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Journal of Invertebrate Pathology

Rousel A Orozco, István Molnár, Helge Bode, S Patricia Stock
Crude extracts of in vitro and in vivo cultures of two strains of Photorhabdus l. sonorensis (Enterobacteriaceae) were analyzed by TLC, HPLC-UV and LC-MS. Nine unique compounds with mass/charge ratios (m/z) ranging from 331.3 to 713.5 were found in MS analyses. Bioactivity of extracts was assessed on a selection of plant pathogens/pests and non-target species. Caborca strain extracts showed the highest activity against Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) neonates at all concentrations tested. Mortality ranged from 11% (at 10μg/ml) to 37% (at 40 μg/ml)...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
María Fernández-Bravo, Inmaculada Garrido-Jurado, Pablo Valverde-García, Jürg Enkerli, Enrique Quesada-Moraga
The response of entomopathogenic mitosporic ascomycete (EMAs) to abiotic stresses might be adapted to the microhabitats in which they inhabit. In phylloplane, these organisms are more exposed to such stresses than they are in soil, which may have led to adaptation to this environment. In the present work, we investigate whether Beauveria bassiana genotype or isolation habitat, i.e., soil or phylloplane, within the same geographic area influences their responses to key environmental stresses, such as temperature, moisture and ultraviolet radiation (UV-B), which can affect their successful use in microbial control...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Ana Paula Scaramal Ricietto, Joaquín Gomis-Cebolla, Gislayne Trindade Vilas-Bôas, Juan Ferré
The Oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a major pest of fruit trees worldwide, such as peach and apple. Bacillus thuringiensis has been shown to be an efficient alternative to synthetic insecticides in the control of many agricultural pests. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of B. thuringiensis individual toxins and their mixtures for the control of G. molesta. Bioassays were performed with Cry1Aa, Cry1Ac, Cry1Ca, Vip3Aa, Vip3Af and Vip3Ca, as well as with the commercial products DiPel® and XenTari®...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
J-M Drezen, J Gauthier, T Josse, A Bézier, E Herniou, E Huguet
Recent studies have highlighted that the accidental acquisition of DNA from other species by invertebrate genomes is much more common than originally thought. The transferred DNAs are of bacterial or eukaryote origin and in both cases the receiver species may end up utilising the transferred genes for its own benefit. Frequent contact with prokaryotic DNA from symbiotic endocellular bacteria may predispose invertebrates to incorporate this genetic material into their genomes. Increasing evidence also points to viruses as major players in transferring genes and mobile elements between the species they infect...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Trevor Williams, Max Bergoin, Monique M van Oers
In this review we provide an overview of the diversity of large DNA viruses known to be pathogenic for invertebrates. We present their taxonomical classification and describe the evolutionary relationships among various groups of invertebrate-infecting viruses. We also indicate the relationships of the invertebrate viruses to viruses infecting mammals or other vertebrates. The shared characteristics of the viruses within the various families are described, including the structure of the virus particle, genome properties, and gene expression strategies...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Chad J Boeckman, Raymond Layton
Species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) have a long history of use within environmental risk assessment to help make informed decisions about the potential risks associated with a variety of environmental stressors. Current risk assessments for transgenic crops conveying insect protection incorporate bioassays conducted on both pest and non-pest insects. As technology developers commercialize new insecticidal traits, SSDs combine the results of these individual studies to construct what may be a better picture of potential environmental risks...
August 26, 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Sebastian Gisder, Elke Genersch
Managed insect pollinators are indispensable in modern agriculture. They are used worldwide not only in the open field but also in greenhouses to enhance fruit set, seed production, and crop yield. Managed honey bee (Apis mellifera, Apis cerana) colonies provide the majority of commercial pollination although other members of the superfamily Apoidea are also exploited and commercialized as managed pollinators. In the recent past, it became more and more evident that viral diseases play a key role in devastating honey bee colony losses and it was also recognized that many viruses originally thought to be honey bee specific can also be detected in other pollinating insects...
