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Patrik Wikman, Teemu Rinne
A number of previous studies have implicated regions in posterior auditory cortex (AC) in auditory-motor integration during speech production. Other studies, in turn, have shown that activation in AC and adjacent regions in the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) is strongly modulated during active listening and depends on task requirements. The present fMRI study investigated whether auditory-motor effects interact with those related to active listening tasks in AC and IPL. In separate task blocks, our subjects performed either auditory discrimination or 2-back memory tasks on phonemic or nonphonemic vowels...
November 13, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Alon Zivony, Ayala S Allon, Roy Luria, Dominique Lamy
The N2pc is routinely used as an electrophysiological index of attentional shifting. Its absence is thus taken as evidence that no shift of attention occurred. We provide evidence in contrast to this notion using a variant of the attentional blink (AB) paradigm. Two target letters, embedded in two streams of distractor letters and defined by their color, were separated by either 300 or 800 ms. The second target was preceded by a distractor frame of the same color (cue). As expected, identification of the second target was poorer at the short than at the long lag (the AB effect)...
November 9, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Sari Ylinen, Katja Junttila, Marja Laasonen, Paul Iverson, Lauri Ahonen, Teija Kujala
Dyslexia is characterized by poor reading skills, yet often also difficulties in second-language learning. The differences between native- and second-language speech processing and the establishment of new brain representations for spoken second language in dyslexia are not, however, well understood. We used recordings of the mismatch negativity component of event-related potential to determine possible differences between the activation of long-term memory representations for spoken native- and second-language word forms in Finnish-speaking 9-11-year-old children with or without dyslexia, studying English as their second language in school...
November 8, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Alex Sumich, John D Anderson, Christina J Howard, Nadja Heym, Antonio Castro, Joshua Baker, Matthew K Belmonte
Light-flicker Ganzfeld (LFG) induces a lower to upper-alpha frequency shift. However, it is unclear how this neurophysiological response might relate to LFG-induced pseudo-hallucinatory phenomena. It is also unknown whether emotional states (e.g., fear) or traits associated with risk for psychosis (e.g., proneness to perceptual anomalies, ability to produce vivid mental imagery) affect such neurophysiological and/or perceptual responses to LFG. The present study investigated alpha sub-bands during LFG across several flicker frequencies, in relation to individual differences in propensity for Ganzfeld-induced imagery (GI), positive schizotypy and trait mental imagery, and in relation to manipulations of affective state...
November 6, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Maitane García, Imanol Amayra, Esther Lázaro, Juan Francisco López-Paz, Oscar Martínez, Manuel Pérez, Sarah Berrocoso, Mohammad Al-Rashaida
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested an association of Chiari Malformation type I (CM-I) and cognitive deficits. CM-I is a neurological disorder characterized by a descent of cerebellar tonsils into the foramen magnum, resulting in overcrowding of the upper cervical spine region. Posterior fossa decompression (PFD) is the surgical treatment of choice, however, the literature on the consequences for patients is mainly reduced to the assessment of physical symptoms. METHODS: Data from a neuropsychological assessment of 76 patients with CM-I, both with PFD (n = 37) and without PFD (n = 39) surgery, and 76 healthy controls, matched by gender, age and years of education are reported...
November 6, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Mikel Jimenez, Simone Grassini, Pedro R Montoro, Dolores Luna, Mika Koivisto
A crucial view in the graded vs. dichotomous debate on visual awareness proposes that its graded or dichotomous nature may depend on the depth of stimulus processing (or level of processing) associated to the experimental task. In the present study, we explored the behavioral patterns and neural correlates of different degrees of awareness associated to different depths (i.e. low vs. high) of stimulus processing. The low-level stimulus condition consisted of detecting the location of the target based on its brightness characteristics, whereas the high-level stimulus condition consisted of identifying which of four possible targets (numbers/letters) had appeared...
