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Journal of Personality and Social Psychology

Holly S Ryon, Marci E J Gleason
A paradox of social support has been well documented: believing that support is available and perceiving high levels of it has well-established mental health benefits, but the actual receipt of support is often found to be ineffective and even detrimental (see Gleason & Iida, 2015). Researchers have suggested that support receipt may be associated with negative mood because it is linked with a lack of self-efficacy or perceived control (Bolger & Amarel, 2007). Research on daily support transactions found that reciprocal emotional support exchanges counteracted the negative effects associated with support receipt, but there was significant variation between individuals in their reactions to support exchanges suggesting that a potential moderating variable of the support pattern exists...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Emma E Levine, T Bradford Bitterly, Taya R Cohen, Maurice E Schweitzer
Existing trust research has disproportionately focused on what makes people more or less trusting, and has largely ignored the question of what makes people more or less trustworthy. In this investigation, we deepen our understanding of trustworthiness. Across six studies using economic games that measure trustworthy behavior and survey items that measure trustworthy intentions, we explore the personality traits that predict trustworthiness. We demonstrate that guilt-proneness predicts trustworthiness better than a variety of other personality measures, and we identify sense of interpersonal responsibility as the underlying mechanism by both measuring it and manipulating it directly...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Johannes Prager, Joachim I Krueger, Klaus Fiedler
Impression formation is a basic module of fundamental research in social cognition, with broad implications for applied research on interpersonal relations, social attitudes, employee selection, and person judgments in legal and political context. Drawing on a pool of 28 predominantly positive traits used in Solomon Asch's (1946) seminal impression studies, two research teams have investigated the impact of the number of person traits sampled randomly from the pool on the evaluative impression of the target person...
July 5, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Jinhyung Kim, Rebecca J Schlegel, Elizabeth Seto, Joshua A Hicks
Alter and Hershfield (2014) recently published a set of studies suggesting that people often search for existential meaning as they approach a new decade in chronological age. The purpose of the current research was to replicate their experimental study (Study 2 in their article) and extend their findings using additional operational measures of search for meaning. Study 1 was a replication comparing the two conditions used in the original study (i.e., experimental and baseline control), whereas Studies 2 and 3 were direct replications of the original methods using all three conditions (i...
June 28, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Brett Q Ford, Matthew Feinberg, Phoebe Lam, Iris B Mauss, Oliver P John
Political action (volunteering, protesting) is central to functioning democracies, and action is often motivated by negative emotion. However, theories of emotion regulation suggest that people often strive to decrease such negative emotions. Thus, effective emotion regulation (e.g., reappraisal)-while helping people feel better-could have the unintended consequence of hindering political action. We tested this hypothesis in Clinton voters after the 2016 U.S. election (Ntotal = 1552). Studies 1a (conducted November 2016) and 1b (conducted November 2016, with a follow-up in January 2017) assessed individuals' recent use of reappraisal in managing emotions evoked by the election...
June 28, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Katherine H Rogers, Jeremy C Biesanz
Are some people truly better able to accurately perceive the personality of others? Previous research suggests that the good judge may be of little practical importance and individual differences minimal. In four large samples we assessed whether expressive accuracy (the good target) is a necessary condition for perceptive accuracy (the good judge) to emerge. As predicted from Funder's (1995) realistic accuracy model, assessments of the good judge predicted increased impression accuracy in the context of judgments of the good target...
