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Journal of Invertebrate Pathology

Christoph Kurze, Yves Le Conte, Per Kryger, Oleg Lewkowski, Thomas Müller, Robin F A Moritz
Nosema ceranae is an intracellular microsporidian parasite that infects epithelial cells of the honey bee (Apis mellifera) midgut. Previous studies have shown that Nosema may alter cell renewal and apoptosis in honey bees. We found that the amount of apoptotic cells progressively declines from the anterior towards posterior regions of the midgut in Nosema-infected sensitive bees. There was no such pattern in the infected Nosema tolerant honey bees and controls. These data provide additional evidence that N...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Amber D Tripodi, Allen L Szalanski, James P Strange
Crithidia bombi and Crithidia expoeki (Trypanosomatidae) are common parasites of bumble bees (Bombus spp.). Crithidia bombi was described in the 1980s, and C. expoeki was recently discovered using molecular tools. Both species have cosmopolitan distributions among their bumble bee hosts, but there have been few bumble bee studies that have identified infections to species since the original description of C. expoeki in 2010. Morphological identification of species is difficult due to variability within each stage of their complex lifecycles, although they can be easily differentiated through DNA sequencing...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Benigna Van Eynde, Olivier Christiaens, Daan Delbare, Kris Cooreman, Kelly S Bateman, Grant D Stentiford, Annette M Dullemans, Monique M van Oers, Guy Smagghe
Crangon crangon bacilliform virus (CcBV) was first discovered in 2004 in European brown shrimp (Crangon crangon) caught along the English coast. This study describes a duplex PCR assay developed for the detection of CcBV, based on amplification of the lef-8 gene (211 bp) of CcBV and the E75 gene (105 bp) of C. crangon as an internal amplification control. The lef-8 and E75 primer pairs were designed based on preliminary genome sequencing information of the virus and transcriptomic data available for C. crangon, respectively...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Ariel S Oliveira, Drauzio E N Rangel
Little is known about the phenotypic effects of hypoxia and transient anoxia on the virulence of an entomopathogenic fungus. Conidia of Metarhizium robertsii were produced on: 1) potato dextrose agar medium (PDA) under normoxia; 2) PDA medium under continuous hypoxia; 3) PDA medium under transient anoxia; and 4) minimal medium with lactose (MML) under normoxia. Conidia produced under transient anoxia and produced on MML were the most virulent to Tenebrio molitor. Conidia produced under normoxia and hypoxia were the least virulent...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Yafei Duan, Yun Wang, Jiasong Zhang, Qingsong Liu, Xian Ding
The shrimp intestine barrier serves as the first line of the host defense against pathogen infection. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the cell wall component of gram-negative bacteria, which known as endotoxin and induce the intestine inflammation. In this study, the acute toxicity effects of LPS injection on the morphology, digestive enzymes and immunological responses of intestine from Litopenaeus vannamei was investigated. HE stain showed that LPS injection damaged the intestine connective and epithelium tissue...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Tsukasa Waki, Miki Takahashi, Tatsuya Eki, Masato Hiasa, Kousuke Umeda, Nanae Karakawa, Tomoyoshi Yoshinaga
Many studies have addressed the production decline of Manila clam, Ruditapes philippinarum, in Japan, but infection of clams with Perkinsus olseni has received scarce attention. To evaluate the impact of P. olseni, infection levels and host density of a wild, unexploited clam population were monitored monthly or bimonthly on a tidal flat from June 2009 to January 2013. Real-time PCR analysis discriminating P. olseni and Perkinsus honshuensis detected only P. olseni in tested clams. The prevalence of P. olseni was 100% or nearly 100% in 7 cohorts throughout the study period, except in newly recruited clams...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Yu Wang, Tomoyoshi Yoshinaga, Naoki Itoh
In order to understand interactions between Perkinsus olseni and its host mollusk species Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum, this study focused on invasion processes of the parasite, particularly the mechanisms of zoospore transformation to trophozoites in its portal entry into the host. We exposed Manila clam to P. olseni zoospores, then periodically quantified parasite intensity in various host organs and tissues. We detected large numbers of parasite cells within gills and labial palps of the host clam from the early to the final stages, moderately within mantle and digestive organs but low numbers within hemolymph, foot and adductor muscles...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Yuk-Ting Lau, Laura Gambino, Bianca Santos, Emmanuelle Pales Espinosa, Bassem Allam
We have recently described the presence of hemocytes associated with mucus covering the pallial organs (mantle, gills, and body wall) 3 of the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica. These hemocytes, hereby designated "pallial hemocytes" share common general characteristics with circulating hemocytes but also display significant differences particularly in their cell surface epitopes. The specific location of pallial hemocytes as peripheral cells exposed directly to the marine environment confers them a putative sentinel role...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
J Poidatz, R López Plantey, D Thiéry
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
G Fichi, S Carboni, J E Bron, J Ireland, M J Leaver, G Paladini
Ciliates have been reported as pathogens of many species of economically important bivalves. Mussel protozoan X (MPX), is an uncharacterised intracellular ciliate of mussels and has been widely reported in Mytilus spp. around the world. In order to characterise this ciliate, Mytilus edulis samples were collected from a site on the West coast of Scotland, and four different fixatives for histological examination were tested. Fresh preparations of mussel digestive glands were also examined by laser scanning confocal microscopy...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Federico M Winkler, Ricardo García, María V Valdivia, Karin B Lohrmann
Withering Syndrome (WS) is a lethal disease that affects abalone species in both wild and farmed populations. This infection, caused by the rickettsial-like intracellular organism (RLO) Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis, can severely impair the normal development of affected animals, and ultimately, their survival. The most common line of action against the WS has been the use of antibiotics, specifically oxytetracycline (OTC), administered via intramuscular injection and per os via medicated feed. In the present study, we have assessed the effectiveness of OTC baths as therapeutic treatment for the control of the WS agent in H...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Valerio Matozzo, Carlo Ercolini, Laura Serracca, Roberta Battistini, Irene Rossini, Giulia Granato, Elisabetta Quaglieri, Alberto Perolo, Livio Finos, Giuseppe Arcangeli, Daniela Bertotto, Giuseppe Radaelli, Bruno Chollet, Isabelle Arzul, Francesco Quaglio