November 5, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Franceschini Sandro, Bertoni Sara
Learning to read is extremely difficult for about 10% of the children because they are affected by a heritable neurobiological disorder called developmental dyslexia (DD). The causal role of cognitive deficits typically associated to DD can be investigated through intervention studies. It has been demonstrated that visual-attention and reading speed could be simultaneously improved by using action video game (AVG) training both in shallow and deep alphabetic orthographies. Here, in a clinical study we showed that after this general-domain behavioral intervention both the phonological decoding speed and phonological short-term memory were increased only in DD children in which their video game score was improved...
November 3, 2018: Neuropsychologia
C Villalba-García, G Santaniello, D Luna, P R Montoro, J A Hinojosa
Perceptual grouping operations are crucial for visual object recognition. From the pioneering proposal of Gestalt psychologists, research has focused mostly on the dynamics of single grouping laws. However, the integration between grouping cues has received relatively less attention. The present event-related potentials (ERPs) study aimed to examine the brain correlates of the competition between multiple grouping cues (namely, shape similarity versus proximity) in visual patterns by means of a selective attention paradigm that allows to measure the contribution of each cue independently to the competition between them...
November 1, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Grégoire Python, Bertrand Glize, Marina Laganaro
In stroke-induced aphasia, left hemispheric lesions generally disturb the word production network. The left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) and the left middle temporal gyrus (LMTG) are involved in word production, but their respective contribution remains ambiguous. Previous investigations have largely focused on semantic interference to gather information about word production. Here we assessed the sensitivity of twenty-five aphasic speakers with either LIFG or LMTG lesions and matched controls to both semantic facilitation and interference in word production using the picture-word (PWP) and the blocked-cyclic naming (BCNP) paradigms...
November 1, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Jinghua Ou, Sam-Po Law
Auditory neuroscience has provided strong evidence that neural oscillations synchronize to the rhythm of speech stimuli, and oscillations at different frequencies have been linked to processing of different language structures. The present study aims to examine how these ubiquitous neurophysiological attributes may inform us about the brain processes that underpin individual differences in speech perception and production, which in turn elucidate the specific functions of neural oscillations in the domain of speech processing...
November 1, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Mengxia Yu, Zhe Wu, Mengkai Luan, Xu Wang, Yiying Song, Jia Liu
Semantics and phonology are fundamental components of language. Neuroimaging studies have identified a language network (LN) that is distributed through multiple regions and exhibits preferential responses to semantic and phonological information. However, it is unclear how these regions work collaboratively to support the processing of these components. In the present study, we first defined the LN as voxels that responded more to sentences than to strings of Chinese pseudo-characters. We subsequently used a voxel-based global brain connectivity method based on resting-state functional connectivity (FC) to characterize the neural correlates of semantic and phonological processing...
November 1, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Gina R Kuperberg, Kirsten Weber, Nathaniel Delaney-Busch, Candida Ustine, Ben Stillerman, Matti Hämäläinen, Ellen Lau
It has been hypothesized that schizophrenia is characterized by overly broad automatic activity within lexico-semantic networks. We used two complementary neuroimaging techniques, Magnetoencephalography (MEG) and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), in combination with a highly automatic indirect semantic priming paradigm, to spatiotemporally localize this abnormality in the brain. Eighteen people with schizophrenia and 20 demographically-matched control participants viewed target words ("bell") preceded by directly related ("church"), indirectly related ("priest"), or unrelated ("pants") prime words in MEG and fMRI sessions...
October 31, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Ro Julia Robotham, Randi Starrfelt
Prosopagnosia refers to an acquired or developmental deficit in face recognition. This neuropsychological impairment has received increasing attention over the last decade, in particular because of an increased scientific interest in developmental prosopagnosia. Studies investigating prosopagnosia have used a variety of different clinical and experimental tests to assess face processing abilities. With such a large variety of assessment methods available, test selection can be challenging. Some previous works have aimed to provide an overview of tests used to diagnose prosopagnosia...
