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Journal of Personality and Social Psychology

Kathleen L Carswell, Eli J Finkel
The present research introduces the construct of a decay theory of passion-a lay belief that romantic passion decline is irreversible-and investigates how this construct interacts with existing levels of passion for one's romantic partner to predict lower relationship commitment and greater pursuit of romantic alternatives. Across three studies employing experimental and nonexperimental procedures-and a set of meta-analytic syntheses including additional studies-results generally supported the hypotheses that, although low passion is linked to lower commitment and greater pursuit of romantic alternatives, such effects are stronger when adherence to decay beliefs is high rather than low...
September 20, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Ruben C Arslan, Katharina M Schilling, Tanja M Gerlach, Lars Penke
Previous research reported ovulatory changes in women's appearance, mate preferences, extra- and in-pair sexual desire, and behavior, but has been criticized for small sample sizes, inappropriate designs, and undisclosed flexibility in analyses. In the present study, we sought to address these criticisms by preregistering our hypotheses and analysis plan and by collecting a large diary sample. We gathered more than 26,000 usable online self-reports in a diary format from 1,043 women, of which 421 were naturally cycling...
August 27, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Lauren J Human, Erika N Carlson, Katharina Geukes, Steffen Nestler, Mitja D Back
Does forming accurate impressions benefit emerging relationships? In 2 longitudinal studies (Study 1: 235 participants, 534 dyads, 2 time points; Study 2: 122 participants, 3,023 dyads, 7 time points), we examined whether more accurate personality impressions among new acquaintances fostered greater liking over time for both the perceiver and target (accuracy fosters liking hypothesis). Further, we examined whether greater perceiver and target liking also fostered accuracy over time (liking fosters accuracy hypothesis)...
August 23, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Swantje Mueller, Jenny Wagner, Gert G Wagner, Nilam Ram, Denis Gerstorf
Personality is a powerful predictor of central life outcomes, including subjective well-being. Yet, we still know little about how personality manifests in the very last years of life when well-being typically falls rapidly. Here, we investigate whether the Big Five personality traits buffer (or magnify) terminal decline in well-being beyond and in interaction with functioning in key physical and social domains. We applied growth models to up to 10-year longitudinal data from 629 now deceased participants in the nation-wide German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP; age at death: M = 76 years; SD = 11)...
August 20, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Jeremy A Frimer, Linda J Skitka
M. W. Montagu asserted that, "civility costs nothing and buys everything." In the realm of social judgment, the notion that people generally evaluate civil people more favorably than uncivil people may be unsurprising. However, the Montagu Principle may not apply in a hyper-partisan political environment in which politicians "throw red meat to their base" by unleashing uncivil, personal attacks against their opponents, satisfying the aggressive desires of their most hyper-partisan supporters, and thus potentially redoubling their approval among them...
