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Journal of Invertebrate Pathology

Isabela de Castro Oliveira, Lorendane Millena de Carvalho, Ítalo Stoupa Vieira, Artur Kanadani Campos, Samuel Galvão Freitas, Juliana Milani de Araujo, Fábio Ribeiro Braga, Jackson Victor de Araújo
Research in the area of sanitation in ruminant production has focused on discovery of potential agents for biological control of helminths with nematophagous fungi and has provided evidence of success. The antagonistic potential of the fungus Arthrobotrys cladodes var. macroides on infective larvae of bovine gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. Additionally, an in vivo test of the resistance to digestive processes and viability of the fungus was carried out using a formulation based on sodium alginate administered orally in cattle...
September 18, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Tian Tian, Niels Piot, Ivan Meeus, Guy Smagghe
The micro-parasites present in the Apidae pollinator community are mostly multi-host pathogens. To study the impact of these multi-host pathogens on the Apidae pollinator community, as a driver of wild bee decline, pathological studies are needed for different hosts. Yet data on the pathogenesis of these pathogens for different genera and species is scarce or lacking, especially for solitary bee species. In this study, we monitored the effect of the multi-host micro-parasite Apicystis bombi on the lifespan of Osmia bicornis, a common solitary bee...
September 18, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Lorrane de A Pereira, Ricardo M Junqueira, Isabel N Carramaschi, Margareth M C Queiroz, Viviane Zahner
Brevibacillus laterosporus was tested for entomopathogenic activity towards larvae and adults of Chrysomya putoria (Diptera: Calliphoridae) under laboratory conditions. Sublethal effects related to feeding activity or development were observed, including reduction in larval weight gain, probably by inhibition of feeding, and variation in the duration of the developmental stages of the insect. Larval mortality was dose dependent following ingestion. The experiments were performed with newly emerged adults exposed to a sugar based diet containing spore suspensions...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Valérie Lopez, Anne Marie Cortesero, Denis Poinsot
Wolbachia is an endocellular bacteria infecting arthropods and nematodes and is only transmitted vertically by females via the cytoplasm of the egg. It is often a manipulator of host reproduction, causing cytoplasmic incompatibility, thelytokous parthenogenesis, feminization or male killing, which all increase the proportion of infected females in the population. However, Wolbachia can modify life history traits of the host without causing the above phenotypes and each species illustrates the variability of relationships between this remarkably versatile symbiont and its many hosts...
September 5, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Ikkei Shikano, Elizabeth McCarthy, Nancy Hayes-Plazolles, James M Slavicek, Kelli Hoover
Plants damaged by herbivore feeding can induce defensive responses that reduce herbivore growth. The slow-growth, high-mortality hypothesis postulates that these non-lethal plant defenses prolong the herbivore's period of susceptibility to natural enemies, such as predators and parasitoids. While many juvenile animals increase their disease resistance as they grow, direct tests of the slow-growth, high-mortality hypothesis in the context of plant-herbivore-pathogen interactions are lacking. Caterpillars increase their resistance to lethal baculoviruses as they develop within and across instars, a phenomenon termed developmental resistance...
September 3, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Elham Kalvnadi, Alinaghi Mirmoayedi, Marzieh Alizadeh, Hamid-Reza Pourian
We assessed the effects of exposure of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae to the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (isolate DC2) on life history parameters of the subsequent generation. Mortality assays against second instar larvae showed B. bassiana isolates to be significantly virulent, causing high mortality. Life history parameters such as developmental time, fecundity and survivorship were affected in the offspring of survivors of exposure to LC25 and LC50 concentrations of B...
August 23, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Nuria Vázquez, Raquel Aranguren, Christopher F Dungan, Florencia Cremonte
The purpose of this study was to compare the parasites of two coexisting bivalves, the edible Puelche oyster (Ostrea puelchana) and the false oyster (Pododesmus rudis) that lives attached to O. puelchana shells, and to investigate their host specificity. Samples from wild populations, 465 O. puelchana and 131 P. rudis, were collected seasonally during two years in the San José Gulf (northern Patagonia, Argentina) and were processed using standard histological techniques. To increase the natural low prevalences of Bonamia spp...
