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Journal of Invertebrate Pathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511901/first-haplosporidan-parasite-reported-infecting-a-member-of-the-superfamily-pinnoidea-pinna-nobilis-during-a-mortality-event-in-alicante-spain-western-mediterranean
#1
Susana Darriba
Several stages of a haplosporidan parasite, including spores, were detected infecting three out of four specimens of the Pen Shell Pinna nobilis from the coast of Alicante (Western Mediterranean). A mortality event initiated few weeks before the sampling. The infection was systemic in the connective tissue, with free uni-nucleate stages and early plasmodia, whereas sporulation process took place in the digestive tubules disrupting them. Morphological details, by light and transmission electron microscopy, and PCR amplification confirmed that the parasite belongs to the haplosporidan group...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502594/early-evidence-for-a-virus-like-agent-infecting-the-pest-snail-theba-pisana-gastropoda-pulmonata-in-southern-italy
#2
Gionata De Vico, Rosarita Tatè, Nicola Maio, Andrea Costantino, Vincenzo Guida, Grazia Villari, Francesca Carella
The Mediterranean land snail Theba pisana (Mollusca: Helicidae) is an introduced agricultural pest in many countries around the world, including Australia, Israel, USA and South Africa. In addition, this snail is an intermediate host of parasites of importance in both human and veterinary medicine. In this study, a natural population of T. pisana snails on the Domitian coast of Italy was surveyed following a mass mortality event. By light microscopy, 30% of the collected individuals showed in the calcium cells of the digestive gland the presence of hypertrophied nuclei containing eosinophilic to weakly basophilic inclusion bodies...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499929/reproductive-efficiency-of-entomopathogenic-nematodes-as-scavengers-are-they-able-to-fight-for-insect-s-cadavers
#3
Rubén Blanco-Pérez, Francisco Bueno-Pallero, Luis Neto, Raquel Campos-Herrera
Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) and their bacterial partners are well-studied insect pathogens, and their persistence in soils is one of the key parameters for successful use as biological control agents in agroecosystems. Free-living bacteriophagous nematodes (FLBNs) in the genus Oscheius, often found in soils, can interfere in EPN reproduction when exposed to live insect larvae. Both groups of nematodes can act as facultative scavengers as a survival strategy. Our hypothesis was that EPNs will reproduce in insect cadavers under FLBN presence, but their reproductive capacity will be severely limited when competing with other scavengers for the same niche...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499928/detection-of-ostreid-herpesvirus-1-microvariants-in-healthy-crassostrea-gigas-following-disease-events-and-their-possible-role-as-reservoirs-of-infection
#4
Olivia Evans, Paul Hick, Richard J Whittington
Ostreid herpesvirus-1 microvariants (OsHV-1) cause severe mortalities in farmed Crassostrea gigas in Europe, New Zealand and Australia. Outbreaks are seasonal, recurring in the warmer months of the year in endemic estuaries. The reference genotype and microvariant genotypes of OsHV-1 have been previously detected in the tissues of apparently healthy adult oysters naturally exposed to OsHV-1 in the field. However, the role of such oysters as reservoirs of infection for subsequent mortality outbreaks remains unclear...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483639/plant-genotype-and-induced-defenses-affect-the-productivity-of-an-insect-killing-obligate-viral-pathogen
#5
Ikkei Shikano, Elizabeth M McCarthy, Bret D Elderd, Kelli Hoover
Plant-mediated variations in the outcomes of host-pathogen interactions can strongly affect epizootics and the population dynamics of numerous species, including devastating agricultural pests such as the fall armyworm. Most studies of plant-mediated effects on insect pathogens focus on host mortality, but few have measured pathogen yield, which can affect whether or not an epizootic outbreak occurs. Insects challenged with baculoviruses on different plant species and parts can vary in levels of mortality and yield of infectious stages (occlusion bodies; OBs)...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442400/laboratory-evaluation-of-brevibacillus-laterosporus-strains-as-biocidal-agents-against-chrysomya-megacephala-fabricius-1794-diptera-calliphoridae-larvae
