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Journal of Personality and Social Psychology

S Mason Garrison, Joseph Lee Rodgers
The consistent relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and health has been widely covered in the media and scientific journals, which typically argue that physical-health inequalities are caused by material disadvantage directly or indirectly (e.g., chronic environmental-stress, health care resources, etc.). Such explanations do not explain the finely stratified health differences across the entire range of SES. Recent theories have helped address such limitations, but implicate multiple different explanatory pathways...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Velichko H Fetvadjiev, Jia He
The existence of links between personality traits, values, and well-being and self-esteem is well established, but the nature and direction of these links have been less clearly understood. This study examines longitudinally the stability of traits and values, their mutual effects, and their effects on affective and cognitive well-being and self-esteem. We analyzed data from a nationally representative panel in The Netherlands, spanning 5 time points spread across 8 years (n = 5,159 to 7,021 per time point, total N = 11,890)...
November 5, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Ralf Wölfer, Oliver Christ, Katharina Schmid, Nicole Tausch, Friederike M Buchallik, Steven Vertovec, Miles Hewstone
Although the effects of direct and indirect forms of contact on intergroup relations are well documented, little is known about their longitudinal co-development. Based on the social-psychological literature, we hypothesize that indirect contact predicts future direct contact by reducing intergroup anxiety. Across five longitudinal studies (Study 1: German adults, N = 560; Study 2: German, Dutch, and Swedish school students, N = 6,600; Study 3: Northern Irish children, N = 1,593; Study 4: Northern Irish adults, N = 404; Study 5: German adults, N = 735), we systematically examined this effect, and further tested the mediating role of intergroup anxiety in Studies 3 to 5...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Yukiko Uchida, Kosuke Takemura, Shintaro Fukushima, Izuru Saizen, Yuta Kawamura, Hidefumi Hitokoto, Naoko Koizumi, Sakiko Yoshikawa
It has been suggested that the well-known cultural differences in interdependence across cultures are linked to economic activities, such as farming. However, the underlying processes of how such psychological tendencies are shared among people in a society has not been sufficiently investigated. This article addresses the multilevel processes of how psychological characteristics are shared among people. We focus on collective activities that go beyond the individual's personal economic activities. Multilevel analyses on a large-scale survey (residents of Japanese communities, N = 7,295) of 408 communities, along with a follow-up survey (N = 1,714) of 86 communities, suggested that "concern for reputation" (one aspect of interdependence) was more prevalent in farming communities than in nonfarming communities, not only for farmers, but also for nonfarmers...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Jonas R Kunst, Lotte Thomsen, John F Dovidio
Majority-group members often hold negative attitudes toward minority-group members who identify with both the majority and their minority group. Integrating perspectives from social identity theory and acculturation research with a coalitional psychology framework, we show that an underlying mechanism for such bias is the perception that dual identifiers are disloyal to the majority group. In Study 1, majority-group participants in the U.S. questioned the loyalty of a dually identified Arab immigrant more than one who identified solely with the (American) majority group, especially under intergroup threat, which in turn predicted less favorable feelings toward the immigrant...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Birga M Schumpe, Jocelyn J Bélanger, Manuel Moyano, Claudia F Nisa
Adventure and excitement have often been invoked to explain why people engage in political violence, yet empirical evidence on the topic has thus far been anecdotal. The present research sought to fill this gap in knowledge by examining the role of sensation seeking in political violence and integrating this concept with Significance Quest Theory (Kruglanski, Chen, Dechesne, Fishman, & Orehek, 2009; Kruglanski et al., 2013). Extending prior research on violent extremism, Study 1 found that sensation seeking mediated the relation between meaning in life and willingness to self-sacrifice and support for political violence...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Andrew E Monroe, Bertram F Malle
Six experiments examine people's updating of blame judgments and test predictions developed from a socially regulated blame perspective. According to this perspective, blame emerged in human history as a socially costly tool for regulating other's behavior. Because it is costly for both blamers and violators, blame is typically constrained by requirements for "warrant"-evidence that one's moral judgment is justified. This requirement motivates people to systematically process available causal and mental information surrounding a violation...
October 25, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Adam Hahn, Bertram Gawronski
Expanding on conflicting theoretical conceptualizations of implicit bias, 6 studies tested the effectiveness of different procedures to increase acknowledgment of harboring biases against minorities. Participants who predicted their responses toward pictures of various minority groups on future implicit association tests (IATs) showed increased alignment between implicit and explicit preferences (Studies 1-3), greater levels of explicit bias (Studies 1-3), and increased self-reported acknowledgment of being racially biased (Studies 4-6)...
October 25, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Nathan W Hudson, Daniel A Briley, William J Chopik, Jaime Derringer
Prior research has found that people's desires to change their personality traits predict corresponding subsequent trait growth over time. However, few studies have examined the processes through which people can volitionally change their personality traits. Thus, it remains unclear whether merely desiring change predicts trait growth or whether actively pursuing change is necessary. The present study was a 15-week intensive longitudinal design that tested whether engaging in trait-typical behaviors predicted trait change...
October 25, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Zachary Adolph Niese, Lisa K Libby, Russell H Fazio, Richard P Eibach, Evava S Pietri
People regularly form expectations about their future, and whether those expectations are positive or negative can have important consequences. So, what determines the valence of people's expectations? Research seeking to answer this question by using an individual-differences approach has established that trait biases in optimistic/pessimistic self-beliefs and, more recently, trait biases in behavioral tendencies to weight one's past positive versus negative experiences more heavily each predict the valence of people's typical expectations...