August 18, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Yinglong Wang, Yonglei Liu, Jie Zhang, Neil Crickmore, Fuping Song, Jiguo Gao, Changlong Shu
Transgenic plants expressing insecticidal proteins originating from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have successfully been used to control lepidopteran and coleopteran pests with chewing mouthparts. However, only a handful of Bt proteins have been identified that have bioactivity against sap sucking pests (Hemiptera), including aphids, whiteflies, plant bugs and planthoppers. A novel Bt insecticidal protein with significant toxicity against a hemipteran insect pest is described here. The gene encoding the 359 amino acid, 40...
July 11, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Juscelino Rodrigues, Vitória C Campos, Richard A Humber, Christian Luz
The aquatic fungal genus Culicinomyces attacks dipteran larvae but little is known about its efficacy against Aedes aegypti. Here we report on the activity of both described species-Culicinomyces clavisporus and Culicinomyces bisporalis-on larvae, eggs and adults, and on trans-stadial transmission. Ten C. clavisporus isolates (ARSEF 372, 582, 644, 706, 964, 1260, 2471, 2478, 2479 and 2480) and C. bisporalis ARSEF 1948 were screened against larvae of this important vector of viral diseases. ARSEF 644, 964 and 2479 had the lowest LC50 (≤3...
September 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Bo-Kun Chen, Zhen Dong, Neng-Yuan Pang, Yan-Ying Nian, Dong-Chun Yan
Infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) infects many crustacean hosts, including cultured penaeid shrimp. In the present study, we aimed to develop a novel sensitive SYBR Green-based real-time PCR method to specifically amplify DNA fragments of IHHNV. Our newly developed real-time PCR method with a 195-bp amplicon specifically detected IHHNV and showed no cross reaction with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV), Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP), infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV) and yellow-head virus (YHV)...
September 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Thao V Nguyen, Andrea C Alfaro, Fabrice Merien, Tim Young, Roffi Grandiosa
Massive mortalities due to pathogens are routinely reported in bivalve cultivation that have significant economic consequences for the global aquaculture industry. However, host-pathogen interactions and infection mechanisms that mediate these interactions are poorly understood. In addition, gender-specific immunological responses have been reported for some species, but the reasons for such differences have not been elucidated. In this study, we used a GC/MS-based metabolomics platform and flow cytometry approach to characterize metabolic and immunological responses in haemolymph of male and female mussels (Perna canaliculus) experimentally infected with Vibrio sp...
September 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Jørgen Eilenberg, Annette Bruun Jensen
The genus Strongwellsea (Entomophthorales) has a unique pathobiology. Infected adult dipteran hosts develop a large hole in their abdomens, through which conidia are actively discharged while the hosts are still alive. We analyzed the IST II region of Strongwellsea from 29 infected hosts representing 15 dipteran species from Anthomyiidae, Fanniidae, Muscidae, and Scathophagidae. Each genotype was found on only one host species or a few closely related host species. Strongwellsea genotypes infecting flies from Anthomyiidae represented a monophyletic lineage, including the species Strongwellsea castrans, while genotypes infecting Muscidae were very diverse and clustered at different places...
September 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Tamryn Marsberg, Michael D Jukes, Martyna Krejmer-Rabalska, Lukasz Rabalski, Caroline M Knox, Sean D Moore, Martin P Hill, Boguslaw Szewczyk
Cryptophlebia peltastica is an agricultural pest of litchis and macadamias in South Africa with phytosanitary status for certain markets. Current control methods rely on chemical, cultural and classical biological control. However, a microbial control option has not been developed. An Alphabaculovirus from C. peltastica was recovered from a laboratory reared colony and morphologically characterised by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Analysis of occlusion bodies indicated a single NPV (SNPV) varying in size from 421 to 1263 nm...
