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Journal of Personality and Social Psychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094962/the-surprising-costs-of-silence-asymmetric-preferences-for-prosocial-lies-of-commission-and-omission
#1
Emma Levine, Joanna Hart, Kendra Moore, Emily Rubin, Kuldeep Yadav, Scott Halpern
Across 7 experiments (N = 3883), we demonstrate that communicators and targets make egocentric moral judgments of deception. Specifically, communicators focus more on the costs of deception to them-for example, the guilt they feel when they break a moral rule-whereas targets focus more on whether deception helps or harms them. As a result, communicators and targets make asymmetric judgments of prosocial lies of commission and omission: Communicators often believe that omitting information is more ethical than telling a prosocial lie, whereas targets often believe the opposite...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094961/developmental-differences-in-reward-sensitivity-and-sensation-seeking-in-adolescence-testing-sex-specific-associations-with-gonadal-hormones-and-pubertal-development
#2
K Paige Harden, Frank D Mann, Andrew D Grotzinger, Megan W Patterson, Laurence Steinberg, Jennifer L Tackett, Elliot M Tucker-Drob
Sensation seeking has been found to increase, on average, from childhood to adolescence. Developmental scientists have hypothesized that this change could be driven by the rise of gonadal hormones at puberty, which affect reward-related processing in the brain. In a large, age-heterogeneous, population-based sample of adolescents and young adults (N = 810; ages 13-20 years), we tested for sex-specific associations between age, self-reported pubertal development, gonadal hormones (estradiol and testosterone) as measured in saliva, reward sensitivity as measured by a multivariate battery of in-laboratory tasks (including the Iowa gambling task, balloon analogue risk task, and stoplight task), and self-reported sensation seeking...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094960/overconfidence-among-beginners-is-a-little-learning-a-dangerous-thing
#3
Carmen Sanchez, David Dunning
Across 6 studies we investigated the development of overconfidence among beginners. In 4 of the studies, participants completed multicue probabilistic learning tasks (e.g., learning to diagnose "zombie diseases" from physical symptoms). Although beginners did not start out overconfident in their judgments, they rapidly surged to a "beginner's bubble" of overconfidence. This bubble was traced to exuberant and error-filled theorizing about how to approach the task formed after just a few learning experiences...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072471/the-effects-of-paternal-disengagement-on-women-s-perceptions-of-male-mating-intent
#4
Danielle J DelPriore, Randi Proffitt Leyva, Bruce J Ellis, Sarah E Hill
Previous research demonstrates reliable associations between low paternal investment and daughters' precocious and risky sexual behavior. However, little is known about the psychological changes that occur in response to paternal disengagement that encourage these patterns. Here, we aim to redress this empirical gap by testing the effects of paternal disengagement on women's perceptions of male mating intent. In 4 experiments, women who described their fathers' absence (vs. a comparison state) perceived greater: mating intent in the described actions of a hypothetical dating partner (Study 1), sexual arousal in male target faces (Studies 2 and 3), and mating interest from a male confederate (Study 4)...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058927/perceived-entitlement-causes-discrimination-against-attractive-job-candidates-in-the-domain-of-relatively-less-desirable-jobs
#5
Margaret Lee, Marko Pitesa, Madan M Pillutla, Stefan Thau
People generally hold positive stereotypes of physically attractive people and because of those stereotypes often treat them more favorably. However, we propose that some beliefs about attractive people, specifically, the perception that attractive individuals have a greater sense of entitlement than less attractive individuals, can result in negative treatment of attractive people. We examine this in the context of job selection and propose that for relatively less desirable jobs, attractive candidates will be discriminated against...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945441/intergroup-conflict-self-perpetuates-via-meaning-exposure-to-intergroup-conflict-increases-meaning-and-fuels-a-desire-for-further-conflict
#6
Daniel R Rovenpor, Thomas C O'Brien, Antoine Roblain, Laura De Guissmé, Peggy Chekroun, Bernhard Leidner
We investigated whether violent conflict provides individuals with a sense of meaning that they are hesitant to let go of, thus contributing to the perpetuation of intergroup conflict. Across a wide variety of contexts, we found that making intergroup conflict salient increased the meaning people found in conflict and, in turn, increased support for conflict-perpetuating beliefs, ideologies, policies, and behaviors. These effects were detected among participants exposed to reminders of intergroup conflict (the American Revolutionary War and the U...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933874/wisdom-bias-and-balance-toward-a-process-sensitive-measurement-of-wisdom-related-cognition
#7
Justin P Brienza, Franki Y H Kung, Henri C Santos, D Ramona Bobocel, Igor Grossmann
