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Journal of Invertebrate Pathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629883/laboratory-evaluation-of-the-effect-of-beauveria-bassiana-on-the-predatory-mite-phytoseiulus-persimilis-acari-phytoseiidae
#1
Mohammad Shaef Ullah, Un Taek Lim
Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), a major pest of many agricultural crops, is mainly controlled with chemical acaricides. However, predatory mites and entomopathogens have been proposed as alternative control agents. In this study, the effect of the BotaniGard(®) GHA strain of Beauveria bassiana on the survival, longevity, fecundity, and egg hatch rate of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae) were studied under laboratory conditions. When B. bassiana was applied directly to P...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629882/quantification-of-fungal-growth-and-destruxin-a-during-infection-of-galleria-mellonella-larvae-by-metarhizium-brunneum
#2
A Ríos-Moreno, I Garrido-Jurado, M C Raya-Ortega, E Quesada-Moraga
Destruxin A is among the major secondary metabolites produced by the entomopathogenic ascomycete Metarhizium sp., and the lack of studies concerning production of destruxin A by the fungus is most likely the biggest obstacle for the registration of new fungal strains. Although several studies focus on the production of destruxin A in culture media, few studies examine destruxin A in vivo during host infection. In the current work, Galleria mellonella was used as an insect model to develop for the first time in vivo real-time PCR- and HPLC-MS-based quantification of fungal growth and metabolite production, respectively, during infection by two strains of M...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629881/cell-mediated-immune-response-of-postmetamorphic-sea-urchin-juveniles-against-infectious-stages-of-diatom-cylindrotheca-closterium-bacillariophyceae
#3
Adriano Magesky, Claude Belzile, Émilien Pelletier
In this study, successive infectious stages by diatom Cylindrotheca closterium (Bacillariophyceae) are described for the first time during the early development of sea urchin at low temperature (8°C). Diatom cell-types enclosed or not by typical theca were capable of infection. As an immune response, red spherulocytes and amoebocytes migrated towards infested areas and restrained the infection spreading over shells in 2- and 3-month old urchins. Only amoebocyte cells appeared to be involved in the immune reaction of 1-month old specimens which turned out to be a less effective fence to stop infestation...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625841/identification-of-a-new-subtilisin-like-protease-nbslp2-interacting-with-cytoskeletal-protein-septin-in-microsporidia-nosema-bombycis
#4
Fangyan Liu, Qiang Ma, Xiaoqun Dang, Ying Wang, Yue Song, Xianzhi Meng, Jialing Bao, Jie Chen, Guoqing Pan, Zeyang Zhou
Nosema bombycis is the pathogen of pébrine which brings heavy losses to sericulture every year. As a member of serine proteases, subtilisin-like protease (SLP) is related to the pathogenicity in fungi. In this study, we characterized a novel 63.8 kDa subtilisin-like protease NbSLP2 with a predicted transmembrane domain from Microsporidia, N. bombycis. RT-PCR showed that the transcript of NbSLP2 was detected from third day post infection. Immunofluorescence assay (IFA) indicated that NbSLP2 mainly scattered around the spore wall of N...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625840/survival-of-litopenaeus-vannemei-shrimp-fed-on-diets-supplemented-with-dunaliella-sp-is-improved-after-challenges-by-vibrio-parahaemolyticus
#5
Diana Medina Félix, José Antonio López Elías, Ángel Isidro Campa Córdova, Luis Rafael Martínez Córdova, Antonio Luna González, Edilmar Cortez Jacinto, Nolberta Huerta Aldaz, Fernando Cano Mendoza, María Guadalupe Burboa Zazueta
Survival of Litopenaeus vannamei was evaluated during a Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection. This bacteria has been causing significant economic losses in the shrimp industry due to the appearance of early mortality syndrome (EMS), also known as acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND). Control of bacteria in ponds is difficult to achieve with antibiotics due to environmental infections and antibiotic resistance. New methods have been proposed to control and prevent the impact of bacterial infections. The physiological response indicated by plasma biochemical parameters in shrimp can determine their health and stress status...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624621/innate-immune-system-capabilities-of-the-asian-citrus-psyllid-diaphorina-citri