August 20, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Rodica Ioana Damian, Marion Spengler, Andreea Sutu, Brent W Roberts
How much do people's personalities change or remain stable from high school to retirement? To address these questions, we used a large U.S. sample ( N = 1,795) that assessed people's personality traits in adolescence and 50 years later. We also used 2 independent samples, 1 cross-sectional and 1 short-term longitudinal ( N = 3,934 and N = 38, respectively), to validate the personality scales and estimate measurement error. This was the first study to test personality stability/change over a 50-year time span in which the same data source was tapped (i...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Sandra L Murray, Mark D Seery, Veronica M Lamarche, Cheryl Kondrak, Sarah Gomillion
A new model is proposed to explain how automatic partner attitudes affect how couples cope with major life transitions. The automatic partner attitudes in transition (APAT) model assumes that people simultaneously possess contextualized automatic attitudes toward their partner that can differ substantively in valence pre- and posttransition. It further assumes that evaluatively inconsistent pre- and posttransition automatic partner attitudes elicit heightened behavioral angst or uncertainty, self-protective behavior in response to risk, and relationship distress...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Devin G Ray, Sarah Gomillion, Andrei I Pintea, Iain Hamlin
Our memories contain a wealth of social information-including details of past interactions, facts about others, and others' identities. Yet, human memory is imperfect, and we often find ourselves unable to recall such information in social interactions. Conversely, people routinely find themselves on the receiving end of others' memory failures; that is, people sometimes find themselves forgotten. Despite the apparent pervasiveness of such experiences, modern science possesses no explanatory framework for understanding the psychological impact of being forgotten in part or in whole...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Charleen R Case, Katherine K Bae, Jon K Maner
Leaders often are faced with making difficult decisions for their group, such as when a course of action preferred by group members conflicts with one that is likely to optimize group success. Across 5 experiments ( N = 1110), we provide evidence that a psychological orientation toward prestige (but not dominance) causes leaders to adhere publicly to group members' desires at the expense of group task outcomes-to prioritize popularity over performance. Experiments 1-3 demonstrated that, in private, prestige-oriented leaders chose what they saw as best for group performance but that, in public, they chose whichever option was preferred by members of their group...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Michael Kardas, Alex Shaw, Eugene M Caruso
Many resource allocations confer two rewards, but these rewards typically work in opposition to one another: Reputational rewards come to those who give and material rewards to those who receive. Eight studies reveal that abdicating a resource allocation decision-that is, giving away one's right to choose to someone else-may allow these two rewards to work in tandem. We found that people frequently abdicated to others, and abdication often prompted others to reciprocate by giving away the better of two items...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Manon A van Scheppingen, William J Chopik, Wiebke Bleidorn, Jaap J A Denissen
The current study aimed to conceptually replicate previous studies on the effects of actor personality, partner personality, and personality similarity on general and relational well-being by using response surface analyses and a longitudinal sample of 4,464 romantic couples. Similar to previous studies using difference scores and profile correlations, results from response surface analyses indicated that personality similarity explained a small amount of variance in well-being as compared with the amount of variance explained by linear actor and partner effects...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Anthony L Burrow, Patrick L Hill, Kaylin Ratner, Thomas E Fuller-Rowell
Developmental perspectives on self and identity view a sense of personal sameness and continuity as critical for positive adjustment. Thus, the degree to which individuals perceive change over time in self and direction constitutes an important individual difference. Here, we offer an empirically sound instrument for assessing the extent to which people feel temporally discrepant and off course-a sense we term derailment. First, we develop and empirically validate a self-report measure that is sensitive to our conceptualization of derailment (Studies 1-3)...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Benjamin A Converse, Lindsay Juarez, Marie Hennecke
Motivation derived from a sense of truly valuing or enjoying one's pursuits ("wanting to do it")-as opposed to motivation born of external demands or other people's expectations ("having to do it")-is associated with goal-pursuit success and overall well-being. But what determines the quality of motivation in the first place? Many theoretical perspectives identify features of the task or situation as determinants, but have largely ignored the potential contribution of individual self-regulatory tendencies...
August 2, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Jaap J A Denissen, Maike Luhmann, Joanne M Chung, Wiebke Bleidorn
Life events refer to status changes in important demographic variables, such as employment or marital status. Life events offer an interesting opportunity for studying transactions between environmental changes and personality traits, which are of relevance for diverging theories about the role of environmental factors in life span personality development. Yet in spite of the potential importance of life events for personality development, nuanced and sufficiently powered longitudinal designs with frequent assessments of life events and personality traits are lacking...
July 26, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
René Mõttus, Jonah Sinick, Antonio Terracciano, Martina Hřebíčková, Christian Kandler, Juko Ando, Erik Lykke Mortensen, Lucía Colodro-Conde, Kerry L Jang
Mõttus and colleagues (2017) reported evidence that the unique variance in specific personality characteristics captured by single descriptive items often displayed trait-like properties of cross-rater agreement, rank-order stability, and heritability. They suggested that the personality hierarchy should be extended below facets to incorporate these specific characteristics, called personality nuances. The present study attempted to replicate these findings, employing data from 6,287 individuals from 6 countries (Australia, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, Japan, and United States)...
