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Journal of Invertebrate Pathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093209/combinatorial-effect-of-bacillus-amyloliquefaciens-ag1-biosurfactant-and-bacillus-thuringiensis-vip3aa16-toxin-on-spodoptera-littoralis-larvae
#1
Saoussen Ben Khedher, Hanen Boukedi, Mariam Dammak, Olfa Kilani-Feki, Tahya Sellami-Boudawara, Lobna Abdelkefi-Mesrati, Slim Tounsi
Spodoptera littoralis, one of the most serious and destructive agricultural pests in the world, is very susceptible to Vip3 toxin. In order to develop a new efficient bioinsecticide and to prevent the development of resistance by the target pest, insecticidal activity of biosurfactant produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens AG1 was evaluated against S. littoralis. Bioassays revealed the susceptibility of the first instar larvae of this pest to AG1 biosurfactant with an LC50 of 245 ng/cm(2). Moreover, the histopathology examination of the larval midgut treated by AG1 biosurfactant showed vacuolization, necrosis and disintegration of the basement membrane...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088343/first-confirmed-report-of-a-bacterial-brood-disease-in-stingless-bees
#2
Jenny Lee Shanks, Anthony Mark Haigh, Markus Riegler, Robert Neil Spooner-Hart
Susceptibility to brood pathogens in eusocial stingless bees (Meliponini), alternative pollinators to honey bees, is unknown. Brood losses in managed colonies of the Australian stingless bee, Tetragonula carbonaria, were studied over 20 months. We isolated a disease-causing bacterium, Lysinibacillus sphaericus (Firmicutes, Bacillaceae), from worker and queen larvae, brood cell provisions and honey stores. Pathogenicity experiments confirmed this bacterium as the causal organism. It took 22 days from infection to first appearance of brood disease symptoms...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087206/spatial-relationships-between-entomopathogenic-nematodes-and-nematophagous-fungi-in-florida-citrus-orchards
#3
Ekta Pathak, Raquel Campos-Herrera, Fahiem E El-Borai, Larry W Duncan
Relationships between entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs), nematophagous fungi (NF) and soil physical and chemical properties were studied in a survey of 53 citrus orchards in central ridge and flatwoods ecoregions of Florida. Seven species of NF associated with nematodes were quantified directly using a real time qPCR assay. All nematophagous fungi studied exceptArthrobotrys musiformis andHirsutella rhossiliensiswere frequently detected (24-56%) in both regions.Paecilomyces lilacinusandGamsylella gephyropagumwere encountered more frequently in the flatwoods (P = 0...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065703/molecular-identification-of-entomopathogenic-fusarium-species-associated-with-tribolium-species-in-stored-grains
#4
Khosrow Chehri
Fusarium species are common pathogens of plants, animals and insects worldwide, including Iran. The occurrence of entomopathogenic Fusarium species isolated from Tribolium species as one of the most important insect pests of stored grains were sampled from various provinces in western Iran. In total, 15 Tribolium species belonging to T. castaneum (Herbst) and T. confusum (Du Val) (Col: Tenebrionidae) were detected and 8 isolates from Fusarium spp. were collected from them. Based on morphological features, the Fusarium isolates were classified into F...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065702/molecular-characterization-of-a-p38-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-gene-from-scylla-paramamosain-and-its-expression-profiles-during-pathogenic-challenge
#5
Zehui Yu, Yi Geng, Anming Huang, Kaiyu Wang, Xiaoli Huang, Defang Chen, Yangping Ou, Jun Wang
A novel p38 MAPK gene from S. paramamosain was cloned and characterized by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) technology. S. paramamosain p38 (Sp-p38) MAPK gene consists of an open reading frame of 1095 bp encoding a 365-amino-acid protein, which showed close phylogenetic relationship to Litopenaeus vannamei p38 MAPK. The tissue distribution patterns showed that Sp-p38 MAPK was widely expressed in all examined tissues, with the highest expression in hemocytes and intestines. The expression levels of Sp-p38 MAPK in hemocytes was up-regulated post-stimulation, which reached the peak at 6 h and 12h after bacteria (S...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065701/recent-progress-toward-the-identification-of-anti-viral-immune-mechanisms-in-decapod-crustaceans
