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Journal of Personality and Social Psychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726437/anti-profit-beliefs-how-people-neglect-the-societal-benefits-of-profit
#1
Amit Bhattacharjee, Jason Dana, Jonathan Baron
Profit-seeking firms are stereotypically depicted as immoral and harmful to society. At the same time, profit-driven enterprise has contributed immensely to human prosperity. Though scholars agree that profit can incentivize societally beneficial behaviors, people may neglect this possibility. In 7 studies, we show that people see business profit as necessarily in conflict with social good, a view we call anti-profit beliefs. Studies 1 and 2 demonstrate that U.S. participants hold anti-profit views of real U...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650191/perceived-problem-solving-deficits-and-suicidal-ideation-evidence-for-the-explanatory-roles-of-thwarted-belongingness-and-perceived-burdensomeness-in-five-samples
#2
Carol Chu, Kristin L Walker, Ian H Stanley, Jameson K Hirsch, Jeffrey H Greenberg, M David Rudd, Thomas E Joiner
Perceived social problem-solving deficits are associated with suicide risk; however, little research has examined the mechanisms underlying this relationship. The interpersonal theory of suicide proposes 2 mechanisms in the pathogenesis of suicidal desire: intractable feelings of thwarted belongingness (TB) and perceived burdensomeness (PB). This study tested whether TB and PB serve as explanatory links in the relationship between perceived social problem-solving (SPS) deficits and suicidal thoughts and behaviors cross-sectionally and longitudinally...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639795/-you-re-one-of-us-black-americans-use-of-hypodescent-and-its-association-with-egalitarianism
#3
Arnold K Ho, Nour S Kteily, Jacqueline M Chen
Research on multiracial categorization has focused on majority group social perceivers (i.e., White Americans), demonstrating that they (a) typically categorize Black-White multiracials according to a rule of hypodescent, associating them more with their lower status parent group than their higher status parent group, and (b) do so at least in part to preserve the hierarchical status quo. The current work examines whether members of an ethnic minority group, Black Americans, also associate Black-White multiracials more with their minority versus majority parent group and if so, why...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627917/functional-intimacy-needing-but-not-wanting-the-touch-of-a-stranger
#4
Juliana Schroeder, Ayelet Fishbach, Chelsea Schein, Kurt Gray
Intimacy is often motivated by love, but sometimes it is merely functional. For example, disrobing and being touched at an airport security check serves the goal of catching a flight, not building a relationship. We propose that this functional intimacy induces discomfort, making people prefer greater social distance from their interaction partner. Supporting this prediction, participants who considered (Experiments 1 and 2) or experienced (Experiment 3) more physically intimate medical procedures preferred a health provider who is less social...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627916/individual-differences-in-reliance-on-intuition-predict-harsher-moral-judgments
#5
Sarah J Ward, Laura A King
The notion that intuition guides moral judgment is widely accepted. Yet, there is a dearth of research examining whether individual differences in reliance on intuition influence moral judgment. Five studies provided evidence that faith in intuition (FI) predicts higher condemnation of moral transgressions. Studies 1 and 2 (combined N = 543) demonstrated that FI predicted higher moral condemnation of strange actions characterized by ambiguous harm. This association maintained controlling for a host of relevant ideological and emotional "third" variables...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604018/resisting-temptation-for-the-good-of-the-group-binding-moral-values-and-the-moralization-of-self-control
#6
Marlon Mooijman, Peter Meindl, Daphna Oyserman, John Monterosso, Morteza Dehghani, John M Doris, Jesse Graham
When do people see self-control as a moral issue? We hypothesize that the group-focused "binding" moral values of Loyalty/betrayal, Authority/subversion, and Purity/degradation play a particularly important role in this moralization process. Nine studies provide support for this prediction. First, moralization of self-control goals (e.g., losing weight, saving money) is more strongly associated with endorsing binding moral values than with endorsing individualizing moral values (Care/harm, Fairness/cheating)...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604017/religion-repulsion-and-reaction-formation-transforming-repellent-attractions-and-repulsions
#7
Dov Cohen, Emily Kim, Nathan W Hudson
