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Neuropsychologia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792887/auditory-priming-improves-neural-synchronization-in-auditory-motor-entrainment
#1
Jewel E Crasta, Michael H Thaut, Charles W Anderson, Patricia L Davies, William J Gavin
Neurophysiological research has shown that auditory and motor systems interact during movement to rhythmic auditory stimuli through a process called entrainment. This study explores the neural oscillations underlying auditory-motor entrainment using electroencephalography. Forty young adults were randomly assigned to one of two control conditions, an auditory-only condition or a motor-only condition, prior to a rhythmic auditory-motor synchronization condition (referred to as combined condition). Participants assigned to the auditory-only condition (auditory-first group) listened to 400 trials of auditory stimuli presented every 800ms, while those in the motor-only condition (motor-first group) were asked to tap rhythmically every 800ms without any external stimuli...
May 21, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787739/apathy-in-individuals-with-parkinson-s-disease-associated-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-a-neuropsychological-investigation
#2
Alberto Costa, Antonella Peppe, Silvia Zabberoni, Francesco Scalici, Carlo Caltagirone, Giovanni Augusto Carlesimo
Apathy is frequently reported in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) and is hypothesized to be associated with frontal-striatal related cognitive functions. Available data, however, do not provide univocal results. Moreover, this relationship has been poorly investigated in PD patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). This study was aimed at investigating the association between severity of apathy of PD patients and their performance on neuropsychological tests investigating executive abilities. Individuals with PD (i...
May 19, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782873/sleep-divergently-affects-cognitive-and-automatic-emotional-response-in-children
#3
Elaina Bolinger, Jan Born, Katharina Zinke
Sleep enhances memory for emotional experiences, but its influence on the emotional response associated with memories is elusive. Here, we compared the influence of nocturnal sleep on memory for negative and neutral pictures and the associated emotional response in 8-11-year-old children, i.e., an age group with heightened levels of emotional memory-related sleep features. During all sessions, emotional responses as measured by subjective ratings, the late positive potential of the EEG (LPP) and heart rate deceleration (HRD) were recorded...
May 18, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772220/cue-awareness-in-avoiding-effortful-control
#4
Timothy L Dunn, Connor Gaspar, Evan F Risko
Based on a recent metacognitive account, cognitive effort is the result of an inferential evaluation made over explicitly available cues. Following from this account, we present here a pre-registered experiment that tested the specific hypothesis that explicit awareness of cues that are aligned with cognitive demand is a prerequisite in avoiding effortful lines of action. We attempted to modulate levels of effort avoidance behavior by introducing an incentive (between-subjects) to monitor two lines of action that, unbeknownst to individuals, varied in the probability of a task switch...
May 14, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772219/differential-roles-of-polar-orbital-prefrontal-cortex-and-parietal-lobes-in-logical-reasoning-with-neutral-and-negative-emotional-content
#5
Iveta Eimontaite, Vinod Goel, Vanessa Raymont, Frank Krueger, Igor Schindler, Jordan Grafman
To answer the question of how brain pathology affects reasoning about negative emotional content, we administered a disjunctive logical reasoning task involving arguments with neutral content (e.g. Either there are tigers or women in NYC, but not both; There are no tigers in NYC; There are women in NYC) and emotionally laden content (e.g. Either there are pedophiles or politicians in Texas, but not both; There are politicians in Texas; There are no pedophiles in Texas) to 92 neurological patients with focal lesions to various parts of the brain...
May 14, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768189/neural-responses-to-perturbations-in-visual-and-auditory-metronomes-during-sensorimotor-synchronization
#6
Daniel C Comstock, Ramesh Balasubramaniam
Tapping in synchrony to an isochronous rhythm involves several key functions of the sensorimotor system including timing, prediction and error correction. While auditory sensorimotor synchronization (SMS) has been well studied, much less is known about mechanisms involved in visual SMS. By comparing error correction in auditory and visual SMS, it can be determined if the neural mechanisms for detection and correction of synchronization errors are generalized or domain specific. To study this problem, we measured EEG while subjects tapped in synchrony to separate visual and auditory metronomes that both contained small temporal perturbations to induce errors...
May 13, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763616/influence-of-continuous-flash-suppression-mask-frequency-on-stimulus-visibility
#7
Minye Zhan, Tahnée Engelen, Beatrice de Gelder
The continuous flash suppression (CFS) paradigm is increasingly used in consciousness research, but its mechanisms are still not fully understood. To better understand its temporal properties, we presented the CFS masks at 9 frequencies, and examined their influence on stimuli visibility, while taking into account the inter-individual variability and the change of CFS suppression as the experiment progressed. The frequencies consisted of fundamental frequencies of 3, 4 and 5Hz, and their 2nd and 3rd harmonics, which included the 10Hz frequency typically used in most of the CFS studies...
