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Journal of Invertebrate Pathology

Ramalingam Karthik Raja, Dilipkumar Aiswarya, Baris Gulcu, Manickam Raja, Pachiappan Perumal, Sivaperumal Sivaramakrishnan, Harry K Kaya, Selcuk Hazir
The symbiotic bacteria, Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus associated with entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) in the genera Heterorhabditis and Steinernema, respectively, produce a compound(s) called the Scavenging Deterrent Factor (SDF). SDF deters a number of terrestrial insect scavengers and predators and one bird species from feeding on host insects killed by the nematode-bacterium complex but has not been tested against aquatic vertebrates. Moreover, the Heterorhabditis-Photorhabdus association is believed to have evolved in an aquatic environment...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Sebastián Díaz, Sarah de Souza Urbano, Lílian Caesar, Betina Blochtein, Aroni Sattler, Valmir Zuge, Karen Luisa Haag
Melipona quadrifasciata is an eusocial stingless bee traditionally used for honey production in Brazil. In the last decades, the species disappeared from the wild in Southern Brazil, being kept exclusively in managed colonies for commercial and recreational purposes. Stingless beekeepers from this region report annual losses of their colonies due to a syndrome of yet unknown causes. We investigate whether it is associated to pathogenic microorganisms already known to cause disease in bees. These results provide a starting point for future studies aimed at clarifying the relationship between the microbial community of stingless bees and their colony collapses...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Trevor A Jackson
Dr. rer. nat. Alois M. Huger had a long and distinguished career at the Institut für biologische Schädlingsbekämpfung (Institute for Biological Pest Control) Darmstadt, Germany, where he became one of the world's leading insect pathologists. He applied his experience and understanding of insect tissues and specialist skills in microscopy to diagnosis and elucidation of the pathology of insect diseases. During his career he discovered the Oryctes nudivirus and Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. tenebrionis, and was a member of teams unravelling amber disease in scarab beetles and the role of bacteria in parthenogenesis of parasitoids...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Yixin H Ye, Andrei Seleznev, Heather A Flores, Megan Woolfit, Elizabeth A McGraw
Animals experience near constant infection with microorganisms. A significant proportion of these microbiota reside in the alimentary tract. There is a growing appreciation for the roles gut microbiota play in host biology. The gut microbiota of insects, for example, have been shown to help the host overcome pathogen infection either through direct competition or indirectly by stimulating host immunity. These defenses may also be supplemented by coinfecting maternally inherited microbes such as Wolbachia. The presence of Wolbachia in a host can delay and/or reduce death caused by RNA viruses...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Ornchuma Itsathitphaisarn, Siripong Thitamadee, Wattana Weerachatyanukul, Kallaya Sritunyalucksana
Viral pathogens pose a primary threat to global shrimp aquaculture. Despite the urgent industry need for them, practical anti-viral control methods are unavailable due, in part, to lack of an adaptive immune response in crustaceans that renders conventional vaccination methods ineffective. One currently studied method of high interest for protecting shrimp against viral infection relies on the post-transcriptional gene silencing mechanism called RNA interference (RNAi) that is induced by gene-specific constructs of double stranded RNA (dsRNA)...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Yuuki Hayakawa, Daiki Kato, Katsumi Kamiya, Chieka Minakuchi, Ken Miura
The importance of the insect cuticle as a primary protective barrier against entomopathogens has long been noted. In the present study, we addressed this issue by utilizing an experimental infection system composed of the model beetle T. castaneum and two entomopathogenic fungal species, Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae. The pupae were relatively susceptible to these fungi by the natural route of infection, with some refractoriness developed with age, while the adults exhibited much higher refractoriness...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Yuich Abe, Hiroshi Inoue, Hisashi Ashida, Yusuke Maeda, Taroh Kinoshita, Sakae Kitada
Parasporin-2 (PS2), alternatively named Cry46Aa1, an anticancer protein derived from Bacillus thuringiensis strain A1547, causes specific cell damage via PS2 oligomerization in the cell membrane. Although PS2 requires glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins for its cytocidal action, their precise role is unknown. Here, we report that the glycan of GPI induces PS2 oligomerization, which causes cell death. Cytotoxicity, cell-binding and oligomerization of the toxin were not observed in GPI-anchored protein-deficient Chinese hamster ovary cells...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Patricia A O'Leary, Jeffrey D Shields