September 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Periyasamy Panneerselvam, Upendra Kumar, Snigdha Sahu, Shyamaranjan Das Mohapatra, Tushar Kanti Dangar, Chidambaranathan Parameswaran, Afrin Jahan, Ansuman Senapati, Guru Prasanna Pandi Govindharaj
Insect pests in the rice agroecosystem, particularly the leaf folder, Cnaphalocrosis medinalis (Guenee) and stem borer, Sesamia inferens (Walker), cause significant yield losses. These pests are generally managed by farmers by application of insecticides and a few biocontrol agents. As a component of integrated pest management, biocontrol agents play a dynamic role in pest control. Although diverse microbial communities are available in the rice ecosystem, bacterial genera such as Bacillus and Pseudomonas spp...
September 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Abdellah Benadelmouna, Alice Saunier, Christophe Ledu, Marie-Agnès Travers, Benjamin Morga
In the context of the abnormal mass mortality of mussels in France since 2014, Flow CytoMetry (FCM) was used in 2015 and 2016 to study the DNA content and cell cycle characteristics of hemic circulating cells collected from 2000 mussels. The mussels were sampled from 12 wild and cultivated blue mussels stocks distributed along the French Atlantic coast from the south Brittany to Pertuis Charentais areas. During these surveys, various genetic abnormalities were frequently detected, and ploidy characteristics revealed contrasting profiles that corresponded to respective contrasting sanitary status, i...
September 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Juan Manuel Castro, Virginia Angélica Bianchi, Mariano Martín Pascual, César Almeida, Andrés Venturino, Carlos Marcelo Luquet
Immune cell characterization, immunological response and the associated gill oxidative balance were studied in the Patagonian freshwater mussel, Diplodon chilensis, using two microbiological immunostimulant models: Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli. Mussels were collected out of the breeding season in Paimún Lake and acclimated in the laboratory. Two exposure experiments were performed during two consecutive weeks: (1) mussels challenged with 500 yeast cells mL-1 ; and (2) mussels challenged with 1000 bacteria cells mL-1 ...
September 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
S P Wraight, S Galaini-Wraight, L A Castrillo, M H Griggs, L M Keith, T K Matsumoto
The insect pathogenic fungus Hirsutella eleutheratorum was first reported as a pathogen of coffee berry borer (CBB) Hypothenemus hampei in Colombia in 1993. A similar CBB pathogen identified as Hirsutella sp. was reported also from Colombia in 2007; attempts at isolation and in vitro culture of this fungus were unsuccessful. During 2016 and 2017 on the island of Hawai'i, extensive sampling of CBB populations was conducted in coffee fields treated with Beauveria bassiana-based biopesticides and in untreated fields...
September 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Gül Gizem Korkut, Irene Söderhäll, Kenneth Söderhäll, Chadanat Noonin
Water temperature is known to affect many aspects of aquatic life including immune responses and susceptibility to diseases. In this context, we studied the effect of temperature on the defense system of the freshwater crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus. Animals were challenged with two pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria, Aeromonas hydrophila and Pseudomonas gessardii, as well as the bacterial cell wall component lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at two different temperatures, cold (6 °C) and room temperature (22 °C)...
September 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
R S Prosser, D H Lynn, J Salerno, J Bennett, P L Gillis
This study investigated the effect of a previously uncharacterized species of ciliated protozoan, Tetrahymena glochidiophila, on the viability of glochidia from three species of freshwater mussel (Lampsilis siliquoidea, Lampsilis fasciola, and Lampsilis cardium). Over the course of 72 h, the viability of glochidia exposed to T. glochidiophila declined by >60% while the decline in the viability of uninfected glochidia was <10%. The density of T. glochidiophila increased >1000-fold during the experiment in treatments with infected glochidia...
September 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Drauzio E N Rangel, Donald W Roberts
The isolate ARSEF 324 of Metarhizium acridum is very tolerant to UV-B radiation and heat, but the intrinsic traits behind the extreme tolerance of this isolate to both stress conditions have not been elucidated. Because trehalose and mannitol are documented stress reducers in fungi, we investigated the accumulation of these compounds in conidia of ARSEF 324 compared with the accumulation of these two compounds in conidia of M. robertsii (ARSEF 23 and ARSEF 2575), which are considerably more susceptible to UV-B radiation and heat than ARSEF 324...
September 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
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