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Journal of Invertebrate Pathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228356/viruses-of-invertebrates-related-to-the-food-chain
#1
EDITORIAL
Monique M van Oers, Kelly S Bateman, Grant D Stentiford
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 19, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216094/fusion-of-flagellin-2-with-bivalent-white-spot-syndrome-virus-vaccine-increases-survival-in-freshwater-shrimp
#2
Hansam Cho, Na Hye Park, Yuyeon Jang, Yong-Dae Gwon, Yeondong Cho, Yoon-Ki Heo, Ki-Hoon Park, Hee-Jung Lee, Tae Jin Choi, Young Bong Kim
Despite large economic losses attributable to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), an infectious pathogen of penaeid shrimp and other crustaceans worldwide, no efficient vaccines or antiviral agents to control the virus are available at present. Here, we designed and constructed baculovirus-based vaccines delivering genes encoding the WSSV envelope proteins, VP28 and VP19. To enhance the immunogenicity of the baculovirus-based vaccine, we fused a Salmonella typhimurium flagellin 2 (FL2) gene with VP28 or VP19 gene...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216093/apparent-interspecific-transmission-of-aphanomyces-astaci-from-invasive-signal-to-virile-crayfish-in-a-sympatric-wild-population
#3
J James, A Mrugała, B Oidtmann, A Petrusek, J Cable
The crayfish plague pathogen (Aphanomyces astaci) causes mass mortalities of European crayfish when transmitted from its original North American crayfish hosts. Little is known, however, about interspecific transmission of the pathogen between different American crayfish species, although evidence from trade of ornamental crayfish suggests this may happen in captivity. We screened signal and virile crayfish for A. astaci at allopatric and sympatric sites in a UK river. Whilst the pathogen was detected in signal crayfish from both sites, infected virile crayfish were only found in sympatry...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193447/identification-and-bacterial-characteristics-of-xenorhabdus-hominickii-anu101-from-an-entomopathogenic-nematode-steinernema-monticolum
#4
Youngjin Park, Sangjin Kang, Md Sadekuzzaman, Hyeonghwan Kim, Jin-Kyo Jung, Yonggyun Kim
An entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema monticolum, was collected in Korea. Its identity was confirmed by morphological and molecular characters. Its symbiotic bacterium, Xenorhabdus hominickii ANU101, was isolated and assessed in terms of bacterial characteristics. Sixty-eight different carbon sources were utilized by X. hominickii ANU101 out of 95 different sources from a Biolog assay. Compared to other Xenorhabdus species, X. hominickii ANU101 was relatively susceptible to high temperatures and did not grow above 34°C...
February 11, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189501/viruses-of-insects-reared-for-food-and-feed
#5
Gabriela Maciel-Vergara, Vera I D Ros
The use of insects as food for humans or as feed for animals is an alternative for the increasing high demand for meat and has various environmental and social advantages over the traditional intensive production of livestock. Mass rearing of insects, under insect farming conditions or even in industrial settings, can be the key for a change in the way natural resources are utilized in order to produce meat, animal protein and a list of other valuable animal products. However, because insect mass rearing technology is relatively new, little is known about the different factors that determine the quality and yield of the production process...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189502/viruses-infecting-marine-molluscs
#6
Isabelle Arzul, Serge Corbeil, Benjamin Morga, Tristan Renault
Although a wide range of viruses have been reported in marine molluscs, most of these reports rely on ultrastructural examination and few of these viruses have been fully characterized. The lack of marine mollusc cell lines restricts virus isolation capacities and subsequent characterization works. Our current knowledge is mostly restricted to viruses affecting farmed species such as oysters Crassostrea gigas, abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta or the scallop Chlamys farreri. Molecular approaches which are needed to identify virus affiliation have been carried out for a small number of viruses, most of them belonging to the Herpesviridae and birnaviridae families...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167046/aranciocystis-muskarensis-n-gen-n-sp-a-neogregarine-pathogen-of-the-anisoplia-segetum-herbst-coleoptera-scarabaeidae
#7
Çağrı Bekircan, Mustafa Cüce, Hilal Baki, Onur Tosun
In this study, a new genus and species of neogregarine which is a pathogen of Anisoplia segetum Herbst (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), is described. The adult beetles of A. segetum were collected from Nevşehir, Turkey and neogregarine infection rates were determined as 18.52%. The Giemsa-stained mature oocysts are lemon-shaped and measured 9.34±0.82μm in length and 5.77±0.77μm in width. The oocyst wall surface of the mature oocysts is similar to an osage orange (tuberculate). Morphological, ultrastructural and molecular features indicate that the previously undescribed neogregarine is dissimilar to all known neogregarine taxa and represents the first record from Anisoplia segetum and is named here as Aranciocystis muskarensis n...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163012/characterization-of-a-novel-member-of-genus-iflavirus-in-helicoverpa-armigera
