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Journal of Personality and Social Psychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929302/age-time-period-and-birth-cohort-differences-in-self-esteem-reexamining-a-cohort-sequential-longitudinal-study
#1
Jean M Twenge, Nathan T Carter, W Keith Campbell
Orth, Trzesniewski, and Robins (2010) concluded that the nationally representative Americans' Changing Lives (ACL) cohort-sequential study demonstrated moderate to large age differences in self-esteem, and no birth cohort (generational) differences in the age trajectory. In a reanalysis of these data using 2 different statistical techniques, we find significant increases in self-esteem that could be attributed to birth cohort or time period. First, hierarchical linear modeling analyses with birth cohort as a continuous variable (vs...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929301/the-dark-side-of-the-sublime-distinguishing-a-threat-based-variant-of-awe
#2
Amie M Gordon, Jennifer E Stellar, Craig L Anderson, Galen D McNeil, Daniel Loew, Dacher Keltner
Theoretical conceptualizations of awe suggest this emotion can be more positive or negative depending on specific appraisal processes. However, the emergent scientific study of awe rarely emphasizes its negative side, classifying it instead as a positive emotion. In the present research we tested whether there is a more negative variant of awe that arises in response to vast, complex stimuli that are threatening (e.g., tornadoes, terrorist attack, wrathful god). We discovered people do experience this type of awe with regularity (Studies 1 & 4) and that it differs from other variants of awe in terms of its underlying appraisals, subjective experience, physiological correlates, and consequences for well-being...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854443/puffed-up-but-shaky-selves-state-self-esteem-level-and-variability-in-narcissists
#3
Katharina Geukes, Steffen Nestler, Roos Hutteman, Michael Dufner, Albrecht C P K├╝fner, Boris Egloff, Jaap J A Denissen, Mitja D Back
Different theoretical conceptualizations characterize grandiose narcissists by high, yet fragile self-esteem. Empirical evidence, however, has been inconsistent, particularly regarding the relationship between narcissism and self-esteem fragility (i.e., self-esteem variability). Here, we aim at unraveling this inconsistency by disentangling the effects of two theoretically distinct facets of narcissism (i.e., admiration and rivalry) on the two aspects of state self-esteem (i.e., level and variability). We report on data from a laboratory-based and two field-based studies (total N = 596) in realistic social contexts, capturing momentary, daily, and weekly fluctuations of state self-esteem...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831701/risky-business-when-humor-increases-and-decreases-status
#4
T Bradford Bitterly, Alison Wood Brooks, Maurice E Schweitzer
Across 8 experiments, we demonstrate that humor can influence status, but attempting to use humor is risky. The successful use of humor can increase status in both new and existing relationships, but unsuccessful humor attempts (e.g., inappropriate jokes) can harm status. The relationship between the successful use of humor and status is mediated by perceptions of confidence and competence. The successful use of humor signals confidence and competence, which in turn increases the joke teller's status. Interestingly, telling both appropriate and inappropriate jokes, regardless of the outcome, signals confidence...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831700/normative-personality-trait-development-in-adulthood-a-6-year-cohort-sequential-growth-model
#5
Petar Milojev, Chris G Sibley
The present study investigated patterns of normative change in personality traits across the adult life span (19 through 74 years of age). We examined change in extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, openness to experience and honesty-humility using data from the first 6 annual waves of the New Zealand Attitudes and Values Study (N = 10,416; 61.1% female, average age = 49.46). We present a cohort-sequential latent growth model assessing patterns of mean-level change due to both aging and cohort effects...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808535/combating-the-sting-of-rejection-with-the-pleasure-of-revenge-a-new-look-at-how-emotion-shapes-aggression
#6
David S Chester, C Nathan DeWall
How does emotion explain the relationship between social rejection and aggression? Rejection reliably damages mood, leaving individuals motivated to repair their negatively valenced affective state. Retaliatory aggression is often a pleasant experience. Rejected individuals may then harness revenge's associated positive affect to repair their mood. Across 6 studies (total N = 1,516), we tested the prediction that the rejection-aggression link is motivated by expected and actual mood repair. Further, we predicted that this mood repair would occur through the positive affect of retaliatory aggression...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808534/how-implicit-theories-of-sexuality-shape-sexual-and-relationship-well-being
#7
Jessica A Maxwell, Amy Muise, Geoff MacDonald, Lisa C Day, Natalie O Rosen, Emily A Impett
