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Journal of Personality and Social Psychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933874/wisdom-bias-and-balance-toward-a-process-sensitive-measurement-of-wisdom-related-cognition
#1
Justin P Brienza, Franki Y H Kung, Henri C Santos, D Ramona Bobocel, Igor Grossmann
Philosophers and behavioral scientists refer to wisdom as unbiased reasoning that guides one toward a balance of interests and promotes a good life. However, major instruments developed to test wisdom appear biased, and it is unclear whether they capture balance-related tendencies. We examined whether shifting from global, de-contextualized reports to state-level reports about concrete situations provides a less biased method to assess wise reasoning (e.g., intellectual humility, recognition of uncertainty and change, consideration of the broader context at hand and perspectives of others, integration of these perspectives or compromise), which may be aligned with the notion of balancing interests...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922000/humblebragging-a-distinct-and-ineffective-self-presentation-strategy
#2
Ovul Sezer, Francesca Gino, Michael I Norton
Self-presentation is a fundamental aspect of social life, with myriad critical outcomes dependent on others' impressions. We identify and offer the first empirical investigation of a prevalent, yet understudied, self-presentation strategy: humblebragging. Across 9 studies, including a week-long diary study and a field experiment, we identify humblebragging-bragging masked by a complaint or humility-as a common, conceptually distinct, and ineffective form of self-presentation. We first document the ubiquity of humblebragging across several domains, from everyday life to social media...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921999/predictive-validity-and-adjustment-of-ideal-partner-preferences-across-the-transition-into-romantic-relationships
#3
Tanja M Gerlach, Ruben C Arslan, Thomas Schultze, Selina K Reinhard, Lars Penke
Although empirical research has investigated what we ideally seek in a romantic partner for decades, the crucial question of whether ideal partner preferences actually guide our mating decisions in real life has remained largely unanswered. One reason for this is the lack of designs that assess individuals' ideal partner preferences before entering a relationship and then follow up on them over an extended period. In the Göttingen Mate Choice Study (GMCS), a preregistered, large-scale online study, we used such a naturalistic prospective design...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921998/modeling-bivariate-change-in-individual-differences-prospective-associations-between-personality-and-life-satisfaction
#4
Hilda Osafo Hounkpatin, Christopher J Boyce, Graham Dunn, Alex M Wood
A number of structural equation models have been developed to examine change in 1 variable or the longitudinal association between 2 variables. The most common of these are the latent growth model, the autoregressive cross-lagged model, the autoregressive latent trajectory model, and the latent change score model. The authors first overview each of these models through evaluating their different assumptions surrounding the nature of change and how these assumptions may result in different data interpretations...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910122/race-and-recession-effects-of-economic-scarcity-on-racial-discrimination
#5
Amy R Krosch, Tom R Tyler, David M Amodio
When the economy declines, existing racial disparities typically expand, suggesting that economic scarcity may promote racial discrimination. To understand this pattern, we examined the effect of perceived scarcity on resource allocations to Black and White American recipients, and tested whether this effect depends on a decision maker's motivation to respond without prejudice. We proposed that scarcity would lead to increased discrimination among those with relatively low internal motivation but not those high in internal motivation...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872332/the-road-to-extremism-field-and-experimental-evidence-that-significance-loss-induced-need-for-closure-fosters-radicalization
#6
David Webber, Maxim Babush, Noa Schori-Eyal, Anna Vazeou-Nieuwenhuis, Malkanthi Hettiarachchi, Jocelyn J Bélanger, Manuel Moyano, Humberto M Trujillo, Rohan Gunaratna, Arie W Kruglanski, Michele J Gelfand
The present studies examined the hypothesis that loss of personal significance fuels extremism via the need for cognitive closure. Situations of significance loss-those that make one feel ashamed, humiliated, or demeaned-are inconsistent with the desire for a positive self-image, and instill a sense of uncertainty about the self. Consequently, individuals become motivated to seek certainty and closure that affords the restoration of personal significance. Extremist ideologies should thus increase in appeal, because they promise clear-cut strategies for such restoration...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872331/how-do-people-think-about-interdependence-a-multidimensional-model-of-subjective-outcome-interdependence
#7
Fabiola H Gerpott, Daniel Balliet, Simon Columbus, Catherine Molho, Reinout E de Vries
