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Xiaohong Yang, Xiuping Zhang, Yufang Yang, Nan Lin
Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated the effects of context features on the involvement of the working memory (WM) system during discourse comprehension. During the fMRI scan, participants were asked to read two-sentence discourses in which the topic of the second sentence was either maintained, or was shifted from, the topic of the first. Changes in the level of coherence between the two sentences as well as context length were also investigated across discourse items. The WM system was identified with a verbal N-back task...
January 12, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Richard J Binney, Bonnie M Zuckerman, Hilary N Waller, Jinyi Hung, Sameer A Ashaie, Jamie Reilly
In a verbal fluency task, a person is required to produce as many exemplars of a given category (e.g., 'animals', or words starting with 'f') as possible within a fixed duration. Successful verbal fluency performance relies both on the depth of search within semantic/phonological neighborhoods ('clustering') and the ability to flexibly disengage between exhausted clusters ('switching'). Convergent evidence from functional imaging and neuropsychology suggests that cluster-switch behaviors engage dissociable brain regions...
January 11, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Lauren A M Lebois, Christine D Wilson-Mendenhall, W Kyle Simmons, Lisa Feldman Barrett, Lawrence W Barsalou
From the perspective of constructivist theories, emotion results from learning assemblies of relevant perceptual, cognitive, interoceptive, and motor processes in specific situations. Across emotional experiences over time, learned assemblies of processes accumulate in memory that later underlie emotional experiences in similar situations. A neuroimaging experiment guided participants to experience (and thus learn) situated forms of emotion, and then assessed whether participants tended to experience situated forms of the emotion later...
January 9, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Lorenza S Colzato, Simone M Ritter, Laura Steenbergen
Creativity is one of the most important cognitive skills in our complex and fast-changing world. Previous correlative evidence showed that gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is involved in divergent but not convergent thinking. In the current study, a placebo/sham-controlled, randomized between-group design was used to test a causal relation between vagus nerve and creativity. We employed transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS), a novel non-invasive brain stimulation technique to stimulate afferent fibers of the vagus nerve and speculated to increase GABA levels, in 80 healthy young volunteers...
January 8, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Sara Ajina, Holly Bridge
Residual vision, or blindsight, following damage to the primary visual cortex (V1) has been investigated for almost half a century. While there have been many studies of patients with unilateral damage to V1, far fewer have examined bilateral damage, mainly due to the rarity of such patients. Here we re-examine the residual visual function and underlying pathways of previously studied patient SBR who, as a young adult, suffered bilateral damage restricted to V1 which rendered him cortically blind. While earlier work compared his visual cortex to healthy, sighted participants, here we consider how his visual responses and connections compare to patients with unilateral damage to V1 in addition to sighted participants...
January 7, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Judith Schmitz, Eleonora Bartoli, Laura Maffongelli, Luciano Fadiga, Nuria Sebastian-Galles, Alessandro D'Ausilio
Listening to speech has been shown to activate motor regions, as measured by corticobulbar excitability. In this experiment, we explored if motor regions are also recruited during listening to non-native speech, for which we lack both sensory and motor experience. By administering Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) over the left motor cortex we recorded corticobulbar excitability of the lip muscles when Italian participants listened to native-like and non-native German vowels. Results showed that lip corticobulbar excitability increased for a combination of lip use during articulation and non-nativeness of the vowels...
January 6, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Garvin Brod, Yee Lee Shing
Recent neuroimaging research suggests that the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) plays an important role for successful memory formation that takes place in the context of activated prior knowledge. These findings led to the notion that the vmPFC integrates new information into existing knowledge structures. However, a considerable number of neuroimaging studies that have investigated memory formation in the context of prior knowledge have not found vmPFC involvement. To resolve this inconsistency, we propose a distinction between knowledge-relevance (the degree to which new information can be linked to prior knowledge) and knowledge-congruency (the perceived match between prior knowledge and the to-be-encoded information)...