How do people believe they can best maintain sexual satisfaction in their romantic relationships? In the current research, we draw upon the literature on implicit theories of relationships to develop and validate a scale examining 2 types of lay beliefs about how sexual satisfaction can be maintained over time. Individuals high in sexual growth beliefs think that sexual satisfaction is attained from hard work and effort, whereas individuals high in sexual destiny beliefs think that sexual satisfaction is attained through finding a compatible sexual partner...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27684364/influence-of-indirect-information-on-interpersonal-trust-despite-direct-information
#8
Pareezad Zarolia, Max Weisbuch, Kateri McRae
Trust is integral to successful relationships. The development of trust stems from how one person treats others, and there are multiple ways to learn about someone's trust-relevant behavior. The present research captures the development of trust to examine if trust-relevant impressions and behavior are influenced by indirect behavioral information (i.e., descriptions of how a person treated another individual)-even in the presence of substantial direct behavioral information (i.e., self-relevant, first-hand experience with a person)...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27684363/romantic-relationships-in-the-ecosystem-compassionate-goals-nonzero-sum-beliefs-and-change-in-relationship-quality
#9
Jennifer Crocker, Amy Canevello, Katherine A Lewis
According to the egosystem-ecosystem theory of social motivation, people with ecosystem motivation believe their interpersonal relationships work in nonzero-sum ways. A longitudinal study of individuals in romantic relationships and a study of romantic couples who had a conflict discussion in the laboratory both showed that compassionate goals predict increased nonzero-sum beliefs through increased responsiveness and perceptions of partner's responsiveness and that nonzero-sum beliefs uniquely predict increased relationship quality through increased optimism that relationship problems can be overcome...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27684362/preemptive-strikes-fear-hope-and-defensive-aggression
#10
Nir Halevy
Preemptive strikes are costly and harmful. Existing models of defensive aggression focus narrowly on the role fear plays in motivating preemptive strikes. Theoretically integrating the literatures on conflict, decision making, and emotion, the current research investigated how specific emotions associated with certainty or uncertainty, including fear, anger, disgust, hope, and happiness, influence preemptive strikes. Study 1 demonstrated that hope negatively predicts defensive exits from relationships in choice dilemmas...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27657305/don-t-sleep-on-it-less-sleep-reduces-risk-for-depressive-symptoms-in-cognitively-vulnerable-undergraduates
#11
Gerald J Haeffel
The current research tested a new theory of depression that integrates work on sleep and cognition. In general, good sleep is essential for physical and mental health. However, we theorize that sleep can actually increase risk for depressive symptoms in cognitively vulnerable individuals. This is because the negative cognitions generated by these individuals are strengthened and consolidated each night during sleep. Three studies were conducted to test this theory. Studies 1 (n = 134) and 2 (n = 47) used prospective designs and showed that undergraduates with high, but not low, levels of cognitive vulnerability were most likely to exhibit increases in depressive symptoms when sleeping well as operationalized by self-reported quality and objectively measured duration (via actigraphy)...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642659/does-reading-a-single-passage-of-literary-fiction-really-improve-theory-of-mind-an-attempt-at-replication
#12
Maria Eugenia Panero, Deena Skolnick Weisberg, Jessica Black, Thalia R Goldstein, Jennifer L Barnes, Hiram Brownell, Ellen Winner
Fiction simulates the social world and invites us into the minds of characters. This has led various researchers to suggest that reading fiction improves our understanding of others' cognitive and emotional states. Kidd and Castano (2013) received a great deal of attention by providing support for this claim. Their article reported that reading segments of literary fiction (but not popular fiction or nonfiction) immediately and significantly improved performance on the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET), an advanced theory-of-mind test...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869473/the-headwinds-tailwinds-asymmetry-an-availability-bias-in-assessments-of-barriers-and-blessings
#13
Shai Davidai, Thomas Gilovich
Seven studies provide evidence of an availability bias in people's assessments of the benefits they've enjoyed and the barriers they've faced. Barriers and hindrances command attention because they have to be overcome; benefits and resources can often be simply enjoyed and largely ignored. As a result of this "headwind/tailwind" asymmetry, Democrats and Republicans both claim that the electoral map works against them (Study 1), football fans take disproportionate note of the challenging games on their team's schedules (Study 2), people tend to believe that their parents have been harder on them than their siblings are willing to grant (Study 3), and academics think that they have a harder time with journal reviewers, grant panels, and tenure committees than members of other subdisciplines (Study 7)...