#6
Isabel Nogueira Carramaschi, Lorrane de Andrade Pereira, Vitor Dos Santos Baia, Jacenir Reis Dos Santos Mallet, Margareth Maria de Carvalho Queiroz, Viviane Zahner
The biocidal activity of three strains of Brevibacillus laterosporus upon the post-embryonic developmental stages of Chrysomya megacephala was evaluated. Bioassays were performed to verify lethal and sub-lethal effects including ultra-structural changes in the midgut. Among the strains assayed, Shi3 presented the highest larval mortality rates, achieving 70% at a concentration of 1×10(8) spores/g of diet. Transmission electron microscopy revealed intestinal alterations caused by all strains tested. The findings of this study indicate that Shi3 represents a promising tool for use in the biocontrol of C...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442399/the-genome-sequence-of-agrotis-segetum-granulovirus-isolate-agsegv-da-reveals-a-new-betabaculovirus-species-of-a-slow-killing-granulovirus
#7
Gianpiero Gueli Alletti, Marina Eigenbrod, Eric B Carstens, Regina G Kleespies, Johannes A Jehle
The European isolate Agrotis segetum granulovirus DA (AgseGV-DA) is a slow killing, type I granulovirus due to low dose-mortality responses within seven days post infection and a tissue tropism of infection restricted solely to the fat body of infected Agrotis segetum host larvae. The genome of AgseGV-DA was completely sequenced and compared to the whole genome sequences of the Chinese isolates AgseGV-XJ and AgseGV-L1. All three isolates share highly conserved genomes. The AgseGV-DA genome is 131,557bp in length and encodes for 149 putative open reading frames, including 37 baculovirus core genes and the per os infectivity factor ac110...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438456/pirab-protein-from-xenorhabdus-nematophila-hb310-exhibits-a-binary-toxin-with-insecticidal-activity-and-cytotoxicity-in-galleria-mellonella
#8
Qing Yang, Jie Zhang, Tianhui Li, Shen Liu, Ping Song, Ziyan Nangong, Qinying Wang
PirAB (Photorhabdus insect-related proteins, PirAB) toxin was initially found in the Photorhabdus luminescens TT01 strain and has been shown to be a binary toxin with high insecticidal activity. Based on GenBank data, this gene was also found in the Xenorhabdus nematophila genome sequence. The predicted amino acid sequence of pirA and pirB in the genome of X. nematophila showed 51% and 50% identity with those gene sequences from P. luminescens. The purpose of this experiment is to identify the relevant information for this toxin gene in X...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433568/the-role-of-copulatory-plugs-in-the-mosquito-parasitic-nematode-strelkovimermis-spiculatus
#9
Yu-Han Lan, Yi Wang, Randy Gaugler
The mosquito-parasitic nematode, Strelkovimermis spiculatus (Mermithidae: Nematoda) emerges from hosts and aggregates to form mating clusters characterized by intense male-male competition for females. Successful males deposit an adhesive copulatory plug over the female vulva after insemination. In choice experiments, males strongly preferred virgin females, whereas plugged females were ignored. Males made no attempt to displace copulatory plugs deposited by previous males. Plugged females repelled males without the need for physical contact...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431886/innate-resistance-of-new-zealand-paua-to-abalone-viral-ganglioneuritis
#10
Serge Corbeil, Kenneth A McColl, Lynette M Williams, Joanne Slater, Mark St J Crane
The susceptibility of New Zealand paua (Haliotis iris) to infection by abalone herpesvirus (Haliotid herpesvirus 1; HaHV) and to the disease abalone viral ganglioneuritis (AVG) was determined. Infection challenges performed by intra-muscular injection and by immersion in infectious water containing HaHV demonstrated that New Zealand paua were highly resistant to infection by Haliotid herpesvirus 1 and were fully resistant to the disease AVG.