August 3, 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Colin Berry, Jason Board
Homology modelling can provide important insights into the structures of proteins when a related protein structure has already been solved. However, for many proteins, including a number of invertebrate-active toxins and accessory proteins, no such templates exist. In these cases, techniques of ab initio, template-independent modelling can be employed to generate models that may give insight into structure and function. In this overview, examples of both the problems and the potential benefits of ab initio techniques are illustrated...
August 3, 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Joseph M Jez
The expansion of genomic data, three-dimensional structures of proteins, and computing power continues to improve our understanding of the evolution of protein structure and function relationships. As of June 2016, publically available databases contain more than 60 million unique protein sequences that group into 16,295 protein families that adopt ∼1,400 different three-dimensional folds. This data supports the exploration of evolutionary relationships on protein structure and function to answer a basic question - how do changes in gene sequence lead to alterations in protein structure and to the tailoring of biological and chemical function? This mini-review aims to provide a primer on the basics of protein structure, how evolution of sequence leads to diversity in protein structure and function, how these changes occur, and the role of domains in protein evolution...
July 30, 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Kenneth E Narva, Nick X Wang, Rod Herman
Insecticidal proteins developed for in-plant protection against crop pests undergo extensive safety testing during the product development process. Safety considerations for insecticidal proteins expressed in crops follow recommended, science-based guidelines and specific studies are conducted on a case by case basis. Corn events expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 were developed to protect maize from Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (western corn rootworm) feeding damage. The protein crystal structures of Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 are different from the more common three-domain Cry or Vip3 proteins expressed in insect resistant maize varieties...
July 29, 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Juan Luis Jurat-Fuentes, Neil Crickmore
Insecticidal proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are used as active components of biopesticides and as plant incorporated protectants in transgenic crops. One of the most relevant attributes of these Bt protein-based insecticidal technologies is their high specificity, which assures lack of detrimental effects on non-target insects, vertebrates and the environment. The identification of specificity determinants in Bt insecticidal proteins could guide risk assessment for novel insecticidal proteins currently considered for commercialization...
July 29, 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Colin Berry, Neil Crickmore
The increasing rate of discovery of new toxins with potential for the control of invertebrate pests through next generation sequencing, presents challenges for the identification of the best candidates for further development. A consideration of structural similarities between the different toxins suggest that they may be functionally less diverse than their low sequence similarities might predict. This is encouraging from the prospective of being able to use computational tools to predict toxin targets from their sequences, however more structure/function data are still required to reliably inform such predictions...
July 29, 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Peter Tijssen, Judit J Pénzes, Qian Yu, Hanh T Pham, Max Bergoin
A wide spectrum of invertebrates is susceptible to various single-stranded DNA viruses. Their relative simplicity of replication and dependence on actively dividing cells makes them highly pathogenic for many invertebrates (Hexapoda, Decapoda, etc.). We present their taxonomical classification and describe the evolutionary relationships between various groups of invertebrate-infecting viruses, their high degree of recombination, and their relationship to viruses infecting mammals or other vertebrates. They share characteristics of the viruses within the various families, including structure of the virus particle, genome properties, and gene expression strategy...
October 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Paola A Barriga, Eleanore D Sternberg, Thierry Lefèvre, Jacobus C de Roode, Sonia Altizer
Throughout their global range, wild monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) are infected with the protozoan Ophryocystis elektroscirrha (OE). In monarchs, OE infection reduces pupal eclosion, adult lifespan, adult body size and flight ability. Infection of other butterfly hosts with OE is rare or unknown, and the only previously published records of OE infection were on monarch and queen butterflies (D. gilippus). Here we explored the occurrence and specificity of OE and OE-like parasites in four Danaus butterfly species...
