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Journal of Invertebrate Pathology

Gabriel Moura Mascarin, Rogerio Biaggioni Lopes, Ítalo Delalibera, Éverton Kort Kamp Fernandes, Christian Luz, Marcos Faria
Entomopathogenic fungi play a central role in Brazil's biopesticide market. Approximately 50% of registered microbial biopesticides comprise mycoinsecticides consisting of hypocrealean fungi, with most based on Metarhizium anisopliae sensu stricto (s.str.) and Beauveria bassiana (s.str.). These fungi are used to control spittlebugs in sugarcane fields and whiteflies in row crops, respectively, with annual applications surpassing three million hectares. Research in Brazil also emphasizes the potential of fungal entomopathogens to manage arthropod vectors of human diseases...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Ya-Mei Liu, Liang Qiu, An-Zhi Sheng, Xiao-Yuan Wan, Dong-Yuan Cheng, Jie Huang
A TaqMan probe and a pair of specific primers were selected from the small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) sequence of Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP); this real-time PCR assay was developed and optimized. It showed a good linearity in detecting standards of EHP SSU rDNA fragments from 4×102 to 4×108 copies/reaction using the established method. The detection limit of the qPCR method was as low as 4×101 copies per reaction, which was higher than the conventional PCR and SYBR Green I-based EHP qPCR reported...
December 22, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Charlotte Rafaluk-Mohr, Sophia Wagner, Gerrit Joop
Immunity is a key trait in host defence against parasites and is thus likely to be under selection during host-parasite coevolution. Broadly, the immune system consists of several lines of defence including physiological innate immunity, physical barriers such as the cuticle, avoidance behaviours and in some cases antimicrobial secretions. The defence conferring the highest fitness benefit may be situation specific and depend on the taxon and infection route of the parasite. We carried out a host-parasite coevolution experiment between the red flour beetle T...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Zhangjiang He, Xin Zhao, Zhuoyue Lu, Huifang Wang, Pengfei Liu, Fanqin Zeng, Yongjun Zhang
Sensing, responding, and adapting to the surrounding environment are crucial for all living organisms to survive, proliferate, and differentiate in their biological niches. Beauveria bassiana is an economically important insect-pathogenic fungus which is widely used as a biocontrol agent to control a variety of insect pests. The fungal pathogen unavoidably encounters a variety of adverse environmental stresses and defense response from the host insects during application of the fungal agents. However, few are known about the transcription response of the fungus to respond or adapt varied adverse stresses...
December 16, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Xian-Zhi Meng, Bo Luo, Xiang-You Tang, Qiang He, Ting-Rong Xiong, Zhuo-Ya Fang, Guoqing Pan, Tian Li, Ze-Yang Zhou
Microsporidia Nosema bombycis CQ1 can be vertically transmitted in silkworm Bombyx mori but Vairimorpha necatrix BM cannot. Therefore, the pathological differences in silkworm infected with these two microsporidia required clarification. Here, we compared the virulence of N. bombycis CQ1 and V. necatrix BM against silkworm. The pathological characteristics in intestine, testis and ovary were surveyed using paraffin sections, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Our data firstly showed that the virulence of V...
December 16, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Hilal Baki, Çağrı Bekircan
A new microsporidium was isolated from Subcoccinella vigintiquatuorpunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), a pest of Galega officinalis L. in Turkey. Infection in larval and adult stages was systemic with mature spores produced in the midgut, gonads, Malpighian tubules and, most extensively, fat body tissues. The microsporidium was polymorphic with two sporulation sequences producing two types of spores, binucleate spores with 13-15 coils of the polar tube, and uninucleate spores with 7 coils of the polar tube that developed within a sporophorous vesicle (SPV) to form meiospores...