Protestants were more likely than non-Protestants to demonstrate phenomena consistent with the use of reaction formation. Lab experiments showed that when manipulations were designed to produce taboo attractions (to unconventional sexual practices), Protestants instead showed greater repulsion. When implicitly conditioned to produce taboo repulsions (to African Americans), Protestants instead showed greater attraction. Supportive evidence from other studies came from clinicians' judgments, defense mechanism inventories, and a survey of respondent attitudes...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594201/hypocritical-flip-flop-or-courageous-evolution-when-leaders-change-their-moral-minds
#8
Tamar A Kreps, Kristin Laurin, Anna C Merritt
How do audiences react to leaders who change their opinion after taking moral stances? We propose that people believe moral stances are stronger commitments, compared with pragmatic stances; we therefore explore whether and when audiences believe those commitments can be broken. We find that audiences believe moral commitments should not be broken, and thus that they deride as hypocritical leaders who claim a moral commitment and later change their views. Moreover, they view them as less effective and less worthy of support...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594200/a-mixed-methods-study-of-personality-conceptions-in-the-levant-jordan-lebanon-syria-and-the-west-bank
#9
Pia Zeinoun, Lina Daouk-Öyry, Lina Choueiri, Fons J R van de Vijver
Personality taxonomies are investigated using either etic-style studies that test whether Western-developed models fit in a new culture, or emic-style studies that derive personality dimensions from a local culture, using a psycholexical approach. Recent studies have incorporated strengths from both approaches. We combine the 2 approaches in the first study of personality descriptors in spoken Arabic. In Study 1, we collected 17,283 responses from a sample of adults in Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, and the West Bank (N = 545)...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581302/forgetting-to-remember-our-experiences-people-overestimate-how-much-they-will-retrospect-about-personal-events
#10
Stephanie Tully, Tom Meyvis
People value experiences in part because of the memories they create. Yet, we find that people systematically overestimate how much they will retrospect about their experiences. This overestimation results from people focusing on their desire to retrospect about experiences, while failing to consider the experience's limited enduring accessibility in memory. Consistent with this view, we find that desirability is a stronger predictor of forecasted retrospection than it is of reported retrospection, resulting in greater overestimation when the desirability of retrospection is higher...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581301/solidarity-through-shared-disadvantage-highlighting-shared-experiences-of-discrimination-improves-relations-between-stigmatized-groups
#11
Clarissa I Cortland, Maureen A Craig, Jenessa R Shapiro, Jennifer A Richeson, Rebecca Neel, Noah J Goldstein
Intergroup relations research has largely focused on relations between members of dominant groups and members of disadvantaged groups. The small body of work examining intraminority intergroup relations, or relations between members of different disadvantaged groups, reveals that salient experiences of ingroup discrimination promote positive relations between groups that share a dimension of identity (e.g., 2 different racial minority groups) and negative relations between groups that do not share a dimension of identity (e...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581300/reverse-ego-depletion-acts-of-self-control-can-improve-subsequent-performance-in-indian-cultural-contexts
#12
Krishna Savani, Veronika Job
The strength model of self-control has been predominantly tested with people from Western cultures. The present research asks whether the phenomenon of ego-depletion generalizes to a culture emphasizing the virtues of exerting mental self-control in everyday life. A pilot study found that whereas Americans tended to believe that exerting willpower on mental tasks is depleting, Indians tended to believe that exerting willpower is energizing. Using dual task ego-depletion paradigms, Studies 1a, 1b, and 1c found reverse ego-depletion among Indian participants, such that participants exhibited better mental self-control on a subsequent task after initially working on strenuous rather than nonstrenuous cognitive tasks...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557472/openness-to-experience-and-culture-openness-transactions-across-the-lifespan
#13
Ted Schwaba, Maike Luhmann, Jaap J A Denissen, Joanne M Chung, Wiebke Bleidorn
We examined the life span development of openness to experience and tested whether change in this personality trait was associated with change in cultural activity, such as attending the opera or visiting museums. Data came from the Dutch Longitudinal Internet Study for the Social Sciences panel, which includes 5 personality assessments across a 7-year period of a nationally representative sample of 7,353 individuals, aged 16 to 95 years. Latent growth curve analyses indicated that on average, openness remained relatively stable in emerging adulthood before declining in midlife and old age...