January 6, 2018: Neuropsychologia
William Saban, Liora Sekely, Raymond M Klein, Shai Gabay
The literature has long emphasized the role of higher cortical structures in endogenous orienting. Based on evolutionary explanation and previous data, we explored the possibility that lower monocular channels may also have a functional role in endogenous orienting of attention. Sensitive behavioral manipulation was used to probe the contribution of monocularly segregated regions in a simple cue - target detection task. A central spatially informative cue, and its ensuing target, were presented to the same or different eyes at varying cue-target intervals...
January 6, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Kerstin Spanhel, Kathrin Wagner, Maximilian J Geiger, Isabell Ofer, Andreas Schulze-Bonhage, Birgitta Metternich
Flashbulb memories (FM) are a subgroup of autobiographical memories referring to the circumstances in which a person first heard of a surprising, emotionally arousing event. Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) have been reported to be impaired in FM recall. As emotional arousal is central to FM, various authors have suggested a crucial role of the amygdala. However, to date, no studies have directly addressed this hypothesis. In this study, 33 TLE patients and 20 healthy controls (HC) were tested on an FM task twice with a minimum interval of two months...
January 6, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Yoed N Kenett, John D Medaglia, Roger E Beaty, Qunlin Chen, Richard F Betzel, Sharon L Thompson-Schill, Jiang Qiu
High-level cognitive constructs, such as creativity and intelligence, entail complex and multiple processes, including cognitive control processes. Recent neurocognitive research on these constructs highlight the importance of dynamic interaction across neural network systems and the role of cognitive control processes in guiding such a dynamic interaction. How can we quantitatively examine the extent and ways in which cognitive control contributes to creativity and intelligence? To address this question, we apply a computational network control theory (NCT) approach to structural brain imaging data acquired via diffusion tensor imaging in a large sample of participants, to examine how NCT relates to individual differences in distinct measures of creative ability and intelligence...
January 4, 2018: Neuropsychologia
A Vergallito, Leonor J Romero Lauro, Rolando Bonandrini, Laura Zapparoli, Laura Danelli, Manuela Berlingeri
Neuroimaging studies suggest that increment of the cognitive load associated with a specific task may induce the recruitment of a more bilateral brain network. In most studies, however, task demand has been manipulated in a static and pre-specified way, regardless of individual cognitive resources. Here we implemented a new paradigm based on a pre-experimental assessment to set up subject-specific levels of task demand and applied tDCS (transcranial direct current stimulation) to assess each hemisphere involvement in task performance...
December 27, 2017: Neuropsychologia
Hilary D Duncan, Jim Nikelski, Randi Pilon, Jason Steffener, Howard Chertkow, Natalie A Phillips
Two independent lines of research provide evidence that speaking more than one language may 1) contribute to increased grey matter in healthy younger and older adults and 2) delay cognitive symptoms in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or Alzheimer disease (AD). We examined cortical thickness and tissue density in monolingual and multilingual MCI and AD patients matched (within Diagnosis Groups) on demographic and cognitive variables. In medial temporal disease-related (DR) areas, we found higher tissue density in multilingual MCIs versus monolingual MCIs, but similar or lower tissue density in multilingual AD versus monolingual AD, a pattern consistent with cognitive reserve in AD...
December 26, 2017: Neuropsychologia
Christophe E de Bézenac, Vanessa Sluming, Rhiannon Corcoran
Distinguishing the effects of own from others' actions is a prerequisite for effective interpersonal functioning. Individuals differ in their ability to do this. For example, difficulties in self-other attribution have been linked to positive symptoms of schizophrenia such as hallucinations, with causally ambiguous situations proving a universal challenge. The goal of the present study was to examine relationships between individual differences in resting-state functional connectivity and self-other attribution performance...
December 22, 2017: Neuropsychologia
Lea B Jost, Narges Radman, Karin A Buetler, Jean-Marie Annoni
Translation is a demanding process during which a message is analyzed, translated and communicated from one language to another. Despite numerous studies on translation mechanisms, the electrophysiological processes underlying translation with overt production remain largely unexplored. Here, we investigated how behavioral response patterns and spatial-temporal brain dynamics differ in a translation compared to a control within-language word-generation task. We also investigated how forward and backward translation differs on the behavioral and electrophysiological level...
