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Neuropsychologia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935195/the-dimensionalities-of-lesion-deficit-mapping
#1
Tianbo Xu, Ashwani Jha, Parashkev Nachev
Lesion-deficit mapping remains the most powerful method for localising function in the human brain. As the highest court of appeal where competing theories of cerebral function conflict, it ought to be held to the most stringent inferential standards. Though at first sight elegantly transferable, the mass-univariate statistical framework popularized by functional imaging is demonstrably ill-suited to the task, both theoretically and empirically. The critical difficulty lies with the handling of the data's intrinsically high dimensionality...
September 18, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927655/preferential-processing-of-task-irrelevant-beloved-related-information-and-task-performance-two-event-related-potential-studies
#2
Sandra J E Langeslag, Jan W van Strien
People who are in love have better attention for beloved-related information, but report having trouble focusing on other tasks, such as (home)work. So, romantic love can both improve and hurt cognition. Emotional information is preferentially processed, which improves task performance when the information is task-relevant, but hurts task performance when it is task-irrelevant. Because beloved-related information is highly emotional, the effects of romantic love on cognition may resemble these effects of emotion on cognition...
September 16, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923304/weight-and-see-line-bisection-in-neglect-reliably-measures-the-allocation-of-attention-but-not-the-perception-of-length
#3
Robert D McIntosh, Magdalena Ietswaart, A David Milner
Line bisection has long been a routine test for unilateral neglect, along with a range of tests requiring cancellation, copying or drawing. However, several studies have reported that line bisection, as classically administered, correlates relatively poorly with the other tests of neglect, to the extent that some authors have questioned its status as a valid test of neglect. In this article, we re-examine this issue, employing a novel method for administering and analysing line bisection proposed by McIntosh, Schindler, Birchall, & Milner (2005)...
September 15, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919245/n1-responses-to-images-of-hands-in-occipito-temporal-event-related-potentials
#4
Miguel Granja Espírito Santo, Octavian Sorin Maxim, Martin Schürmann
Hands, much like faces, convey social information, instructions and intentions to an observer. While the neural processes of face perception have been widely studied, it was only recently that fMRI identified occipito-temporal areas sensitive to static images of hands as body parts. To complement these studies with fine-grained timing information, we measured event-related EEG potentials (ERPs) from 33 subjects who were presented with static images of hands versus faces, whole bodies, and inanimate objects as controls...
September 14, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919244/does-synaesthesia-age-changes-in-the-quality-and-consistency-of-synaesthetic-associations
#5
Julia Simner, Alberta Ipser, Rebecca Smees, James Alvarez
Developmental grapheme-colour synaesthesia is a rare condition in which colours become automatically paired with letters or digits in the minds of certain individuals during childhood, and remain paired into adulthood. Although synaesthesia is well understood in younger adults almost nothing is known about synaesthesia in aging. We present the first evidence that aging desaturates synaesthetic colours in the minds of older synaesthetes, and we show for the first time that aging affects the key diagnostic measure of synaesthesia (consistency of colours over time)...
September 14, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916447/perception-of-caucasian-and-african-faces-in-5-to-9-month-old-caucasian-infants-a-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-study
#6
Susanna Timeo, Sabrina Brigadoi, Teresa Farroni
Race is an important perceptual cue for face perception. In adults, other-race faces are elaborated differently and remembered less well than own-race faces. Moreover, they show a different pattern of activation at the neural level. Developmental studies demonstrated that, during the first year of life, infants start to show the same behavioral pattern as adults in race perception. However, little is known about where and how in the brain other-race perception is elaborated in this population. The present study is the first to investigate the development of different neural responses to faces of different race in infants using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS)...
September 12, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911803/sensory-overload-and-imbalance-resting-state-vestibular-connectivity-in-ptsd-and-its-dissociative-subtype
#7
Sherain Harricharan, Andrew A Nicholson, Maria Densmore, Jean Théberge, Margaret C McKinnon, Richard W J Neufeld, Ruth A Lanius
BACKGROUND: The vestibular system integrates multisensory information to monitor one's bodily orientation in space, and is influenced by interoceptive awareness. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) involves typically alterations in interoceptive and bodily self-awareness evidenced by symptoms of hyperarousal, as well as of emotional detachment, including emotional numbing, depersonalization, and derealization. These alterations may disrupt vestibular multisensory integration between the brainstem (vestibular nuclei) and key vestibular cortical regions (parieto-insular vestibular cortex, prefrontal cortex)...
