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Journal of Personality and Social Psychology

Jesse Walker, Jane L Risen, Thomas Gilovich, Richard Thaler
We present evidence of sudden-death aversion (SDA)-the tendency to avoid "fast" strategies that provide a greater chance of success, but include the possibility of immediate defeat, in favor of "slow" strategies that reduce the possibility of losing quickly, but have lower odds of ultimate success. Using a combination of archival analyses and controlled experiments, we explore the psychology behind SDA. First, we provide evidence for SDA and its cost to decision makers by tabulating how often NFL teams send games into overtime by kicking an extra point rather than going for the 2-point conversion (Study 1) and how often NBA teams attempt potentially game-tying 2-point shots rather than potentially game-winning 3-pointers (Study 2)...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
L Taylor Phillips, Michael L Slepian, Brent L Hughes
The visual perception of individuals has received considerable attention (visual person perception), but little social psychological work has examined the processes underlying the visual perception of groups of people (visual people perception). Ensemble-coding is a visual mechanism that automatically extracts summary statistics (e.g., average size) of lower-level sets of stimuli (e.g., geometric figures), and also extends to the visual perception of groups of faces. Here, we consider whether ensemble-coding supports people perception, allowing individuals to form rapid, accurate impressions about groups of people...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Joris Lammers, Matt Baldwin
Nine studies and a meta-analysis test the role of past-focused temporal communication in reducing conservatives' disagreement with liberal political ideas. We propose that conservatives are more prone to warm, affectionate, and nostalgic feelings for past society. Therefore, they are more likely to support political ideas-including those expressing liberal values-that can be linked to a desirable past state (past focus), rather than a desirable future state (future focus) of society. Study 1 supports our prediction that political conservatives are more nostalgic for the past than liberals...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Frank J Kachanoff, Donald M Taylor, Julie Caouette, Thomas H Khullar, Michael J A Wohl
Four studies assessed the potentially detrimental effects that restrictions to collective autonomy (i.e., a group's freedom to determine and practice its own identity) may have for the personal autonomy and psychological well-being of group members. In Study 1, using 3 distinct samples (NSample1a = 123, NSample1b = 129, NSample1c = 370), correlational and cross-cultural evidence indicates that perceived restrictions to the collective autonomy of one's group is directly associated with reduced personal autonomy, and indirectly associated with diminished well-being through personal autonomy...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Michael P Grosz, Richard Göllner, Norman Rose, Marion Spengler, Ulrich Trautwein, John F Rauthmann, Eunike Wetzel, Brent W Roberts
We investigated the development of narcissistic admiration (i.e., the assertive or extraverted dimension of narcissism; Back et al., 2013) and Machiavellianism (Mach) in early adulthood. Specifically, we examined (a) mean-level changes in narcissistic admiration and Mach during early adulthood and (b) how studying economics and experiencing any of 30 life events were related to individual differences in changes in narcissistic admiration and Mach. We used longitudinal data from 2 cohorts of young adults in Germany (N1 = 4,962 and N2 = 2,572)...
December 18, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Kaitlin Woolley, Jane L Risen
Rationally, people should want to receive information that is costless and relevant for a decision. But people sometimes choose to remain ignorant. The current paper identifies intuitive-deliberative conflict as a driver of information avoidance. Moreover, we examine whether people avoid information not only to protect their feelings or experiences, but also to protect the decision itself. We predict that people avoid information that could encourage a more thoughtful, deliberative decision to make it easier to enact their intuitive preference...
December 18, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Irmak Olcaysoy Okten, Gordon B Moskowitz
In 4 studies, we show that two behavioral dimensions specified in Kelley's (1967) model of attribution, consistency and distinctiveness of behaviors, determine perceivers' likelihood to explain others' behaviors in terms of their goals versus traits. Participants tended to attribute the cause of others' behaviors to their goals (vs. traits and other characteristics) when behaviors were characterized by high distinctiveness (Study 1A & 1B) or low consistency (Study 2). On the other hand, traits were ascribed as predominant causal explanations when behaviors had low distinctiveness or high consistency...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Yuthika U Girme, Christopher R Agnew, Laura E VanderDrift, S Marie Harvey, W Steven Rholes, Jeffry A Simpson
Although attachment security is relatively stable over time, individuals do experience significant within-person variation in their attachment security across time. No research to date, however, has assessed the relational consequences of within-person variation (fluctuations) in attachment security toward a specific attachment figure. Study 1 (N = 409) first examined whether attachment security was associated with individuals' expectations that their current intimate relationship would be stable and consistent over time (vs...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Swantje Mueller, Jenny Wagner, Jacqui Smith, Manuel C Voelkle, Denis Gerstorf
Conceptual and empirical work has long suggested that personality and health are closely intertwined later in life. Little is known, however, about the nature and direction of time-ordered associations between the 2 domains within-persons. We applied continuous time auto- and cross-effects models to up to 6 waves of 13-year longitudinal data from the Berlin Aging Study (N = 516, M = 84.92, SD = 8.66, age range 70 to 103) and examined time-ordered relations between personality traits (i.e., extraversion and neuroticism) and performance-based indicators of functional health (i...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Martin Obschonka, Michael Stuetzer, Peter J Rentfrow, Leigh Shaw-Taylor, Max Satchell, Rainer K Silbereisen, Jeff Potter, Samuel D Gosling
Recent research has identified regional variation of personality traits within countries but we know little about the underlying drivers of this variation. We propose that the Industrial Revolution, as a key era in the history of industrialized nations, has led to a persistent clustering of well-being outcomes and personality traits associated with psychological adversity via processes of selective migration and socialization. Analyzing data from England and Wales, we examine relationships between the historical employment share in large-scale coal-based industries (coal mining and steam-powered manufacturing industries that used this coal as fuel for their steam engines) and today's regional variation in personality and well-being...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Emma Levine, Joanna Hart, Kendra Moore, Emily Rubin, Kuldeep Yadav, Scott Halpern