October 25, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Stefanie M Tignor, C Randall Colvin
Despite decades of empirical research, a deceptively simple question remains unanswered: Is guilt good? Whereas some researchers assert that routine experiences of guilt (i.e., "trait guilt") are maladaptive and indicative of poor psychological adjustment, others assert trait guilt to be adaptive and indicative of a prosocial disposition. In the current research we outline the theoretical underpinnings of 2 of the most commonly employed measures of trait guilt: unsituated measures (e.g., the Personal Feelings Questionnaire (PFQ; Harder & Lewis, 1987) and situated scenario-based measures (e...
October 25, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Aife Hopkins-Doyle, Robbie M Sutton, Karen M Douglas, Rachel M Calogero
Perceptions of warmth play a central role in social cognition. Seven studies use observational, correlational, and experimental methods to examine its role in concealing the functions of benevolent sexism (BS). Together, Studies 1 (n = 297), 2 (n = 252), and 3 (n = 219) indicated that although women recall experiencing benevolent (vs. hostile) sexism more often, they protest it less often, because they see it as warm. In Studies 4 (n = 296) and 5 (n = 361), describing men as high in BS caused them (via warmth) to be seen as lower in hostile sexism (HS) and more supportive of gender equality...
October 25, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Nele M Wessels, Johannes Zimmermann, Jeremy C Biesanz, Daniel Leising
A great range of person perception phenomena may be conceptualized in terms of how much perceivers know about the targets, how much they like the targets, and how these factors relate to the extent to which target descriptions reflect actual target characteristics and/or evaluative bias. We present a comprehensive empirical analysis of this interplay in two studies, the second (targets: N = 189, informants: N = 1352) being a preregistered replication of the first (targets: N = 73, informants: N = 549). Using multilevel profile analyses, we investigated how liking and knowing are differentially associated with judgments' normative accuracy (i...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Andrea C Vial, Victoria L Brescoll, John F Dovidio
We investigated how gatekeepers sometimes arrive at discriminatory hiring selections to accommodate prejudiced third parties due to role demands (i.e., the "third-party prejudice effect"). Studies 1 and 2 show that individuals in charge of personnel decisions were significantly less likely to select a woman when a relevant third party (the chief executive officer of the company in Study 1; the "proposer" in an ultimatum game in Study 2) was prejudiced against women. Gatekeepers accommodate third-party prejudice in this way in order to avoid conflict in relations and task-related problems that would likely occur if the gatekeeper introduced a member of the target of prejudice into an organization...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Michael L Lowe, Kelly L Haws
Confessions are commonplace. Even when embarrassing or otherwise damaging, we seem intrinsically motivated to open up to others and confess mistakes we have made. Although there may be many reasons one might choose to disclose one's "sins," very little is known about what confession actually does, particularly concerning its effect on future behavior. This work examines confession in the context of one's personal self-control failures in consumption, asking the central question: does confession lead to repentance (i...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Melissa J Williams, Julia George-Jones, Mikki Hebl
Despite strong initial interest, college students-especially those from underrepresented minority (URM) backgrounds-leave STEM majors at high rates. Here, we explore the role of racial phenotypic stereotypicality, or how typical one's physical appearance is of one's racial group, in STEM persistence. In a longitudinal study, URM students were especially likely to leave STEM to the extent that they looked more stereotypical of their group; Asian American students were especially likely to leave STEM to the extent that they looked less stereotypical...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Jaclyn M Ross, Benjamin R Karney, Teresa P Nguyen, Thomas N Bradbury
Demands for change in a relationship, particularly when met by behavioral withdrawal, foreshadow declines in relationship satisfaction. Yet demands can give partners opportunities to voice concerns, and withdrawal can serve to de-escalate conflict, stabilizing satisfaction instead (e.g., Overall, Fletcher, Simpson, & Sibley, 2009). We aim to reconcile these competing possibilities by arguing that withdrawal in response to requests for change will be detrimental among couples who possess the social, educational, and economic capital needed to address these requests, whereas withdrawal in response to partner demands will be constructive among couples with fewer resources for making the requested changes...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Isabel Thielmann, Benjamin E Hilbig, Ingo Zettler
A recurrent observation in personality judgments is that individuals' ratings of others' personalities are positively linked to their self-description, and that such "assumed similarity" effects appear to be trait-specific. However, the extent of and explanations for assumed similarity have been addressed only insufficiently. To close this gap, we first provide a meta-analytic summary of evidence on assumed similarity of basic personality traits. More importantly, we then critically test different theoretical accounts of assumed similarity (i...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Elizabeth R Tenney, Nathan L Meikle, David Hunsaker, Don A Moore, Cameron Anderson
What are the reputational consequences of being overconfident? We propose that the channel of confidence expression is one key moderator-that is, whether confidence is expressed verbally or nonverbally. In a series of experiments, participants assessed target individuals (potential collaborators or advisors) who were either overconfident or cautious. Targets expressed confidence, or a lack thereof, verbally or nonverbally. Participants then learned targets' actual performance. Across studies, overconfidence was advantageous initially-regardless of whether targets expressed confidence verbally or nonverbally...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Sandra C Matz, Joe J Gladstone
Recent research suggests that agreeable individuals experience greater financial hardship than their less agreeable peers. We explore the psychological mechanisms underlying this relationship and provide evidence that it is driven by agreeable individuals considering money to be less important, but not (as previously suggested) by agreeable individuals pursuing more cooperative negotiating styles. Taking an interactionist perspective, we further hypothesize that placing little importance on money-a risk factor for money mismanagement-is more detrimental to the financial health of those agreeable individuals who lack the economic means to compensate for their predisposition...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
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