The parasitic dinoflagellate, Hematodinium perezi, negatively impacts the commercially important blue crab, Callinectes sapidus. The parasite is a host generalist, but it has not been reported from littoral fiddler crabs living within a few meters of habitat known to harbor infected blue crabs. In the first study, populations of three species of fiddler crab were screened for natural infections. The infection status of field-collected and lab-inoculated crabs was determined by screening fresh hemolymph with a 0...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
X Y Wang, L X Du, C X Liu, L Gong, L Z Han, Y F Peng
The striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis, is a major target pest of transgenic rice expressing the Cry1Ab protein from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) in China. Evolution of resistance in this pest is a major threat to the durability of Bt rice. Since Bt exerts its activity through binding to specific receptors in the midgut of target insects, identification of functional Cry1Ab receptors in the midgut of C. suppressalis larvae is crucial to evaluate potential resistance mechanisms and develop effective strategies for delaying insect resistance...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Eugene V Ryabov
Invertebrates are hosts to diverse RNA viruses that have all possible types of encapsidated genomes (positive, negative and ambisense single stranded RNA genomes, or a double stranded RNA genome). These viruses also differ markedly in virion morphology and genome structure. Invertebrate RNA viruses are present in three out of four currently recognized orders of RNA viruses: Mononegavirales, Nidovirales, and Picornavirales, and 10 out of 37 RNA virus families that have yet to be assigned to an order. This mini-review describes general properties of the taxonomic groups, which include invertebrate RNA viruses on the basis of their current classification by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV)...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Toshihiko Akiba, Shiro Okumura
Parasporins are novel protein toxins preferentially cytotoxic against human cancer cells. They are obtained from parasporal inclusions of Bacillus thuringiensis and, accordingly, are considered congeners of the insecticidal Cry toxins. Two types of parasporins have been identified: the three-domain Cry toxin type and the β-pore-forming-toxin (β-PFT) type. Crystal structures of representative members of the two types, PS1Aa1 and PS2Aa1, have been determined and compared with those of well-studied toxins. PS1Aa1 has a typical architecture characteristic of the three-domain insecticidal Cry toxins, though it is cleaved into two polypeptides...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Joaquín Gomis-Cebolla, Iñigo Ruiz de Escudero, Natalia Mara Vera-Velasco, Patricia Hernández-Martínez, Carmen Sara Hernández-Rodríguez, Tomás Ceballos, Leopoldo Palma, Baltasar Escriche, Primitivo Caballero, Juan Ferré
The Vip3Ca protein, discovered in a screening of Spanish collections of Bacillus thuringiensis, was known to be toxic to Chrysodeixis chalcites, Mamestra brassicae and Trichoplusia ni. In the present study, its activity has been tested with additional insect species and we found that Cydia pomonella is moderately susceptible to this protein. Vip3Ca (of approximately 90 kDa) was processed to an approximately 70 kDa protein when incubated with midgut juice in all tested species. The kinetics of proteolysis correlated with the susceptibility of the insect species to Vip3Ca...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
J-M Drezen, J Gauthier, T Josse, A Bézier, E Herniou, E Huguet
Recent studies have highlighted that the accidental acquisition of DNA from other species by invertebrate genomes is much more common than originally thought. The transferred DNAs are of bacterial or eukaryote origin and in both cases the receiver species may end up utilising the transferred genes for its own benefit. Frequent contact with prokaryotic DNA from symbiotic endocellular bacteria may predispose invertebrates to incorporate this genetic material into their genomes. Increasing evidence also points to viruses as major players in transferring genes and mobile elements between the species they infect...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Yi-Ting Yang, Yu-Shin Nai, Se Jin Lee, Mi Rong Lee, Sihyeon Kim, Jae Su Kim
A viral genome was assembled de novo from next-generation sequencing (NGS) data from bean bugs, Riptortus pedestris, infected with an entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana (Bb), and was further confirmed via the RACE method. This is a novel insect positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus, which we named Riptortus pedestris virus-1 (RiPV-1) (GenBank accession no. KU958718). The genome of RiPV-1 consists of 10,554 nucleotides (nt), excluding the poly(A) tail, which contains a single large open reading frame (ORF) of 10,371 nt encoding a polyprotein (3456 aa) and flanked by 71 and 112 nt at the 5' and 3' untranslated regions (UTR), respectively...
