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Journal of Invertebrate Pathology

Jörn Panteleit, Nina Sophie Keller, Javier Diéguez-Uribeondo, Jenny Makkonen, Laura Martín-Torrijos, Viorica Patrulea, Mălina Pîrvu, Cristina Preda, Anne Schrimpf, Lucian Pârvulescu
The crayfish plague agent Aphanomyces astaci is one of the world's most threatening invasive species. Originally from North America, the pathogen is being imported alongside American crayfish species, which are used for various purposes. In this study, we investigated the marginal, currently known distribution area of the pathogen in Eastern Europe by sampling narrow-clawed crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus) and spiny-cheek crayfish (Orconectes limosus) populations. In addition, using specific real-time PCR, we tested several marine decapod species, which also occur in brackish waters of the Danube at the West coast of the Black Sea and the Dniester River basin...
May 19, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Yuliya Y Sokolova, Robin M Overstreet
We report a new microsporidium from a key species of the estuarine communities of the Gulf States, the Riverine grass shrimp, Palaemonetes paludosus. A milky-white shrimp was found in the Mobile Bay Delta, a large, oligohaline-freshwater wetland in Alabama, USA. Light microscopy of smears and thick sections of the abdominal tissues demonstrated infection with microsporidian spores enclosed in sporophorous vesicles (SVs) in sets of eight. Broadly oval spores measured 2.9 ± 0.06 x 1.7 ± 0.03 µm (2.5-3.3 x 1...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Zi-Qi Li, Huan Yu, Guo-Hua Huang
Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae were used to analyze the regulation of lipid, protein and carbohydrate metabolism in host larvae infected with the Heliothis virescens ascovirus 3h (HvAV-3h). Using histological sections, significant pathological changes were found in the fat bodies of infected larvae from 24 h to 72 h post-infection (hpi). The lipid and protein contents of the infected larvae were significantly higher than those of the uninfected larvae, while the carbohydrate content of the infected larvae was significantly lower than that of the mock-infected larvae...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Joaquín Gomis-Cebolla, Yuequin Wang, Yudong Quan, Kanglai He, Tom Walsh, Bill James, Sharon Downes, Wendy Kain, Ping Wang, Kathy Leonard, Tom Morgan, Brenda Oppert, Juan Ferré
Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3 proteins are synthesized and secreted during the vegetative growth phase. They are activated by gut proteases, recognize and bind to midgut receptors, form pores and lyse cells. We tested the susceptibility to Vip3Aa and Vip3Ca of Cry1A-, Cry2A-, Dipel- and Vip3-resistant insect colonies from different species to determine whether resistance to other insecticidal proteins confers cross-resistance to Vip3 proteins. As expected, the colonies resistant to Cry1A proteins, Dipel (Helicoverpa armigera, Trichoplusia ni, Ostrinia furnacalis and Plodia interpunctella) or Cry2Ab (H...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Milan Zúbrik, Daniela Pilarska, Jan Kulfan, Marek Barta, Ann E Hajek, Tonya D Bittner, Peter Zach, Danail Takov, Andrej Kunca, Slavomír Rell, Anikó Hirka, György Csóka
We evaluated the presence and impact of Entomophaga maimaiga on both target and non-target phytophagous larvae. All six study plots, with low gypsy moth population density, were situated in Central and Southeastern European oak forests and E. maimaiga had previously been reported from these plots. Totally, 45 of 4,045 (1.13%) collected non-target larvae died due to fungal infections. No non-target insect specimen was infected by E.maimaiga, although the presence of the pathogen could not be fully excluded in three cadavers...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Maria Giovanna Marche, Salvatore Camiolo, Andrea Porceddu, Luca Ruiu
The pathogenic action of the bacterium Brevibacillus laterosporus against invertebrates involves a toxin-mediated mechanism. Several studies, conducted with specific strains against diverse targets, suggested the implication of different toxins. Recent genome sequencing and annotation of some insecticidal strains revealed several putative virulence factors highly conserved in this species. After determining the pathogenicity of strain UNISS 18 against different Lepidopteran and Dipteran larvae, in this study we have investigated the actual expression of genes encoding for enzymes (i...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Tongxiang Song, Huijie Liu, Tengteng Lv, Xuelin Zhao, Yina Shao, Qingxi Han, Chenghua Li, Weiwei Zhang
Under low iron bioavailability environment, many bacteria acquire iron for growth and survival through siderophore-mediated iron acquisition systems. However, until now, little research on the growth, siderophore production and siderophore receptors of Vibrio splendidus Vs under iron limited conditions has been reported. In our present study, V. splendidus Vs could survive in media supplemented with 160 µM 2,2'-dipyridyl (DIP), but 74.5% of the growth was suppressed at 48 h, while the siderophore production of V...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Kui Wang, Changlong Shu, Mario Soberón, Alejandra Bravo, Jie Zhang