September 11, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899636/target-and-distractor-processing-and-the-influence-of-load-on-the-allocation-of-attention-to-task-irrelevant-threat
#8
P M Bretherton, M W Eysenck, A Richards, A Holmes
This study investigated the characteristics of two distinct mechanisms of attention - stimulus enhancement and stimulus suppression - using an event-related potential (ERP) approach. Across three experiments, participants viewed sparse visual search arrays containing one target and one distractor. The main results of Experiments 1 and 2 revealed that whereas neural signals for stimuli that are not inherently salient could be directly suppressed without prior attentional enhancement, this was not the case for stimuli with motivational relevance (human faces)...
September 9, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893526/neural-correlates-of-working-memory-in-children-and-adolescents-with-agenesis-of-the-corpus-callosum-an-fmri-study
#9
V Siffredi, M M Spencer-Smith, P Barrouillet, M J Vaessen, R J Leventer, V Anderson, P Vuilleumier
The ability to temporarily maintain relevant information in mind in the presence of interference or distracting information, also called working memory (WM), is critical for higher cognitive functions and cognitive development. In typically developing (TD) children, WM is underpinned by a fronto-parietal network of interacting left and right brain regions. Developmental absence (agenesis) of the corpus callosum (AgCC) is a congenital brain malformation resulting from disruption of corpus callosum formation...
September 9, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889996/emotion-processing-in-the-infant-brain-the-importance-of-local-information
#10
Carlijn van den Boomen, Nicolette M Munsters, Chantal Kemner
Facial expressions provide crucial information for an infant's social and cognitive development. Expressions are discriminated based on specific basic-level information, such as global and local information represented in spatial frequencies. Research in adults suggests that different neural pathways are involved in emotion discrimination, each activated by specific spatial frequency ranges. However, in infants the involvement of spatial frequencies in emotion discrimination is unknown. In the current study we investigated the effect of manipulating spatial frequency information in the face on emotion discrimination...
September 7, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889995/aging-and-working-memory-performance-electrophysiological-correlates-of-high-and-low-performing-elderly
#11
Alexander F Lubitz, Michael Niedeggen, Maximilian Feser
In this study we investigated age-related changes in WM capacity and their respective ERP correlates. We explicitly addressed the differentiation between high and low performing elderly to identify electrophysiological correlates of successful aging. Therefore, ERP and behavioral data was obtained from 45 young (mean = 22.73 years) and 35 older participants (mean = 68.49 years). Both groups performed a visual-spatial n-back task with two levels of difficulty. Additionally, related neuropsychological tests were administered...
September 7, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888893/face-working-memory-deficits-in-developmental-prosopagnosia-tests-of-encoding-limits-and-updating-processes
#12
Margaret C Jackson, Paul Counter, Jeremy J Tree
Developmental prosopagnosia (DP) is a condition in which individuals experience life-long problems recognising faces. In recent years, unpacking the nature of the impairments of this population has been the focus of numerous studies. One focus has been on the nature of face-based memory impairments for such individuals, with the onus being mainly on long-term memory deficits. Far fewer have considered the nature of face-based working memory (WM) impairments for DP cases, and the current study seeks to address this...
September 6, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888892/alpha-band-transcranial-alternating-current-stimulation-modulates-precision-but-not-gain-during-whole-body-spatial-updating
#13
T P Gutteling, D J L G Schutter, W P Medendorp
Spatial updating is essential to maintain an accurate representation of our visual environment when we move. A neural mechanism that contributes to this ability is called remapping: the transfer of visual information from neural populations that code a location before the motion to those that encode it after the motion. While there is ample evidence for neural remapping in conjunction with eye movements, only recent findings suggest a role of this mechanism for whole-body motion updating, based on the observation that alpha band (10Hz) activity is selectively reorganized during remapping...
September 6, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888891/investigating-the-role-of-temporal-lobe-activation-in-speech-perception-accuracy-with-normal-hearing-adults-an-event-related-fnirs-study
#14
Jessica Defenderfer, Anastasia Kerr-German, Mark Hedrick, Aaron T Buss
Functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a safe, non-invasive, relatively quiet imaging technique that is tolerant of movement artifact making it uniquely ideal for the assessment of hearing mechanisms. Previous research demonstrates the capacity for fNIRS to detect cortical changes to varying speech intelligibility, revealing a positive relationship between cortical activation amplitude and speech perception score. In the present study, we use an event-related design to investigate the hemodynamic response in the temporal lobe across different listening conditions...
