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Journal of Invertebrate Pathology

Todd Kabaluk, Erica Li-Leger, Sean Nam
Wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae) are serious agricultural pests, with soil-dwelling larvae attacking subterranean tissues of crop plants and their fruit when in contact with the soil surface. Researchers collect wireworms for laboratory experiments to study their behaviour and test pest control agents but frequently lose them to Metarhizium Petch (Ascomycota: Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) infection. We found latent M. brunneum infection in 13-100% of live, asymptomatic Agriotes obscurus and A. lineatus wireworms acquired from agricultural fields and in wireworms maintained indoors, indicating its enzootic presence...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Rubina Mushtaq, Robert Behle, Rongmei Liu, Lin Niu, Ping Song, Abdul Rauf Shakoori, Juan Luis Jurat-Fuentes
Transgenic soybean producing the Cry1Ac insecticidal protein from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis is used to control larvae of the velvetbean caterpillar (Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner) and the soybean looper [Chrysodeixis includens (Walker)]. The main threat to the sustainability of this technology is the development of resistance, which could be delayed by using pyramiding of diverse Bt insecticidal genes. We report high activity of Cry2Ac7 and Vip3Aa11 but not Cry1Ie2 against larvae of A. gemmatalis and C...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
T Scott Brady, Bryan D Merrill, Jared A Hilton, Ashley M Payne, Michael B Stephenson, Sandra Hope
American Foulbrood (AFB) is an infectious disease caused by the bacteria, Paenibacillus larvae. P. larvae phages were isolated and tested to determine each phages' host range amongst 59 field isolate strains of P. larvae. Three phages were selected to create a phage cocktail for the treatment of AFB infections according to the combined phages' ability to lyse all tested strains of bacteria. Studies were performed to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of the phage cocktail treatment as a replacement for traditional antibiotics for the prevention of AFB and the treatment of active infections...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Sudarshan K Aryal, Derreck Carter-House, Jason E Stajich, Adler R Dillman
We report the isolation and identification of seven bacterial strains and one fungal strain from dead and diseased Scapteriscus borellii mole crickets collected from a golf course in southern California. Using 16S and 18S rRNA gene sequence analysis we identified the microbes as Serratia marcescens (red), S. marcescens (white), S. marcescens (purple), Achromobacter xylosoxidans, Chryseobacterium sp., Ochrobactrum anthropi, Tsukamurella tryosinosolvens, and Beauveria bassiana. We performed a dose response curve for each of these cricket-associated microbial strains (except T...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Liu Shan, Wang Liuhao, Guo Jun, Tang Yujie, Chen Yanping, Wu Jie, Li Jilian
Chinese Sacbrood virus (CSBV) is a positive-stranded RNAvirus that infects both the European honey bee (Apis mellifera) and the Asian honey bee (A. cerana). However, CSBV has much more devastating effects on Asian honey bees than on European honey bees, posing a serious threat to the agricultural and natural ecosystems that rely on A. cerana for pollination service. Using quantitative RT-PCR method, we conducted studies to examine the CSBV infection in Asian honey bee colonies and immune responses of individual bees in response to CSBV infection...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Benjamin Morga, Nicole Faury, Stéphane Guesdon, Bruno Chollet, Tristan Renault
Since 2008, mass mortality outbreaks associated with the detection of particular variants of OsHV-1 have been reported in Crassostrea gigas spat and juveniles in several countries. Recent studies have reported information on viral replication during experimental infection. Viral DNA and RNA were also detected in the haemolymph and haemocytes suggesting that the virus could circulate through the circulatory system. However, it is unknown if the virus is free in the haemolymph, passively associated at the surface of haemocytes, or able to infect and replicate inside these cells inducing (or not) virion production...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Cichy Anna, Marszewska Anna, Parzonko Joanna, Żbikowski Janusz, Żbikowska Elżbieta
The prosobranch gastropod Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Gray, 1843) is poorly understood as a parasite host outside its native New Zealand, including in Europe. Our aim was to ascertain whether non-native P. antipodarum could acquire aspidogastrids or digeneans in habitats where these parasites are found in native hosts. We examined 2400 P. antipodarum individuals from Sosno Lake (Poland). The majority of snails were adult females. No males were found. We found five P. antipodarum individuals with Aspidogaster conchicola and 39 snails with metacercariae of Echinoparyphium aconiatum Dietz 1909 or E...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Kitikarn Sakuna, Jennifer Elliman, Leigh Owens