October 31, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Gwendoline Mahé, Cécile Pont, Pascal Zesiger, Marina Laganaro
Many studies have described the electrophysiological specificities of print processing in dyslexic readers, mostly using lexical decision tasks. The aim of the present study was twofold: a) to assess for the first time the electrophysiological correlates of print processing in dyslexic adults in the under-investigated context of reading aloud tasks, acknowledged to be especially relevant to investigate phonological processes relatively to lexical decision; and b) to assess whether the electrophysiological specificities described in dyslexic readers in lexical decision correspond to a different neuronal network engaged in print processing...
October 30, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Dillon A Hambrook, Shweta Soni, Matthew S Tata
Speech is perceived as a continuous stream of words despite consisting of a discontinuous, quasi-periodic signal of interleaved sounds and silences. Speech perception is surprisingly robust to interference by interruption, however speech that is replaced by gaps of silence is difficult to understand. When those silences are filled with noise, the speech is once again perceived as continuous even when the underlying speech sounds are removed completely. This is a phenomenon known as phonemic restoration. Perception of normal speech is accompanied by robust phase-locking of EEG signals to acoustic and linguistic features of speech...
October 30, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Yue Yin, Tingting Yu, Shu Wang, Shujin Zhou, Xiaochen Tang, Edward J N Stupple, Junlong Luo
Tests of the principles of dual process theory are typically conducted in the reasoning and judgement/decision-making literature. The present study explores dual process explanations with a new paradigm - the Embedded Chinese Character Task (ECCT). The beauty of this task is that it allows the contrast of automatic and deliberate processes without the potential for conflict. We used event-related potentials (ERPs) and behavioral measures to investigate the time course of automatic (Type 1) and deliberative (Type 2) processes on the ECCT...
October 29, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Morgan Botdorf, Tracy Riggins
Although research shows that working memory improves during early childhood, it remains unclear how the fronto-parietal network of cortical regions, known to support this ability in adults, relates to changes in young children. Measures of cortical thickness may be useful in investigating this association as they reflect age-related differences in gray matter and have been proposed to support age-related improvements in other cognitive abilities, but have only sparingly been tested empirically in early childhood...
October 28, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Audrey Arnoux, Monica N Toba, Marco Duering, Momar Diouf, Joel Daouk, Jean-Marc Constans, Laurent Puy, Mélanie Barbay, Olivier Godefroy
OBJECTIVES: The ability of voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) to define the functional anatomy of the human brain has not been fully assessed. With a view to assessing VLSM's validity, the present study analyzed the technique's ability to determine the known clinical-anatomic correlates of hemiparesis in stroke patients. DESIGN: Lesions (damaged in at least 5 patients) associated with transformed limb motor score (after adjustment on lesion volume) at 6 months were examined in 272 patients using VLSM...
October 25, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Enrico Ripamonti, Mirella Frustaci, Giuseppina Zonca, Silvia Aggujaro, Franco Molteni, Claudio Luzzatti
Phonological and articulatory programming impairments may co-occur in aphasic patients and previous research does not offer a clear-cut picture of their anatomical counterparts. Hickok and Poeppel (e.g., Hickok, G., Poeppel, D., 2007. The cortical organization of speech processing. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 8, 393-402) put forward a seminal model of speech processes. The ventral stream (mostly bilateral) would be involved in speech recognition and phonological-lexical processing, whereas the dorsal stream (largely lateralized to the left hemisphere) would map phonological representations onto articulatory motor patterns...
October 24, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Xie Ma, Nai Ding, Yun Tao, Yu Fang Yang
In music, chords are organized into hierarchical structures on the basis of musical syntax and the syntax of Western music can be implicitly acquired by listeners growing up in a Western musical culture. Here, we investigated whether Western musical syntax of different complexities can be implicitly acquired by non-native listeners growing up in China. This study used electroencephalography (EEG) to measure how the neural responses to musical sequences that either follow a simple rule, i.e., finite state grammar (FSG), or a complex rule, i...
October 22, 2018: Neuropsychologia
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