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Journal of Personality and Social Psychology

Yuri Miyamoto, Jiah Yoo, Cynthia S Levine, Jiyoung Park, Jennifer Morozink Boylan, Tamara Sims, Hazel Rose Markus, Shinobu Kitayama, Norito Kawakami, Mayumi Karasawa, Christopher L Coe, Gayle D Love, Carol D Ryff
Current theorizing on socioeconomic status (SES) focuses on the availability of resources and the freedom they afford as a key determinant of the association between high SES and stronger orientation toward the self and, by implication, weaker orientation toward others. However, this work relies nearly exclusively on data from Western countries where self-orientation is strongly sanctioned. In the present work, we predicted and found that especially in East Asian countries, where other-orientation is strongly sanctioned, high SES is associated with stronger other-orientation as well as with self-orientation...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Michael P Wilmot, Nick Haslam, Jingyuan Tian, Deniz S Ones
We present direct and conceptual replications of the influential taxometric analysis of Type A Behavior (TAB; Strube, 1989), which reported evidence for the latent typology of the construct. Study 1, the direct replication (N = 2,373), duplicated sampling and methodological procedures of the original study, but results showed that the item indicators used in the original study lacked sufficient validity to unambiguously determine latent structure. Using improved factorial subscale indicators to further test the question, multiple taxometric procedures, in combination with parallel analyses of simulated data, failed to replicate the original typological finding...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Jennifer Deventer, Jenny Wagner, Oliver Lüdtke, Ulrich Trautwein
Personality development has been associated with changes in various aspects of social relationships (e.g., contact frequency, emotional closeness, etc.). However, specific patterns of personality-relationship transactions are still not well understood as not many empirical studies have explored major life transitions. Emerging adulthood with its numerous life transitions is crucial for personality and social relationship development. In this study, we looked at personality-relationship transactions in the transition from high school to college, apprenticeship training, and so forth...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
W Craig Williams, Sylvia A Morelli, Desmond C Ong, Jamil Zaki
People often recruit social resources to manage their emotions, a phenomenon known as interpersonal emotion regulation (IER). Despite its importance, IER's psychological structure remains poorly understood. We propose that two key dimensions describe IER: (a) individuals' tendency to pursue IER in response to emotional events, and (b) the efficacy with which they perceive IER improves their emotional lives. To probe these dimensions, we developed the Interpersonal Regulation Questionnaire (IRQ), a valid and reliable measure of individual differences in IER...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Nikhila Mahadevan, Aiden P Gregg, Constantine Sedikides
What adaptive function does self-regard serve? Sociometer theory predicts that it positively tracks social inclusion. A new theory, hierometer theory, predicts that it positively tracks social status. We tested both predictions with respect to two types of self-regard: self-esteem and narcissism. Study 1 (N = 940), featuring a cross-sectional design, found that both status and inclusion covaried positively with self-esteem, but that status alone covaried positively with narcissism. These links held independently of gender, age, and the Big Five personality traits...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Michael Schaerer, Martin Schweinsberg, Roderick I Swaab
This research demonstrates that people can act more powerfully without having power. Researchers and practitioners advise people to obtain alternatives in social exchange relationships to enhance their power. However, alternatives are not always readily available, often forcing people to interact without having much power. Building on research suggesting that subjective power and objective outcomes are disconnected and that mental simulation can improve aspirations, we show that the mental imagery of a strong alternative can provide some of the benefits that real alternatives provide...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Lauren B Nickel, Brent W Roberts, Oleksandr S Chernyshenko
Across 2 studies and 4 samples (Ns = 8,332, 2,136, 4,963, and 753, respectively), we tested whether the relation between conscientiousness and variables associated with important aspects of individuals' lives were curvilinear such that being high on conscientiousness was manifestly negative. Across multiple outcomes including measures of health, well-being, relationship satisfaction, job satisfaction, and organizational citizenship, we found no evidence for a systematic curvilinear relation between conscientiousness and these outcomes...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Lucius Caviola, Jim A C Everett, Nadira S Faber
We introduce and investigate the philosophical concept of 'speciesism' -the assignment of different moral worth based on species membership -as a psychological construct. In five studies, using both general population samples online and student samples, we show that speciesism is a measurable, stable construct with high interpersonal differences, that goes along with a cluster of other forms of prejudice, and is able to predict real-world decision-making and behavior. In Study 1 we present the development and empirical validation of a theoretically driven Speciesism Scale, which captures individual differences in speciesist attitudes...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Allison M Tackman, David A Sbarra, Angela L Carey, M Brent Donnellan, Andrea B Horn, Nicholas S Holtzman, To'Meisha S Edwards, James W Pennebaker, Matthias R Mehl
Depressive symptomatology is manifested in greater first-person singular pronoun use (i.e., I-talk), but when and for whom this effect is most apparent, and the extent to which it is specific to depression or part of a broader association between negative emotionality and I-talk, remains unclear. Using pooled data from N = 4,754 participants from 6 labs across 2 countries, we examined, in a preregistered analysis, how the depression-I-talk effect varied by (a) first-person singular pronoun type (i.e., subjective, objective, and possessive), (b) the communication context in which language was generated (i...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Joey T Cheng, Olga Kornienko, Douglas A Granger
In many social species, organisms adaptively fine-tune their competitive behavior in response to previous experiences of social status: Individuals who have prevailed in the past preferentially compete in the future, whereas those who have suffered defeat tend to defer and submit. A growing body of evidence suggests that testosterone functions as a "competition hormone" that coordinates this behavioral plasticity through its characteristic rise and fall following victory and defeat. Although well demonstrated in competitions underpinned by dominance (fear-based status derived from force and intimidation), this pattern has not been examined in status contests that depend solely on prestige-respect-based status derived from success, skills, and knowledge in locally valued domains, devoid of fear or antagonism...
