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Journal of Personality and Social Psychology

Pareezad Zarolia, Max Weisbuch, Kateri McRae
Trust is integral to successful relationships. The development of trust stems from how one person treats others, and there are multiple ways to learn about someone's trust-relevant behavior. The present research captures the development of trust to examine if trust-relevant impressions and behavior are influenced by indirect behavioral information (i.e., descriptions of how a person treated another individual)-even in the presence of substantial direct behavioral information (i.e., self-relevant, first-hand experience with a person)...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Jennifer Crocker, Amy Canevello, Katherine A Lewis
According to the egosystem-ecosystem theory of social motivation, people with ecosystem motivation believe their interpersonal relationships work in nonzero-sum ways. A longitudinal study of individuals in romantic relationships and a study of romantic couples who had a conflict discussion in the laboratory both showed that compassionate goals predict increased nonzero-sum beliefs through increased responsiveness and perceptions of partner's responsiveness and that nonzero-sum beliefs uniquely predict increased relationship quality through increased optimism that relationship problems can be overcome...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Nir Halevy
Preemptive strikes are costly and harmful. Existing models of defensive aggression focus narrowly on the role fear plays in motivating preemptive strikes. Theoretically integrating the literatures on conflict, decision making, and emotion, the current research investigated how specific emotions associated with certainty or uncertainty, including fear, anger, disgust, hope, and happiness, influence preemptive strikes. Study 1 demonstrated that hope negatively predicts defensive exits from relationships in choice dilemmas...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Garriy Shteynberg, James M Bramlett, Elizabeth H Fles, Jaclyn Cameron
In democracies where multitudes yield political influence, so does broadcast media that reaches those multitudes. However, broadcast media may not be powerful simply because it reaches a certain audience, but because each of the recipients is aware of that fact. That is, watching broadcast media can evoke a state of shared attention, or the perception of simultaneous coattention with others. Whereas past research has investigated the effects of shared attention with a few socially close others (i.e., friends, acquaintances, minimal ingroup members), we examine the impact of shared attention with a multitude of unfamiliar others in the context of televised broadcasting...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Gerald J Haeffel
The current research tested a new theory of depression that integrates work on sleep and cognition. In general, good sleep is essential for physical and mental health. However, we theorize that sleep can actually increase risk for depressive symptoms in cognitively vulnerable individuals. This is because the negative cognitions generated by these individuals are strengthened and consolidated each night during sleep. Three studies were conducted to test this theory. Studies 1 (n = 134) and 2 (n = 47) used prospective designs and showed that undergraduates with high, but not low, levels of cognitive vulnerability were most likely to exhibit increases in depressive symptoms when sleeping well as operationalized by self-reported quality and objectively measured duration (via actigraphy)...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Annique Smeding, Jean-Charles Quinton, Kelly Lauer, Laura Barca, Giovanni Pezzulo
Adopting a situated social cognition perspective, we relied on different methodologies-1 computational and 3 empirical studies-to investigate social group-related specificities pertaining to implicit gender-domain stereotypes, as measured by a mouse-tracking adapted Implicit Association Test (IAT) and IAT(-like) tasks. We tested whether the emergence of implicit stereotypes was partially determined by associations congruent with the self, by visuospatial features of the task and subsequent competition at both sensorimotor and abstract levels...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Maria Eugenia Panero, Deena Skolnick Weisberg, Jessica Black, Thalia R Goldstein, Jennifer L Barnes, Hiram Brownell, Ellen Winner
Fiction simulates the social world and invites us into the minds of characters. This has led various researchers to suggest that reading fiction improves our understanding of others' cognitive and emotional states. Kidd and Castano (2013) received a great deal of attention by providing support for this claim. Their article reported that reading segments of literary fiction (but not popular fiction or nonfiction) immediately and significantly improved performance on the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET), an advanced theory-of-mind test...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Stefanie N Wurst, Tanja M Gerlach, Michael Dufner, John F Rauthmann, Michael P Grosz, Albrecht C P Küfner, Jaap J A Denissen, Mitja D Back
Narcissism is known to be related to romantic success in short-term contexts (dating, early stage relationships) but also to problems in long-term committed relationships. We propose that these diverging romantic outcomes of narcissism can be explained by differential associations with agentic versus antagonistic dimensions of grandiose narcissism: Narcissistic Admiration and Rivalry. Both dimensions serve the central narcissistic goal of gaining and maintaining a grandiose self-view, but do so by different processes: Admiration is characterized by the tendency to promote the positivity of one's self-view by seeking social admiration (assertive self-enhancement)...
August 25, 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Gundula Stoll, Sven Rieger, Oliver Lüdtke, Benjamin Nagengast, Ulrich Trautwein, Brent W Roberts
Vocational interests are important aspects of personality that reflect individual differences in motives, goals, and personal strivings. It is therefore plausible that these characteristics have an impact on individuals' lives not only in terms of vocational outcomes, but also beyond the vocational domain. Yet the effects of vocational interests on various life outcomes have rarely been investigated. Using Holland's RIASEC taxonomy (Holland, 1997), which groups vocational interests into 6 broad domains, the present study examined whether vocational interests are significant predictors of life outcomes that show incremental validity over and above the Big Five personality traits...