May 29, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557471/the-double-edged-sword-of-leader-charisma-understanding-the-curvilinear-relationship-between-charismatic-personality-and-leader-effectiveness
#14
Jasmine Vergauwe, Bart Wille, Joeri Hofmans, Robert B Kaiser, Filip De Fruyt
This study advanced knowledge on charisma by (a) introducing a new personality-based model to conceptualize and assess charisma and by (b) investigating curvilinear relationships between charismatic personality and leader effectiveness. Moreover, we delved deeper into this curvilinear association by (c) examining moderation by the leader's level of adjustment and by (d) testing a process model through which the effects of charismatic personality on effectiveness are explained with a consideration of specific leader behaviors...
May 29, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557470/the-visibility-of-social-class-from-facial-cues
#15
R Thora Bjornsdottir, Nicholas O Rule
Social class meaningfully impacts individuals' life outcomes and daily interactions, and the mere perception of one's socioeconomic standing can have significant ramifications. To better understand how people infer others' social class, we therefore tested the legibility of class (operationalized as monetary income) from facial images, finding across 4 participant samples and 2 stimulus sets that perceivers categorized the faces of rich and poor targets significantly better than chance. Further investigation showed that perceivers categorize social class using minimal facial cues and employ a variety of stereotype-related impressions to make their judgments...
May 29, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481619/what-s-wrong-with-using-steroids-exploring-whether-and-why-people-oppose-the-use-of-performance-enhancing-drugs
#16
Justin F Landy, Daniel K Walco, Daniel M Bartels
The use of performance enhancing drugs (PEDs) elicits widespread normative opposition, yet little research has investigated what underlies these judgments. We examine this question comprehensively, across 13 studies. We first test the hypothesis that opposition to PED use cannot be fully accounted for by considerations of fairness. We then test the influence of 10 other potential drivers of opposition in an exploratory manner. We find that health risks for the user and rules and laws prohibiting use of anabolic steroids reliably affect normative judgments...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481617/awe-the-diminished-self-and-collective-engagement-universals-and-cultural-variations-in-the-small-self
#17
Yang Bai, Laura A Maruskin, Serena Chen, Amie M Gordon, Jennifer E Stellar, Galen D McNeil, Kaiping Peng, Dacher Keltner
Awe has been theorized as a collective emotion, one that enables individuals to integrate into social collectives. In keeping with this theorizing, we propose that awe diminishes the sense of self and shifts attention away from individual interests and concerns. In testing this hypothesis across 6 studies (N = 2137), we first validate pictorial and verbal measures of the small self; we then document that daily, in vivo, and lab experiences of awe, but not other positive emotions, diminish the sense of the self...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481616/the-unique-contributions-of-perceiver-and-target-characteristics-in-person-perception
#18
Eric Hehman, Clare A M Sutherland, Jessica K Flake, Michael L Slepian
Models of person perception have long asserted that our impressions of others are guided by characteristics of both the target and perceiver. However, research has not yet quantified to what extent perceivers and targets contribute to different impressions. This quantification is theoretically critical, as it addresses how much an impression arises from "our minds" versus "others' faces." Here, we apply cross-classified random effects models to address this fundamental question in social cognition, using approximately 700,000 ratings of faces...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447838/in-defense-of-commitment-the-curative-power-of-violated-expectations
#19
Sandra L Murray, Veronica M Lamarche, Sarah Gomillion, Mark D Seery, Cheryl Kondrak
A new model of commitment defense in romantic relationships is proposed. It assumes that relationships afford a central resource for affirming meaning and purpose in the world. Consequently, violating expectations about the world outside the relationship can precipitate commitment defense inside the relationship. A meta-analysis of 5 experiments, 2 follow-up correlational studies, and a longitudinal study of the transition to first parenthood supported the model. Experimentally violating conventional expectations about the world (e...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447836/the-goldilocks-contract-the-synergistic-benefits-of-combining-structure-and-autonomy-for-persistence-creativity-and-cooperation
#20
Eileen Y Chou, Nir Halevy, Adam D Galinsky, J Keith Murnighan
Contracts are commonly used to regulate a wide range of interactions and relationships. Yet relying on contracts as a mechanism of control often comes at a cost to motivation. Integrating theoretical perspectives from psychology, economics, and organizational theory, we explore this control-motivation dilemma inherent in contracts and present the Contract-Autonomy-Motivation-Performance-Structure (CAMPS) model, which highlights the synergistic benefits of combining structure and autonomy. The model proposes that subtle reductions in the specificity of a contract's language can boost autonomy, which increases intrinsic motivation and improves a range of desirable behaviors...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
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