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Neuropsychologia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633887/visual-integration-of-fear-and-anger-emotional-cues-by-children-on-the-autism-spectrum-and-neurotypical-peers-an-eeg-study
#1
Evie Malaia, Debbie Cockerham, Katherine Rublein
Communication deficits in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are often related to inefficient interpretation of emotional cues, which are conveyed visually through both facial expressions and body language (Apicella et al., 2012). The present study examined ASD behavioral and ERP responses to emotional expressions of anger and fear, as conveyed by the face and body. Behavioral results showed significantly faster response times for the ASD than for the typically developing (TD) group when processing fear, but not anger, in isolated face expressions, isolated body expressions, and in the integration of the two...
June 17, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633886/remembering-and-imagining-alternative-versions-of-the-personal-past
#2
Peggy L St Jacques, Alexis C Carpenter, Karl K Szpunar, Daniel L Schacter
Although autobiographical memory and episodic simulations recruit similar core brain regions, episodic simulations engage additional neural recruitment in the frontoparietal control network due to greater demands on constructive processes. However, previous functional neuroimaging studies showing differences in remembering and episodic simulation have focused on veridical retrieval of past experiences, and thus have not fully considered how retrieving the past in different ways from how it was originally experienced may also place similar demands on constructive processes...
June 17, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625660/task-related-and-resting-state-fmri-identify-distinct-networks-which-preferentially-support-remembering-the-past-and-imagining-the-future
#3
Adrian W Gilmore, Steven M Nelson, Hung-Yu Chen, Kathleen B McDermott
The relation between episodic memory and episodic future thought (EFT) remains an active target of research. A growing literature suggests that similar cognitive processes and neural substrates tend to support these acts. However, direct comparisons of whole-brain activity reveal clear differences, with numerous regions more active when engaging in EFT than when remembering, and a smaller collection of regions displaying the opposite pattern of activity. Although various network labels have been applied to prior neuroimaging results, to date no formal resting-state functional connectivity analysis has been conducted...
June 15, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625659/abnormal-semantic-knowledge-in-a-case-of-developmental-amnesia
#4
Anna Blumenthal, Devin Duke, Ben Bowles, Asaf Gilboa, R Shayna Rosenbaum, Stefan Köhler, Ken McRae
An important theory holds that semantic knowledge can develop independently of episodic memory. One strong source of evidence supporting this independence comes from the observation that individuals with early hippocampal damage leading to developmental amnesia generally perform normally on standard tests of semantic memory, despite their profound impairment in episodic memory. However, one aspect of semantic memory that has not been explored is conceptual structure. We built on the theoretically important distinction between intrinsic features of object concepts (e...
June 15, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625658/enhancing-anger-perception-in-older-adults-by-stimulating-inferior-frontal-cortex-with-high-frequency-transcranial-random-noise-stimulation
#5
Tao Yang, Michael J Banissy
Extensive behavioural evidence has shown that older people have declined ability in facial emotion perception. Recent work has begun to examine the neural mechanism that contribute to this, and potential tools to support emotion perception during aging. The aim of this study was to investigate whether high frequency tRNS applied to the inferior frontal cortex would enhance facial expression perception in older adults. Healthy aged adults (60+ years) were randomly assigned to receive active high-frequency or sham tRNS targeted at bilateral inferior frontal cortices...
June 15, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624522/decision-related-factors-in-pupil-old-new-effects-attention-response-execution-and-false-memory
#6
Andreas Brocher, Tim Graf
In this study, we investigate the effects of decision-related factors on recognition memory in pupil old/new paradigms. In Experiment 1, we used an old/new paradigm with words and pseudowords and participants made lexical decisions during recognition rather than old/new decisions. Importantly, participants were instructed to focus on the nonword-likeness of presented items, not their word-likeness. We obtained no old/new effects. In Experiment 2, participants discriminated old from new words and old from new pseudowords during recognition, and they did so as quickly as possible...
June 15, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624521/semanticized-autobiographical-memory-and-the-default-executive-coupling-hypothesis-of-aging
#7
R Nathan Spreng, Amber W Lockrow, Elizabeth DuPre, Roni Setton, Karen A P Spreng, Gary R Turner
As we age, the architecture of cognition undergoes a fundamental transition. Fluid intellectual abilities decline while crystalized abilities remain stable or increase. This shift has a profound impact across myriad cognitive and functional domains, yet the neural mechanisms remain under-specified. We have proposed that greater connectivity between the default network and executive control regions in lateral prefrontal cortex may underlie this shift, as older adults increasingly rely upon accumulated knowledge to support goal-directed behavior...
