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Journal of Invertebrate Pathology

Theodore G Andreadis, Michael C Thomas, John J Shepard
A multi-year study was conducted to examine the natural ecology of the microsporidium Amblyospora khaliulini and more fully characterize parasite development and histopathology in all stages of its primary mosquito host, Aedes communis and intermediate copepod host, Acanthocyclops vernalis with redescription of the species. A. khaliulini exhibits polymorphic development, produces three morphologically and functionally distinct spores, and is both horizontally and vertically transmitted. Development in A. vernalis is restricted to females, occurs within the ovaries and results in death of the host...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Timothy J Sullivan, Joseph E Neigel
Coastal marine and estuarine environments are experiencing higher average temperatures, greater frequency of extreme temperature events, and altered salinities. These changes are expected to stress organisms and increase their susceptibility to infectious diseases. However, beyond these generalities, little is known about how environmental factors influence host-pathogen relationships in the marine realm. We investigated the prevalence and intensity of infections by Vibrio cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus, and V...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Angela M Smilanich, Tara C Langus, Lydia Doan, Lee A Dyer, Joshua G Harrison, Jennifer Hsueh, Mike B Teglas
Understanding the interaction between host plant chemistry, the immune response, and insect pathogens can shed light on host plant use by insect herbivores. In this study, we focused on how interactions between the insect immune response and plant secondary metabolites affect the response to a viral pathogen. Based upon prior research, we asked whether the buckeye caterpillar, Junonia coenia (Nymphalidae), which specializes on plants containing iridoid glycosides (IGs), is less able to resist the pathogenic effects of a densovirus infection when feeding on plants with high concentrations of IGs...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Tobia Pretto, Francesco Montesi, Daniela Ghia, Valeria Berton, Miriam Abbadi, Michele Gastaldelli, Amedeo Manfrin, Gianluca Fea
The microsporidiosis of the endangered white-clawed crayfish Austropotamobius pallipes complex has generally been attributed to only one species, Thelohania contejeani, the agent of porcelain disease. Species identification was mostly assessed by macroscopic examination or microscopic evaluation of muscle samples rather than by molecular or ultrastructural analyses. A survey conducted on A. pallipes complex populations in Northern Italy highlighted the presence of two different microsporidia causing similar muscular lesions, T...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Branislav Vejnovic, Jevrosima Stevanovic, Ryan S Schwarz, Nevenka Aleksic, Milorad Mirilovic, Nemanja M Jovanovic, Zoran Stanimirovic
A recently described trypanosomatid species Lotmaria passim and the microsporidium Nosema ceranae infect the honey bee (Apis mellifera), but the interspecific dynamic of these two common gut parasites is unknown. In this study, a real-time qPCR assay was developed to enable the specific detection and quantification of L. passim. The annual dynamics of N. ceranae and L. passim infections were evaluated in ten A. mellifera colonies naturally infected with both parasites at one apiary in Serbia from March 2016 to March 2017...