May 12, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758227/effects-of-feedback-delay-on-learning-from-positive-and-negative-feedback-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease-off-medication
#8
Benjamin Weismüller, Marta Ghio, Kazimierz Logmin, Christian Hartmann, Alfons Schnitzler, Bettina Pollok, Martin Südmeyer, Christian Bellebaum
Phasic dopamine (DA) signals conveyed from the substantia nigra to the striatum and the prefrontal cortex crucially affect learning from feedback, with DA bursts facilitating learning from positive feedback and DA dips facilitating learning from negative feedback. Consequently, diminished nigro-striatal dopamine levels as in unmedicated patients suffering from Parkinson's Disease (PD) have been shown to lead to a negative learning bias. Recent studies suggested a diminished striatal contribution to feedback processing when the outcome of an action is temporally delayed...
May 11, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753020/seeing-music-the-perception-of-melodic-ups-and-downs-modulates-the-spatial-processing-of-visual-stimuli
#9
Carlos Romero-Rivas, Fátima Vera-Constán, Sara Rodríguez-Cuadrado, Laura Puigcerver, Irune Fernández-Prieto, Jordi Navarra
Musical melodies have "peaks" and "valleys". Although the vertical component of pitch and music is well-known, the mechanisms underlying its mental representation still remain elusive. We show evidence regarding the importance of previous experience with melodies for crossmodal interactions to emerge. The impact of these crossmodal interactions on other perceptual and attentional processes was also studied. Melodies including two tones with different frequency (e.g., E4 and D3) were repeatedly presented during the study...
May 9, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753019/psychophysical-and-neuroimaging-responses-to-moving-stimuli-in-a-patient-with-the-riddoch-phenomenon-due-to-bilateral-visual-cortex-lesions
#10
Michael J Arcaro, Lore Thaler, Derek J Quinlan, Simona Monaco, Sarah Khan, Kenneth F Valyear, Rainer Goebel, Gordon N Dutton, Melvyn A Goodale, Sabine Kastner, Jody C Culham
Patients with injury to early visual cortex or its inputs can display the Riddoch phenomenon: preserved awareness for moving but not stationary stimuli. We provide a detailed case report of a patient with the Riddoch phenomenon, MC. MC has extensive bilateral lesions to occipitotemporal cortex that include most early visual cortex and complete blindness in visual field perimetry testing with static targets. Nevertheless, she shows a remarkably robust preserved ability to perceive motion, enabling her to navigate through cluttered environments and perform actions like catching moving balls...
May 9, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750987/the-opportunity-cost-of-time-modulates-cognitive-effort
#11
A Ross Otto, Nathaniel D Daw
A spate of recent work demonstrates that humans seek to avoid the expenditure of cognitive effort, much like physical effort or economic resources. Less is clear, however, about the circumstances dictating how and when people decide to expend cognitive effort. Here we adopt a popular theory of opportunity costs and response vigor and to elucidate this question. This account, grounded in Reinforcement Learning, formalizes a trade-off between two costs: the harder work assumed necessary to emit faster actions and the opportunity cost inherent in acting more slowly (i...
May 8, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750986/associations-of-functional-connectivity-and-walking-performance-in-multiple-sclerosis
#12
Rachel E Bollaert, Kyle Poe, Elizabeth A Hubbard, Robert W Motl, Lara A Pilutti, Curtis L Johnson, Bradley P Sutton
BACKGROUND: Persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) often demonstrate impaired walking performance, and neuroimaging methods such as resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) may support a link between central nervous system damage and disruptions in walking. OBJECTIVES: This study examined associations between RSFC in cortical networks and walking performance in persons with MS. METHODS: 29 persons with MS underwent 3-T brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and we computed RSFC among 68 Gy matter regions of interest in the brain...
May 8, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746820/electrophysiological-repetition-effects-in-persons-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-depend-upon-working-memory-demand
#13
Lucas S Broster, Shonna L Jenkins, Sarah D Holmes, Matthew G Edwards, Gregory A Jicha, Yang Jiang
Forms of implicit memory, including repetition effects, are preserved relative to explicit memory in clinical Alzheimer's disease. Consequently, cognitive interventions for persons with Alzheimer's disease have been developed that leverage this fact. However, despite the clinical robustness of behavioral repetition effects, altered neural mechanisms of repetition effects are studied as biomarkers of both clinical Alzheimer's disease and pre-morbid Alzheimer's changes in the brain. We hypothesized that the clinical preservation of behavioral repetition effects results in part from concurrent operation of discrete memory systems...