#6
Alex P Arp, Xavier Martini, Kirsten S Pelz-Stelinski
Citrus production worldwide is currently threatened by Huanglongbing, or citrus greening disease. The associated pathogen, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), is transmitted by the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri. Annotation of the D. citri genome revealed a reduced innate immune system lacking a number of antimicrobial peptides and the Imd pathway associated with defense against Gram-negative bacteria. We characterized this apparent immune reduction in survival assays in which D. citri were exposed to Gram-negative or Gram-positive bacteria...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596128/sweetpotato-weevil-cylas-formicarius-fab-coleoptera-brentidae-avoids-its-host-plant-when-a-virulent-metarhizium-anisopliae-isolate-is-present
#7
Ronnie Dotaona, Bree A L Wilson, Gavin J Ash, Joanne Holloway, Mark M Stevens
Metarhizium anisopliae has a wide range of coleopteran hosts, including weevils. Some susceptible insects are known to modify their behavior to prevent infection, typically detecting virulent strains by olfaction, and avoiding physical contact with sources of infection. Laboratory olfactometer assays were conducted on the sweetpotato weevil Cylas formicarius to test the hypothesis that insects would avoid a more virulent strain of M. anisopliae when presented with a strain of low virulence or an untreated control...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601566/larvae-act-as-a-transient-transmission-hub-for-the-prevalent-bumblebee-parasite-crithidia-bombi
#8
Arran J Folly, Hauke Koch, Philip C Stevenson, Mark J F Brown
Disease transmission networks are key for understanding parasite epidemiology. Within the social insects, structured contact networks have been suggested to limit the spread of diseases to vulnerable members of their society, such as the queen or brood. However, even these complex social structures do not provide complete protection, as some diseases, which are transmitted by workers during brood care, can still infect the brood. Given the high rate of feeding interactions that occur in a social insect colony, larvae may act as disease transmission hubs...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579009/seasonal-variation-of-transcriptomic-and-biochemical-parameters-of-cockles-cerastoderma-edule-related-to-their-infection-by-trematode-parasites
#9
Luísa Magalhães, Xavier de Montaudouin, Rosa Freitas, Guillemine Daffe, Etelvina Figueira, Patrice Gonzalez
Bivalve populations are controlled by several biotic and abiotic factors. Parasitism is among the biotic factors but is often neglected. In the present study, we focused on the transcriptomic and biochemical responses of Cerastoderma edule when parasitized as first intermediate host by the trematode Bucephalus minimus (sporocyst, the most damaging stage), and taking into account seasonal patterns. In order to test the hypothesis that the presence of B. minimus compromises cockle regular gene expression and biochemical performance and increases their vulnerability to other parasite species infection, cockles were sampled every other month during one year in Arcachon Bay (French Atlantic coast)...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578154/species-limits-phylogeography-and-reproductive-mode-in-the-metarhizium-anisopliae-complex
#10
Stephen A Rehner, Ryan M Kepler
An essential first step to elucidating the ecology and life histories of Metarhizium anisopliae-group species as entomopathogens, endophytes and soil-adapted fungi is the ability to define species limits and confidently infer a species phylogeny. In a multilocus phylogeny of the core Metarhizium anisopliae species complex, the majority of isolates sampled herein group within the currently defined limits of M. pingshaense, M. anisopliae, M. robertsii and M. brunneum, designated informally as the "PARB" clade...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549833/a-novel-monoclonal-perkinsus-chesapeaki-in-vitro-isolate-from-an-australian-cockle-anadara-trapezia
