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Journal of Invertebrate Pathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344121/brevibacillus-laterosporus-pathogenesis-and-local-immune-response-regulation-in-the-house-fly-midgut
#1
Maria Elena Mura, Luca Ruiu
The insect midgut represents the primary site of action of the entompathogenic bacterium Brevibacillus laterosporus. Whilst most studies on this microorganism focus on the identification and characterization of possible virulence factors and toxins, little is known about the insect immune defense mechanisms that are activated against this pathogen. In this study we have investigated the local immune response of different house fly stages to B. laterosporus at the transcriptional level, and we tested the hypothesis that an improvement in entomopathogenicity can be achieved by impairing host innate immunity...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342852/effects-of-sub-culturing-on-genetic-and-physiological-parameters-in-different-beauveria-bassiana-isolates
#2
Naser Eivazian Kary, Zhila Alizadeh
Beauveria bassiana is a fungus which is widely used as a biological insecticide to control a number of economically important insect pests. Knowledge of the genetic diversity of the isolates, understanding the underlying nature of these evolutionary phenomena and finding appropriate and simple screening tools play an important role in developing effective biocontrol agents. Here, we monitored changes of electrophoretic karyotype of small molecules of extrachromosomal DNAs, presumably mitochondrial DNA or plasmids in several individual isolates of B...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322849/trans-cinnamic-acid-and-xenorhabdus-szentirmaii-metabolites-synergize-the-potency-of-some-commercial-fungicides
#3
Selcuk Hazir, David I Shapiro-Ilan, Clive H Bock, Luis G Leite
Development of novel approaches for the control of fungal phytopathogens is desirable. In this study we hypothesized that the combination of commercial fungicides with certain enhancing agents could result in synergistic levels of control. Prior research has indicated that trans-cinnamic-acid (TCA), a metabolite of the bacteria Photorhabdus luminescens and metabolites of Xenorhabdus szentirmaii are particularly toxic to various phytpathogenic fungi when compared to metabolites of other Xenorhabdus or Photorhabdus spp...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315365/mosquito-cells-c6-36-fail-to-support-the-complete-replication-of-penaeus-merguiensis-hepandensovirus
#4
D Syahidah, J Elliman, C Constantinoiu, L Owens
Mosquito cell lines (C6/36) were reported in the literature to support the propagation of Penaeus monodon hepandensovirus (PmoHDV). We aim to evaluate the susceptibility and viral propagation of P. merguiensis hepandensovirus (PmeHDV) which is ∼22% different to PmoHDV in Aedes albopictus cell line (C6/36). Cellular changes in the infected cell culture were detected. Vacuole formation was seen in both infected and uninfected cell cultures. The average number of disrupted cellular membranes in the infected cells (presumptive dead cells) was significantly higher than that of uninfected cells at passage two (F=9...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302381/an-entomopathogenic-bacterium-xenorhabdus-hominickii-anu101-produces-oxindole-and-suppresses-host-insect-immune-response-by-inhibiting-eicosanoid-biosynthesis
#5
Md Sadekuzzaman, Youngjin Park, Seunghee Lee, Kunwoo Kim, Jin Kyo Jung, Yonggyun Kim
An entomopathogenic bacterium, Xenorhabdus hominickii ANU101, was isolated from an entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema monticolum. X. hominickii exhibited significant insecticidal activities at ≥6.6×10(2) colony-forming units per larva against a lepidopteran insect, Spodoptera exigua with hemocoelic injection. The insecticidal activity of X. hominickii was reduced by an addition of arachidonic acid (AA, a catalytic product of PLA2), but enhanced by an addition by dexamethasone (DEX, a specific inhibitor of PLA2)...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300600/ethanolic-extracts-of-inula-viscosa-salix-alba-and-quercus-calliprinos-negatively-affect-the-development-of-the-entomopathogenic-nematode-heterorhabditis-bacteriophora-a-model-to-compare-gastro-intestinal-nematodes-developmental-effect
#6
Velayudhan Satheeja Santhi, Liora Salame, Levana Dvash, Hussein Muklada, Hassan Azaizeh, Raghda Mreny, Safaa Awwad, Alex Markovics, Serge Yan Landau, Itamar Glazer
Heterorhabditis bacteriophora can represent a model system for herbal medication against gastro-intestinal strongylid parasites in determining the recovery and development due to their unique parasitic infectious cycle. The fact that plant extracts impair nematode development is known but their differential impact on stages of the life cycle of H. bacteriophora has never been investigated. We examined the developmental stages resumed from eggs, young juveniles (J1-3), infective juveniles (IJs), young and adult hermaphrodites of H...