#6
Chris Hauton
The sustainable intensification of crustacean aquaculture, which is dominated by the farming of penaeid shrimp species, continues to be beset by viral disease outbreaks. Despite this, reports exist of differential susceptibility to viral infection between different shrimp species and populations, and between shrimp and other decapod crustaceans. These reports have, in part, provided the motivation to identify key mechanisms of antiviral resistance, or refractivity, in commercially-important species. Within the last decade these studies have created significant advances in our understanding of host virus interactions in decapod models...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057460/a-characterization-of-structural-proteins-expressed-by-bombyx-mori-bidensovirus
#7
Peng Lü, Yali Xing, Zhaoyang Hu, Yanhua Yang, Ye Pan, Kangmin Chen, Feifei Zhu, Yajing Zhou, Keping Chen, Qin Yao
Bombyx mori bidensiovirus (BmBDV) is a species of Bidensovirus that has been was placed into a new genus within the new family Bidnaviridae by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. BmBDV causes fatal flacherie disease in silkworms, which causes large losses to the sericulture industry. BmBDV contains two sets of complementary linear single-stranded DNAs of approximately 6.5 kb (viral DNA 1, VD1) and 6.0 kb (viral DNA 2, VD2). VD1 and VD2 are encapsidated in separate icosahedral non-enveloped capsids, which are similar in size and shape...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993620/characterization-of-putative-virulence-factors-of-serratia-marcescens-strain-sen-for-pathogenesis-in-spodoptera-litura
#8
Chetana Aggarwal, Sangeeta Paul, Vishwas Tripathi, Bishwajeet Paul, Md Aslam Khan
Two Serratia marcescens strains, SEN and ICC-4, isolated from diseased insect cadavers were observed to differ considerably in their virulence towards Spodoptera litura. The present study was aimed to characterize the possible virulence factors present in the virulent Serratia marcescens strain SEN. Both the S. marcescens strains were evaluated for the presence of various lytic enzymes such as chitinase, lipase, protease and phospholipase. The virulent S. marcescens strain SEN was observed to possess considerably higher activity of chitinase and protease enzymes; activity of phospholipase enzyme was also higher...
December 18, 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993619/pandora-formicae-a-specialist-ant-pathogenic-fungus-new-insights-into-biology-and-taxonomy
#9
Joanna Małagocka, Annette Bruun Jensen, Jørgen Eilenberg
Among fungi from the order Entomophthorales (Entomophthoromycota), there are many specialized, obligatory insect-killing pathogens. Pandora formicae (Humber & Bałazy) Humber is a rare example of an entomophthoralean fungus adapted to exclusively infect social insects: wood ants from the genus Formica. There is limited information available on P. formicae; many important aspects of this host-pathogen system remain hitherto unknown, and the taxonomical status of the fungus is unclear. Our study fills out some main gaps in the life history of P...
December 18, 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993618/the-role-of-viruses-in-coral-health-and-disease
#10
Michael Sweet, John Bythell
Metagenomic and electron microscopy studies confirm that the coral microbiome contains a rich diversity and abundance of viruses. Although no viral pathogen of the coral host animal has been formally identified, the detection of a number of known invertebrate viruses including those related to Oyster herpesvirus (OsHV-1) suggests that viral pathogens of specific coral diseases likely exist. Growing evidence also indicates that latent viral infections can compromise the integrity of the algal symbionts under environmental stress and may be involved in the coral bleaching response...