Across 7 experiments (N = 3883), we demonstrate that communicators and targets make egocentric moral judgments of deception. Specifically, communicators focus more on the costs of deception to them-for example, the guilt they feel when they break a moral rule-whereas targets focus more on whether deception helps or harms them. As a result, communicators and targets make asymmetric judgments of prosocial lies of commission and omission: Communicators often believe that omitting information is more ethical than telling a prosocial lie, whereas targets often believe the opposite...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
K Paige Harden, Frank D Mann, Andrew D Grotzinger, Megan W Patterson, Laurence Steinberg, Jennifer L Tackett, Elliot M Tucker-Drob
Sensation seeking has been found to increase, on average, from childhood to adolescence. Developmental scientists have hypothesized that this change could be driven by the rise of gonadal hormones at puberty, which affect reward-related processing in the brain. In a large, age-heterogeneous, population-based sample of adolescents and young adults (N = 810; ages 13-20 years), we tested for sex-specific associations between age, self-reported pubertal development, gonadal hormones (estradiol and testosterone) as measured in saliva, reward sensitivity as measured by a multivariate battery of in-laboratory tasks (including the Iowa gambling task, balloon analogue risk task, and stoplight task), and self-reported sensation seeking...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Carmen Sanchez, David Dunning
Across 6 studies we investigated the development of overconfidence among beginners. In 4 of the studies, participants completed multicue probabilistic learning tasks (e.g., learning to diagnose "zombie diseases" from physical symptoms). Although beginners did not start out overconfident in their judgments, they rapidly surged to a "beginner's bubble" of overconfidence. This bubble was traced to exuberant and error-filled theorizing about how to approach the task formed after just a few learning experiences...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Danielle J DelPriore, Randi Proffitt Leyva, Bruce J Ellis, Sarah E Hill
Previous research demonstrates reliable associations between low paternal investment and daughters' precocious and risky sexual behavior. However, little is known about the psychological changes that occur in response to paternal disengagement that encourage these patterns. Here, we aim to redress this empirical gap by testing the effects of paternal disengagement on women's perceptions of male mating intent. In 4 experiments, women who described their fathers' absence (vs. a comparison state) perceived greater: mating intent in the described actions of a hypothetical dating partner (Study 1), sexual arousal in male target faces (Studies 2 and 3), and mating interest from a male confederate (Study 4)...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Facing Humanness: Facial Width-to-Height Ratio Predicts Ascriptions of Humanity" by Jason C. Deska, E. Paige Lloyd and Kurt Hugenberg (Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Advanced Online Publication, Aug 28, 2017, np). In the article, there is a data error in the Results section of Study 1c. The fourth sentence of the fourth paragraph should read as follows: High fWHR targets (M= 74.39, SD=18.25) were rated as equivalently evolved as their low fWHR counterparts (M=79.39, SD=15...
January 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Marlise K Hofer, Hanne K Collins, Ashley V Whillans, Frances S Chen
The scent of another person can activate memories, trigger emotions, and spark romantic attraction; however, almost nothing is known about whether and how human scents influence responses to stress. In the current study, 96 women were randomly assigned to smell one of three scents (their romantic partner's, a stranger's, or a neutral scent) and exposed to an acute stressor (Trier Social Stress Test). Perceived stress and cortisol were measured continuously throughout the study (5 and 7 times, respectively)...
January 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Sebastian Deri, Shai Davidai, Thomas Gilovich
Although decades of research show that people tend to see themselves in the best possible light, we present evidence that people have a surprisingly grim outlook on their social lives. In 11 studies (N = 3,293; including 3 preregistered), we find that most people think that others lead richer and more active social lives than they do themselves. We show that this bias holds across multiple populations (college students, MTurk respondents, shoppers at a local mall, and participants from a large, income-stratified online panel), correlates strongly with well-being, and is particularly acute for social activities (e...
December 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Alexander S Browman, Mesmin Destin, Daniel C Molden
Research on self-regulation has traditionally emphasized that people's thoughts and actions are guided by either (a) domain-general motivations that emerge from a cumulative history of life experiences, or (b) situation-specific motivations that emerge in immediate response to the incentives present in a particular context. However, more recent studies have illustrated the importance of understanding the interplay between such domain-general and situation-specific motivations across the types of contexts people regularly encounter...
December 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Martin J Tomasik, Michaela Knecht, Alexandra M Freund
Based on optimal foraging theory, we propose a metric that allows evaluating the goodness of goal systems, that is, systems comprising multiple goals with facilitative and conflicting interrelations. This optimal foraging theory takes into account expectancy and value, as well as opportunity costs, of foraging. Applying this approach to goal systems provides a single index of goodness of a goal system for goal striving. Three quasi-experimental studies (N = 277, N = 145, and N = 210) provide evidence for the usefulness of this approach for goal systems comprising between 3 to 10 goals...
December 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Juliana Schroeder, Ayelet Fishbach, Chelsea Schein, Kurt Gray
Intimacy is often motivated by love, but sometimes it is merely functional. For example, disrobing and being touched at an airport security check serves the goal of catching a flight, not building a relationship. We propose that this functional intimacy induces discomfort, making people prefer greater social distance from their interaction partner. Supporting this prediction, participants who considered (Experiments 1 and 2) or experienced (Experiment 3) more physically intimate medical procedures preferred a health provider who is less social...
December 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
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