December 16, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Rogerio B Lopes, Daniela A Souza, Luiz F N Rocha, Cristian Montalva, Christian Luz, Richard A Humber, Marcos Faria
A strain within the Metarhizium anisopliae species complex was isolated in 2009 from a soil sample in a banana plantation in the municipality of Quixeré, Northeastern region of Brazil. Previous studies showed that this insect-pathogenic strain does not fit with any current taxon within the M. anisopliae species complex, as determined by both genomic and by mass spectrometric analyses. In the present study, CG1123 (= ARSEF 13308) is shown to be morphologically indistinguishable from most species in this cosmopolitan species complex, whereas multilocus phylogeny confirmed its uniqueness and supports its recognition as a new species, Metarhizium alvesii, in honor of Sérgio Batista Alves, one of the founders of insect pathology in Brazil...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Haidong Wang, Ivan Meeus, Niels Piot, Guy Smagghe
Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV) can cause a systemic infection, resulting in mortality in both Apis and Bombus spp. bees. However, little is known about the virus infection dynamics within bee tissues. Here, we established systemic IAPV infections in reared bumblebee Bombus terrestris workers through feeding and injection and investigated the mortality, tissue tropism and viral localization. Injection of approximately 500 IAPV (IAPVinj stock) particles resulted in acute infection, viral loads within tissues that were relatively stable from bee to bee, and a distinctive tissue tropism, making this method suitable for studying systemic IAPV infection in bumblebees...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Travis R Glare, Maureen O'Callaghan
Biopesticides are needed for control of endemic and invasive pests impacting New Zealand's primary sectors including pests that are emerging as a result of climate change and farming intensification. Products developed in New Zealand are usually based on endemic strains of microorganisms, including new species/strains with novel modes of action. For example, Invade and BioShield were developed using endemic strains of the bacterium Serratia entomophila, for use in New Zealand only. To date, most of these home-grown products have either struggled for market share or have remained in small niche markets...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Michael Brownbridge, Rose Buitenhuis
Historically, greenhouse floriculture has relied on synthetic insecticides to meet its pest control needs. But, growers are increasingly faced with the loss or failure of synthetic chemical pesticides, declining access to new chemistries, stricter environmental/health and safety regulations, and the need to produce plants in a manner that meets the 'sustainability' demands of a consumer driven market. In Canada, reports of thrips resistance to spinosad (Success™) within 6-12 months of its registration prompted a radical change in pest management philosophy and approach...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Lisa M Crosson, Carolyn S Friedman
Population declines in wild and cultured abalones (Haliotis spp.) due to a bacterial disease called withering syndrome (WS) have been documented along the northeastern Pacific Ocean. However, observed differences in species susceptibility to the disease are not well understood. Here, we examined the susceptibility of three temperate abalone species, the cool water (4-14°C) pinto or northern abalone (Haliotis kamtschatkana), the intermediate water (8-18°C) red abalone (H. rufescens), and the warm water (12-23°C) pink abalone (H...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Aya Yanagawa, Marie-Ange Chabaud, Tomoya Imai, Frédéric Marion-Poll
Many insects and Dipterans in particular are known to spend considerable time grooming, but whether these behaviors actually are able to remove pathogenic fungal conidia is less clear. In this study, we examined whether grooming serves to protect flies by reducing the risk of fungal infection in Drosophila melanogaster. First, we confirmed that fungi were removed by grooming. Entomopathogenic, opportunistic, and plant pathogenic fungi were applied on the body surface of the flies. To estimate grooming efficiency, the number of removal conidia through grooming was quantified and we successfully demonstrated that flies remove fungal conidia from their body surfaces via grooming behavior...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Daian Guilherme Pinto De Oliveira, Rogerio Biaggioni Lopes, Janayne Maria Rezende, Italo Delalibera
The influence of the temperature of aqueous conidial sprays on conidial viability and virulence against Diatraea saccharalis was evaluated for pure conidia, rice + fungus (technical concentrates) and oil-based formulations of Beauveria bassiana s.s. and Metarhizium anisopliae s.s. under laboratory conditions. The fungal preparations were suspended in water and maintained at 26°C, 36°C and 46°C for one, four and six hours. Conidial viability was determined by plating aliquots of each suspension onto PDA medium followed by incubation for 20-22 h and observing for viable conidia (germ tubes longer than diameter of conidia)...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Jessika Santamaria, Ethel M Villalobos, Laura E Brettell, Scott Nikaido, Jason R Graham, Stephen Martin
