journal
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481619/what-s-wrong-with-using-steroids-exploring-whether-and-why-people-oppose-the-use-of-performance-enhancing-drugs
#1
Justin F Landy, Daniel K Walco, Daniel M Bartels
The use of performance enhancing drugs (PEDs) elicits widespread normative opposition, yet little research has investigated what underlies these judgments. We examine this question comprehensively, across 13 studies. We first test the hypothesis that opposition to PED use cannot be fully accounted for by considerations of fairness. We then test the influence of 10 other potential drivers of opposition in an exploratory manner. We find that health risks for the user and rules and laws prohibiting use of anabolic steroids reliably affect normative judgments...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481618/the-experience-of-secrecy
#2
Michael L Slepian, Jinseok S Chun, Malia F Mason
The concept of secrecy calls to mind a dyadic interaction: one person hiding a secret from another during a conversation or social interaction. The current work, however, demonstrates that this aspect of secrecy is rather rare. Taking a broader view of secrecy as the intent to conceal information, which only sometimes necessitates concealment, yields a new psychology of secrecy. Ten studies demonstrate the secrets people have, what it is like to have a secret, and what about secrecy is related to lower well-being...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481617/awe-the-diminished-self-and-collective-engagement-universals-and-cultural-variations-in-the-small-self
#3
Yang Bai, Laura A Maruskin, Serena Chen, Amie M Gordon, Jennifer E Stellar, Galen D McNeil, Kaiping Peng, Dacher Keltner
Awe has been theorized as a collective emotion, one that enables individuals to integrate into social collectives. In keeping with this theorizing, we propose that awe diminishes the sense of self and shifts attention away from individual interests and concerns. In testing this hypothesis across 6 studies (N = 2137), we first validate pictorial and verbal measures of the small self; we then document that daily, in vivo, and lab experiences of awe, but not other positive emotions, diminish the sense of the self...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481616/the-unique-contributions-of-perceiver-and-target-characteristics-in-person-perception
#4
Eric Hehman, Clare A M Sutherland, Jessica K Flake, Michael L Slepian
Models of person perception have long asserted that our impressions of others are guided by characteristics of both the target and perceiver. However, research has not yet quantified to what extent perceivers and targets contribute to different impressions. This quantification is theoretically critical, as it addresses how much an impression arises from "our minds" versus "others' faces." Here, we apply cross-classified random effects models to address this fundamental question in social cognition, using approximately 700,000 ratings of faces...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447838/in-defense-of-commitment-the-curative-power-of-violated-expectations
#5
Sandra L Murray, Veronica M Lamarche, Sarah Gomillion, Mark D Seery, Cheryl Kondrak
A new model of commitment defense in romantic relationships is proposed. It assumes that relationships afford a central resource for affirming meaning and purpose in the world. Consequently, violating expectations about the world outside the relationship can precipitate commitment defense inside the relationship. A meta-analysis of 5 experiments, 2 follow-up correlational studies, and a longitudinal study of the transition to first parenthood supported the model. Experimentally violating conventional expectations about the world (e...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447837/the-state-of-social-and-personality-science-rotten-to-the-core-not-so-bad-getting-better-or-getting-worse
#6
Matt Motyl, Alexander P Demos, Timothy S Carsel, Brittany E Hanson, Zachary J Melton, Allison B Mueller, J P Prims, Jiaqing Sun, Anthony N Washburn, Kendal M Wong, Caitlyn Yantis, Linda J Skitka
The scientific quality of social and personality psychology has been debated at great length in recent years. Despite research on the prevalence of Questionable Research Practices (QRPs) and the replicability of particular findings, the impact of the current discussion on research practices is unknown. The current studies examine whether and how practices have changed, if at all, over the last 10 years. In Study 1, we surveyed 1,166 social and personality psychologists about how the current debate has affected their perceptions of their own and the field's research practices...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447836/the-goldilocks-contract-the-synergistic-benefits-of-combining-structure-and-autonomy-for-persistence-creativity-and-cooperation
#7
Eileen Y Chou, Nir Halevy, Adam D Galinsky, J Keith Murnighan
Contracts are commonly used to regulate a wide range of interactions and relationships. Yet relying on contracts as a mechanism of control often comes at a cost to motivation. Integrating theoretical perspectives from psychology, economics, and organizational theory, we explore this control-motivation dilemma inherent in contracts and present the Contract-Autonomy-Motivation-Performance-Structure (CAMPS) model, which highlights the synergistic benefits of combining structure and autonomy. The model proposes that subtle reductions in the specificity of a contract's language can boost autonomy, which increases intrinsic motivation and improves a range of desirable behaviors...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447835/it-doesn-t-hurt-to-ask-question-asking-increases-liking
