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Journal of Personality and Social Psychology

Lauren B Nickel, Brent W Roberts, Oleksandr S Chernyshenko
Across 2 studies and 4 samples (Ns = 8,332, 2,136, 4,963, and 753, respectively), we tested whether the relation between conscientiousness and variables associated with important aspects of individuals' lives were curvilinear such that being high on conscientiousness was manifestly negative. Across multiple outcomes including measures of health, well-being, relationship satisfaction, job satisfaction, and organizational citizenship, we found no evidence for a systematic curvilinear relation between conscientiousness and these outcomes...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Lucius Caviola, Jim A C Everett, Nadira S Faber
We introduce and investigate the philosophical concept of 'speciesism' -the assignment of different moral worth based on species membership -as a psychological construct. In five studies, using both general population samples online and student samples, we show that speciesism is a measurable, stable construct with high interpersonal differences, that goes along with a cluster of other forms of prejudice, and is able to predict real-world decision-making and behavior. In Study 1 we present the development and empirical validation of a theoretically driven Speciesism Scale, which captures individual differences in speciesist attitudes...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Allison M Tackman, David A Sbarra, Angela L Carey, M Brent Donnellan, Andrea B Horn, Nicholas S Holtzman, To'Meisha S Edwards, James W Pennebaker, Matthias R Mehl
Depressive symptomatology is manifested in greater first-person singular pronoun use (i.e., I-talk), but when and for whom this effect is most apparent, and the extent to which it is specific to depression or part of a broader association between negative emotionality and I-talk, remains unclear. Using pooled data from N = 4,754 participants from 6 labs across 2 countries, we examined, in a preregistered analysis, how the depression-I-talk effect varied by (a) first-person singular pronoun type (i.e., subjective, objective, and possessive), (b) the communication context in which language was generated (i...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Marion Spengler, Rodica Ioana Damian, Brent W Roberts
In this study, we investigated the role of student characteristics and behaviors in a longitudinal study over a 50-year timespan (using a large U.S. representative sample of high school students). We addressed the question of whether behaviors in school have any long-lasting effects for one's later life. Specifically, we investigated the role of being a responsible student, interest in school, writing skills, and reading skills in predicting educational attainment, occupational prestige, and income 11 years (N = 81,912) and 50 years (N = 1,952) after high school...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
James K McNulty, Andrea L Meltzer, Anastasia Makhanova, Jon K Maner
Two longitudinal studies of 233 newlywed couples suggest that automatic attentional and evaluative biases regarding attractive relationship alternatives can help people maintain relationships by avoiding infidelity. Both studies assessed participants' tendency to automatically disengage attention from photos of attractive, opposite sex individuals; one study assessed participants' tendency to devalue those individuals by comparing their attractiveness evaluations to evaluations made by single people, and both studies assessed infidelity and relationship status multiple times for approximately three years...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Charlene Y Chen, Maya Rossignac-Milon, E Tory Higgins
Our research posits that decision-making is particularly distressing for individuals with high assessment tendencies. Assessment involves truth concerns about making the "right" decision. We hypothesize that people with high assessment experience greater distress during decision-making because of their concerns about making a wrong decision. In four studies of chronic assessment conducted across four different decision contexts, we found assessment to be positively associated with distress, with this relation being mediated by concerns with being wrong...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Hillie Aaldering, Femke S Ten Velden, Gerben A van Kleef, Carsten K W De Dreu
In intergroup settings, humans often contribute to their in-group at a personal cost. Such parochial cooperation benefits the in-group and creates and fuels intergroup conflict when it simultaneously hurts out-groups. Here, we introduce a new game paradigm in which individuals can display universal cooperation (which benefits both in- and out-group) as well as parochial cooperation that does, versus does not hurt the out-group. Using this set-up, we test hypotheses derived from group selection theory, social identity, and bounded generalized reciprocity theory...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Ethan S Young, Vladas Griskevicius, Jeffry A Simpson, Theodore E A Waters, Chiraag Mittal
Although growing up in an adverse childhood environment tends to impair cognitive functions, evolutionary-developmental theory suggests that this might be only one part of the story. A person's mind may instead become developmentally specialized and potentially enhanced for solving problems in the types of environments in which the person grew up. In the current research, we tested whether these specialized advantages in cognitive function might be sensitized to emerge in currently uncertain contexts. We refer to this as the sensitized-specialization hypothesis...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Ted Schwaba, Wiebke Bleidorn
In this study, we examined trajectories of Big Five personality development in the 5 years before and after retirement. Our sample was composed of 690 retirees (ages 51-81) and a propensity-score matched comparison group of 532 nonretirees drawn from a nationally representative longitudinal study of the Netherlands. Participants contributed data across a maximum of 6 measurement waves over a period of 7 years. In the month after retirement, participants experienced sudden increases in openness and agreeableness followed by gradual declines in these traits over the next 5 years...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Katherine S Zee, Justin V Cavallo, Abdiel J Flores, Niall Bolger, E Tory Higgins
Social support can sometimes have negative consequences for recipients. One way of circumventing these negative effects is to provide support in an 'invisible' or indirect manner, such that recipients do not construe the behavior as a supportive act. However, little is known about how recipients' motivational states influence when visible (direct) support or invisible support is more beneficial. Using the framework of Regulatory Mode Theory, we predicted that recipients motivated to engage in critical evaluation (i...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Jens Lange, Aaron C Weidman, Jan Crusius