June 14, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623108/acting-seeing-and-conscious-awareness
#8
R E Passingham, H C Lau
We argue that there is a relation between the judgements that 'I did it' and 'I saw it'. Both are statements are about the individual, not just the world. We show that the dorsal prefrontal cortex is activated both when human subjects judge that they are the agents of their actions and when they judge that they are confident that they have seen a masked visual stimulus. Macaque monkeys have also been taught to report whether they have or have not seen visual stimuli and cells can be found in the dorsal prefrontal cortex that distinguish between 'seen' and 'not seen'...
June 13, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623107/speech-in-noise-perception-in-unilateral-hearing-loss-relation-to-pure-tone-thresholds-and-brainstem-plasticity
#9
Nicolas Vannson, Chris J James, Bernard Fraysse, Boris Lescure, Kuzma Strelnikov, Olivier Deguine, Pascal Barone, Mathieu Marx
We investigated speech recognition in noise in subjects with mild to profound levels of unilateral hearing loss. Thirty-five adults were evaluated using an adaptive signal-to-noise ratio (SNR50) sentence recognition threshold test in three spatial configurations. The results revealed a significant correlation between pure-tone average audiometric thresholds in the poorer ear and SNR thresholds in the two conditions where speech and noise were spatially separated: dichotic - with speech presented to the poorer ear and reverse dichotic - with speech presented to the better ear...
June 13, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619530/neural-networks-underlying-language-and-social-cognition-during-self-other-processing-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#10
Rajesh K Kana, Emma B Sartin, Carl Stevens, Hrishikesh D Deshpande, Christopher Klein, Mark R Klinger, Laura Grofer Klinger
The social communication impairments defining autism spectrum disorders (ASD) may be built upon core deficits in perspective-taking, language processing, and self-other representation. Self-referential processing entails the ability to incorporate self-awareness, self-judgment, and self-memory in information processing. Very few studies have examined the neural bases of integrating self-other representation and semantic processing in individuals with ASD. The main objective of this functional MRI study is to examine the role of language and social brain networks in self-other processing in young adults with ASD...
June 12, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619529/on-the-partnership-between-neural-representations-of-object-categories-and-visual-features-in-the-ventral-visual-pathway
#11
Stefania Bracci, J Brendan Ritchie, Hans Op de Beeck
A dominant view in the cognitive neuroscience of object vision is that regions of the ventral visual pathway exhibit some degree of category selectivity. However, recent findings obtained with multivariate pattern analyses (MVPA) suggest that apparent category selectivity in these regions is dependent on more basic visual features of stimuli. In which case a rethinking of the function and organization of the ventral pathway may be in order. We suggest that addressing this issue of functional specificity requires clear coding hypotheses, about object category and visual features, which make contrasting predictions about neuroimaging results in ventral pathway regions...
June 12, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610849/dynamic-spatial-organization-of-the-occipito-temporal-word-form-area-for-second-language-processing
#12
Yue Gao, Yafeng Sun, Chunming Lu, Guosheng Ding, Taomei Guo, Jeffrey G Malins, James R Booth, Danling Peng, Li Liu
Despite the left occipito-temporal region having shown consistent activation in visual word form processing across numerous studies in different languages, the mechanisms by which word forms of second languages are processed in this region remain unclear. To examine this more closely, 16 Chinese-English and 14 English-Chinese late bilinguals were recruited to perform lexical decision tasks to visually presented words in both their native and second languages (L1 and L2) during functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning...
June 10, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610848/modulating-phonemic-fluency-performance-in-healthy-subjects-with-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-over-the-left-or-right-lateral-frontal-cortex
#13
Daniela Smirni, Patrizia Turriziani, Giuseppa Renata Mangano, Martina Bracco, Massimiliano Oliveri, Lisa Cipolotti
A growing body of evidence have suggested that non-invasive brain stimulation techniques, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), can improve the performance of aphasic patients in language tasks. For example, application of inhibitory rTMS or tDCs over the right frontal lobe of dysphasic patients resulted in improved naming abilities. Several studies have also reported that in healthy controls (HC) tDCS application over the left prefrontal cortex (PFC) improve performance in naming and semantic fluency tasks...
June 10, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602998/the-right-hemisphere-is-independent-from-the-left-hemisphere-in-allocating-visuospatial-attention
#14
Arianna Zuanazzi, Luigi Cattaneo
The capacity to allocate visuospatial attention is traditionally considered right-lateralized according to the effects of unilateral cerebral lesions. Contralateral hemi-spatial neglect occurs much more frequently after lesions of the right hemisphere, which has therefore been dubbed as 'dominant'. This pattern of symptoms is supported by functional models that postulate either independence or reciprocal influences between the two hemispheres. Here we specifically explored the dependency of the right hemisphere (RH) from the left hemisphere (LH) in spatial attention...