#8
Karen Huang, Michael Yeomans, Alison Wood Brooks, Julia Minson, Francesca Gino
Conversation is a fundamental human experience that is necessary to pursue intrapersonal and interpersonal goals across myriad contexts, relationships, and modes of communication. In the current research, we isolate the role of an understudied conversational behavior: question-asking. Across 3 studies of live dyadic conversations, we identify a robust and consistent relationship between question-asking and liking: people who ask more questions, particularly follow-up questions, are better liked by their conversation partners...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437126/how-winning-changes-motivation-in-multiphase-competitions
#9
Szu-Chi Huang, Jordan Etkin, Liyin Jin
What drives motivation in multiphase competitions? Adopting a dynamic approach, this research examines how temporary standing-being ahead of (vs. behind) one's opponent-in a multiphase competition shapes subsequent motivation. Six competitions conducted in the lab and in the field demonstrate that the impact of being ahead on contestants' motivation depends on when (i.e., in which phase of the competition) contestants learn they are in the lead. In the early phase, contestants are concerned about whether they can win; being ahead increases motivation by making winning seem more attainable...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437125/when-and-why-is-religious-attendance-associated-with-antigay-bias-and-gay-rights-opposition-a-justification-suppression-model-approach
#10
Mark Romeo Hoffarth, Gordon Hodson, Danielle S Molnar
Even in relatively tolerant countries, antigay bias remains socially divisive, despite being widely viewed as violating social norms of tolerance. From a Justification-Suppression Model (JSM) framework, social norms may generally suppress antigay bias in tolerant countries, yet be "released" by religious justifications among those who resist gay rights progress. Across large, nationally representative US samples (Study 1) and international samples (Study 2, representing a total of 97 different countries), over 215,000 participants, and various indicators of antigay bias (e...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414483/freedom-of-racist-speech-ego-and-expressive-threats
#11
Mark H White, Christian S Crandall
Do claims of "free speech" provide cover for prejudice? We investigate whether this defense of racist or hate speech serves as a justification for prejudice. In a series of 8 studies (N = 1,624), we found that explicit racial prejudice is a reliable predictor of the "free speech defense" of racist expression. Participants endorsed free speech values for singing racists songs or posting racist comments on social media; people high in prejudice endorsed free speech more than people low in prejudice (meta-analytic r = ...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414482/the-power-and-limits-of-personal-change-when-a-bad-past-does-and-does-not-inspire-in-the-present
#12
Nadav Klein, Ed O'Brien
Observing other people improve their lives can be a powerful source of inspiration. Eight experiments explore the power, limits, and reasons for this power of personal change to inspire. We find that people who have improved from undesirable pasts (e.g., people who used to abuse extreme drugs but no longer do) are more inspiring than people who maintain consistently desirable standings (e.g., people who have never used extreme drugs to begin with), because change is perceived as more effortful than stability (Experiments 1a and 1b)...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414481/word-order-denotes-relevance-differences-the-case-of-conjoined-phrases-with-lexical-gender
#13
Selin Kesebir
This work explores the order of linguistic references to the two genders (e.g., men and women vs. women and men). It argues that a gender is more likely to be mentioned first when it is perceived to have higher relevance in a context rather than lower relevance, and audiences assign stronger relevance to a party when the party is mentioned first rather than second. Studies 1-3 document the current prevalence of male-first conjoined phrases in the public (but not family) domain and link the pattern to historical changes in women's public presence over the 20th century...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368135/the-ugliness-in-averageness-effect-tempering-the-warm-glow-of-familiarity
#14
Evan W Carr, David E Huber, Diane Pecher, Rene Zeelenberg, Jamin Halberstadt, Piotr Winkielman
Mere exposure (i.e., stimulus repetition) and blending (i.e., stimulus averaging) are classic ways to increase social preferences, including facial attractiveness. In both effects, increases in preference involve enhanced familiarity. Prominent memory theories assume that familiarity depends on a match between the target and similar items in memory. These theories predict that when individual items are weakly learned, their blends (morphs) should be relatively familiar, and thus liked-a beauty-in-averageness effect (BiA)...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358544/developmental-pathways-linking-childhood-temperament-with-antisocial-behavior-and-substance-use-in-adolescence-explanatory-mechanisms-in-the-peer-environment
