of limb movements, little is known about the control over facial expressions. Using a response-priming task, we investigated motor control over three facial expressions, smiles, disgust and emotionally neutral jaw drops. Prime stimuli consisted of videos of a facial expression to be prepared or - as a neutral prime - an abstract symbol superimposed to a scrambled face. In valid trials an equal symbol (=) indicated to produce the primed expression...
August 31, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Victoria C Merritt, Alexandra L Clark, Laura D Crocker, Scott F Sorg, Madeleine L Werhane, Mark W Bondi, Dawn M Schiehser, Lisa Delano-Wood
Although across-test intra-individual variability (IIV), or dispersion, has been shown to be a valuable marker of neurological health in a variety of clinical samples, IIV has not been well examined in the context of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). In the present study, we examined measures of IIV in military Veterans with and without a history of mTBI. Secondly, we examined how measures of IIV relate to traditional indices of mean cognitive performance, TBI characteristics, and neuropsychiatric symptoms in mTBI...
August 31, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Harmony Duclos, Alexandre Bejanin, Francis Eustache, Béatrice Desgranges, Mickaël Laisney
Affective theory of mind (ToM) is defined as the ability to deal with affective mental states. Attributing an affective mental state from a facial expression relies mainly on processes that allow information in the environment to be perceived and decoded. Reasoning processes are required when information is not directly available in the environment (e.g., when making an affective mental state attribution in a social situation where there is no visible facial expression of emotion). Although facial emotion decoding deficits have been reported in Alzheimer's disease (AD), few studies have assessed emotional reasoning processes...
August 31, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Elisabetta Ambron, Steven Jax, Luis F Schettino, H Branch Coslett
Increasing perceived hand size using magnifying lenses improves tactile discrimination and motor performance in neurologically-intact individuals. We tested whether magnification of the hand can improve motor function in individuals with chronic stroke. Twenty-five individuals with a history of stroke more than 6 months prior to testing underwent a series of tasks exploring different aspects of motor performance (grip force, finger tapping, reaching and grasping, and finger matching) under two visual conditions: magnified or normal vision...
August 30, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Daniel Reznik, Shiri Simon, Roy Mukamel
Self-generated, voluntary actions, are preceded by a slow negativity in the scalp electroencephalography (EEG) signal recorded from frontal regions (termed 'readiness potential'; RP). This signal, and its lateralized subcomponent (LRP), is mainly regarded as preparatory motor activity associated with the forthcoming voluntary motor act. However, it is not clear whether this neural signature is associated with preparatory motor activity, expectation of its associated sensory consequences, or both. Here we recorded EEG data from 14 healthy subjects while they performed self-paced button presses with their right index and middle fingers...
August 30, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Angelika Margarete Dierolf, Daniela Schoofs, Eve-Mariek Hessas, Michael Falkenstein, Tobias Otto, Marcus Paul, Boris Suchan, Oliver T Wolf
While aging and stress are both known to affect cognitive functions, little is known on whether and how age modulates stress effects on executive functions and their neural correlates. The current study investigated the effect of acute stress on response inhibition and error processing and their underlying cortical processes in younger and older healthy men, using EEG. Forty-nine participants (30 young) were stressed with the Trier Social Stress Test (16 young, 9 older) or underwent a friendly control procedure (14 young, 10 older) and subsequently performed a Go/No-Go task with two levels of task difficulty while performance (reaction time, error rate), stimulus-locked (N2, P3) and response-locked (Ne, Pe) ERPs were measured...
August 29, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Max P Herzberg, Amanda S Hodel, Raquel A Cowell, Ruskin H Hunt, Megan R Gunnar, Kathleen M Thomas
Early life stress in the form of early institutional care has been shown to have wide-ranging impacts on the biological and behavioral development of young children. Studies of brain structure using magnetic resonance imaging have reported decreased prefrontal volumes, and a large literature has detailed decreased executive function (EF) in post-institutionalized (PI) youth. Little is known about how these findings relate to decision-making, particularly in PI youth entering adolescence-a period often characterized by social transition and increased reliance upon EF skills and the still-maturing prefrontal regions that support them...
August 28, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Maren Jasmin Cordi, Thomas Schreiner, Björn Rasch
Quality of memory and sleep declines with age. However, the mechanistic interactions underlying the memory function of sleep in older adults are still unknown. It is widely assumed that the beneficial effect of sleep on memory relies on reactivation during Non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. Targeting these reactivations by cue re-exposure reliably improves memory in younger participants. Here we tested whether the memory reactivation mechanism during sleep is still functional in old age. For this purpose we applied targeted memory reactivation (TMR) during NREM sleep in healthy adults over 60 years and directly compared the results to a group of younger participants...
August 25, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Ciro Civile, Rossy McLaren, I P L McLaren
The aim of the current work is to advance our understanding of both the mechanisms controlling perceptual learning and the face inversion effect. In the three double blind experiments reported here (total N = 144) we have shown that anodal tDCS stimulation (10 min at 1.5 mA) delivered over the left DLPFC at Fp3 affects perceptual learning and drastically reduces the, usually robust, face inversion effect. In Experiment 1, we found a significantly reduced inversion effect in the anodal group compared to that in the sham group...
August 23, 2018: Neuropsychologia
S Vez, J Köhli, B Frey, D A Magezi, J-M Annoni, J-M Burgunder
BACKGROUND: Huntington's disease (HD) is characterized by early involvement of the striatum. It affects the pace of repetitive motor activity, as motor timing depends on basal ganglia activity. However, data are lacking on the impact of this process on auditory time perception in motor non-affected gene carriers. OBJECTIVE: This work aims to test the performance in time perception of a group of mutation carriers, either without motor symptoms or at an early stage of motor involvement...
August 22, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Louise C Barne, João R Sato, Raphael Y de Camargo, Peter M E Claessens, Marcelo S Caetano, André M Cravo
Humans' and non-human animals' ability to process time on the scale of milliseconds and seconds is essential for adaptive behaviour. A central question of how brains keep track of time is how specific temporal information across different sensory modalities is. In the present study, we show that encoding of temporal intervals in auditory and visual modalities are qualitatively similar. Human participants were instructed to reproduce intervals in the range from 750 ms to 1500 ms marked by auditory or visual stimuli...
August 22, 2018: Neuropsychologia
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