The Gulf of La Spezia (northern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy) is a commercially important area both as a shipping port and for mussel farming. Recently, there has been increased concern over environmental disturbances caused by anthropogenic activities such as ship traffic and dredging and the effects they have on the health of farmed mussels. This paper reports the results of microbiological and histological analyses, as well as of measurement of several biomarkers which were performed to assess the health status of mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) from four rearing sites in the Gulf of La Spezia...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
E A Chertkova, E V Grizanova, I M Dubovskiy
Dopamine (DA) is known as a hormone neurotrasnmitter molecule involved in several stress reactions in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Following infections with the fungi Metarhizium robertsii or Beauveria bassiana and the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis, dopamine the concentration was measured at different time points in the haemolymph of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata and the larvae of the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella. The infection with M. robertsii increased (4 to 12-fold) DA concentrations in the haemolymph of the potato beetle larvae and the oral infection by B...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Michael Zuykov, Julia Anderson, Philippe Archambault, France Dufresne, Emilien Pelletier
During summer 2014-2017, wild mytilid mussels, highly infested with the pathogenic Coccomyxa-like microalgae, were collected along the Estuary and northwestern part of Gulf of St. Lawrence (Québec, Canada). Molecular identification showed that algae can be assigned to a single taxon, Coccomyxa sp. (KJ372210), whereas hosts are represented by Mytilus edulis, M. trossulus and hybrid between these two species. This is the first record of M. trossulus and hybrid among hosts of this pathogenic alga. Our results are indicative of a possible widespread distribution of Coccomyxa sp...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Javad Karimi, Surendra K Dara, Steven Arthurs
Biological control programs with arthropods have been in practice in Iran since the 1930s. However, development and registration of microbial biopesticides is much more recent. Currently, about 15 biopesticide products are registered or pending registration for commercial use on various crops. Products based on Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki are most widely sold for lepidopteran pest control, followed by B. thuringiensis subsp. isralensis against dipteran pests in vector control programs. Additionally, mycoinsecticides based on Lecanicillium lecanii and Beauveria bassiana, against various arthropod pests, and a mycofungicide based on Trichoderma harzianum for controlling soilborne diseases are also registered...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Alexandra C Roder, S Patricia Stock
Steinernema nematodes and their Xenorhabdus partners form an obligate mutualistic association. This partnership is insecticidal to a wide range of insects. Steinernema rely on their Xenorhabdus partner to produce toxins inside the insect cadaver to liberate nutrients from the insect, as well as antimicrobials to sterilize the cadaver, thus creating a suitable environment for reproduction. In return, Steinernema vector their Xenorhabdus between insect hosts. Disruption of this partnership may affect the success of both partners...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Peng Lü, Ye Pan, Yanhua Yang, Feifei Zhu, Chengjun Li, Qin Yao, Keping Chen
The silkworm Bombyx mori (B. mori), a lepidopteran model organism, has become an important model for molecular biology researches with its genome completely sequenced. Silkworms confront different types of virus diseases, mainly including those caused by Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV), Bombyx mori densovirus type 1 (BmDNV-1), Bombyx mori bidesovirus (BmBDV) which was termed as Bombyx mori densovirus type 2 (BmDNV-2) or Bombyx mori parvo-like virus (BmPLV) before in sericulture. B. mori offers excellent models to study the molecular mechanisms of insect innate immune responses to viruses...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Michael Simone-Finstrom, Kate Aronstein, Michael Goblirsch, Frank Rinkevich, Lilia de Guzman
Managed honey bee (Apis mellifera) populations are currently facing unsustainable losses due to a variety of factors. Colonies are challenged with brood pathogens, such as the fungal agent of chalkbrood disease, the microsporidian gut parasite Nosema sp., and several viruses. These pathogens may be transmitted horizontally from worker to worker, vertically from queen to egg and via vectors like the parasitic mite, Varroa destructor. Despite the fact that these pathogens are widespread and often harbored in wax comb that is reused from year to year and transferred across beekeeping operations, few, if any, universal treatments exist for their control...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Shengyong Wu, Zhenlong Xing, Weinan Sun, Xuenong Xu, Ruixia Meng, Zhongren Lei
Determination of intraguild interactions between entomopathogens and predators is important when attempting to use a combination of these two natural enemy groups for biological control of their shared arthropod pest species. This study assessed the effects of Beauveria bassiana on the predation and associated behavior of the predatory mite, Phytoseiulus persimilis, against Tetranychus urticae. The functional response tests showed that P. persimilis exhibited a Holling type II response on the spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, when treated with either a B...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Se Jin Lee, Mi Rong Lee, Sihyeon Kim, Jong Cheol Kim, So Eun Park, Tae Young Shin, Jae Su Kim
Beauveria bassiana is an entomopathogenic fungi used in environmentally mindful pest management. Its main active ingredient, conidia, is commercially available as a fungal biopesticide. Many studies of conidia production have focused on how to optimize culture conditions for maximum productivity and stability against unfavorable abiotic factors. However, understanding of how conidiogenesis-related genes provide improved conidial production remains unclear. In this study, we focus on identifying conidiogenesis-related genes in B...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
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