Interdependence is a fundamental characteristic of social interactions. Interdependence Theory states that 6 dimensions describe differences between social situations. Here we examine if these 6 dimensions describe how people think about their interdependence with others in a situation. We find that people (in situ and ex situ) can reliably differentiate situations according to 5, but not 6, dimensions of interdependence: (a) mutual dependence, (b) power, (c) conflict, (d) future interdependence, and (e) information certainty...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857579/some-evidence-for-the-usefulness-of-an-optimal-foraging-theory-perspective-on-goal-conflict-and-goal-facilitation
#8
Martin J Tomasik, Michaela Knecht, Alexandra M Freund
Based on optimal foraging theory, we propose a metric that allows evaluating the goodness of goal systems, that is, systems comprising multiple goals with facilitative and conflicting interrelations. This optimal foraging theory takes into account expectancy and value, as well as opportunity costs, of foraging. Applying this approach to goal systems provides a single index of goodness of a goal system for goal striving. Three quasi-experimental studies (N = 277, N = 145, and N = 210) provide evidence for the usefulness of this approach for goal systems comprising between 3 to 10 goals...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857578/awe-and-humility
#9
Jennifer E Stellar, Amie Gordon, Craig L Anderson, Paul K Piff, Galen D McNeil, Dacher Keltner
Humility is a foundational virtue that counters selfish inclinations such as entitlement, arrogance, and narcissism (Tangney, 2000). We hypothesize that experiences of awe promote greater humility. Guided by an appraisal-tendency framework of emotion, we propose that when individuals encounter an entity that is vast and challenges their worldview, they feel awe, which leads to self-diminishment and subsequently humility. In support of these claims, awe-prone individuals were rated as more humble by friends (Study 1) and reported greater humility across a 2-week period (Study 2), controlling for other positive emotions...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846003/facing-humanness-facial-width-to-height-ratio-predicts-ascriptions-of-humanity
#10
Jason C Deska, E Paige Lloyd, Kurt Hugenberg
The ascription of mind to others is central to social cognition. Most research on the ascription of mind has focused on motivated, top-down processes. The current work provides novel evidence that facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) serves as a bottom-up perceptual signal of humanness. Using a range of well-validated operational definitions of humanness, we provide evidence across 5 studies that target faces with relatively greater fWHR are seen as less than fully human compared with their relatively lower fWHR counterparts...
August 28, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836803/reducing-defensive-responses-to-thoughts-of-death-meditation-mindfulness-and-buddhism
#11
Young Chin Park, Tom Pyszczynski
Three studies investigated the effects of meditation on responses to reminders of death. Study 1 took a quasi-experimental approach, comparing defensive responses to mortality salience (MS) of South Korean participants with varying levels of experience with Buddhism and meditation. Whereas non-Buddhists without meditation showed the typical increase in worldview defense after mortality salience (MS), this effect was not found among non-Buddhists immediately after an initial meditation experience, nor among lay Buddhists who meditated regularly or Buddhist monks with intensive meditation experience...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836802/what-inverted-u-can-do-for-your-country-a-curvilinear-relationship-between-confidence-in-the-social-system-and-political-engagement
#12
Aleksandra Cichocka, Paulina Górska, John T Jost, Robbie M Sutton, Michał Bilewicz
We examined the link between political engagement and the tendency to justify the sociopolitical system. On one hand, confidence in the system should be negatively related to political engagement, insofar as it entails reduced desire for social change; on the other hand, system confidence should also be positively related to political engagement to the extent that it carries an assumption that the system is responsive to citizens' political efforts. Because of the combination of these 2 opposing forces, the motivation for political engagement should be highest at intermediate levels of system confidence...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805402/middle-ground-approach-to-paradox-within-and-between-culture-examination-of-the-creative-benefits-of-paradoxical-frames
#13
Angela K-Y Leung, Shyhnan Liou, Ella Miron-Spektor, Brandon Koh, David Chan, Roni Eisenberg, Iris Schneider
Thriving in increasingly complex and ambiguous environments requires creativity and the capability to reconcile conflicting demands. Recent evidence with Western samples has suggested that paradoxical frames, or mental templates that encourage individuals to recognize and embrace contradictions, could produce creative benefits. We extended the timely, but understudied, topic by studying the nuances of for whom and why creative advantages of paradoxical frames emerge. We suggest that people endorsing a middle ground approach are less likely to scrutinize conflict and reconcile with integrative solutions, thus receiving less creative benefits of paradoxical frames...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795822/self-esteem-and-relationship-satisfaction-during-the-transition-to-motherhood
#14
Manon A van Scheppingen, Jaap J A Denissen, Joanne M Chung, Kristian Tambs, Wiebke Bleidorn