#11
Kimberly S Reece, Gail P Scott, Cécile Dang, Christopher F Dungan
A monoclonal Perkinsus chesapeaki isolate was established from 1 of 10 infected Australian Anadara trapezia cockles. Morphological features were similar to those of described P. chesapeaki isolates, and also included a unique vermiform schizont cell-type. Perkinsus olseni-specific PCR primers amplified DNAs from all 10 cockles. Perkinsus chesapeaki-specific primers also amplified DNAs from 4/10 cockles, including DNA from the isolate source cockle. Three different sets of DNA sequences from the monoclonal isolate grouped with the homologous, previously deposited, P...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535871/zombie-soldier-beetles-epizootics-in-the-goldenrod-soldier-beetle-chauliognathus-pensylvanicus-coleoptera-cantharidae-caused-by-eryniopsis-lampyridarum-entomophthoromycotina-entomophthoraceae
#12
Donald C Steinkraus, Ann E Hajek, Jim K Liebherr
Adult goldenrod soldier beetles, Chauliognathus pensylvanicus, were found infected by the fungus Eryniopsis lampyridarum (Entomophthoromycotina) in Arkansas during September - October (1996, 2001, 2015 and 2016). Living and dead infected beetles were found on flowering frost aster, Symphyotrichum pilosum, common boneset, Eupatorium perfoliatum, and Canada goldenrod, Solidago canadensis. Live and dead beetles (n=446) were collected in 1996 from S. pilosum flowers and held individually in the laboratory for determination of fungal prevalence...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511901/first-haplosporidan-parasite-reported-infecting-a-member-of-the-superfamily-pinnoidea-pinna-nobilis-during-a-mortality-event-in-alicante-spain-western-mediterranean
#13
Susana Darriba
Several stages of a haplosporidan parasite, including spores, were detected infecting three out of four specimens of the Pen Shell Pinna nobilis from the coast of Alicante (Western Mediterranean). A mortality event initiated few weeks before the sampling. The infection was systemic in the connective tissue, with free uni-nucleate stages and early plasmodia, whereas sporulation process took place in the digestive tubules disrupting them. Morphological details, by light and transmission electron microscopy, and PCR amplification confirmed that the parasite belongs to the haplosporidan group...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502594/early-evidence-for-a-virus-like-agent-infecting-the-pest-snail-theba-pisana-gastropoda-pulmonata-in-southern-italy
#14
Gionata De Vico, Rosarita Tatè, Nicola Maio, Andrea Costantino, Vincenzo Guida, Grazia Villari, Francesca Carella
The Mediterranean land snail Theba pisana (Mollusca: Helicidae) is an introduced agricultural pest in many countries around the world, including Australia, Israel, USA and South Africa. In addition, this snail is an intermediate host of parasites of importance in both human and veterinary medicine. In this study, a natural population of T. pisana snails on the Domitian coast of Italy was surveyed following a mass mortality event. By light microscopy, 30% of the collected individuals showed in the calcium cells of the digestive gland the presence of hypertrophied nuclei containing eosinophilic to weakly basophilic inclusion bodies...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499929/reproductive-efficiency-of-entomopathogenic-nematodes-as-scavengers-are-they-able-to-fight-for-insect-s-cadavers
#15
Rubén Blanco-Pérez, Francisco Ángel Bueno-Pallero, Luis Neto, Raquel Campos-Herrera
Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) and their bacterial partners are well-studied insect pathogens, and their persistence in soils is one of the key parameters for successful use as biological control agents in agroecosystems. Free-living bacteriophagous nematodes (FLBNs) in the genus Oscheius, often found in soils, can interfere in EPN reproduction when exposed to live insect larvae. Both groups of nematodes can act as facultative scavengers as a survival strategy. Our hypothesis was that EPNs will reproduce in insect cadavers under FLBN presence, but their reproductive capacity will be severely limited when competing with other scavengers for the same niche...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499928/detection-of-ostreid-herpesvirus-1-microvariants-in-healthy-crassostrea-gigas-following-disease-events-and-their-possible-role-as-reservoirs-of-infection