April 18, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400199/viruses-of-managed-alfalfa-leafcutting-bees-megachille-rotundata-fabricus-and-honey-bees-apis-mellifera-l-in-western-canada-incidence-impacts-and-prospects-of-cross-species-viral-transmission
#11
Andony Melathopoulos, Lynae Ovinge, Patricia Wolf Veiga, Carlos Castillo, David Ostermann, Shelley Hoover
We examined whether alfalfa leafcutting bees (ALCB, Megachille rotundata) experienced a higher incidence of seven viruses commonly found honey bees (Apis mellifera) when placed alongside honey bees for hybrid canola seed pollination. Although two viruses - sacbrood virus (SBV) and deformed wing virus (DWV) - were detected in ALCB adults, their presence appeared independent of whether honey bees were present in the same field or not. A further survey of viruses among ALCB adults in three different alfalfa seed growing regions in Western Canada confirmed the ubiquity of sacbrood virus (SBV) as well as the infrequent presence of acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), both of which had not been previously reported on ALCB...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392286/a-comparison-of-the-adaptations-of-strains-of-lymantria-dispar-multiple-nucleopolyhedrovirus-to-hosts-from-spatially-isolated-populations
#12
V V Martemyanov, J D Podgwaite, I A Belousova, S V Pavlushin, J M Slavicek, O A Baturina, M R Kabilov, A V Ilyinykh
The adaptation of pathogens to either their hosts or to environmental conditions is the focus of many current ecological studies. In this work we compared the ability of six spatially-distant Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth) multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (LdMNPV) strains (three from eastern North America and three from central Asia) to induce acute infection in gypsy moth larvae. We also sequenced the complete genome of one Asian (LdMNPV-27/0) and one North American (LdMNPV-45/0) strain which were used for bioassay...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392285/replication-of-honey-bee-associated-rna-viruses-across-multiple-bee-species-in-apple-orchards-of-georgia-germany-and-kyrgyzstan
#13
Rita Radzevičiūtė, Panagiotis Theodorou, Martin Husemann, George Japoshvili, Giorgi Kirkitadze, Aigul Zhusupbaeva, Robert J Paxton
The essential ecosystem service of pollination is provided largely by insects, which are considered threatened by diverse biotic and abiotic global change pressures. RNA viruses are one such pressure, and have risen in prominence as a major threat for honey bees (Apis mellifera) and global apiculture, as well as a risk factor for other bee species through pathogen spill-over between managed honey bees and sympatric wild pollinator communities. Yet despite their potential role in global bee decline, the prevalence of honey bee-associated RNA viruses in wild bees is poorly known from both geographic and taxonomic perspectives...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392284/comparative-analysis-of-the-genetic-basis-of-cry1f-resistance-in-two-strains-of-spodoptera-frugiperda-originated-from-puerto-rico-and-florida
#14
Ana M Camargo, Pedro Castañera, Gema P Farinós, Fangneng Huang
The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), is a major target pest of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize and cotton in America. Since the commercialization of Cry1F maize (event TC1507) in 2003, resistance to Cry1F maize in field populations of S. frugiperda has occurred in Puerto Rico, Brazil and the southeast region of the United States. In this paper, we conducted a comparative analysis of the inheritance of two Cry1F-resistant colonies of S. frugiperda originated from Puerto Rico (PR) and Florida (FL), respectively...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390783/phylogenetic-analysis-and-survey-of-apis-cerana-strain-of-sacbrood-virus-acsbv-in-taiwan-suggests-a-recent-introduction
#15
Wei-Fone Huang, Shahid Mehmood, Shaokang Huang, Yue-Wen Chen, Chong-Yu Ko, Songkun Su
The Sacbrood virus (SBV) is widely distributed in European honey bees, Apis mellifera. AcSBV, a distinct SBV strain in Asian honey bees (A. cerana) causes larva death before pupation and often depopulates colonies, leading to collapse. It is the most severe disease in A. cerana beekeeping. AcSBV infects A. cerana in most natural habitats, yet occurrences were not reported in Taiwan before 2015 and were not a concern for local beekeepers. However, in 2016, A. cerana beekeepers in central Taiwan reported SBV-like symptoms...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372996/parathelohania-iranica-sp-nov-microsporidia-amblyosporidae-infecting-malaria-mosquito-anopheles-superpictus-diptera-culicidae-ultrastructure-and-molecular-characterization
