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Journal of Personality and Social Psychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080098/knowledge-of-the-self-control-benefits-of-high-level-versus-low-level-construal
#1
Karen E MacGregor, Jessica J Carnevale, Nicole E Dusthimer, Kentaro Fujita
Research indicates that inducing high-level construal (processing that highlights invariant, essential features) relative to low-level construal (processing that highlights idiosyncratic, peripheral features) promotes self-control (Fujita & Carnevale, 2012). In the present work, we investigate to what extent people recognize the self-control benefits of high-level construal, and explore the consequences of this knowledge. Studies 1 and 2 provide initial evidence that individuals are aware that high-level relative to low-level construal promotes self-control in the dieting domain...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068116/the-crowded-life-is-a-slow-life-population-density-and-life-history-strategy
#2
Oliver Sng, Steven L Neuberg, Michael E W Varnum, Douglas T Kenrick
The world population has doubled over the last half century. Yet, research on the psychological effects of human population density, once a popular topic, has decreased over the past few decades. Applying a fresh perspective to an old topic, we draw upon life history theory to examine the effects of population density. Across nations and across the U.S. states (Studies 1 and 2), we find that dense populations exhibit behaviors corresponding to a slower life history strategy, including greater future-orientation, greater investment in education, more long-term mating orientation, later marriage age, lower fertility, and greater parental investment...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068115/state-trait-decomposition-of-name-letter-test-scores-and-relationships-with-global-self-esteem
#3
Enrico Perinelli, Guido Alessandri, M Brent Donnellan, Mariola Łaguna
The Name Letter Test (NLT) assesses the degree that participants show a preference for an individual's own initials. The NLT was often thought to measure implicit self-esteem, but recent literature reviews do not equivocally support this hypothesis. Several authors have argued that the NLT is most strongly associated with the state component of self-esteem. The current research uses a modified STARTS model to (a) estimate the percentage of stable and transient components of the NLT and (b) estimate the covariances between stable/transient components of the NLT and stable/transient components of self-esteem and positive and negative affect...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068114/he-never-willed-to-have-the-will-he-has-historicist-narratives-civilized-blame-and-the-need-to-distinguish-two-notions-of-free-will
#4
Michael J Gill, Stephanie C Cerce
Harsh blame can be socially destructive. This article examines how harsh blame can be "civilized." A core construct here is the historicist narrative, which is a story-like account of how a person came to be the sort of person she is. We argue that historicist narratives regarding immoral actors can temper blame and that this happens via a novel mechanism. To illuminate that mechanism, we offer a novel theoretical perspective on lay beliefs about free will. We distinguish 2 senses of free will: (a) Freedom of action, which portrays the will as a dynamic choice-making mechanism and concerns whether the actor can exert volitional control via that mechanism at the time of action, and (b) Control of self-formation, which portrays the will as an enduring disposition (e...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977221/the-invisibility-cloak-illusion-people-incorrectly-believe-they-observe-others-more-than-others-observe-them
#5
Erica J Boothby, Margaret S Clark, John A Bargh
Whether at a coffee shop, in a waiting room, or riding the bus, people frequently observe the other people around them. Yet they often fail to realize how much other people engage in the same behavior, and that they, therefore, also are being observed. Because it is logically impossible that people, on average, are the subjects of observation more than they are objects of it, the belief that one watches others more than one is watched is an illusion. Several studies show that people incorrectly believe that they observe others more than other people observe them...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977220/how-distinctive-are-morningness-and-eveningness-from-the-big-five-factors-of-personality-a-meta-analytic-investigation
#6
Anastasiya A Lipnevich, Marcus Credè, Elisabeth Hahn, Frank M Spinath, Richard D Roberts, Franzis Preckel
This study explores relations between measures of individuals' circadian preferences and the Big Five. To this end, we compared a model of circadian preferences that acknowledges morningness (M) and eveningness (E) as separate dimensions to that of a model that places M and E on a single continuum (M-E). Analyses of 620 correlations from 44 independent samples (N = 16,647) revealed weak to modest relations between both dimensions of circadian preferences and the Big Five personality traits. The strongest observed relation was found between Conscientiousness and M (ρ = ...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936835/the-effect-of-mood-on-judgments-of-subjective-well-being-nine-tests-of-the-judgment-model
#7
Stevie C Y Yap, Jessica Wortman, Ivana Anusic, S Glenn Baker, Laura D Scherer, M Brent Donnellan, Richard E Lucas
Life satisfaction judgments are thought to represent an overall evaluation of the quality of a person's life as a whole. Thus, they should reflect relatively important and stable characteristics of that person's life. Previous highly cited research has suggested that transient factors, such as the mood that a person experiences at the time that well-being judgments are made, can influence these judgments. However, most existing studies used small sample sizes, and few replications have been attempted. Nine direct and conceptual replications of past studies testing the effects of mood on life satisfaction judgments were conducted using sample sizes that were considerably larger than previous studies (Ns = 202, 200, 269, 118, 320, 401, 285, 129, 122)...