December 18, 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993617/parahepatospora-carcini-n-gen-n-sp-a-parasite-of-invasive-carcinus-maenas-with-intermediate-features-of-sporogony-between-the-enterocytozoon-clade-and-other-microsporidia
#11
Jamie Bojko, Fraser Clark, David Bass, Alison M Dunn, Sarah Stewart-Clark, Paul D Stebbing, Grant D Stentiford
Parahepatospora carcini n. gen. n. sp., is a novel microsporidian parasite discovered infecting the cytoplasm of epithelial cells of the hepatopancreas of a single Carcinus maenas specimen. The crab was sampled from within its invasive range in Atlantic Canada (Nova Scotia). Histopathology and transmission electron microscopy were used to show the development of the parasite within a simple interfacial membrane, culminating in the formation of unikaryotic spores with 5-6 turns of an isofilar polar filament...
December 18, 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989634/heterologous-expression-of-paranosema-antonospora-locustae-hexokinase-in-lepidopteran-sf9-cells-is-followed-by-accumulation-of-the-microsporidian-protein-in-insect-cell-nuclei
#12
Sergey A Timofeev, Igor V Senderskiy, Alexander A Tsarev, Yuri S Tokarev, Viacheslav V Dolgikh
Paranosema (Nosema, Antonospora) locustae is the only microsporidium produced as a commercial product for biological control. Molecular mechanisms of the effects of this pathogen and other invertebrate microsporidia on host cells remain uncharacterized. Previously, we immunolocalized P. locustae hexokinase in nuclei of Locusta migratoria infected adipocytes. Here, the microsporidian protein was expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris and in lepidopteran Sf9 cells. During heterologous expression, P. locustae hexokinase was accumulated in the nuclei of insect cells but not in yeast cell nuclei...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989633/the-microsporidium-nosema-disstriae-thomson-1959-fine-structure-and-phylogenetic-position-within-the-n-bombycis-clade
#13
George Kyei-Poku, Yuliya Y Sokolova
A microsporidium Nosema disstriae (Thomson) is a parasite of the forest tent caterpillar Malacasoma disstria (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae), a notable defoliator of deciduous trees in North America. The goal of this paper was to demonstrate the ultrastructure of N. disstriae and to determine the position of this microsporidium within the N. bombycis clade (NBC) using comparative morphology and multiple molecular phylogenetic markers: RPB1, LSU-, ITS- and SSU-rDNA. As a part of this goal, the revision of the described members of the NBC has been performed...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939653/experimental-infection-of-adult-scapharca-broughtonii-with-ostreid-herpesvirus-sb-strain
#14
Chang-Ming Bai, Qing-Chen Wang, Benjamin Morga, Jie Shi, Chong-Ming Wang
We investigated the susceptibility of ark shell, Scapharca broughtonii, adults to Ostreid herpesvirus SB strain (OsHV-1-SB) through experimental infection by intramuscular injection assays. Results showed the onset of mortality occurred at 3days post injection, one day after the water turbidity became evident in rearing tanks. The mortality curves for the challenged group were similar to those observed at affected hatcheries. Histological lesions, herpesvirus-like particles and high OsHV-1-SB quantities were detected in challenged ark shells...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916614/the-phylogenetic-relationship-and-cross-infection-of-nucleopolyhedroviruses-between-the-invasive-winter-moth-operophtera-brumata-and-its-native-congener-bruce-spanworm-o-bruceata
#15
Hannah J Broadley, Matthew Boucher, John P Burand, Joseph S Elkinton
Disease can affect biological invasions by acting as either a synergist or antagonist. Disease-mediated invasions have important implications for understanding the spread of invasive insects, which cost billions of dollars in damages annually. One such non-native, destructive insect is the winter moth, Operophtera brumata L. (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), which causes defoliation and mortality of deciduous trees in its introduced range. In the northeastern United States, winter moth populations overlap with a native congener, Bruce spanworm, Operophtera bruceata Hulst...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914927/novel-rna-viruses-producing-simultaneous-covert-infections-in-ceratitis-capitata-correlations-between-viral-titers-and-host-fitness-and-implications-for-sit-programs