#8
He Yuan, Pengjun Xu, Xianming Yang, Robert I Graham, Kenneth Wilson, Kongming Wu
The cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, is one of the most important agricultural pests of many economic crops worldwide. Herein, we found a novel single-strand RNA virus by RNA-Seq and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) method in H. armigera named Helicoverpa armigera iflavirus (HaIV), which possessed a genome with 10,017 nucleotides in length and contained a single large open reading frame (ORF) encoding a putative polyprotein of 3021 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 344.16kDa and a theoretical isoelectric point (pI) of 6...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163013/lepidopteran-species-have-a-variety-of-defence-strategies-against-bacterial-infections
#9
Lauri Mikonranta, Franziska Dickel, Johanna Mappes, Dalial Freitak
The insect immune system has versatile ways of coping with microbial insults. Currently, innate immune priming has been described in several invertebrates, and the first insights into its mechanistic basis have been described. Here we studied infections with two different strains of Serratia marcescens bacteria in two different Lepidopteran hosts. The results reveal fundamental differences between the two hosts, a well-known model organism Galleria mellonella and a non-model species Arctia plantaginis. They differ in their strategies for resisting oral infections; priming their defences against a recurring sepsis; and upregulating immunity related genes as a response to the specific pathogen strains...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153770/a-taxonomic-review-of-viruses-infecting-crustaceans-with-an-emphasis-on-wild-hosts
#10
K S Bateman, G D Stentiford
Numerous infections by viral pathogens have been described from wild and cultured crustacean hosts, yet relatively few of these pathogens have been formally characterized and classified. To date viruses have generally been tentatively assigned to families based upon morphological and developmental characteristics and their location of infection within the host cell. Often nucleotide sequence information is unavailable. Some of these viral infections have caused well-documented devastating consequences on the global crustacean farming industry whilst their effects on wild populations remain largely unstudied...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108175/characterization-of-the-synergistic-interaction-between-beauveria-bassiana-strain-gha-and-bacillus-thuringiensis-morrisoni-strain-tenebrionis-applied-against-colorado-potato-beetle-larvae
#11
S P Wraight, M E Ramos
Studies were undertaken to further characterize the previously identified synergistic activity of Bacillus thuringiensis- and Beauveria bassiana-based biopesticides against Colorado potato beetle (CPB). A flowable concentrate of B. thuringiensis morrisoni strain tenebrionis (Bt) (Novodor® FC) and a wettable powder of B. bassiana strain GHA (Bb) (Mycotrol® 22WP) were applied against CPB larval populations infesting potato in field plots. Novodor FC and an oil-dispersion formulation of Bb (Mycotrol ES) were applied against second-instar CPB larvae on potted potato plants in greenhouse tests under low relative humidity (RH), variable-temperature conditions...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108174/experimental-infection-of-octopus-vulgaris-cuvier-1797-with-photobacterium-damsela-subsp-piscicida-immunohistochemical-tracking-of-antigen-and-tissue-responses
#12
Vasileios Bakopoulos, Daniella White, Michail-Aggelos Valsamidis, Feli Vasilaki
Adult common octopus individuals were intramuscularly infected with Photobacterium damsela subsp. piscicida in order to investigate if this species is sensitive to this common and important fish pathogen. The fate of the bacterial antigens and the tissue responses of Octopus vulgaris were studied employing immunohistochemical techniques. Strong reaction at the site of injection was evident from day 2 post-infection that continued until day 14. Great numbers of hemocytes that were attracted at the site of infection were involved in phagocytosis of bacteria...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093209/combinatorial-effect-of-bacillus-amyloliquefaciens-ag1-biosurfactant-and-bacillus-thuringiensis-vip3aa16-toxin-on-spodoptera-littoralis-larvae
#13
Saoussen Ben Khedher, Hanen Boukedi, Mariam Dammak, Olfa Kilani-Feki, Tahya Sellami-Boudawara, Lobna Abdelkefi-Mesrati, Slim Tounsi
Spodoptera littoralis, one of the most serious and destructive agricultural pests in the world, is very susceptible to Vip3 toxin. In order to develop a new efficient bioinsecticide and to prevent the development of resistance by the target pest, insecticidal activity of biosurfactant produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens AG1 was evaluated against S. littoralis. Bioassays revealed the susceptibility of the first instar larvae of this pest to AG1 biosurfactant with an LC50 of 245ng/cm(2). Moreover, the histopathology examination of the larval midgut treated by AG1 biosurfactant showed vacuolization, necrosis and disintegration of the basement membrane...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088343/first-confirmed-report-of-a-bacterial-brood-disease-in-stingless-bees
#14
Jenny Lee Shanks, Anthony Mark Haigh, Markus Riegler, Robert Neil Spooner-Hart