November 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Giles E Budge, Ian Adams, Richard Thwaites, Stéphane Pietravalle, Georgia C Drew, Gregory D D Hurst, Victoria Tomkies, Neil Boonham, Mike Brown
Non-targeted approaches are useful tools to identify new or emerging issues in bee health. Here, we utilise next generation sequencing to highlight bacteria associated with healthy and unhealthy honey bee colonies, and then use targeted methods to screen a wider pool of colonies with known health status. Our results provide the first evidence that bacteria from the genus Arsenophonus are associated with poor health in honey bee colonies. We also discovered Lactobacillus and Leuconostoc spp. were associated with healthier honey bee colonies...
November 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Cristina Guerrero-Molina, Adriana Correa-Benítez, Mollah Md Hamiduzzaman, Ernesto Guzman-Novoa
This study was conducted to identify Nosema spp. and to determine their infection levels in honey bee (Apis mellifera) samples collected in Mexico in 1995-1996. Samples of historical surveys from different countries are of particular interest to support or challenge the hypothesis that the microsporidium Nosema ceranae is a new parasite of A. mellifera that has recently dispersed across the world. We demonstrate that N. ceranae has parasitized honey bees in Mexico since at least 1995 and that the infection levels of this parasite during summer and fall, exceed the threshold at which treatment of honey bee colonies is recommended...
November 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Adriana Pacini, Anabela Mira, Ana Molineri, Agostina Giacobino, Natalia Bulacio Cagnolo, Andrea Aignasse, Luis Zago, Mercedes Izaguirre, Julieta Merke, Emanuel Orellano, Ezequiel Bertozzi, Hernan Pietronave, Romina Russo, Alejandra Scannapieco, Silvia Lanzavecchia, Leonhard Schnittger, Marcelo Signorini
A total of 361 colonies from 59 apiaries located in two temperate and three subtropical eco-regions were examined during the post-harvest period to determine distribution and prevalence of Nosema spp. Apiaries from subtropical eco-regions showed a lower spore count than those from temperate eco-regions. Pure N. ceranae and co-infection were detected in apiaries from all regions. In contrast, pure N. apis infection was exclusively observed in the subtropical study region. The predominant detection of N. apis in a subtropical region joining a southern temperate region where mainly co-infected apiaries were identified is in contrast to previous reports...
November 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Susan D Inglis, Árni Kristmundsson, Mark A Freeman, Megan Levesque, Kevin Stokesbury
Atlantic sea scallop (Placopecten magellanicus) meats are normally firm and creamy white. However, scallops with small, darkened and stringy adductor muscle (gray meat) episodically occur along the Eastern Seaboard, most recently in the rotational management areas of Georges Bank after extended fishing closures. These gray meat scallops are associated with reduced harvestable biomass and mass mortality events. We tested age, nutritional stress and disease as causative agents for this condition. Adult scallops of different shell heights (SH) ranging from (90-145mm) were collected from Georges Bank and analyzed for meat quality and the presence of pathogens using biochemical, histopathological and molecular methods...
November 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Maximiano Pinheiro Dantas Neto, Tereza Cristina Vasconcelos Gesteira, Rachel Costa Sabry, Rubens Galdino Feijó, Jamille Martins Forte, Guisla Boehs, Rodrigo Maggioni
This study investigated Perkinsus spp. infecting Crassostrea rhizophorae from the Jaguaribe River estuary, Ceará, Brazil. Fragments of gills and rectum of the oysters (n=150) were incubated in Ray's fluid thioglycollate medium (RFTM). Genus Perkinsus-specific PerkITS85/750 PCR assays were performed and their amplicons were sequenced by the Sanger method. The RFTM assays confirmed Perkinsus spp. The sequencing of the amplified fragments from the rDNA internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of Perkinsus spp. confirmed Perkinsus chesapeaki...
November 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Muhammad Afzal Javed, Stephanie Harris, Leslie G Willis, David A Theilmann, B Cameron Donly, Martin A Erlandson, Dwayne D Hegedus
Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) is the type species for the genus Alphabaculovirus in the family Baculoviridae. In nature, AcMNPV infection begins with ingestion of viral occlusion bodies (OBs) from which occlusion-derived viruses (ODV) are released to infect midgut cells. This study explored the early stages of Trichoplusia ni midgut infection using recombinant viruses expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) and/or a VP39-mCherry fusion protein under the control of early and late promoters, respectively...
November 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
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