March 11, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300599/acquired-resistance-to-a-nucleopolyhedrovirus-in-the-smaller-tea-tortrix-adoxophyes-honmai-lepidoptera-tortricidae-after-selection-by-serial-viral-administration
#7
Madoka Nakai, Kazuhiro Takahashi, Kento Iwata, Kaoru Tanaka, Junko Koyanagi, Akemi Ookuma, Jun Takatsuka, Shohei Okuno, Yasuhisa Kunimi
A laboratory colony of Adoxophyes honmai was selected for resistance over 156 generations by feeding neonate larvae of every generation with the LC60 or LC70 of its nucleopolyhedrovirus, Adoxophyes honmai nucleopolyhedrovirus (AdhoNPV). A significant difference in LC50 values between the selected (R-strain) and unselected (S1- and S2-strain) strains was first observed after three generations of selection, and the resistance level then increased continuously. The highest degree of acquired resistance, based on the ratio of the LC50 values of R- and S1-strains, was more than 400,000-fold...
March 11, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274717/rna-interference-knockdown-of-aminopeptidase-n-genes-decrease-the-susceptibility-of-chilo-suppressalis-larvae-to-cry1ab-cry1ac-and-cry1ca-expressing-transgenic-rice
#8
Lin Qiu, Jinxing Fan, Boyao Zhang, Lang Liu, Xiaoping Wang, Chaoliang Lei, Yongjun Lin, Weihua Ma
Transgenic rice expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry toxins are resistant to lepidopteran pests, such as Chilo suppressalis, a major insect pest of rice in Asia. Understanding how these toxins interact with their hosts is crucial to understanding their insecticidal action. In this study, knockdown of two aminopeptidase N genes (APN1 and APN2) by RNA interference resulted in decreased susceptibility of C. suppressalis larvae to the Bt rice varieties TT51 (Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac fusion genes) and T1C-19 (Cry1Ca), but not T2A-1 (Cry2Aa)...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249815/advances-in-the-application-of-high-throughput-sequencing-in-invertebrate-virology
#9
R Van Aerle, E M Santos
Over the last decade, advances in high-throughput sequencing technologies have revolutionised biological research, making it possible for DNA/RNA sequencing of any organism of interest to be undertaken. Sequencing approaches are now routinely used in the detection and characterisation of (novel) viruses, investigation of host-pathogen interactions, and effective development of disease treatment strategies. For the sequencing and identification of viruses of interest, metagenomics approaches using infected host tissue are frequently used, as it is not always possible to culture and isolate these pathogens...
February 26, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228356/viruses-of-invertebrates-related-to-the-food-chain
#10
EDITORIAL
Monique M van Oers, Kelly S Bateman, Grant D Stentiford
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 19, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216093/apparent-interspecific-transmission-of-aphanomyces-astaci-from-invasive-signal-to-virile-crayfish-in-a-sympatric-wild-population
#11
J James, A Mrugała, B Oidtmann, A Petrusek, J Cable
The crayfish plague pathogen (Aphanomyces astaci) causes mass mortalities of European crayfish when transmitted from its original North American crayfish hosts. Little is known, however, about interspecific transmission of the pathogen between different American crayfish species, although evidence from trade of ornamental crayfish suggests this may happen in captivity. We screened signal and virile crayfish for A. astaci at allopatric and sympatric sites in a UK river. Whilst the pathogen was detected in signal crayfish from both sites, infected virile crayfish were only found in sympatry...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189501/viruses-of-insects-reared-for-food-and-feed
#12
Gabriela Maciel-Vergara, Vera I D Ros
The use of insects as food for humans or as feed for animals is an alternative for the increasing high demand for meat and has various environmental and social advantages over the traditional intensive production of livestock. Mass rearing of insects, under insect farming conditions or even in industrial settings, can be the key for a change in the way natural resources are utilized in order to produce meat, animal protein and a list of other valuable animal products. However, because insect mass rearing technology is relatively new, little is known about the different factors that determine the quality and yield of the production process...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189502/viruses-infecting-marine-molluscs
#13
Isabelle Arzul, Serge Corbeil, Benjamin Morga, Tristan Renault
Although a wide range of viruses have been reported in marine molluscs, most of these reports rely on ultrastructural examination and few of these viruses have been fully characterized. The lack of marine mollusc cell lines restricts virus isolation capacities and subsequent characterization works. Our current knowledge is mostly restricted to viruses affecting farmed species such as oysters Crassostrea gigas, abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta or the scallop Chlamys farreri. Molecular approaches which are needed to identify virus affiliation have been carried out for a small number of viruses, most of them belonging to the Herpesviridae and birnaviridae families...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153770/a-taxonomic-review-of-viruses-infecting-crustaceans-with-an-emphasis-on-wild-hosts
#14
K S Bateman, G D Stentiford