August 25, 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Petri Laukka, Hillary Anger Elfenbein, Nutankumar S Thingujam, Thomas Rockstuhl, Frederick K Iraki, Wanda Chui, Jean Althoff
This study extends previous work on emotion communication across cultures with a large-scale investigation of the physical expression cues in vocal tone. In doing so, it provides the first direct test of a key proposition of dialect theory, namely that greater accuracy of detecting emotions from one's own cultural group-known as in-group advantage-results from a match between culturally specific schemas in emotional expression style and culturally specific schemas in emotion recognition. Study 1 used stimuli from 100 professional actors from five English-speaking nations vocally conveying 11 emotional states (anger, contempt, fear, happiness, interest, lust, neutral, pride, relief, sadness, and shame) using standard-content sentences...
August 18, 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Scott Parrigon, Sang Eun Woo, Louis Tay, Tong Wang
In comparison with personality taxonomic research, there has been much less advancement toward establishing an integrative taxonomy of psychological situation characteristics (similar to personality characteristics for persons). One of the main concerns has been the limited content coverage of the characteristics being used. To address this issue, we present a collection of 4 lexically based studies using the largest-to-date number of situation characteristics to identify the major dimensions of the psychological situation...
August 18, 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Gabrielle S Adams, M Ena Inesi
We investigate the possibility that victims and transgressors are predictably miscalibrated in their interpretation of a transgression, and that this has important implications for the process of forgiveness. Across 5 studies, we find that victims underestimate how much transgressors desire forgiveness. This is driven by a 2-part mediating mechanism: First, victims are more likely than transgressors to see the transgression as intentional, and second, this causes victims to believe transgressors feel less guilty than transgressors report feeling...
August 18, 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Ed O'Brien, Michael Kardas
The concept of change simply entails the totality of ways in which a particular entity has grown better and grown worse. Five studies suggest that this is not how people actually understand it for themselves. Rather, when asked to assess how they have "changed" over time, people bring to mind only how they have improved and neglect other trajectories (e.g., decline) that they have also experienced; global change is specifically translated as directional change for the better. This tendency emerged across many populations, time frames, measures, and methodologies (Studies 1-3), and led to important downstream effects: people who reflected on "change" from their pasts experienced enhanced mood, meaning, and satisfaction in their presents, precisely because they had assumed to only think about personal improvement (Study 4)...
August 18, 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Does Reading a Single Passage of Literary Fiction Really Improve Theory of Mind? An Attempt at Replication" by Maria Eugenia Panero, Deena Skolnick Weisberg, Jessica Black, Thalia R. Goldstein, Jennifer L. Barnes, Hiram Brownell and Ellen Winner (Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Advanced Online Publication, Sep 19, 2016, np). In the article, due to an error in stimulus construction, four items (three authors, one foil) were omitted from the ART presented to all participants tested by Research Group 1...
November 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Lauren Eskreis-Winkler, Elizabeth P Shulman, Victoria Young, Eli Tsukayama, Steven M Brunwasser, Angela L Duckworth
Deliberate practice leads to world-class excellence across domains. In the current investigation, we examined whether psychologically "wise" interventions targeting expectancies and values-stock antecedents of ordinary effortful behaviors-could motivate nonexperts to engage in deliberate practice and improve their achievement. As a preliminary, we developed and validated a novel task measure of deliberate practice and confirmed its association with (a) expectancy-value beliefs, and (b) achievement in the nonexpert setting (Study 1)...
November 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
André Klapper, Ron Dotsch, Iris van Rooij, Daniël H J Wigboldus
It is widely assumed among psychologists that people spontaneously form trustworthiness impressions of newly encountered people from their facial appearance. However, most existing studies directly or indirectly induced an impression formation goal, which means that the existing empirical support for spontaneous facial trustworthiness impressions remains insufficient. In particular, it remains an open question whether trustworthiness from facial appearance is encoded in memory. Using the 'who said what' paradigm, we indirectly measured to what extent people encoded the trustworthiness of observed faces...
November 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Kou Murayama, Reinhard Pekrun, Masayuki Suzuki, Herbert W Marsh, Stephanie Lichtenfeld
Previous research has suggested that parents' aspirations for their children's academic attainment can have a positive influence on children's actual academic performance. Possible negative effects of parental overaspiration, however, have found little attention in the psychological literature. Employing a dual-change score model with longitudinal data from a representative sample of German school children and their parents (N = 3,530; Grades 5 to 10), we showed that parental aspiration and children's mathematical achievement were linked by positive reciprocal relations over time...
November 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Judith M Harackiewicz, Elizabeth A Canning, Yoi Tibbetts, Stacy J Priniski, Janet S Hyde
Many college students abandon their goal of completing a degree in science, technology, engineering, or math (STEM) when confronted with challenging introductory-level science courses. In the U.S., this trend is more pronounced for underrepresented minority (URM) and first-generation (FG) students, and contributes to persisting racial and social-class achievement gaps in higher education. Previous intervention studies have focused exclusively on race or social class, but have not examined how the 2 may be confounded and interact...
November 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Emily C Bianchi
Past work has shown that economic growth often engenders greater individualism. Yet much of this work charts changes in wealth and individualism over long periods of time, making it unclear whether rising individualism is primarily driven by wealth or by the social and generational changes that often accompany large-scale economic transformations. This article explores whether individualism is sensitive to more transient macroeconomic fluctuations, even in the absence of transformative social changes or generational turnover...
October 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Peter Belmi, Kristin Laurin
We investigated class-based differences in the propensity to seek positions of power. We first proposed that people's lay theories suggest that acquiring power requires playing politics-manipulating one's way through the social world, relying on a pragmatic and Machiavellian approach to impression management and social relationships to get ahead. Then, drawing on empirical work portraying individuals with relatively low social class as more strongly focused on others and less focused on themselves, we hypothesized that these individuals would show less interest in seeking positions of power than their high-class counterparts, because they feel less comfortable engaging in political behavior...
October 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
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