November 4, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Nanette Hope Sumaya, Riddhi Gohil, Christopher Okolo, Temesgen Addis, Verena Doerfler, Ralf-Udo Ehlers, Carlos Molina
Poor shelf-life and sensitivity to environmental stress of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) are traits, which deserve attention for improvement. Recently, a strong positive correlation between oxidative stress tolerance and longevity of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora dauer juveniles (DJs) has been reported. In this study, the improvement of H. bacteriophora DJ longevity was achieved by hybridization and mutagenesis. A hybrid pool deriving from two oxidative stress tolerant and long-living parental strains was generated...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Yuuki Hayakawa, Mitsuki Sawada, Masaki Seki, Patchara Sirasoonthorn, Shotaro Shiga, Katsumi Kamiya, Chieka Minakuchi, Ken Miura
We previously reported that the moderate knockdown of chitin synthase 1 gene of the model beetle Tribolium castaneum impairs the host defense against entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae, which infect host insects via the direct penetration of cuticular integuments (Hayakawa et al, 2017). In this study, we focused on the antifungal roles of laccase2 (Lac2) as well as yellow-e (Y-e) genes, both of which are shown to be important to the establishment of stable cuticular structures in this beetle species...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Myint Myint Khaing, Xianming Yang, Man Zhao, Wanna Zhang, Bingjie Wang, Jizhen Wei, Gemei Liang
In this study, the results showed that the population of midgut bacteria and larval mortality due to Cry1Ac are significantly reduced in antibiotic-treated larvae from Bt-susceptible, -resistant and field-collected strains (96S, BtR, FS respectively) of Helicoverpa armigera. The percentage reduction of larval mortality with increasing concentrations of antibiotics was significantly different among strains with the smallest effect observed in FS. It has been suggested that antibiotics could influence the toxicity of Cry1Ac, possibly by eliminating gut bacteria, hence gut bacteria might be playing essential roles in Bt-induced killing of H...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Lisa D Brown, Grayson A Thompson, Julián F Hillyer
During all life stages, mosquitoes are exposed to pathogens, and employ an immune system to resist or limit infection. Although much attention has been paid to how adult mosquitoes fight infection, little is known about how an infection during the larval stage affects the biology of the resultant adult. In this study, we investigated whether a bacterial infection in the hemocoel of the African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, is transstadially transmitted from larvae to adults (both females and males), and whether immune stimulation in the hemocoel as a larva alters development or biological traits of the adult...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Xiang-Liang Ren, Hong-Yan Hu, Wei-Li Jiang, Xiao-Yan Ma, Ya-Jie Ma, Guo-Qing Li, Yan Ma
Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored alkaline phosphatase (ALP) isoforms are crucial for the intoxication of crystal proteins (Cry) to several insect species. We cloned five SeALPs from the larval midgut of Spodoptera exigua, a major pest of many crops. All five SeALPs contain a signal peptide at the N-terminus, a phosphatase domain, and a GPI-anchor site at the C-terminus. Additionally, the sequences encode two or three potential N-glycosylation sites. The five SeALPs were highly expressed at the larval stage, especially in the larval gut or Malpighian tubules...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Jose E Pietri, Dangsheng Liang
Due in part to the development of insecticide resistance, the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, has overcome human intervention efforts to make a global resurgence. The failure of chemical pesticides has created a need for novel strategies to combat bed bugs. While a number of insect pests are susceptible to the use of entomopathogenic microbes or microbial-derived toxins, biological control methods have not been thoroughly explored in bed bugs. Here, we tested the virulence of three entomopathogenic bacterial species in C...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Gianpiero Gueli Alletti, Eric B Carstens, Birgit Weihrauch, Johannes A Jehle
Both Agrotis segetum nucleopolyhedrovirus B (AgseNPV-B) and Agrotis segetum granulovirus (AgseGV) belong to a cluster of four baculoviruses that are infective for different Agrotis species. Belonging further to different baculovirus genera, namely Alphabaculovirus and Betabaculovirus, respectively, AgseNPV-B and AgseGV are candidates to investigate virus interactions in co-infections. However, for the investigation of virus interactions on a cellular level, permissive insect cell-lines are needed. The cell line AiE1611T deriving from Agrotisipsilon eggs has been shown to be permissive for several Alphabaculovirus isolates...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Jin Gao, Yu Sun, Yuxuan Sun, Chen Chen, Saima Kausar, Jiwu Tian, Baojian Zhu, Chaoliang Liu