October 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Ann E Hajek, Andrii Gryganskyi, Tonya Bittner, James K Liebherr, Jonathan H Liebherr, Annette Bruun Jensen, John K Moulton, Richard A Humber
Molecular methods were used to determine the generic placement of two species of Entomophthorales known only from resting spores. Historically, these species would belong in the form-genus Tarichium, but this classification provides no information about phylogenetic relationships. Using DNA from resting spores, Zoophthora independentia, infecting Tipula (Lunatipula) submaculata in New York State, is now described as a new species and Tarichium porteri, described in 1942, which infects Tipula (Triplicitipula) colei in Tennessee, is transferred to the genus Zoophthora...
October 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Roberto Cruz-Flores, Jorge Cáceres-Martínez, Monserrat Muñoz-Flores, Rebeca Vásquez-Yeomans, Mónica Hernández Rodriguez, Miguel Ángel Del Río-Portilla, Axayácatl Rocha-Olivares, Ernestina Castro-Longoria
Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis (CXc) is a Rickettsiales-like prokaryote that is considered the causal agent of Withering Syndrome (WS), a chronic disease of abalone, from the west coast of North America and it is listed by the International Organization for Animal Health (OIE) as a reportable agent due to its pathogenicity. This bacterium in red abalone Haliotis rufescens, black abalone Haliotis cracherodii, and yellow abalone Haliotis corrugata from California, US and Baja California, Mexico has been found to be infected by a bacteriophage...
October 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
M E Diez, N Vázquez, F Cremonte
Aulacomya atra populations of the San Jose gulf, Northern Patagonia, Southwestern Atlantic Ocean, are infested by two polydorin species, Polydora rickettsi and Dipolydora cf. giardi. The infestation by these boring polychaetes causes the formation of pearls which is evidenced by the presence of capsules containing polydorin tissue debris and the elemental composition of organic material inside the pearls. Moreover, a positive relationship between the abundance of perforations of polydorin polychaetes and abundance of pearls was found by applying generalized lineal model analysis...
October 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Monserrat López Sanmartín, Deborah M Power, Roberto de la Herrán, José I Navas, Frederico M Batista
In order to determine if ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1) can be vertically transmitted, 9 full-sib families of the Portuguese oyster Crassostrea angulata were produced using a factorial mating design with 3 males and 3 females. The parents were survivors from an OsHV-1 mortality outbreak. OsHV-1 DNA was not detected by conventional PCR in the mantle of parents, gametes or 3day-old larvae. However, viral DNA was detected by real-time PCR in all gametes and larvae samples. These results show that C. angulata that have survived an OsHV-1 mortality outbreak can carry the virus and vertically transmit it to their offspring...
October 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
John H R Burns, Theodore Alexandrov, Ekaterina Ovchinnikova, Ruth D Gates, Misaki Takabayashi
Diseases have caused significant reductions in coral populations throughout the global ocean. Despite a substantial effort to thoroughly characterize the epizootiology and etiology of coral diseases, little is known about the distribution and spatial clustering of disease lesions on affected coral colonies. This study investigated spatial clustering of the coral disease, growth anomaly (GA), which exhibits high levels of prevalence and severity in Montipora capitata and other corals at Wai'ōpae, southeast Hawai'i Island...
October 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Oksana G Tomilova, Vadim Yu Kryukov, Bahytzhan A Duisembekov, Olga N Yaroslavtseva, Maksim V Tyurin, Natalia A Kryukova, Valery Skorokhod, Ivan M Dubovskiy, Viktor V Glupov
The interaction between the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium robertsii and natural avermectin metabolites of the actinomycete Streptomyces avermitilis were investigated on Colorado potato beetle larvae. A synergy in the mortality of larvae was detected after simultaneous treatment with half-lethal doses of avermectins (commercial name actarophit) 0.005% and fungus (5×10(5)conidia/ml). The treatment with avermectins led to rapid fungal colonization of the hemolymph. The defense strategies of insects infected by fungus and treated with avermectins and untreated insects were compared to investigate the mechanisms of this synergy...
October 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
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