December 12, 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936834/artful-paltering-the-risks-and-rewards-of-using-truthful-statements-to-mislead-others
#8
Todd Rogers, Richard Zeckhauser, Francesca Gino, Michael I Norton, Maurice E Schweitzer
Paltering is the active use of truthful statements to convey a misleading impression. Across 2 pilot studies and 6 experiments, we identify paltering as a distinct form of deception. Paltering differs from lying by omission (the passive omission of relevant information) and lying by commission (the active use of false statements). Our findings reveal that paltering is common in negotiations and that many negotiators prefer to palter than to lie by commission. Paltering, however, may promote conflict fueled by self-serving interpretations; palterers focus on the veracity of their statements ("I told the truth"), whereas targets focus on the misleading impression palters convey ("I was misled")...
December 12, 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936833/understanding-the-cognitive-and-motivational-underpinnings-of-sexual-passion-from-a-dualistic-model
#9
Frederick L Philippe, Robert J Vallerand, Léa Bernard-Desrosiers, Valérie Guilbault, Guillaume Rajotte
Sexual passion has always been conceptualized as a one-dimensional phenomenon that emerges from interactions with partners. Drawing from the literature on passionate activities, sexual passion was defined in terms of its intrapersonal motivational and cognitive components and examined from a dualistic perspective. More specifically, in 5 studies, we investigated how 2 types of sexual passion, harmonious and obsessive, can lead to clearly distinct subjective, relational, and cognitive outcomes. Study 1 validated a scale measuring harmonious and obsessive sexual passion, and showed that each type of sexual passion leads to common, but also distinct, subjective consequences during sexual activity engagement for both singles and romantically engaged individuals...
December 12, 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929302/age-time-period-and-birth-cohort-differences-in-self-esteem-reexamining-a-cohort-sequential-longitudinal-study
#10
Jean M Twenge, Nathan T Carter, W Keith Campbell
Orth, Trzesniewski, and Robins (2010) concluded that the nationally representative Americans' Changing Lives (ACL) cohort-sequential study demonstrated moderate to large age differences in self-esteem, and no birth cohort (generational) differences in the age trajectory. In a reanalysis of these data using 2 different statistical techniques, we find significant increases in self-esteem that could be attributed to birth cohort or time period. First, hierarchical linear modeling analyses with birth cohort as a continuous variable (vs...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929301/the-dark-side-of-the-sublime-distinguishing-a-threat-based-variant-of-awe
#11
Amie M Gordon, Jennifer E Stellar, Craig L Anderson, Galen D McNeil, Daniel Loew, Dacher Keltner
Theoretical conceptualizations of awe suggest this emotion can be more positive or negative depending on specific appraisal processes. However, the emergent scientific study of awe rarely emphasizes its negative side, classifying it instead as a positive emotion. In the present research we tested whether there is a more negative variant of awe that arises in response to vast, complex stimuli that are threatening (e.g., tornadoes, terrorist attack, wrathful god). We discovered people do experience this type of awe with regularity (Studies 1 & 4) and that it differs from other variants of awe in terms of its underlying appraisals, subjective experience, physiological correlates, and consequences for well-being...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935728/on-sanction-goal-justifications-how-and-why-deterrence-justifications-undermine-rule-compliance
#12
Marlon Mooijman, Wilco W van Dijk, Eric van Dijk, Naomi Ellemers
Authorities frequently justify their sanctions as attempts to deter people from rule breaking. Although providing a sanction justification seems appealing and harmless, we propose that a deterrence justification decreases the extent to which sanctions are effective in promoting rule compliance. We develop a theoretical model that specifies how and why this occurs. Consistent with our model, 5 experiments demonstrated that-compared with sanctions provided without a justification or sanctions provided with a just-deserts justification-sanction effectiveness decreased when sanctions were justified as attempts to deter people from rule breaking...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854443/puffed-up-but-shaky-selves-state-self-esteem-level-and-variability-in-narcissists
#13
Katharina Geukes, Steffen Nestler, Roos Hutteman, Michael Dufner, Albrecht C P Küfner, Boris Egloff, Jaap J A Denissen, Mitja D Back
Different theoretical conceptualizations characterize grandiose narcissists by high, yet fragile self-esteem. Empirical evidence, however, has been inconsistent, particularly regarding the relationship between narcissism and self-esteem fragility (i.e., self-esteem variability). Here, we aim at unraveling this inconsistency by disentangling the effects of two theoretically distinct facets of narcissism (i.e., admiration and rivalry) on the two aspects of state self-esteem (i.e., level and variability). We report on data from a laboratory-based and two field-based studies (total N = 596) in realistic social contexts, capturing momentary, daily, and weekly fluctuations of state self-esteem...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831701/risky-business-when-humor-increases-and-decreases-status
#14
T Bradford Bitterly, Alison Wood Brooks, Maurice E Schweitzer