July 26, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Sarah Humberg, Michael Dufner, Felix D Schönbrodt, Katharina Geukes, Roos Hutteman, Albrecht C P Küfner, Maarten H W van Zalk, Jaap J A Denissen, Steffen Nestler, Mitja D Back
Empirical research on the (mal-)adaptiveness of favorable self-perceptions, self-enhancement, and self-knowledge has typically applied a classical null-hypothesis testing approach and provided mixed and even contradictory findings. Using data from 5 studies (laboratory and field, total N = 2,823), we used an information-theoretic approach combined with Response Surface Analysis to provide the first competitive test of 6 popular hypotheses: that more favorable self-perceptions are adaptive versus maladaptive (Hypotheses 1 and 2: Positivity of self-view hypotheses), that higher levels of self-enhancement (i...
July 26, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Michael K Dooley, Kate Sweeny, Jennifer L Howell, Chandra A Reynolds
Whether awaiting biopsy results, a grade on a midterm, or a decision from a journal editor, people feel distressed as they wait for uncertain news. In the present study, we investigated how people's perceptions of their romantic partner, specifically their partner's responsiveness to their support needs, corresponds with key aspects of the waiting experience. In a longitudinal study of 184 law students awaiting their result on the California bar exam, we examined changes in perceived responsiveness over time and associations between perceived responsiveness and expectation management strategies, health, and well-being...
July 26, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Maryam Kouchaki, Isaac H Smith, Krishna Savani
We demonstrate that a difference exists between objectively having and psychologically perceiving multiple-choice options of a given decision, showing that morality serves as a constraint on people's perceptions of choice. Across 8 studies (N = 2,217), using both experimental and correlational methods, we find that people deciding among options they view as moral in nature experience a lower sense of choice than people deciding among the same options but who do not view them as morally relevant. Moreover, this lower sense of choice is evident in people's attentional patterns...
July 26, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Olivia E Atherton, Lucy R Zheng, Wiebke Bleidorn, Richard W Robins
Effortful control refers to the propensity to regulate one's impulses and behaviors, to focus and shift attention easily, and to motivate the self toward a goal when there are competing desires. Although it seems likely that these capacities are relevant to successful functioning in the school context, there has been surprisingly little longitudinal research examining whether youth with poor effortful control are more likely to act out in the classroom, get suspended, and skip school. Conversely, there is even less research on whether youth who exhibit these school behavioral problems are more likely to decline over time in effortful control...
July 23, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Nicholas Buttrick, Hyewon Choi, Timothy D Wilson, Shigehiro Oishi, Steven M Boker, Daniel T Gilbert, Sinan Alper, Mark Aveyard, Winnee Cheong, Marija V Čolić, Ilker Dalgar, Canay Doğulu, Serdar Karabati, Eunbee Kim, Goran Knežević, Asuka Komiya, Camila Ordóñez Laclé, Caio Ambrosio Lage, Ljiljana B Lazarević, Dušanka Lazarević, Samuel Lins, Mauricio Blanco Molina, Félix Neto, Ana Orlić, Boban Petrović, Massiel Arroyo Sibaja, David Torres Fernández, Wolf Vanpaemel, Wouter Voorspoels, Daniela C Wilks
Which is more enjoyable: trying to think enjoyable thoughts or doing everyday solitary activities? Wilson et al. (2014) found that American participants much preferred solitary everyday activities, such as reading or watching TV, to thinking for pleasure. To see whether this preference generalized outside of the United States, we replicated the study with 2,557 participants from 12 sites in 11 countries. The results were consistent in every country: Participants randomly assigned to do something reported significantly greater enjoyment than did participants randomly assigned to think for pleasure...
July 23, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
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