Philosophers and behavioral scientists refer to wisdom as unbiased reasoning that guides one toward a balance of interests and promotes a good life. However, major instruments developed to test wisdom appear biased, and it is unclear whether they capture balance-related tendencies. We examined whether shifting from global, de-contextualized reports to state-level reports about concrete situations provides a less biased method to assess wise reasoning (e.g., intellectual humility, recognition of uncertainty and change, consideration of the broader context at hand and perspectives of others, integration of these perspectives or compromise), which may be aligned with the notion of balancing interests...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922000/humblebragging-a-distinct-and-ineffective-self-presentation-strategy
#8
Ovul Sezer, Francesca Gino, Michael I Norton
Self-presentation is a fundamental aspect of social life, with myriad critical outcomes dependent on others' impressions. We identify and offer the first empirical investigation of a prevalent, yet understudied, self-presentation strategy: humblebragging. Across 9 studies, including a week-long diary study and a field experiment, we identify humblebragging-bragging masked by a complaint or humility-as a common, conceptually distinct, and ineffective form of self-presentation. We first document the ubiquity of humblebragging across several domains, from everyday life to social media...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921999/predictive-validity-and-adjustment-of-ideal-partner-preferences-across-the-transition-into-romantic-relationships
#9
Tanja M Gerlach, Ruben C Arslan, Thomas Schultze, Selina K Reinhard, Lars Penke
Although empirical research has investigated what we ideally seek in a romantic partner for decades, the crucial question of whether ideal partner preferences actually guide our mating decisions in real life has remained largely unanswered. One reason for this is the lack of designs that assess individuals' ideal partner preferences before entering a relationship and then follow up on them over an extended period. In the Göttingen Mate Choice Study (GMCS), a preregistered, large-scale online study, we used such a naturalistic prospective design...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921998/modeling-bivariate-change-in-individual-differences-prospective-associations-between-personality-and-life-satisfaction
#10
Hilda Osafo Hounkpatin, Christopher J Boyce, Graham Dunn, Alex M Wood
A number of structural equation models have been developed to examine change in 1 variable or the longitudinal association between 2 variables. The most common of these are the latent growth model, the autoregressive cross-lagged model, the autoregressive latent trajectory model, and the latent change score model. The authors first overview each of these models through evaluating their different assumptions surrounding the nature of change and how these assumptions may result in different data interpretations...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910122/race-and-recession-effects-of-economic-scarcity-on-racial-discrimination
#11
Amy R Krosch, Tom R Tyler, David M Amodio
When the economy declines, existing racial disparities typically expand, suggesting that economic scarcity may promote racial discrimination. To understand this pattern, we examined the effect of perceived scarcity on resource allocations to Black and White American recipients, and tested whether this effect depends on a decision maker's motivation to respond without prejudice. We proposed that scarcity would lead to increased discrimination among those with relatively low internal motivation but not those high in internal motivation...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872332/the-road-to-extremism-field-and-experimental-evidence-that-significance-loss-induced-need-for-closure-fosters-radicalization
#12
David Webber, Maxim Babush, Noa Schori-Eyal, Anna Vazeou-Nieuwenhuis, Malkanthi Hettiarachchi, Jocelyn J Bélanger, Manuel Moyano, Humberto M Trujillo, Rohan Gunaratna, Arie W Kruglanski, Michele J Gelfand
The present studies examined the hypothesis that loss of personal significance fuels extremism via the need for cognitive closure. Situations of significance loss-those that make one feel ashamed, humiliated, or demeaned-are inconsistent with the desire for a positive self-image, and instill a sense of uncertainty about the self. Consequently, individuals become motivated to seek certainty and closure that affords the restoration of personal significance. Extremist ideologies should thus increase in appeal, because they promise clear-cut strategies for such restoration...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872331/how-do-people-think-about-interdependence-a-multidimensional-model-of-subjective-outcome-interdependence
#13
Fabiola H Gerpott, Daniel Balliet, Simon Columbus, Catherine Molho, Reinout E de Vries
Interdependence is a fundamental characteristic of social interactions. Interdependence Theory states that 6 dimensions describe differences between social situations. Here we examine if these 6 dimensions describe how people think about their interdependence with others in a situation. We find that people (in situ and ex situ) can reliably differentiate situations according to 5, but not 6, dimensions of interdependence: (a) mutual dependence, (b) power, (c) conflict, (d) future interdependence, and (e) information certainty...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857579/some-evidence-for-the-usefulness-of-an-optimal-foraging-theory-perspective-on-goal-conflict-and-goal-facilitation