#16
Olivia Evans, Paul Hick, Richard J Whittington
Ostreid herpesvirus-1 microvariants (OsHV-1) cause severe mortalities in farmed Crassostrea gigas in Europe, New Zealand and Australia. Outbreaks are seasonal, recurring in the warmer months of the year in endemic estuaries. The reference genotype and microvariant genotypes of OsHV-1 have been previously detected in the tissues of apparently healthy adult oysters naturally exposed to OsHV-1 in the field. However, the role of such oysters as reservoirs of infection for subsequent mortality outbreaks remains unclear...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483639/plant-genotype-and-induced-defenses-affect-the-productivity-of-an-insect-killing-obligate-viral-pathogen
#17
Ikkei Shikano, Elizabeth M McCarthy, Bret D Elderd, Kelli Hoover
Plant-mediated variations in the outcomes of host-pathogen interactions can strongly affect epizootics and the population dynamics of numerous species, including devastating agricultural pests such as the fall armyworm. Most studies of plant-mediated effects on insect pathogens focus on host mortality, but few have measured pathogen yield, which can affect whether or not an epizootic outbreak occurs. Insects challenged with baculoviruses on different plant species and parts can vary in levels of mortality and yield of infectious stages (occlusion bodies; OBs)...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442400/laboratory-evaluation-of-brevibacillus-laterosporus-strains-as-biocidal-agents-against-chrysomya-megacephala-fabricius-1794-diptera-calliphoridae-larvae
#18
Isabel Nogueira Carramaschi, Lorrane de Andrade Pereira, Vitor Dos Santos Baia, Jacenir Reis Dos Santos Mallet, Margareth Maria de Carvalho Queiroz, Viviane Zahner
The biocidal activity of three strains of Brevibacillus laterosporus upon the post-embryonic developmental stages of Chrysomya megacephala was evaluated. Bioassays were performed to verify lethal and sub-lethal effects including ultra-structural changes in the midgut. Among the strains assayed, Shi3 presented the highest larval mortality rates, achieving 70% at a concentration of 1×10(8) spores/g of diet. Transmission electron microscopy revealed intestinal alterations caused by all strains tested. The findings of this study indicate that Shi3 represents a promising tool for use in the biocontrol of C...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442399/the-genome-sequence-of-agrotis-segetum-granulovirus-isolate-agsegv-da-reveals-a-new-betabaculovirus-species-of-a-slow-killing-granulovirus
#19
Gianpiero Gueli Alletti, Marina Eigenbrod, Eric B Carstens, Regina G Kleespies, Johannes A Jehle
The European isolate Agrotis segetum granulovirus DA (AgseGV-DA) is a slow killing, type I granulovirus due to low dose-mortality responses within seven days post infection and a tissue tropism of infection restricted solely to the fat body of infected Agrotis segetum host larvae. The genome of AgseGV-DA was completely sequenced and compared to the whole genome sequences of the Chinese isolates AgseGV-XJ and AgseGV-L1. All three isolates share highly conserved genomes. The AgseGV-DA genome is 131,557bp in length and encodes for 149 putative open reading frames, including 37 baculovirus core genes and the per os infectivity factor ac110...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438456/pirab-protein-from-xenorhabdus-nematophila-hb310-exhibits-a-binary-toxin-with-insecticidal-activity-and-cytotoxicity-in-galleria-mellonella
#20
Qing Yang, Jie Zhang, Tianhui Li, Shen Liu, Ping Song, Ziyan Nangong, Qinying Wang
PirAB (Photorhabdus insect-related proteins, PirAB) toxin was initially found in the Photorhabdus luminescens TT01 strain and has been shown to be a binary toxin with high insecticidal activity. Based on GenBank data, this gene was also found in the Xenorhabdus nematophila genome sequence. The predicted amino acid sequence of pirA and pirB in the genome of X. nematophila showed 51% and 50% identity with those gene sequences from P. luminescens. The purpose of this experiment is to identify the relevant information for this toxin gene in X...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
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