Chequa iflavirus and a bunya-like virus infect redclaw crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus) and they may cause mortality reaching 20-40% after about three weeks after a stress event. To complete River's postulates for viruses, virus-free animals are needed. Due to a lack of chequa iflavirus and bunya-like virus-free crayfish (testing shows >85% infection rate) coupled with the facts that iflavirus and bunyaviruses are found in insects and that crickets had been successful alternate hosts for crustacean viruses before, Acheta domesticus was trialled as a bioassay animal...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Mrugała Agata, Šanda Radek, Petrusek Adam, Marić Dario, Vukić Jasna
Although the introduction of the crayfish plague pathogen Aphanomyces astaci to Europe is responsible for substantial declines in native crayfish populations throughout the whole continent, its presence has never been officially confirmed in many European regions, including most of the Balkan Peninsula. We demonstrate that the recent crayfish mortality observed in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Mostarsko blato karst field, Neretva river drainage) was caused by A. astaci. The causative strain is known only from European crayfish, indicating that A...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Changlong Shu, Fengjiao Zhang, Guihua Chen, Lazarus Joseph, Aminah Barqawi, Jacob Evans, Fuping Song, Guoxun Li, Jie Zhang, Neil Crickmore
A PCR-RFLP method was used to identify cry2A toxin genes in a collection of 300 strains of Bacillus thuringiensis. From 81 genes identified, the vast majority appeared to be cry2Aa or cry2Ab, however three showed a different pattern and were subsequently cloned and sequenced. The gene cloned from strain HD395 was named cry2Ba2. Since the proteins encoded by the genes cloned from LS5115-3 and DS415 shared >95% sequence identity with existing toxins their genes were named cry2Aa17 and cry2Ab29 respectively by the toxin nomenclature committee...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Sivasubramanian Santhakumari, Nizam Mohamed Nilofernisha, Jeyaraj Godfred Ponraj, Shunmugiah Karutha Pandian, Arumugam Veera Ravi
Biofilm formation of Vibrio spp. has been demonstrated as a potentially important mechanism contributing antibiotic treatment failure in aquaculture. In the present study, the effect of palmitic acid (PA) identified from Synechococcus elongatus was assessed for the inhibition of quorum sensing (QS) regulated biofilm formation in aquatic bacterial pathogens. The biofilm inhibitory concentration (BIC) of PA against Vibrio spp. was found to be 100µgml(-1). In this concentration, PA exhibited a significant inhibition in biofilm biomass of Vibrio harveyi MTCC 3438, V...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Katherina Brokordt, Roxana González, William Farías, Federico E Winkler, Karin B Lohrmann
Withering syndrome disease has experienced worldwide spread in the last decade. This fatal disease for abalone is produced by a rickettsia-like organism (WS-RLO), the bacterium "Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis". To evaluate the potential of the red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) to improve its resistance to infection by WS-RLO, the additive genetic component in the variation of this trait was estimated. For this, the variation in infection intensity with WS-RLOs and WS-RLOv (phage-infected RLOs) was analyzed in 56 families of full-sibs maintained for three years in a host-parasite cohabitation aquaculture system...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Yu-Xuan Sun, Bao-Jian Zhu, Lin Tang, Yu Sun, Chen Chen, Muhammad Nadeem Abbas, Lei Wang, Cen Qian, Guo-Qing Wei, Chao-Liang Liu
Cathepsins are key members of mammalian papain-like cysteine proteases that play an important role in the immune response. In this study, a fragment of cDNA encoding cathepsin O proteinase (ApCathepsin O) was cloned from Antheraea pernyi. It contains an open reading frame of 1170bp and encodes a protein with 390 amino acid residues, including a conserved I29 inhibitor domain and a peptidase C1A (clan CA of cysteine proteases, papain family C1 subfamily) domain. Comparison with other previously reported cathepsin O proteins showed identity ranging from 45% to 79%...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Wendeo Ferreira da Silveira, Fabio Ribeiro Braga, Alexandre de Oliveira Tavela, Lucas Fernando Dos Santos, Rafael Reis Domingues, Anderson Rocha Aguiar, Carolina Magri Ferraz, Lorendane Millena de Carvalho, Thiago de Hollanda Ayupe, Jose Cola Zanuncio, Jackson Victor de Araújo
Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) can reduce or limit sheep production. Currently there is a clear deficiency in the action of drugs for the control of these parasites. Nematophagous fungi are natural enemies of GIN. Fungal combinations have potential for reducing GIN populations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency combinations of nematophagous fungi in sodium alginate matrix pellets for the biological control agents of gastrointestinal sheep nematode parasites in the field. The nematophagous fungi (0...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
J Bravo, V Carbonell, B Sepúlveda, C Delporte, C E Valdovinos, R Martín-Hernández, M Higes
The honeybee disease nosemosis type C is a serious problem since its causative agent, microsporidium Nosema ceranae, is widespread among adult honey bees. Some of the feasible alternative treatments that are used to control this disease are plant extracts. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effects of essential oils of Chilean plant species, such as Cryptocarya alba, which is used against N. ceranae, and to identify and quantify the majority active compounds in the EO as well as their potential use for the control of nosemosis...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Md Sadekuzzaman, Yonggyun Kim
Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) hydrolyzes ester bond of phospholipids at the sn-2 position to release free fatty acid and lysophospholipids. Some PLA2s preferentially release arachidonic acid which is subsequently oxygenated into eicosanoids to mediate immune responses in insects. Xenorhabdus hominickii is an entomopathogenic bacterium that can suppress insect immunity by inhibiting PLA2 activity. However, little is known about target PLA2 types inhibited by X. hominickii. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine PLA2 types in the host insect, Spodoptera exigua using specific inhibitors...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
M E Rueda-Páramo, C Montalva, W Arruda, É K K Fernandes, C Luz, R A Humber
A project from 2013 to 2017 sought to discover pathogenic fungi and oomycetes from dipteran species that are vectors of major diseases of humans and animals in central Brazil and to begin evaluating the potential of these pathogens as potential biological control agents concentrated on mosquito larvae. Some collecting sites proved to be especially productive for pathogens of naturally occurring mosquito species and for placements of healthy sentinel larvae of Aedes aegypti in various sorts of containers in a gallery forest in the Santa Branca Ecoturismo Private Reserve of Natural Patrimony (RPPN) near Terezópolis de Goiás (GO)...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Paulina Taszłow, Lidiia Vertyporokh, Iwona Wojda
The insect immune system relies on innate mechanisms only. However, there is an increasing number of data reporting that previous immune challenge with microbial elicitors or a low number of microorganisms can modulate susceptibility after subsequent lethal infection with the same or different pathogen. This phenomenon is called immune priming. Its biochemical and molecular mechanisms remain unravelled. Here we present that Galleria mellonella larvae that survived infection induced by intrahemocelic injection of a low dose of Bacillus thuringiensis were more resistant to re-injection of a lethal dose of the same bacteria but not other bacteria and fungi tested...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Kathie T Hodge, Ann E Hajek, Andrii Gryganskyi
A new species and genus of entomophthoralean fungus, Arthrophaga myriapodina kills polydesmid millipedes. This species was first seen over a century ago but never described. It is the first millipede pathogen known from the order Entomophthorales, species of which are best known as pathogens of a wide diversity of insects. The fungus induces pre-death climbing behavior in its hosts, enabling the fungus to broadcast its forcibly-discharged conidia from a high vantage, which presumably increases the fitness of the fungus...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Mariana G Lima, Vinícius M Tunholi-Alves, Tatiane Cristina S Bonfim, Fabrício N Gaudêncio, Juberlan S Garcia, Arnaldo Maldonado, Jairo Pinheiro, Silvana C Thiengo
Eosinophilic meningoencephalitis is an endemic zoonosis in Southeast Asia and the Pacific Islands, but in recent years, new cases have been reported in various countries outside these regions, including Brazil, where it is considered an emerging disease. In this study, the effect of infection by the nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis, one of the main etiologic agent of this disease, on the reproductive biology of the planorbid snails Biomphalaria straminea and B. tenagophila was investigated during the pre-patent period...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
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