May 7, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738794/motivational-fatigue-a-neurocognitive-framework-for-the-impact-of-effortful-exertion-on-subsequent-motivation
#14
Tanja Müller, Matthew A J Apps
Fatigue - a feeling of exhaustion arising from exertion - is a significant barrier to successful behaviour and one of the most prominent symptoms in primary care. During extended behaviours, fatigue increases over time, leading to decrements in performance in both physically and cognitively demanding tasks. However, to date, theoretical accounts of fatigue have not fully characterised the neuroanatomical basis of cognitive and physical fatigue nor placed results within broader discussions of the functional properties of the systems implicated...
May 5, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738793/modulation-of-motor-cortex-activity-in-a-visual-working-memory-task-of-hand-images
#15
Alejandro Galvez-Pol, Bettina Forster, Beatriz Calvo-Merino
Recent studies suggest that brain regions engaged in perception are also recruited during the consolidation interval of the percept in working memory (WM). Evidence for this comes from studies showing that maintaining arbitrary visual, auditory, and tactile stimuli in WM elicits recruitment of the corresponding sensory cortices. Here we investigate if encoding and WM maintenance of visually perceived body-related stimuli engage just visual regions, or additional sensorimotor regions that are classically associated with embodiment processes in studies of body and action perception...
May 5, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733816/creative-conceptual-expansion-a-combined-fmri-replication-and-extension-study-to-examine-individual-differences-in-creativity
#16
Anna Abraham, Barbara Rutter, Trisha Bantin, Christiane Hermann
The aims of this fMRI study were two-fold. The first objective of the study was to verify whether the findings associated with a previous fMRI study could be replicated in which a novel event-related experimental design was developed which rendered it possible to investigate the brain basis of creative conceptual expansion. The ability to widen the boundaries of conceptual structures is integral to creative idea generation, which makes conceptual expansion a core component of creative cognition. Creative conceptual expansion led to the engagement of brain regions that are known to be involved in the access, storage and relational integration of conceptual knowledge in the original study...
May 4, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729959/the-effect-of-motor-context-on-semantic-processing-a-tms-study
#17
Doriana De Marco, Elisa De Stefani, Diego Bernini, Maurizio Gentilucci
BACKGROUND: strong embodiment theories claimed that action language representation is grounded in the sensorimotor system, which would be crucially to semantic understanding. However, there is a large disagreement in literature about the neural mechanisms involved in abstract (symbolic) language comprehension. OBJECTIVE: in the present study, we investigated the role of motor context in the semantic processing of abstract language. We hypothesized that motor cortex excitability during abstract word semantic processing could be modulated by previous presentation of a stimuli which associated a congruent motor content (i...
May 3, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729958/neural-markers-of-memory-consolidation-do-not-predict-temporal-estimates-of-encoded-items
#18
Atser Damsma, Robbert van der Mijn, Hedderik van Rijn
In contrast to the paradigms used in most laboratory experiments on interval timing, everyday tasks often involve tracking multiple, concurrent intervals without an explicit starting signal. As these characteristics are problematic for most existing clock-based models of interval timing, here we explore an alternative notion that suggests that time perception and working memory encoding might be closely connected. In this integrative model, the consolidation of a new item in working memory initiates cortical oscillations that also signal the onset of a time interval...
May 3, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729278/restoration-of-sensory-input-may-improve-cognitive-and-neural-function
#19
Hanin Karawani, Kimberly Jenkins, Samira Anderson
Age-related hearing loss is one of the most prevalent health conditions among the elderly. Hearing loss may lead to social isolation, depression, and cognitive decline in older adults. The mechanistic basis for the association between hearing loss and decreased cognitive function remains unknown as does the potential for improving cognition through hearing rehabilitation. To that end, we asked whether the restoration of sensory input through the use of hearing aids would improve cognitive and auditory neural function...
May 2, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729277/connectivity-patterns-in-cognitive-control-networks-predict-naturalistic-multitasking-ability
#20
Tanya Wen, De-Cyuan Liu, Shulan Hsieh
Multitasking is a fundamental aspect of everyday life activities. To achieve a complex, multi-component goal, the tasks must be subdivided into sub-tasks and component steps, a critical function of prefrontal networks. The prefrontal cortex is considered to be organized in a cascade of executive processes from the sensorimotor to anterior prefrontal cortex, which includes execution of specific goal-directed action, to encoding and maintaining task rules, and finally monitoring distal goals. In the current study, we used a virtual multitasking paradigm to tap into real-world performance and relate it to each individual's resting-state functional connectivity in fMRI...
May 2, 2018: Neuropsychologia
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