Despite envy's importance as a driver of social behavior, scholars disagree on its conceptualization. We review the literature and distinguish three incongruent theories: (a) Malicious Envy Theory (i.e., envy as uniform and malicious), (b) Dual Envy Theory (i.e., envy as taking on 2 forms, benign and malicious), and (c) Pain Theory of Envy (i.e., envy as uniform and driven by pain). Moreover, within and across theories, operationalizations of envy have included various different components. We integrate these conceptualizations using a data-driven approach, deriving a comprehensive theory of envy in 5 studies (total N = 1,237)-the Pain-driven Dual Envy (PaDE) Theory...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Lorena Chanes, Jolie Baumann Wormwood, Nicole Betz, Lisa Feldman Barrett
Emerging perspectives in neuroscience indicate that the brain functions predictively, constantly anticipating sensory input based on past experience. According to these perspectives, prediction signals impact perception, guiding and constraining experience. In a series of six behavioral experiments, we show that predictions about facial expressions drive social perception, deeply influencing how others are evaluated: individuals are judged as more likable and trustworthy when their facial expressions are anticipated, even in the absence of any conscious changes in felt affect...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Jesse Walker, Jane L Risen, Thomas Gilovich, Richard Thaler
We present evidence of sudden-death aversion (SDA)-the tendency to avoid "fast" strategies that provide a greater chance of success, but include the possibility of immediate defeat, in favor of "slow" strategies that reduce the possibility of losing quickly, but have lower odds of ultimate success. Using a combination of archival analyses and controlled experiments, we explore the psychology behind SDA. First, we provide evidence for SDA and its cost to decision makers by tabulating how often NFL teams send games into overtime by kicking an extra point rather than going for the 2-point conversion (Study 1) and how often NBA teams attempt potentially game-tying 2-point shots rather than potentially game-winning 3-pointers (Study 2)...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
L Taylor Phillips, Michael L Slepian, Brent L Hughes
The visual perception of individuals has received considerable attention (visual person perception), but little social psychological work has examined the processes underlying the visual perception of groups of people (visual people perception). Ensemble-coding is a visual mechanism that automatically extracts summary statistics (e.g., average size) of lower-level sets of stimuli (e.g., geometric figures), and also extends to the visual perception of groups of faces. Here, we consider whether ensemble-coding supports people perception, allowing individuals to form rapid, accurate impressions about groups of people...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Joris Lammers, Matt Baldwin
Nine studies and a meta-analysis test the role of past-focused temporal communication in reducing conservatives' disagreement with liberal political ideas. We propose that conservatives are more prone to warm, affectionate, and nostalgic feelings for past society. Therefore, they are more likely to support political ideas-including those expressing liberal values-that can be linked to a desirable past state (past focus), rather than a desirable future state (future focus) of society. Study 1 supports our prediction that political conservatives are more nostalgic for the past than liberals...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Frank J Kachanoff, Donald M Taylor, Julie Caouette, Thomas H Khullar, Michael J A Wohl
Four studies assessed the potentially detrimental effects that restrictions to collective autonomy (i.e., a group's freedom to determine and practice its own identity) may have for the personal autonomy and psychological well-being of group members. In Study 1, using 3 distinct samples (NSample1a = 123, NSample1b = 129, NSample1c = 370), correlational and cross-cultural evidence indicates that perceived restrictions to the collective autonomy of one's group is directly associated with reduced personal autonomy, and indirectly associated with diminished well-being through personal autonomy...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Scott Parrigon, Sang Eun Woo, Louis Tay
The two commentaries to the CAPTION derivation paper (Parrigon, Woo, Tay, & Wang, 2017) provided insightful points regarding the consistency of emergent dimensional structures in the extant literature (Rauthmann & Sherman, 2018, p. 482) and potential concerns regarding the use of the lexical approach to identify psychologically important situation dimensions (Reis, 2018, p. 489). In this rejoinder, we seek to further these important discussions by (a) emphasizing the importance of Typicality in understanding a broad range of psychological processes, (b) clarifying the utility of broad, dimensional-based situation taxonomies such as the CAPTION model for providing key theoretical and empirical linkages across discrete situations, as well as for capturing a broad range of psychologically meaningful dimensions of situations, and (c) reaffirming the need for cross-cultural/language and facet-level investigations of the CAPTION dimensions in future research...
March 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Harry T Reis
The recent advent of methods for large-scale data collection has provided an unprecedented opportunity for researchers who seek to develop a taxonomy of situations. Parrigon, Woo, Tay, and Wang's (2017) CAPTIONs model is the latest such effort. In this comment, I argue that although bottom-up approaches of this sort have clear value, they are unlikely to provide the sort of definitive, comprehensive, and theoretically integrative taxonomy that the field wants and needs. In large part, this is because bottom-up taxonomies represent what is common about situations and not what is theoretically important and influential about them...
March 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
John F Rauthmann, Ryne A Sherman
Using the most comprehensive lexical approach with English adjectives to date, Parrigon et al. (2017) found 7 major dimensions of psychological situation characteristics (CAPTION: Complexity, Adversity, Positive Valence, Typicality, Importance, humOr, Negative Valence). Researchers using or studying situations may be interested in how well these dimensions empirically overlap with dimensions from other taxonomies, such as the DIAMONDS (Duty, Intellect, Adversity, Mating, pOsitivity, Negativity, Deception, Sociality)...
March 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Klaus R Scherer, Marcello Mortillaro, Irene Rotondi, Ilaria Sergi, St├ęphanie Trznadel
Although research on facial emotion recognition abounds, there has been little attention on the nature of the underlying mechanisms. In this article, using a "reverse engineering" approach, we suggest that emotion inference from facial expression mirrors the expression process. As a strong case can be made for an appraisal theory account of emotional expression, which holds that appraisal results directly determine the nature of facial muscle actions, we claim that observers first detect specific appraisals from different facial muscle actions and then use implicit inference rules to categorize and name specific emotions...
March 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
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