#16
Angel Llopis-Giménez, Rosa Maria González, Anabel Millán-Leiva, Marta Catalá, Elena Llacer, Alberto Urbaneja, Salvador Herrero
The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata is a highly polyphagous pest, which infests multiple species of fruits and vegetables worldwide. In addition to the traditional control with chemical insecticides, sterile insect technique (SIT) has been implemented in integrated programs worldwide, and has become an essential measure for the control of this pest. A key issue for SIT is to release sterile males that are sufficiently competitive with males from the wild population. Using sequence information available in public databases, three novel picornaviruses infecting medflies were discovered and named as C...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914926/metschnikowia-cf-typographi-and-other-pathogens-from-the-bark-beetle-ips-sexdentatus-prevalence-histological-and-ultrastructural-evidence-and-molecular-characterization
#17
Regina G Kleespies, Young Woon Lim, Cezary Tkaczuk, Marta Wrzosek, Bernhardt M Steinwender, Rudolf Wegensteiner
Ips sexdentatus (six-spined engraver beetle) from Austria and Poland were dissected and examined for the presence of pathogens. Specimens collected in Austria were found to contain the ascomycetous fungus Metschnikowia cf. typographi. Infection rates ranged from 3.6% to 26.8% at different collection sites. M. cf. typographi infected midguts were investigated by histological, ultrastructural and molecular techniques. Extraordinary ultrastructural details are shown, such as ascospores with bilateral flattened flanks resembling alar rims at both sides of their attenuating tube-like ends...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908637/response-of-three-cyprinid-fish-species-to-the-scavenger-deterrent-factor-produced-by-the-mutualistic-bacteria-associated-with-entomopathogenic-nematodes
#18
Ramalingam Karthik Raja, Dilipkumar Aiswarya, Baris Gulcu, Manickam Raja, Pachiappan Perumal, Sivaperumal Sivaramakrishnan, Harry K Kaya, Selcuk Hazir
The symbiotic bacteria, Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus associated with entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) in the genera Heterorhabditis and Steinernema, respectively, produce a compound(s) called the Scavenging Deterrent Factor (SDF). SDF deters a number of terrestrial insect scavengers and predators and one bird species from feeding on host insects killed by the nematode-bacterium complex but has not been tested against aquatic vertebrates. Moreover, the Heterorhabditis-Photorhabdus association is believed to have evolved in an aquatic environment...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887862/report-on-the-microbiota-of-melipona-quadrifasciata-affected-by-a-recurrent-disease
#19
Sebastián Díaz, Sarah de Souza Urbano, Lílian Caesar, Betina Blochtein, Aroni Sattler, Valmir Zuge, Karen Luisa Haag
Melipona quadrifasciata is an eusocial stingless bee traditionally used for honey production in Brazil. In the last decades, the species disappeared from the wild in Southern Brazil, being kept exclusively in managed colonies for commercial and recreational purposes. Stingless beekeepers from this region report annual losses of their colonies due to a syndrome of yet unknown causes. We investigate whether it is associated to pathogenic microorganisms already known to cause disease in bees. These results provide a starting point for future studies aimed at clarifying the relationship between the microbial community of stingless bees and their colony collapses...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871814/dr-alois-huger-laying-the-foundations-for-an-integrated-insect-pathology
#20
Trevor A Jackson
Dr. Rer. Nat. Alois M. Huger had a long and distinguished career at the Institut für biologische Schädlingsbekämpfung (Institute for Biological Pest Control) Darmstadt, Germany, where he became one of the world's leading insect pathologists. He applied his experience and understanding of insect tissues and specialist skills in microscopy to diagnosis and elucidation of the pathology of insect diseases. During his career he discovered the Oryctes nudivirus and Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. tenebrionis, and was a member of teams unravelling amber disease in scarab beetles and the role of bacteria in parthenogenesis of parasitoids...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
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