#15
J Marieke Buil, Pol A C van Lier, Mara R Brendgen, Hans M Koot, Frank Vitaro
This study investigated 3 developmental pathways involving the peer environment that may explain how certain temperamental dispositions in childhood may become manifested in later antisocial behavior and substance use. A total of 411 (52% boys) Canadian children were followed annually from ages 6 to 15 years. The study tested whether the temperamental traits approach, negative reactivity and attention (assessed at ages 6-7 years), were associated with overt antisocial behavior, covert antisocial behavior and illicit substance use (assessed at ages 14-15 years), via poor social preference among peers, inflated social self-perception and antisocial behavior of peer-group affiliates (assessed throughout ages 8-13 years)...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358543/dispositional-pathways-to-trust-self-esteem-and-agreeableness-interact-to-predict-trust-and-negative-emotional-disclosure
#16
Megan H McCarthy, Joanne V Wood, John G Holmes
Expressing our innermost thoughts and feelings is critical to the development of intimacy (Reis & Shaver, 1988), but also risks negative evaluation and rejection. Past research suggests that people with high self-esteem are more expressive and self-disclosing because they trust that others care for them and will not reject them (Gaucher et al., 2012). However, feeling good about oneself may not always be enough; disclosure may also depend on how we feel about other people. Drawing on the principles of risk regulation theory (Murray et al...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333473/enhanced-versus-simply-positive-a-new-condition-based-regression-analysis-to-disentangle-effects-of-self-enhancement-from-effects-of-positivity-of-self-view
#17
Sarah Humberg, Michael Dufner, Felix D Schönbrodt, Katharina Geukes, Roos Hutteman, Maarten H W van Zalk, Jaap J A Denissen, Steffen Nestler, Mitja D Back
Despite a large body of literature and ongoing refinements of analytical techniques, research on the consequences of self-enhancement (SE) is still vague about how to define SE effects, and empirical results are inconsistent. In this paper, we point out that part of this confusion is due to a lack of conceptual and methodological differentiation between effects of individual differences in how much people enhance themselves (SE) and in how positively they view themselves (positivity of self-view; PSV). We show that methods commonly used to analyze SE effects are biased because they cannot differentiate between the effects of PSV and the effects of SE...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333472/how-stable-is-the-personal-past-stability-of-most-important-autobiographical-memories-and-life-narratives-across-eight-years-in-a-life-span-sample
#18
Christin Köber, Tilmann Habermas
Considering life stories as the most individual layer of personality (McAdams, 2013) implies that life stories, similar to personality traits, exhibit some stability throughout life. Although stability of personality traits has been extensively investigated, only little is known about the stability of life stories. We therefore tested the influence of age, of the proportion of normative age-graded life events, and of global text coherence on the stability of the most important memories and of brief entire life narratives as 2 representations of the life story...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287753/parental-educational-attainment-and-adult-offspring-personality-an-intergenerational-life-span-approach-to-the-origin-of-adult-personality-traits
#19
Angelina R Sutin, Martina Luchetti, Yannick Stephan, Richard W Robins, Antonio Terracciano
Why do some individuals have more self-control or are more vulnerable to stress than others? Where do these basic personality traits come from? Although a fundamental question in personality, more is known about how traits are related to important life outcomes than their developmental origins. The present research took an intergenerational life span approach to address whether a significant aspect of the childhood environment-parental educational attainment-was associated with offspring personality traits in adulthood...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287752/racial-bias-in-judgments-of-physical-size-and-formidability-from-size-to-threat
#20
John Paul Wilson, Kurt Hugenberg, Nicholas O Rule
Black men tend to be stereotyped as threatening and, as a result, may be disproportionately targeted by police even when unarmed. Here, we found evidence that biased perceptions of young Black men's physical size may play a role in this process. The results of 7 studies showed that people have a bias to perceive young Black men as bigger (taller, heavier, more muscular) and more physically threatening (stronger, more capable of harm) than young White men. Both bottom-up cues of racial prototypicality and top-down information about race supported these misperceptions...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
journal
journal
21113
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"