Varroa destructor, a parasitic mite of honey bees, is also a vector for viral diseases. The mite displays high host specificity and requires access to colonies of Apis spp. to complete its lifecycle. In contrast, the Deformed Wing Virus (DWV), one of the many viruses transmitted by V. destructor, appears to have a much broader host range. Previous studies have detected DWV in a variety of insect groups that are not directly parasitized by the mite. In this study, we take advantage of the discrete distribution of the Varroa mite in the Hawaiian archipelago to compare DWV prevalence on non-Apis flower visitors, and test whether Varroa presence is linked to a "viral spillover"...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Pichaya Chanpanitkitchote, Yanping Chen, Jay D Evans, Wenfeng Li, Jianghong Li, Michele Hamilton, Panuwan Chantawannakul
Viruses, and especially RNA viruses, constantly change and adapt to new host species and vectors, posing a potential threat of new and reemerging infectious diseases. Honey bee Acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV) and Deformed wing virus (DWV) are two of the most common honey bee viruses found in European honey bees Apis mellifera and have been implicated in worldwide Varroa-associated bee colony losses. Previous studies have shown that DWV has jumped hosts several times in history causing infection in multiple host species...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Wei-Bin Ruan, David Shapiro-Ilan, Edwin E Lewis, Fatma Kaplan, Hans Alborn, Xin-Hui Gu, Paul Schliekelman
To exploit resources, animals implement various foraging behaviors to increase their fitness. Entomopathogenic nematodes are obligate parasites of insects in nature. In previous studies, entomopathogenic nematodes were reported to exhibit group movement behavior in the presence and absence of insect hosts. However, it was not determined if group movement is continuous or temporal. For example, nematode movement behavior upon emergence from the host might start out in an independent fashion prior to aggregation, or group movement may be exhibited continuously...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Theodore G Andreadis, Michael C Thomas, John J Shepard
A multi-year study was conducted to examine the natural ecology of the microsporidium Amblyospora khaliulini and more fully characterize parasite development and histopathology in all stages of its primary mosquito host, Aedes communis and intermediate copepod host, Acanthocyclops vernalis with redescription of the species. A. khaliulini exhibits polymorphic development, produces three morphologically and functionally distinct spores, and is both horizontally and vertically transmitted. Development in A. vernalis is restricted to females, occurs within the ovaries and results in death of the host...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Timothy J Sullivan, Joseph E Neigel
Coastal marine and estuarine environments are experiencing higher average temperatures, greater frequency of extreme temperature events, and altered salinities. These changes are expected to stress organisms and increase their susceptibility to infectious diseases. However, beyond these generalities, little is known about how environmental factors influence host-pathogen relationships in the marine realm. We investigated the prevalence and intensity of infections by Vibrio cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus, and V...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Angela M Smilanich, Tara C Langus, Lydia Doan, Lee A Dyer, Joshua G Harrison, Jennifer Hsueh, Mike B Teglas
Understanding the interaction between host plant chemistry, the immune response, and insect pathogens can shed light on host plant use by insect herbivores. In this study, we focused on how interactions between the insect immune response and plant secondary metabolites affect the response to a viral pathogen. Based upon prior research, we asked whether the buckeye caterpillar, Junonia coenia (Nymphalidae), which specializes on plants containing iridoid glycosides (IGs), is less able to resist the pathogenic effects of a densovirus infection when feeding on plants with high concentrations of IGs...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Tobia Pretto, Francesco Montesi, Daniela Ghia, Valeria Berton, Miriam Abbadi, Michele Gastaldelli, Amedeo Manfrin, Gianluca Fea
The microsporidiosis of the endangered white-clawed crayfish Austropotamobius pallipes complex has generally been attributed to only one species, Thelohania contejeani, the agent of porcelain disease. Species identification was mostly assessed by macroscopic examination or microscopic evaluation of muscle samples rather than by molecular or ultrastructural analyses. A survey conducted on A. pallipes complex populations in Northern Italy highlighted the presence of two different microsporidia causing similar muscular lesions, T...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
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