June 25, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Jeanne L Tsai, Elizabeth Blevins, Lucy Zhang Bencharit, Louise Chim, Helene H Fung, Dannii Y Yeung
While significant research has demonstrated that people's beliefs about a group shape how they judge members of that group, few studies have examined whether people's beliefs and values regarding emotion (their "ideal affect") shape how they socially judge people's emotional facial expressions. We predicted that the more people valued and ideally wanted to feel excitement and other high arousal positive states (HAP), the more affiliative (extraverted, agreeable) they would judge excited (vs. calm) faces...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Yuri Miyamoto, Jiah Yoo, Cynthia S Levine, Jiyoung Park, Jennifer Morozink Boylan, Tamara Sims, Hazel Rose Markus, Shinobu Kitayama, Norito Kawakami, Mayumi Karasawa, Christopher L Coe, Gayle D Love, Carol D Ryff
Current theorizing on socioeconomic status (SES) focuses on the availability of resources and the freedom they afford as a key determinant of the association between high SES and stronger orientation toward the self and, by implication, weaker orientation toward others. However, this work relies nearly exclusively on data from Western countries where self-orientation is strongly sanctioned. In the present work, we predicted and found that especially in East Asian countries, where other-orientation is strongly sanctioned, high SES is associated with stronger other-orientation as well as with self-orientation...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Michael P Wilmot, Nick Haslam, Jingyuan Tian, Deniz S Ones
We present direct and conceptual replications of the influential taxometric analysis of Type A Behavior (TAB; Strube, 1989), which reported evidence for the latent typology of the construct. Study 1, the direct replication (N = 2,373), duplicated sampling and methodological procedures of the original study, but results showed that the item indicators used in the original study lacked sufficient validity to unambiguously determine latent structure. Using improved factorial subscale indicators to further test the question, multiple taxometric procedures, in combination with parallel analyses of simulated data, failed to replicate the original typological finding...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Jennifer Deventer, Jenny Wagner, Oliver Lüdtke, Ulrich Trautwein
Personality development has been associated with changes in various aspects of social relationships (e.g., contact frequency, emotional closeness, etc.). However, specific patterns of personality-relationship transactions are still not well understood as not many empirical studies have explored major life transitions. Emerging adulthood with its numerous life transitions is crucial for personality and social relationship development. In this study, we looked at personality-relationship transactions in the transition from high school to college, apprenticeship training, and so forth...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
W Craig Williams, Sylvia A Morelli, Desmond C Ong, Jamil Zaki
People often recruit social resources to manage their emotions, a phenomenon known as interpersonal emotion regulation (IER). Despite its importance, IER's psychological structure remains poorly understood. We propose that two key dimensions describe IER: (a) individuals' tendency to pursue IER in response to emotional events, and (b) the efficacy with which they perceive IER improves their emotional lives. To probe these dimensions, we developed the Interpersonal Regulation Questionnaire (IRQ), a valid and reliable measure of individual differences in IER...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Aneeta Rattan, Krishna Savani, Meera Komarraju, Megan M Morrison, Carol Boggs, Nalini Ambady
The current research investigates people's perceptions of others' lay theories (or mindsets), an understudied construct that we call meta-lay theories. Six studies examine whether underrepresented students' meta-lay theories influence their sense of belonging to science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). The studies tested whether underrepresented students who perceive their faculty as believing most students have high scientific aptitude (a universal metatheory) would report a stronger sense of belonging to STEM than those who think their faculty believe that not everyone has high scientific aptitude (a nonuniversal metatheory)...
July 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Selma Carolin Rudert, Daniela Sutter, Veronique Charlotte Corrodi, Rainer Greifeneder
When observing an ostracism episode, observers may wish to know whether ostracism is justified or not. If ostracism appears unjustified, observers will likely blame the sources and sympathize with the target; if it appears justified, observers will likely blame and devalue the target. Here we introduce the "social dissimilarity rule," which holds that observers base their moral judgments on dissimilarities between the members of the observed group. In five studies, participants either recalled observed ostracism episodes or observed group interactions in which one group member was ostracized (e...
July 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Brian M Monroe, Bryan L Koenig, Kum Seong Wan, Tei Laine, Swati Gupta, Andrew Ortony
We carried out tests of the first 2 premises of the Continuum Model (CM) of impression formation (Fiske & Neuberg, 1990). These premises predict that category information will in general be more influential than noncategory information, and that the fit of noncategorical attributes with the category is a major determinant of the relative influence of these types of information. Using stimuli that included sets of (a) text items only, and (b) combinations of photos and text items, we found no support for these claims, even using alternative tests...