#16
Seyed-Mohammad Omrani, Seyedeh-Fatemeh Moosavi, Effat Farrokhi
Microsporidia are common pathogens of insects and sometimes are considered as a candidate in the biological control of mosquitoes. Recently a microsporidium infection was discovered in Anopheles superpictus (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae, in Iran. The responsible agent belonged to the genus Parathelohania (Microsporidia: Amblyosporidae). This study has been carried out to identify its identity at the species level. Fresh infected larvae were collected from the type locality, Kiar district, in Chahar Mahal and Bakhtiari province, at the central western of Iran...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372997/new-insights-into-the-in-vitro-development-and-virulence-of-culicinomyces-spp-as-fungal-pathogens-of-aedes-aegypti
#17
Juscelino Rodrigues, Christian Luz, Richard A Humber
Culicinomyces spp. (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) are facultative fungal pathogens affecting the larval stages from a range of mosquito species and are especially notable in their ability to infect hosts through the digestive tract after conidial ingestion. While Culicinomyces spp. were studied mainly in the 1980s, little is yet known about inter- and intraspecific variability of the in vitro development of these fungi at different temperatures, and nothing is known about the impact of serial host-passage on the development or virulence against Aedes aegypti larvae...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359865/transcriptomic-analysis-of-two-beauveria-bassiana-strains-grown-on-cuticle-extracts-of-the-silkworm-uncovers-their-different-metabolic-response-at-early-infection-stage
#18
Jing-Jie Wang, Wen-Wen Bai, Wei Zhou, Jing Liu, Jie Chen, Xiao-Yuan Liu, Ting-Ting Xiang, Ren-Hua Liu, Wen-Hui Wang, Bao-Ling Zhang, Yong-Ji Wan
Beauveria bassiana is an important entomopathogenic fungus which not only widely distributes in the environment but also shows phenotypic diversity. However, the mechanism of pathogenic differences among natural B. bassiana strains has not been revealed at transcriptome-wide level. In the present study, in order to explore the mechanism, two B. bassiana strains with different pathogenicity were isolated from silkworms (Bombyx mori L.) and selected to analyze the gene expression of early stage by culturing on cuticle extracts of the silkworm and using RNA-sequencing technique...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344121/brevibacillus-laterosporus-pathogenesis-and-local-immune-response-regulation-in-the-house-fly-midgut
#19
Maria Elena Mura, Luca Ruiu
The insect midgut represents the primary site of action of the entompathogenic bacterium Brevibacillus laterosporus. While most studies on this microorganism focus on the identification and characterization of possible virulence factors and toxins, little is known about the insect immune defense mechanisms that are activated against this pathogen. In this study we have investigated the local immune response of different house fly stages to B. laterosporus at the transcriptional level, and we tested the hypothesis that an improvement in entomopathogenicity can be achieved by impairing host innate immunity...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342852/effects-of-sub-culturing-on-genetic-and-physiological-parameters-in-different-beauveria-bassiana-isolates
#20
Naser Eivazian Kary, Zhila Alizadeh
Beauveria bassiana is a fungus which is widely used as a biological insecticide to control a number of economically important insect pests. Knowledge of the genetic diversity of the isolates, understanding the underlying nature of these evolutionary phenomena and finding appropriate and simple screening tools play an important role in developing effective biocontrol agents. Here, we monitored changes of electrophoretic karyotype of small molecules of extrachromosomal DNAs, presumably mitochondrial DNA or plasmids in several individual isolates of B...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
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