Numerous infections by viral pathogens have been described from wild and cultured crustacean hosts, yet relatively few of these pathogens have been formally characterized and classified. To date viruses have generally been tentatively assigned to families based upon morphological and developmental characteristics and their location of infection within the host cell. Often nucleotide sequence information is unavailable. Some of these viral infections have caused well-documented devastating consequences on the global crustacean farming industry whilst their effects on wild populations remain largely unstudied...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065701/recent-progress-toward-the-identification-of-anti-viral-immune-mechanisms-in-decapod-crustaceans
#15
Chris Hauton
The sustainable intensification of crustacean aquaculture, which is dominated by the farming of penaeid shrimp species, continues to be beset by viral disease outbreaks. Despite this, reports exist of differential susceptibility to viral infection between different shrimp species and populations, and between shrimp and other decapod crustaceans. These reports have, in part, provided the motivation to identify key mechanisms of antiviral resistance, or refractivity, in commercially-important species. Within the last decade these studies have created significant advances in our understanding of host virus interactions in decapod models...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216094/fusion-of-flagellin-2-with-bivalent-white-spot-syndrome-virus-vaccine-increases-survival-in-freshwater-shrimp
#16
Hansam Cho, Na Hye Park, Yuyeon Jang, Yong-Dae Gwon, Yeondong Cho, Yoon-Ki Heo, Ki-Hoon Park, Hee-Jung Lee, Tae Jin Choi, Young Bong Kim
Despite large economic losses attributable to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), an infectious pathogen of penaeid shrimp and other crustaceans worldwide, no efficient vaccines or antiviral agents to control the virus are available at present. Here, we designed and constructed baculovirus-based vaccines delivering genes encoding the WSSV envelope proteins, VP28 and VP19. To enhance the immunogenicity of the baculovirus-based vaccine, we fused a Salmonella typhimurium flagellin 2 (FL2) gene with VP28 or VP19 gene...
March 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193447/identification-and-bacterial-characteristics-of-xenorhabdus-hominickii-anu101-from-an-entomopathogenic-nematode-steinernema-monticolum
#17
Youngjin Park, Sangjin Kang, Md Sadekuzzaman, Hyeonghwan Kim, Jin-Kyo Jung, Yonggyun Kim
An entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema monticolum, was collected in Korea. Its identity was confirmed by morphological and molecular characters. Its symbiotic bacterium, Xenorhabdus hominickii ANU101, was isolated and assessed in terms of bacterial characteristics. Sixty-eight different carbon sources were utilized by X. hominickii ANU101 out of 95 different sources from a Biolog assay. Compared to other Xenorhabdus species, X. hominickii ANU101 was relatively susceptible to high temperatures and did not grow above 34°C...
March 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167046/aranciocystis-muskarensis-n-gen-n-sp-a-neogregarine-pathogen-of-the-anisoplia-segetum-herbst-coleoptera-scarabaeidae
#18
Çağrı Bekircan, Mustafa Cüce, Hilal Baki, Onur Tosun
In this study, a new genus and species of neogregarine which is a pathogen of Anisoplia segetum Herbst (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), is described. The adult beetles of A. segetum were collected from Nevşehir, Turkey and neogregarine infection rates were determined as 18.52%. The Giemsa-stained mature oocysts are lemon-shaped and measured 9.34±0.82μm in length and 5.77±0.77μm in width. The oocyst wall surface of the mature oocysts is similar to an osage orange (tuberculate). Morphological, ultrastructural and molecular features indicate that the previously undescribed neogregarine is dissimilar to all known neogregarine taxa and represents the first record from Anisoplia segetum and is named here as Aranciocystis muskarensis n...
March 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163013/lepidopteran-species-have-a-variety-of-defence-strategies-against-bacterial-infections
#19
Lauri Mikonranta, Franziska Dickel, Johanna Mappes, Dalial Freitak
The insect immune system has versatile ways of coping with microbial insults. Currently, innate immune priming has been described in several invertebrates, and the first insights into its mechanistic basis have been described. Here we studied infections with two different strains of Serratia marcescens bacteria in two different Lepidopteran hosts. The results reveal fundamental differences between the two hosts, a well-known model organism Galleria mellonella and a non-model species Arctia plantaginis. They differ in their strategies for resisting oral infections; priming their defences against a recurring sepsis; and upregulating immunity related genes as a response to the specific pathogen strains...
March 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163012/characterization-of-a-novel-member-of-genus-iflavirus-in-helicoverpa-armigera
#20
He Yuan, Pengjun Xu, Xianming Yang, Robert I Graham, Kenneth Wilson, Kongming Wu
The cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, is one of the most important agricultural pests of many economic crops worldwide. Herein, we found a novel single-strand RNA virus by RNA-Seq and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) method in H. armigera named Helicoverpa armigera iflavirus (HaIV), which possessed a genome with 10,017 nucleotides in length and contained a single large open reading frame (ORF) encoding a putative polyprotein of 3021 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 344.16kDa and a theoretical isoelectric point (pI) of 6...
March 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
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