July 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
K Paige Harden, Frank D Mann, Andrew D Grotzinger, Megan W Patterson, Laurence Steinberg, Jennifer L Tackett, Elliot M Tucker-Drob
Sensation seeking has been found to increase, on average, from childhood to adolescence. Developmental scientists have hypothesized that this change could be driven by the rise of gonadal hormones at puberty, which affect reward-related processing in the brain. In a large, age-heterogeneous, population-based sample of adolescents and young adults (N = 810; ages 13-20 years), we tested for sex-specific associations between age, self-reported pubertal development, gonadal hormones (estradiol and testosterone) as measured in saliva, reward sensitivity as measured by a multivariate battery of in-laboratory tasks (including the Iowa gambling task, balloon analogue risk task, and stoplight task), and self-reported sensation seeking...
July 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Joey T Cheng, Olga Kornienko, Douglas A Granger
In many social species, organisms adaptively fine-tune their competitive behavior in response to previous experiences of social status: Individuals who have prevailed in the past preferentially compete in the future, whereas those who have suffered defeat tend to defer and submit. A growing body of evidence suggests that testosterone functions as a "competition hormone" that coordinates this behavioral plasticity through its characteristic rise and fall following victory and defeat. Although well demonstrated in competitions underpinned by dominance (fear-based status derived from force and intimidation), this pattern has not been examined in status contests that depend solely on prestige-respect-based status derived from success, skills, and knowledge in locally valued domains, devoid of fear or antagonism...
June 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Kaitlin Woolley, Ayelet Fishbach
Can immediate (vs. delayed) rewards increase intrinsic motivation? Prior research compared the presence versus absence of rewards. By contrast, this research compared immediate versus delayed rewards, predicting that more immediate rewards increase intrinsic motivation by creating a perceptual fusion between the activity and its goal (i.e., the reward). In support of the hypothesis, framing a reward from watching a news program as more immediate (vs. delayed) increased intrinsic motivation to watch the program (Study 1), and receiving more immediate bonus (vs...
June 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Allen Ding Tian, Juliana Schroeder, Gerald Häubl, Jane L Risen, Michael I Norton, Francesca Gino
Rituals are predefined sequences of actions characterized by rigidity and repetition. We propose that enacting ritualized actions can enhance subjective feelings of self-discipline, such that rituals can be harnessed to improve behavioral self-control. We test this hypothesis in 6 experiments. A field experiment showed that engaging in a pre-eating ritual over a 5-day period helped participants reduce calorie intake (Experiment 1). Pairing a ritual with healthy eating behavior increased the likelihood of choosing healthy food in a subsequent decision (Experiment 2), and enacting a ritual before a food choice (i...
June 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Hillie Aaldering, Femke S Ten Velden, Gerben A van Kleef, Carsten K W De Dreu
In intergroup settings, humans often contribute to their in-group at a personal cost. Such parochial cooperation benefits the in-group and creates and fuels intergroup conflict when it simultaneously hurts out-groups. Here, we introduce a new game paradigm in which individuals can display universal cooperation (which benefits both in- and out-group) as well as parochial cooperation that does, versus does not hurt the out-group. Using this set-up, we test hypotheses derived from group selection theory, social identity, and bounded generalized reciprocity theory...
June 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Ethan S Young, Vladas Griskevicius, Jeffry A Simpson, Theodore E A Waters, Chiraag Mittal
Although growing up in an adverse childhood environment tends to impair cognitive functions, evolutionary-developmental theory suggests that this might be only one part of the story. A person's mind may instead become developmentally specialized and potentially enhanced for solving problems in the types of environments in which the person grew up. In the current research, we tested whether these specialized advantages in cognitive function might be sensitized to emerge in currently uncertain contexts. We refer to this as the sensitized-specialization hypothesis...
June 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
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