December 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642660/tracking-and-simulating-dynamics-of-implicit-stereotypes-a-situated-social-cognition-perspective
#14
Annique Smeding, Jean-Charles Quinton, Kelly Lauer, Laura Barca, Giovanni Pezzulo
Adopting a situated social cognition perspective, we relied on different methodologies-1 computational and 3 empirical studies-to investigate social group-related specificities pertaining to implicit gender-domain stereotypes, as measured by a mouse-tracking adapted Implicit Association Test (IAT) and IAT(-like) tasks. We tested whether the emergence of implicit stereotypes was partially determined by associations congruent with the self, by visuospatial features of the task and subsequent competition at both sensorimotor and abstract levels...
December 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27537273/impediments-to-forgiveness-victim-and-transgressor-attributions-of-intent-and-guilt
#15
Gabrielle S Adams, M Ena Inesi
We investigate the possibility that victims and transgressors are predictably miscalibrated in their interpretation of a transgression, and that this has important implications for the process of forgiveness. Across 5 studies, we find that victims underestimate how much transgressors desire forgiveness. This is driven by a 2-part mediating mechanism: First, victims are more likely than transgressors to see the transgression as intentional, and second, this causes victims to believe transgressors feel less guilty than transgressors report feeling...
December 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27537272/the-implicit-meaning-of-my-change
#16
Ed O'Brien, Michael Kardas
The concept of change simply entails the totality of ways in which a particular entity has grown better and grown worse. Five studies suggest that this is not how people actually understand it for themselves. Rather, when asked to assess how they have "changed" over time, people bring to mind only how they have improved and neglect other trajectories (e.g., decline) that they have also experienced; global change is specifically translated as directional change for the better. This tendency emerged across many populations, time frames, measures, and methodologies (Studies 1-3), and led to important downstream effects: people who reflected on "change" from their pasts experienced enhanced mood, meaning, and satisfaction in their presents, precisely because they had assumed to only think about personal improvement (Study 4)...
December 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27454927/being-observed-magnifies-action
#17
Janina Steinmetz, Qian Xu, Ayelet Fishbach, Ying Zhang
We test the hypothesis that people, when observed, perceive their actions as more substantial because they add the audience's perspective to their own perspective. We find that participants who were observed while eating (Study 1) or learned they were observed after eating (Study 2) recalled eating a larger portion than unobserved participants. The presence of others magnified both desirable and undesirable actions. Thus, observed (vs. unobserved) participants believed they gave both more correct and incorrect answers in a lab task (Study 3) and, moving to a field study, the larger the audience, the larger the contribution badminton players claimed toward their teams' successes as well as failures (Study 4)...
December 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26796984/personality-and-stressor-related-affect
#18
Kate A Leger, Susan T Charles, Nicholas A Turiano, David M Almeida
Greater increases in negative affect and greater decreases in positive affect on days stressors occur portend poorer mental and physical health years later. Although personality traits influence stressor-related affect, only neuroticism and extraversion among the Big Five personality traits have been examined in any detail. Moreover, personality traits may shape how people appraise daily stressors, yet few studies have examined how stressor-related appraisals may account for associations between personality and stressor-related affect...
December 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26692354/emotional-complexity-clarifying-definitions-and-cultural-correlates
#19
Igor Grossmann, Alex C Huynh, Phoebe C Ellsworth
There is much debate about the notion of emotional complexity (EC). The debate concerns both the definition and the meaning of ostensible cultural differences in the construct. Some scholars have defined EC as the experience of positive and negative emotions together rather than as opposites, a phenomenon that seems more common in East Asia than North America. Others have defined EC as the experience of emotions in a differentiated manner, a definition that has yet to be explored cross-culturally. The present research explores the role of dialectical beliefs and interdependence in explaining cultural differences in EC according to both definitions...
December 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762576/-does-reading-a-single-passage-of-literary-fiction-really-improve-theory-of-mind-an-attempt-at-replication-correction-to-panero-et-al-2016
#20
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Does Reading a Single Passage of Literary Fiction Really Improve Theory of Mind? An Attempt at Replication" by Maria Eugenia Panero, Deena Skolnick Weisberg, Jessica Black, Thalia R. Goldstein, Jennifer L. Barnes, Hiram Brownell and Ellen Winner (Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Advanced Online Publication, Sep 19, 2016, np). In the article, due to an error in stimulus construction, four items (three authors, one foil) were omitted from the ART presented to all participants tested by Research Group 1...
November 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
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