September 6, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887064/top-down-modulation-of-alpha-power-and-pattern-similarity-for-threatening-representations-in-visual-short-term-memory
#15
Bo-Cheng Kuo, Chun-Hui Li, Szu-Hung Lin, Sheng-Hung Hu, Yei-Yu Yeh
Recent studies have shown that top-down attention biases task-relevant representations in visual short-term memory (VSTM). Accumulating evidence has also revealed the modulatory effects of emotional arousal on attentional processing. However, it remains unclear how top-down attention interacts with emotional memoranda in VSTM. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of alpha oscillations and their spatiotemporal characteristics that underlie top-down attention to threatening representations during VSTM maintenance with electroencephalography...
September 5, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882479/improved-accuracy-of-lesion-to-symptom-mapping-with-multivariate-sparse-canonical-correlations
#16
Dorian Pustina, Brian Avants, Olufunsho Faseyitan, John Medaglia, H Branch Coslett
Lesion to symptom mapping (LSM) is a crucial tool for understanding the causality of brain-behavior relationships. The analyses are typically performed by applying statistical methods on individual brain voxels (VLSM), a method called the mass-univariate approach. Several authors have shown that VLSM suffers from limitations that may decrease the accuracy and reliability of the findings, and have proposed the use of multivariate methods to overcome these limitations. In this study, we propose a multivariate optimization technique known as sparse canonical correlation analysis for neuroimaging (SCCAN) for lesion to symptom mapping...
September 4, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866318/high-vagally-mediated-resting-state-heart-rate-variability-is-associated-with-superior-action-cascading
#17
Lorenza S Colzato, Laura Steenbergen
The neurovisceral integration model suggests that individual differences in heart rate variability (HRV), an index of vagal tone, may relate to prefrontal cortical activity and predict performance on cognitive control tasks. The aim of this study was to further verify this model by investigating the relationship between vagally-mediated resting-state HRV and action cascading, a crucial cognitive control function which refers to the ability to cope with multiple response options when confronted with various task goals...
September 1, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867555/lexical-access-in-semantic-variant-ppa-evidence-for-a-post-semantic-contribution-to-naming-deficits
#18
Stephen M Wilson, Charlotte Dehollain, Sophie Ferrieux, Laura Hook, Marc Teichmann
The most salient clinical symptom of semantic variant primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a profound and pervasive anomia. These patients' naming impairments have been shown to reflect in large part a domain-general deterioration of conceptual knowledge that impacts both linguistic and non-linguistic processing. However, it is possible that post-semantic stages of lexical access may also contribute to naming deficits. To clarify the stages at which lexical access breaks down in semantic variant PPA, eleven French-speaking patients were asked to name objects, and were then queried for semantic, lexical-syntactic, and word form information pertaining to the items they could not name...
August 31, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864245/musical-training-increases-functional-connectivity-but-does-not-enhance-mu-suppression
#19
C Carolyn Wu, Jeff P Hamm, Vanessa K Lim, Ian J Kirk
Musical training provides an ideal platform for investigating action representation for sound. Learning to play an instrument requires integration of sensory and motor perception-action processes. Functional neuroimaging studies have indicated that listening to trained music can result in the activity in premotor areas, even after a short period of training. These studies suggest that action representation systems are heavily dependent on specific sensorimotor experience. However, others suggest that because humans naturally move to music, sensorimotor training is not necessary and there is a more general action representation for music...
August 31, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864246/pathways-for-smiling-disgust-and-fear-recognition-in-blindsight-patients
#20
Marzio Gerbella, Fausto Caruana, Giacomo Rizzolatti
The aim of the present review is to discuss the localization of circuits that allow recognition of emotional facial expressions in blindsight patients. Because recognition of facial expressions is function of different centers, and their localization is not always clear, we decided to discuss here three emotional facial expression - smiling, disgust, and fear - whose anatomical localization in the pregenual sector of the anterior cingulate cortex (pACC), anterior insula (AI), and amygdala, respectively, is well established...
August 29, 2017: Neuropsychologia
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