Across 8 experiments, we demonstrate that humor can influence status, but attempting to use humor is risky. The successful use of humor can increase status in both new and existing relationships, but unsuccessful humor attempts (e.g., inappropriate jokes) can harm status. The relationship between the successful use of humor and status is mediated by perceptions of confidence and competence. The successful use of humor signals confidence and competence, which in turn increases the joke teller's status. Interestingly, telling both appropriate and inappropriate jokes, regardless of the outcome, signals confidence...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831700/normative-personality-trait-development-in-adulthood-a-6-year-cohort-sequential-growth-model
#15
Petar Milojev, Chris G Sibley
The present study investigated patterns of normative change in personality traits across the adult life span (19 through 74 years of age). We examined change in extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, openness to experience and honesty-humility using data from the first 6 annual waves of the New Zealand Attitudes and Values Study (N = 10,416; 61.1% female, average age = 49.46). We present a cohort-sequential latent growth model assessing patterns of mean-level change due to both aging and cohort effects...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808535/combating-the-sting-of-rejection-with-the-pleasure-of-revenge-a-new-look-at-how-emotion-shapes-aggression
#16
David S Chester, C Nathan DeWall
How does emotion explain the relationship between social rejection and aggression? Rejection reliably damages mood, leaving individuals motivated to repair their negatively valenced affective state. Retaliatory aggression is often a pleasant experience. Rejected individuals may then harness revenge's associated positive affect to repair their mood. Across 6 studies (total N = 1,516), we tested the prediction that the rejection-aggression link is motivated by expected and actual mood repair. Further, we predicted that this mood repair would occur through the positive affect of retaliatory aggression...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808534/how-implicit-theories-of-sexuality-shape-sexual-and-relationship-well-being
#17
Jessica A Maxwell, Amy Muise, Geoff MacDonald, Lisa C Day, Natalie O Rosen, Emily A Impett
How do people believe they can best maintain sexual satisfaction in their romantic relationships? In the current research, we draw upon the literature on implicit theories of relationships to develop and validate a scale examining 2 types of lay beliefs about how sexual satisfaction can be maintained over time. Individuals high in sexual growth beliefs think that sexual satisfaction is attained from hard work and effort, whereas individuals high in sexual destiny beliefs think that sexual satisfaction is attained through finding a compatible sexual partner...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032776/-people-both-high-and-low-on-religious-fundamentalism-are-prejudiced-toward-dissimilar-groups-correction-to-brandt-and-van-tongeren-2015
#18
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "People Both High and Low on Religious Fundamentalism Are Prejudiced Toward Dissimilar Groups" by Mark J. Brandt and Daryl R. Van Tongeren (Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Advanced Online Publication, Nov 2, 2015, np). In the article, the sample size of N = 5,806 in the abstract is incorrect. The correct sample size is N = 6,047. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2015-49839-001.) Research linking religion to prejudice suggests that highly religious individuals, and religious fundamentalists specifically, may be especially susceptible to expressing prejudice toward dissimilar others, whereas people who are less religious and fundamentalist do not show the same effect...
January 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032775/the-implicit-power-motive-in-intergroup-dialogues-about-the-history-of-slavery
#19
Ruth K Ditlmann, Valerie Purdie-Vaughns, John F Dovidio, Michael J Naft
This research demonstrates that individual differences in the implicit power motive (i.e., the concern with impact, influence, and control) moderate how African Americans communicate with White Americans in challenging intergroup dialogues. In a study with African American participants we find that the higher their implicit power motive, the more they use an affiliation strategy to communicate with a White American partner in a conversation context that evokes the history of slavery (Study 1). In a study with White American participants we find that, in the same conversation context, they are more engaged (i...
January 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032774/the-effects-of-implicit-gender-role-theories-on-gender-system-justification-fixed-beliefs-strengthen-masculinity-to-preserve-the-status-quo
#20
Laura J Kray, Laura Howland, Alexandra G Russell, Lauren M Jackman
Four studies (n = 1199) tested support for the idea that implicit theories about the fixedness versus malleability of gender roles (entity vs. incremental theories) predict differences in the degree of gender system justification, that is, support for the status quo in relations between women and men in society. Relative to an incremental theory, the holding of an entity theory correlated with more system-justifying attitudes and self-perceptions (Study 1) for men and women alike. We also found that strength of identification with one's gender in-group was a stronger predictor of system justification for men than it was for women, suggesting men's defense of the status quo may be motivated by their membership in a high status group in the social hierarchy...
January 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
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