December 21, 2017: Neuropsychologia
Gina Joue, Linda Boven, Klaus Willmes, Vito Evola, Liliana R Demenescu, Julius Hassemer, Irene Mittelberg, Klaus Mathiak, Frank Schneider, Ute Habel
In "Two heads are better than one," "head" stands for people and focuses the message on the intelligence of people. This is an example of figurative language through metonymy, where substituting a whole entity by one of its parts focuses attention on a specific aspect of the entity. Whereas metaphors, another figurative language device, are substitutions based on similarity, metonymy involves substitutions based on associations. Both are figures of speech but are also expressed in coverbal gestures during multimodal communication...
December 21, 2017: Neuropsychologia
Dilara Berkay, Hale Yapıcı Eser, Alexander T Sack, Yusuf Özgür Çakmak, Fuat Balcı
Many perceptual decisions are inevitably subject to the tradeoff between speed and accuracy of choices (SAT). Sequential sampling models attribute this ubiquitous relation to random noise in the sensory evidence accumulation process, and assume that SAT is adaptively modulated by altering the decision thresholds at which the level of integrated evidence should reach for making a choice. Although, neuroimaging studies have shown a relationship between right presupplementary motor area (pre-SMA) activity and threshold setting, only a limited number of brain stimulation studies aimed at establishing the causal link, results of which were inconsistent...
December 20, 2017: Neuropsychologia
Giulia Lisi, Daniele Nico, Michele Ribolsi, Cinzia Niolu, Francesco Lacquaniti, Alberto Siracusano, Elena Daprati
Several studies have reported motor symptoms in schizophrenia (SCZ), in some cases describing asymmetries in their manifestation. To date, biases were mainly reported for sequential movements, and the hypothesis was raised of a dopamine-related hemispheric imbalance. Aim of this research is to better characterize asymmetries in movement initiation in SCZ by exploring single actions. Fourteen SCZ patients and fourteen healthy subjects were recruited. On a trial-by-trial basis, participants were instructed to reach for one of eight possible targets...
December 18, 2017: Neuropsychologia
Scott A Wylie, Nelleke C van Wouwe, S Grason Godfrey, Patrick G Bissett, Gordon D Logan, Kristen E Kanoff, Daniel O Claassen, Joseph S Neimat, Wery P M van den Wildenberg
The present behavioral study delineates the impact of Parkinson's disease (PD) and of dopaminergic medication on action control over voluntary behavior. Previous studies reported either prolonged responding or stopping latencies in PD compared to healthy controls (HC). Few studies investigated the effects of dopaminergic medication on these processes concurrently. We administered a stop-change task, an extended version of the stop task, that required (i) speeded responding to a go signal (i.e., going), (ii) inhibiting ongoing motor responses (i...
December 18, 2017: Neuropsychologia
Sara Bögels, Marisa Casillas, Stephen C Levinson
Rapid response latencies in conversation suggest that responders start planning before the ongoing turn is finished. Indeed, an earlier EEG study suggests that listeners start planning their responses to questions as soon as they can (Bögels, S., Magyari, L., & Levinson, S. C. (2015). Neural signatures of response planning occur midway through an incoming question in conversation. Scientific Reports, 5, 12881). The present study aimed to (1) replicate this early planning effect and (2) investigate whether such early response planning incurs a cost on participants' concurrent comprehension of the ongoing turn...
December 18, 2017: Neuropsychologia
José Luis Ulloa, Stéphanie Dubal, Lydia Yahia-Cherif, Nathalie George
Other's eye gaze is a powerful attention orienting cue that can change our perception of objects in the environment. Here, we seek to characterize the influence of attention orienting by eye gaze on the neural processing of visual targets. We used a Posner-like cueing paradigm to investigate with magnetoencephalography the brain responses associated with target processing. We analyzed the cerebral sources of the evoked responses to visual targets that were validly or invalidly cued by eye gaze. The effect of attention orienting was reflected in faster reaction times to valid than invalid targets...
December 18, 2017: Neuropsychologia
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