Susceptibility to brood pathogens in eusocial stingless bees (Meliponini), alternative pollinators to honey bees, is unknown. Brood losses in managed colonies of the Australian stingless bee, Tetragonula carbonaria, were studied over 20months. We isolated a disease-causing bacterium, Lysinibacillus sphaericus (Firmicutes, Bacillaceae), from worker and queen larvae, brood cell provisions and honey stores. Pathogenicity experiments confirmed this bacterium as the causal organism. It took 22days from infection to first appearance of brood disease symptoms...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087206/spatial-relationships-between-entomopathogenic-nematodes-and-nematophagous-fungi-in-florida-citrus-orchards
#15
Ekta Pathak, Raquel Campos-Herrera, Fahiem E El-Borai, Larry W Duncan
Relationships between entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs), nematophagous fungi (NF) and soil physical and chemical properties were studied in a survey of 53 citrus orchards in central ridge and flatwoods ecoregions of Florida. Seven species of NF associated with nematodes were quantified directly using a real time qPCR assay. All nematophagous fungi studied except Arthrobotrys musiformis and Hirsutella rhossiliensis were frequently detected (24-56%) in both regions. Paecilomyces lilacinus and Gamsylella gephyropagumwere encountered more frequently in the flatwoods (P=0...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065703/molecular-identification-of-entomopathogenic-fusarium-species-associated-with-tribolium-species-in-stored-grains
#16
Khosrow Chehri
Fusarium species are common pathogens of plants, animals and insects worldwide, including Iran. The occurrence of entomopathogenic Fusarium species isolated from Tribolium species as one of the most important insect pests of stored grains were sampled from various provinces in western Iran. In total, 15 Tribolium species belonging to T. castaneum (Herbst) and T. confusum (Du Val) (Col: Tenebrionidae) were detected and 8 isolates from Fusarium spp. were collected from them. Based on morphological features, the Fusarium isolates were classified into F...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065702/molecular-characterization-of-a-p38-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-gene-from-scylla-paramamosain-and-its-expression-profiles-during-pathogenic-challenge
#17
Zehui Yu, Yi Geng, Anming Huang, Kaiyu Wang, Xiaoli Huang, Defang Chen, Yangping Ou, Jun Wang
A novel p38 MAPK gene from S. paramamosain was cloned and characterized by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) technology. S. paramamosain p38 (Sp-p38) MAPK gene consists of an open reading frame of 1095bp encoding a 365-amino-acid protein, which showed close phylogenetic relationship to Litopenaeus vannamei p38 MAPK. The tissue distribution patterns showed that Sp-p38 MAPK was widely expressed in all examined tissues, with the highest expression in hemocytes and intestines. The expression levels of Sp-p38 MAPK in hemocytes was up-regulated post-stimulation, which reached the peak at 6h and 12h after bacteria (S...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065701/recent-progress-toward-the-identification-of-anti-viral-immune-mechanisms-in-decapod-crustaceans
#18
Chris Hauton
The sustainable intensification of crustacean aquaculture, which is dominated by the farming of penaeid shrimp species, continues to be beset by viral disease outbreaks. Despite this, reports exist of differential susceptibility to viral infection between different shrimp species and populations, and between shrimp and other decapod crustaceans. These reports have, in part, provided the motivation to identify key mechanisms of antiviral resistance, or refractivity, in commercially-important species. Within the last decade these studies have created significant advances in our understanding of host virus interactions in decapod models...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057460/a-characterization-of-structural-proteins-expressed-by-bombyx-mori-bidensovirus
#19
Peng Lü, Yali Xing, Zhaoyang Hu, Yanhua Yang, Ye Pan, Kangmin Chen, Feifei Zhu, Yajing Zhou, Keping Chen, Qin Yao
Bombyx mori bidensiovirus (BmBDV) is a species of Bidensovirus that has been was placed into a new genus within the new family Bidnaviridae by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. BmBDV causes fatal flacherie disease in silkworms, which causes large losses to the sericulture industry. BmBDV contains two sets of complementary linear single-stranded DNAs of approximately 6.5kb (viral DNA 1, VD1) and 6.0kb (viral DNA 2, VD2). VD1 and VD2 are encapsidated in separate icosahedral non-enveloped capsids, which are similar in size and shape...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993620/characterization-of-putative-virulence-factors-of-serratia-marcescens-strain-sen-for-pathogenesis-in-spodoptera-litura
#20
Chetana Aggarwal, Sangeeta Paul, Vishwas Tripathi, Bishwajeet Paul, Md Aslam Khan
Two Serratia marcescens strains, SEN and ICC-4, isolated from diseased insect cadavers were observed to differ considerably in their virulence towards Spodoptera litura. The present study was aimed to characterize the possible virulence factors present in the virulent Serratia marcescens strain SEN. Both the S. marcescens strains were evaluated for the presence of various lytic enzymes such as chitinase, lipase, protease and phospholipase. The virulent S. marcescens strain SEN was observed to possess considerably higher activity of chitinase and protease enzymes; activity of phospholipase enzyme was also higher...
December 18, 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
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