Cyclic AMP response element binding (CREB) proteins participate in the regulation of many biological processes. However, little is known about their role in immune regulation in the Oak silkworm (Antheraea pernyi). In this study, a CREB gene was identified in A. pernyi and its role in immune regulation was investigated. ApCREB shares conserved signature motifs with other CREB proteins, and includes a typical leucine zipper domain, specific DNA-binding site, nuclear localisation signal (NLS) and cAMP-dependent protein kinase phosphorylation site...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Yordanys Ramos, Orelvis Portal, Erik Lysøe, Nicolai V Meyling, Ingeborg Klingen
The aim of this study was to evaluate the natural occurrence of Beauveria spp. in soil, from infections in the stink bug Piezodorus guildinii, an important pest of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and as endophytes in bean plant tissue. Twelve conventional and 12 organic common bean fields in the Villa Clara province, Cuba were sampled from September 2014 to April 2015. One hundred and fifty Beauveria isolates were obtained from soil samples, bean plant parts and stink bugs. The overall frequency of occurrence of Beauveria isolates in conventional fields (8...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Joseph Tourtois, Jared Gregory Ali, Matthew J Grieshop
Production costs and limited regional availability are two key factors limiting the widespread adoption of entomopathogenic nematodes (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae and Steinernematidae) in biological control programs. We explore the potential of using black soldier fly larvae Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) as an alternative in vivo rearing host to the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). We injured black soldier fly larvae to test the hypothesis that the tough cuticle was preventing the penetration of founding infective juveniles (IJs) into the host and egress of offspring from the cadaver...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Melanie Gibbs, Laura Weir
This study investigated the interactive effects of growth on drought stressed host plants and pathogen challenge with the baculovirus Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) on survival and fitness-related traits using the Speckled Wood butterfly, Pararge aegeria (L.). Exposure to AcMNPV significantly reduced survival to pupation. For surviving larvae, sub-lethal infection significantly decreased daily mass acquisition rates and pupal mass. Growth on drought stressed plants increased daily mass acquisition rates resulting in heavier pupae, and increased resource allocation to adult reproduction...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Gerardo Aníbal Marti, Paula Ragone, Agustín Balsalobre, Soledad Ceccarelli, María Laura Susevich, Patricio Diosque, María Gabriela Echeverría, Jorge Eduardo Rabinovich
Triatoma virus occurs infecting Triatominae in the wild (Argentina) and in insectaries (Brazil). Pathogenicity of Triatoma virus has been demonstrated in laboratory; accidental infections in insectaries produce high insect mortality. When more than one microorganism enters the same host, the biological interaction among them differs greatly depending on the nature and the infection order of the co-existing species of microorganisms. We studied the possible interactions between Triatoma virus (TrV) and Trypanosoma cruzi (the etiological agent of Chagas disease) in three different situations: (i) when Triatoma virus is inoculated into an insect host (Triatoma infestans) previously infected with T...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Wilaiwan Senghoi, Phanthipha Runsaeng, Prapaporn Utarabhand
Crustaceans are deficient in adaptive immune system. They depend completely on an innate immunity to protect themselves from invading microorganisms. One kind of pattern recognition receptors that contribute roles in the innate immunity is lectin. A new C-type lectin gene designated as FmLC5 was isolated from Fenneropenaeus merguiensis. Its full-length cDNA is composed of 1526bp and one open reading frame of 852bp encoding a peptide of 284 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of FmLC5 comprises a signal peptide of 20 contiguous amino acids with a molecular mass of 31...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Christopher A Dunlap, Gabriel M Mascarin, Emiliana M Romagnoli, Mark A Jackson
The current study evaluates the potential of using high resolution DNA melting assays to discriminate species in the genus Isaria. The study utilizes a previously identified 103 base pair PCR amplicon, which was reported to be selective for Isaria fumosorosea. Our study finds the amplicon selective for Isaria javanica and Isaria poprawskii when assayed against all members of the genus. In addition, the high resolution melting profile of this amplicon can be used to discriminate between I. javanica, I. poprawskii and a 1:1 mixture of the two species...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Todd Kabaluk, Erica Li-Leger, Sean Nam
Wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae) are serious agricultural pests, with soil-dwelling larvae attacking subterranean tissues of crop plants and their fruit when in contact with the soil surface. Researchers collect wireworms for laboratory experiments to study their behaviour and test pest control agents but frequently lose them to Metarhizium Petch (Ascomycota: Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) infection. We found latent M. brunneum infection in 13-100% of live, asymptomatic Agriotes obscurus and A. lineatus wireworms acquired from agricultural fields and in wireworms maintained indoors, indicating its enzootic presence...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
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