June 9, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602997/neural-mechanisms-underlying-valence-inferences-to-sound-the-role-of-the-right-angular-gyrus
#15
Fernando Bravo, Ian Cross, Sarah Hawkins, Nadia Gonzalez, Jorge Docampo, Claudio Bruno, Emmanuel Andreas Stamatakis
We frequently infer others' intentions based on non-verbal auditory cues. Although the brain underpinnings of social cognition have been extensively studied, no empirical work has yet examined the impact of musical structure manipulation on the neural processing of emotional valence during mental state inferences. We used a novel sound-based theory-of-mind paradigm in which participants categorized stimuli of different sensory dissonance level in terms of positive/negative valence. Whilst consistent with previous studies which propose facilitated encoding of consonances, our results demonstrated that distinct levels of consonance/dissonance elicited differential influences on the right angular gyrus, an area implicated in mental state attribution and attention reorienting processes...
June 8, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601527/spatial-distortion-related-to-time-compression-during-spatiotemporal-production-in-parkinson-s-disease
#16
Motoyasu Honma, Yuki Murai, Shuhei Shima, Yuko Yotsumoto, Takeshi Kuroda, Akinori Futamura, Azusa Shiromaru, Ikuya Murakami, Mitsuru Kawamura
To produce coordinated manual actions within specific space and time, their relationship must be properly dealt with in a sensorimotor system. This study examined how such a coordination system might be impaired in normal aging and in Parkinson's disease (PD). Using a tablet device, young participants, elderly participants, and patients with PD were tested for concurrent production of distance and duration as well as single production of distance or duration alone. Results were analyzed in relation to deficiency of presynaptic dopamine transporter (DaT) in the striatum...
June 7, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587767/frontal-alpha-asymmetry-predicts-inhibitory-processing-in-youth-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#17
Alissa J Ellis, Chantelle Kinzel, Giulia C Salgari, Sandra K Loo
INTRODUCTION: Atypical asymmetry in brain activity has been implicated in the behavioral and attentional dysregulation observed in ADHD. Specifically, asymmetry in neural activity in the right versus left frontal regions has been linked to ADHD, as well as to symptoms often associated with ADHD such as heightened approach behaviors, impulsivity and difficulties with inhibition. Clarifying the role of frontal asymmetry in ADHD-like traits, such as disinhibition, may provide information on the neurophysiological processes underlying these behaviors...
June 3, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583388/spatial-modulation-of-motor-sensory-recalibration-in-early-deaf-individuals
#18
Tiziana Vercillo, Fang Jiang
Audition dominates other senses in temporal processing, and in the absence of auditory cues, temporal perception can be compromised. Moreover, after auditory deprivation, visual attention is selectively enhanced for peripheral visual stimuli. In this study, we assessed whether early hearing loss affects motor-sensory recalibration, the ability to adjust the timing of an action and its sensory effect based on the recent experience. Early deaf participants and hearing controls were asked to discriminate the temporal order between a motor action (a keypress) and a visual stimulus (a white circle) before and after adaptation to a delay between the two events...
June 3, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583387/prefrontally-mediated-alterations-in-the-retrieval-of-negative-events-links-to-memory-vividness-across-the-adult-lifespan
#19
Jaclyn H Ford, Elizabeth A Kensinger
Prior research has identified age-by-valence interactions in both behavior and neural recruitment; age has been associated with increased retrieval of positive relative to negative information as well as an increased tendency to recruit prefrontal regions during negative event retrieval and for this recruitment to correspond to decreased hippocampal connectivity. To date, the explicit relation between prefrontal recruitment and memory phenomenology has not been examined. The current study examined the link between these two measures by examining age-by-valence interactions in the relation between prefrontal recruitment and subjective ratings of memory vividness...
June 3, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583386/laugh-or-cringe-common-and-distinct-processes-of-reward-based-schadenfreude-and-empathy-based-fremdscham
#20
Frieder M Paulus, Laura Müller-Pinzler, David S Stolz, Annalina V Mayer, Lena Rademacher, Sören Krach
Witnessing others' plights can be funny for observers, but may also trigger one to empathically cringe with the victim of the predicament. In the present study, we examined the common and distinct neural networks involved in schadenfreude (i.e. pleasure derived from another's misfortune) and fremdscham (i.e. empathically sharing the embarrassment about another's misfortune). Using functional magnetic resonance imaging we examined a total of N = 34 participants while they observed social integrity threats of a misfortunate other and either reported on their schadenfreude or fremdscham...
June 2, 2017: Neuropsychologia
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