#14
Martin J Tomasik, Michaela Knecht, Alexandra M Freund
Based on optimal foraging theory, we propose a metric that allows evaluating the goodness of goal systems, that is, systems comprising multiple goals with facilitative and conflicting interrelations. This optimal foraging theory takes into account expectancy and value, as well as opportunity costs, of foraging. Applying this approach to goal systems provides a single index of goodness of a goal system for goal striving. Three quasi-experimental studies (N = 277, N = 145, and N = 210) provide evidence for the usefulness of this approach for goal systems comprising between 3 to 10 goals...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857578/awe-and-humility
#15
Jennifer E Stellar, Amie Gordon, Craig L Anderson, Paul K Piff, Galen D McNeil, Dacher Keltner
Humility is a foundational virtue that counters selfish inclinations such as entitlement, arrogance, and narcissism (Tangney, 2000). We hypothesize that experiences of awe promote greater humility. Guided by an appraisal-tendency framework of emotion, we propose that when individuals encounter an entity that is vast and challenges their worldview, they feel awe, which leads to self-diminishment and subsequently humility. In support of these claims, awe-prone individuals were rated as more humble by friends (Study 1) and reported greater humility across a 2-week period (Study 2), controlling for other positive emotions...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846003/facing-humanness-facial-width-to-height-ratio-predicts-ascriptions-of-humanity
#16
Jason C Deska, E Paige Lloyd, Kurt Hugenberg
The ascription of mind to others is central to social cognition. Most research on the ascription of mind has focused on motivated, top-down processes. The current work provides novel evidence that facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) serves as a bottom-up perceptual signal of humanness. Using a range of well-validated operational definitions of humanness, we provide evidence across 5 studies that target faces with relatively greater fWHR are seen as less than fully human compared with their relatively lower fWHR counterparts...
August 28, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836803/reducing-defensive-responses-to-thoughts-of-death-meditation-mindfulness-and-buddhism
#17
Young Chin Park, Tom Pyszczynski
Three studies investigated the effects of meditation on responses to reminders of death. Study 1 took a quasi-experimental approach, comparing defensive responses to mortality salience (MS) of South Korean participants with varying levels of experience with Buddhism and meditation. Whereas non-Buddhists without meditation showed the typical increase in worldview defense after mortality salience (MS), this effect was not found among non-Buddhists immediately after an initial meditation experience, nor among lay Buddhists who meditated regularly or Buddhist monks with intensive meditation experience...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836802/what-inverted-u-can-do-for-your-country-a-curvilinear-relationship-between-confidence-in-the-social-system-and-political-engagement
#18
Aleksandra Cichocka, Paulina Górska, John T Jost, Robbie M Sutton, Michał Bilewicz
We examined the link between political engagement and the tendency to justify the sociopolitical system. On one hand, confidence in the system should be negatively related to political engagement, insofar as it entails reduced desire for social change; on the other hand, system confidence should also be positively related to political engagement to the extent that it carries an assumption that the system is responsive to citizens' political efforts. Because of the combination of these 2 opposing forces, the motivation for political engagement should be highest at intermediate levels of system confidence...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016166/-replicability-and-other-features-of-a-high-quality-science-toward-a-balanced-and-empirical-approach-correction-to-finkel-et-al-2017
#19
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Replicability and other features of a high-quality science: Toward a balanced and empirical approach" by Eli J. Finkel, Paul W. Eastwick and Harry T. Reis (Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2017[Aug], Vol 113[2], 244-253). In the commentary, there was an error in the References list. The publishing year for the 18th article was cited incorrectly as 2016. The in-text acronym associated with this citation should read instead as LCL2017. The correct References list citation should read as follows: LeBel, E...
November 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016165/-falsifiability-is-not-optional-correction-to-lebel-et-al-2017
#20
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Falsifiability is not optional" by Etienne P. LeBel, Derek Berger, Lorne Campbell and Timothy J. Loving (Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2017[Aug], Vol 113[2], 254-261). In the reply, there were two errors in the References list. The publishing year for the 14th and 21st articles was cited incorrectly as 2016. The in-text acronym associated with these citations should read instead as FER2017 and LCL2017. The correct References list citations should read as follows, respectively: Finkel, E...
November 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
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