The goal of this work was to perform a systematic characterization of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) strains from the Bacillus Genetic Stock Center (BGSC) collection using Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST). Different genetic markers of 158 Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) strains from 73 different serovars stored in the BGSC, that represented 92% of the different Bt serovars of the BGSC were analyzed, the 8% that were not analyzed were not available. In addition, we analyzed 72 Bt strains from 18 serovars available at the pubMLST bcereus database, and Bt strains G03, HBF18 and Bt185, with no H serovars provided by our laboratory...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Lusheng Xin, Bowen Huang, Changming Bai, Chongming Wang
Ostreid herpesvirus-1 (OsHV-1) presents interspecies transmission among bivalves. Recently, events of mass mortalities of ark clams (Scapharca broughtonii) infected with OsHV-1 have been recorded. To accurately assess the gene responding patterns of ark clams post OsHV-1 infection, constant stable housekeeping genes (HKGs) are needed as internal control to normalize raw mRNA expression data. In this study, ten candidate HKGs were selected, including 18S rRNA (18S), beta-actin (ACT), Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), NADH dehydrogenase subunit (NADH), Elongation factor-1a (EF-1a), Elongation factor-1β (EF-1β), Elongation factor-1γ (EF-1γ), Ribosomal protein L7 (RL7), Ribosomal protein L15 (RL15) and Ribosomal protein S18 (S18)...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Yaqiang Hu, Chun Chen, Sudan Ye, Huajun Hu
Entomophthoralean fungi are important natural enemies of pests and highly co-evolved with their hosts. However, successful isolation of entomophthoralean fungi can be difficult due to their fastidious culture requirements; this is an important obstacle to research on Entomophthorales. In this study, we designed an isolation unit and evaluated it against the conventional 'descending conidia' isolation method. There was no difference in contamination rate between the methods (78% and 76% clean isolations) despite the isolation unit not requiring laminar-flow facilities...
April 28, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Holly L Holt, Gabriel Villar, Weiyi Cheng, Jun Song, Christina M Grozinger
Susceptibility to pathogens and parasites often varies between sexes due to differences in life history traits and selective pressures. Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae are damaging intestinal pathogens of European honey bees (Apis mellifera). Nosema pathology has primarily been characterized in female workers where infection is energetically costly and accelerates worker behavioral maturation. Few studies, however, have examined infection costs in male honey bees (drones) to determine if Nosema similarly affects male energetic status and sexual maturation...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Katie Tiley, Mark A Freeman, Michelle M Dennis
Queen conch, Lobatus gigas, are one of the largest commercial fisheries in the Caribbean and are severely depleted due to overharvesting. Dwindling and fragmented populations are at high risk to stochastic events such as disease epidemics; however, there is a paucity of literature regarding queen conch disease. A histopathological survey was conducted to assess the disease status of St. Kitts' queen conch populations, and contribute to the little information known about L. gigas pathology. Using a standard dissection and sampling protocol, pathology status was assessed in 61 L...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Valluri V Satyavathi, Amr A Mohamed, Swetha Kumari, Dadala M Mamatha, Bernard Duvic
Lysozyme-like proteins (LLPs) are members of the glycoside hydrolase family 22 (CAZY GH22). Unlike conventional c-type lysozymes (EC, LLPs lack specific catalytic amino acid residues essential for muramidase activity. Previous reports indicated upregulation of LLPs upon bacterial infection in the wild silkworm, Antheraea mylitta as well as in the domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori. In the present work, we studied the signaling pathways mediating the production of LLPs using RNA interference-mediated knockdown of Spätzle, Relish and STAT, the key regulators of Toll, IMD (Immune deficiency) and JAK/STAT pathways, respectively...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Liang Qiu, Meng-Meng Chen, Xiao-Yuan Wan, Qing-Li Zhang, Chen Li, Xuan Dong, Bing Yang, Jie Huang
Shrimp hemocyte iridescent virus (SHIV) is a recently reported shrimp virus, which threats the cultured white-leg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and can cause huge economic loss in shrimp farming industry in China. A quantitative real time polymerase chain reactio (qPCR) assay was developed using a TaqMan probe to detect and quantify SHIV. A pair of qPCR primers, which amplify a 188 bp DNA fragment, and a TaqMan probe were selected from ATPase gene (ORF114R) of the SHIV genome. The primers and TaqMan probe used in this assay were shown to be specific for SHIV and did not react with White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV), Hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV), Vibrio parahaemolyticus causing acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (VPAHPND ), and Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP), or healthy shrimp DNA...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Tom W Pope, Gemma Hough, Charlotte Arbona, Harriet Roberts, Jude Bennison, John Buxton, Gill Prince, Dave Chandler