June 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Kaitlin Woolley, Ayelet Fishbach
Can immediate (vs. delayed) rewards increase intrinsic motivation? Prior research compared the presence versus absence of rewards. By contrast, this research compared immediate versus delayed rewards, predicting that more immediate rewards increase intrinsic motivation by creating a perceptual fusion between the activity and its goal (i.e., the reward). In support of the hypothesis, framing a reward from watching a news program as more immediate (vs. delayed) increased intrinsic motivation to watch the program (Study 1), and receiving more immediate bonus (vs...
June 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Allen Ding Tian, Juliana Schroeder, Gerald Häubl, Jane L Risen, Michael I Norton, Francesca Gino
Rituals are predefined sequences of actions characterized by rigidity and repetition. We propose that enacting ritualized actions can enhance subjective feelings of self-discipline, such that rituals can be harnessed to improve behavioral self-control. We test this hypothesis in 6 experiments. A field experiment showed that engaging in a pre-eating ritual over a 5-day period helped participants reduce calorie intake (Experiment 1). Pairing a ritual with healthy eating behavior increased the likelihood of choosing healthy food in a subsequent decision (Experiment 2), and enacting a ritual before a food choice (i...
June 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Neil A Lewis, Allison Earl
Overeating and resulting obesity is a public health concern in the United States, and portion size is a factor that contributes to these problems (Zlatevska, Dubelaar, & Holden, 2014). The present research demonstrates that the granularity of labels used to describe portions also influences food consumption, independent of previously documented portion size effects. Across 6 studies and 7 different food items, we find a robust and reliable effect of portion size granularity labels on consumption intentions and food consumption...
May 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Bettina Zengel, Brett M Wells, John J Skowronski
The mechanisms underlying mnemic neglect (MN) and the conditions under which it waxes and wanes are not yet fully understood. The research in this article examined conditions during both encoding and recall that could potentially moderate the MN effect and that could provide cues about the cognitive mechanisms that contribute to the effect. Results showed that MN: (a) emerged after recall was delayed (Study 1); (b) could not be attributed to differential behavior looking time (Study 2); (c) did not emerge under cognitive load (Study 3); and (d) was not linked to the perceived extremity, importance, or evaluations of the behaviors...
May 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Pablo Briñol, Richard E Petty, Maria Stavraki, Grigorios Lamprinakos, Benjamin Wagner, Darío Díaz
Anger, disgust, surprise, and awe are multifaceted emotions. Both anger and disgust are associated with feeling unpleasant as well as experiencing a sense of confidence, whereas surprise and awe tend to be more pleasant emotions that are associated with doubt. Most prior work has examined how appraisals (confidence, pleasantness) lead people to experience different emotions or to experience different levels of intensity within the same emotion. Instead, the current research focused on the consequences (rather the antecedents) of appraisals of emotion, and it focuses specifically on the consequences for thought usage rather than the consequences for generating many or few thoughts...
May 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Brian J Lucas, Nour S Kteily
We explore the relationship between group-based egalitarianism and empathy for members of advantaged groups (e.g., corporate executives; state officials) versus disadvantaged groups (e.g., blue-collar workers; schoolteachers) subjected to harmful actions, events, or policies. Whereas previous research suggests that anti-egalitarians (vs. egalitarians) dispositionally exhibit less empathy for others, we propose that this relationship depends on the target's position in the social hierarchy. We examined this question across eight studies (N = 3,154) conducted in the U...
May 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Tom Noah, Yaacov Schul, Ruth Mayo
This article suggests a theoretically driven explanation for a replication failure of one of the basic findings in psychology: the facial-feedback effect. According to the facial-feedback hypothesis, the facial activity associated with particular emotional expressions can influence people's affective experiences. Recently, a replication attempt of this effect in 17 laboratories around the world failed to find any support for the effect. We hypothesize that the reason for the failure of replication is that the replication protocol deviated from that of the original experiment in a critical factor...
May 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Katherine S Zee, Justin V Cavallo, Abdiel J Flores, Niall Bolger, E Tory Higgins
Social support can sometimes have negative consequences for recipients. One way of circumventing these negative effects is to provide support in an 'invisible' or indirect manner, such that recipients do not construe the behavior as a supportive act. However, little is known about how recipients' motivational states influence when visible (direct) support or invisible support is more beneficial. Using the framework of Regulatory Mode Theory, we predicted that recipients motivated to engage in critical evaluation (i...
May 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Tal Eyal, Mary Steffel, Nicholas Epley
Taking another person's perspective is widely presumed to increase interpersonal understanding. Very few experiments, however, have actually tested whether perspective taking increases accuracy when predicting another person's thoughts, feelings, attitudes, or other mental states. Those that do yield inconsistent results, or they confound accuracy with egocentrism. Here we report 25 experiments testing whether being instructed to adopt another person's perspective increases interpersonal insight. These experiments include a wide range of accuracy tests that disentangle egocentrism and accuracy, such as predicting another person's emotions from facial expressions and body postures, predicting fake versus genuine smiles, predicting when a person is lying or telling the truth, and predicting a spouse's activity preferences and consumer attitudes...
April 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Rajesh P Bhargave, Nicole Votolato Montgomery, Joseph P Redden
Individuals often mutually experience a stimulus with a relationship partner or social group (e.g., snacking with friends). Yet, little is currently understood about how a sense of coexperiencing affects hedonic judgments of experiences that unfold over time. Research on the shared attention state has suggested that hedonic judgments are intensified when individuals coexperience a stimulus (vs. experiencing it alone), and other related work has found that the social environment influences hedonic judgments in shared (vs...
April 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
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