In the current study, we used 5 waves of longitudinal data from a large representative sample of Norwegian mothers (N = 84,711) to examine the association between romantic relationship satisfaction and self-esteem before and after childbirth in subgroups of first-, second-, third-, and fourth-time mothers. Maternal self-esteem showed a highly similar change pattern across subgroups. Specifically, self-esteem decreased during pregnancy, increased until the child was 6 months old, and then gradually decreased over the following years...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771022/longitudinal-changes-in-attachment-orientation-over-a-59-year-period
#15
William J Chopik, Robin S Edelstein, Kevin J Grimm
Research on individual differences in attachment-and their links to emotion, cognition, and behavior in close relationships-has proliferated over the last several decades. However, the majority of this research has focused on children and young adults. Little is known about mean-level changes in attachment orientation beyond early life, in part due to a dearth of longitudinal data on attachment across the life span. The current study used a Q-Sort-based measure of attachment to examine mean-level changes in attachment orientation from age 13 to 72 using data from the Block and Block Longitudinal Study, the Intergenerational Studies, and the Radcliffe College Class of 1964 Sample (total N = 628)...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771021/income-redistribution-predicts-greater-life-satisfaction-across-individual-national-and-cultural-characteristics
#16
Felix Cheung
The widening income gap between the rich and the poor has important social implications. Governmental-level income redistribution through tax and welfare policies presents an opportunity to reduce income inequality and its negative consequences. The current longitudinal studies examined whether within-region changes in income redistribution over time relate to life satisfaction. Moreover, I examined potential moderators of this relationship to test the strong versus weak hypotheses of income redistribution...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737418/charisma-in-everyday-life-conceptualization-and-validation-of-the-general-charisma-inventory
#17
Konstantin O Tskhay, Rebecca Zhu, Christopher Zou, Nicholas O Rule
Although both scholars and lay people are fascinated with charismatic individuals, relatively few theorists have attempted to define charisma. Much of the empirical research examining charisma has focused on leadership. Even within that literature, however, theorists have focused on charisma's outcomes, leaving unarticulated what charisma actually is. Here, we tested an operational conceptualization of charisma in the context of everyday life. Specifically, we proposed that charisma is composed of the interpersonally focused dimensions of influence (the ability to guide others) and affability (the ability to make other people feel comfortable and at ease)...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737417/benefits-of-positive-relationship-experiences-for-avoidantly-attached-individuals
#18
Sarah C E Stanton, Lorne Campbell, Jennifer C Pink
Attachment avoidance is characterized by discomfort with closeness and a reluctance to develop intimacy with romantic partners, which contribute to heightened general negativity and lower satisfaction and self-disclosure in and out of their relationships. Recent research, however, has begun to uncover circumstances in which romantic partners and positive relationships buffer more avoidantly attached individuals against deleterious individual and relationship outcomes. Across 3 studies, using a multimethod approach encompassing both experimental and dyadic longitudinal diary methods, we investigated the effects of positive, intimacy-related relationship experiences on more avoidant persons' positive and negative affect, relationship quality, self-disclosure, and attachment security immediately and over time...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737416/rejecting-a-bad-option-feels-like-choosing-a-good-one
#19
Hannah Perfecto, Jeff Galak, Joseph P Simmons, Leif D Nelson
Across 4,151 participants, the authors demonstrate a novel framing effect, attribute matching, whereby matching a salient attribute of a decision frame with that of a decision's options facilitates decision-making. This attribute matching is shown to increase decision confidence and, ultimately, consensus estimates by increasing feelings of metacognitive ease. In Study 1, participants choosing the more attractive of two faces or rejecting the less attractive face reported greater confidence in and perceived consensus around their decision...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726437/anti-profit-beliefs-how-people-neglect-the-societal-benefits-of-profit
#20
Amit Bhattacharjee, Jason Dana, Jonathan Baron
Profit-seeking firms are stereotypically depicted as immoral and harmful to society. At the same time, profit-driven enterprise has contributed immensely to human prosperity. Though scholars agree that profit can incentivize societally beneficial behaviors, people may neglect this possibility. In 7 studies, we show that people see business profit as necessarily in conflict with social good, a view we call anti-profit beliefs. Studies 1 and 2 demonstrate that U.S. participants hold anti-profit views of real U...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
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