Vine weevil, also known as black vine weevil, (Otiorhynchus sulcatus) is an economically important pest affecting soft fruit and nursery stock in temperate regions. We used laboratory and polytunnel experiments to investigate a novel control system based on autodissemination of spores of an entomopathogenic fungus to populations of adult vine weevils. The fungus was applied as a conidial powder, used on its own or formulated with talc, to a simple plastic refuge for vine weevils. The potential for adult weevils to disseminate the fungus was investigated first in polytunnel experiments using fluorescent powders applied to the refuge in lieu of fungal conidia...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Francisco Ángel Bueno-Pallero, Rubén Blanco-Pérez, Lídia Dionísio, Raquel Campos-Herrera
Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) and fungi (EPF) are well known biological control agents (BCAs) against insect pests. Similarly, the nematophagous fungi (NF) are considered good BCA candidates for controlling plant parasitic nematodes. Because NF can employ EPNs as food and interact with EPF, we speculate that the simultaneous application of EPNs and EPF might result in higher insect mortality, whereas the triple species combination with NF will reduce the EPN and EPF activity by predation or inhibition. Here we evaluated single, dual (EPN+EPF, EPF+NF, EPN+NF) and triple (EPN+EPF+NF) combination of one EPN, Steinernema feltiae (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae), one EPF, Beauveria bassiana (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae), and two NF, Arthrobotrys musiformis (Orbiliales: Orbiliaceae) and Purpureocillium lilacinus (Hypocreales: Ophiocordycipitaceae) under laboratory conditions...
April 7, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Florence Gonçalves Martins, Mariana Gomes Lima, Rosane Nora Castro, Luiza D'Oliveira Sant'Anna, Marcos Antônio José Dos Santos, Juberlan Silva Garcia, Jairo Pinheiro
The terrestrial gastropod Bulimulus tenuissimus is widespread in South America. It is an intermediate host of many parasites, but there are no records of infection of this snail by Angiostrongylus cantonensis, despite the occurrence of this parasite and angiostrongyliasis cases in the same areas in which B. tenuissimus occurs. For this reason, it is important investigate the susceptibility of B. tenuissimus to A. cantonensis-infection, since it can be used as intermediate host of A. cantonensis, increasing the list of terrestrial gastropods that infect wild and domestic animals and humans with this parasite...
April 7, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Tessa Carrau, Nils Hiebert, Andreas Vilcinskas, Kwang-Zin Lee
The invasive insect pest Drosophila suzukii infests ripening fruits and causes extensive damage to crops in the northern hemisphere. Novel, environmentally friendly strategies to control the spread of this species are urgently needed, and one promising approach is the deployment of entomopathogenic viruses. Here we report the identification and characterization of two natural viruses associated with D. suzukii: Drosophila A virus (DAV) and La Jolla virus (LJV). Our work provides new tools for the development of biological control agents that protect crops against D...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Keiko Tsuruta, Jörg T Wennmann, Yasuhisa Kunimi, Maki N Inoue, Madoka Nakai
A granulovirus (GV) that produces occlusion bodies (OBs) having an unusual morphology was found in an Adoxophyes sp. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) larva in a tea field in Miyazaki Prefecture, Japan. This isolate is considered to be a mutant of Adoxophyes orana granulovirus, designated AdorGV-M, because the nucleotide sequence of its genome is 99.7% identical to that of an English isolate of AdorGV, AdorGV-E. AdorGV-E produces typical ovocylindrical OBs that contain one occlusion-derived virus (ODV) per OB. On the other hand, AdorGV-M produces large cuboidal OBs, but the number of ODVs per OB was unknown...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Carolina Bartolomé, María Buendía, María Benito, Pilar De la Rúa, Concepción Ornosa, Raquel Martín-Hernández, Mariano Higes, Xulio Maside
Trypanosomatids are highly prevalent pathogens of Hymenoptera; however, most molecular methods used to detect them in Apis and Bombus spp. do not allow the identification of the infecting species, which then becomes expensive and time consuming. To overcome this drawback, we developed a multiplex PCR protocol to readily identify in a single reaction the main trypanosomatids present in these hymenopterans (Lotmaria passim, Crithidia mellificae and Crithidia bombi), which will facilitate the study of their epidemiology and transmission dynamics...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
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