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Journal of Invertebrate Pathology

Yuri S Tokarev, Ekaterina V Grizanova, Anastasia N Ignatieva, Ivan M Dubovskiy
Galleria mellonella fed 3 million Nosema pyrausta spores per larva showed 0 and 5% infestation rate at 30°C and 24°C, respectively. N. pyrausta virulence did not increase after passage through G. mellonella for three generations. When larvae were pretreated with phenylthiourea, Bacillus thuringiensis or combination of both, infection rates were 11%, 15% and 22%, respectively. Injection of untreated and potassium hydroxide-primed spores resulted in approximately 10% and 50% infection, respectively. G. mellonella is resistant to high dosages of N...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Gaetano Catanese, Amalia Grau, Jose Maria Valencia, Jose Rafael Garcia-March, Elvira Alvarez, Maite Vazquez-Luis, Salud Deudero, Susana Darriba, María J Carballal, Antonio Villalba
This study provides morphological and molecular characterization of a new species, Haplosporidium pinnae, very likely responsible for mass mortality of fan mussels, Pinna nobilis, in the Western Mediterranean Sea. The parasite was found in dead or moribund P. nobilis but did not occur in healthy fan mussels from locations that were not affected by abnormal mortality. Histological examination of infected fan mussels showed uninucleate cells of a haplosporidan parasite throughout the connective tissue and hemolymph sinuses of the visceral mass and binucleate cells and, rarely, multinucleate plasmodia were also detected in the connective tissue...
July 10, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Katie Tiley, Michelle M Dennis, Michael R Lewin-Smith, H Marie Jenkins, Árni Kristmundsson, Mark A Freeman
Unusual inclusion bodies occur within the epithelial cells of the digestive gland of queen conch, Lobatus gigas, and have previously been described as apicomplexan parasites. The aim of this study was to investigate the parasitic features of these inclusion bodies in queen conch. L. gigas from St. Kitts (Caribbean Sea) consistently (100% of n = 61) showed large numbers of ovoid to tri-bulbous dark brown inclusion bodies (15x30 µm) within vacuolar cells. Histochemical stains demonstrated iron, melanin, and glycoprotein and/or mucopolysaccharide within the inclusion bodies...
July 9, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Mahima Sharma, Gagan D Gupta, Vinay Kumar
Lysinibacillus sphaericus parasporal BinAB toxin displays mosquito larvicidal activity against Culex and Anopheles, but several Aedes species are refractory. Recently reported crystal structure of BinAB revealed the presence of N-terminal lectin-like domain in BinA. Hemagglutination and hemolytic activities were not observed for BinA in the present studies. We attempted to characterize carbohydrate specificity of BinA by high-throughput approaches using extrinsic fluorescence and thermofluor shift assay. A total of 34 saccharides (mono-, di- and polysaccharides, and glycoproteins) were used for initial high-throughput screening...
July 9, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Céline L H Blond, Hayley J Ridgway, Michael Brownbridge, R Bruce Chapman, Leo M Condron, David J Saville, Travis R Glare
A better understanding of the ecology of the insect pathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana, in soil is needed to identify reasons behind the variable efficacy often seen after field application. A transformed strain of a candidate commercial strain of B. bassiana (F418 gfp tr3), expressing the green fluorescent protein and the hygromycin B resistance gene, was used to assess the effects of the larvae of a host insect, Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), a non-host, Costelytra zealandica (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) and the absence of larvae on the persistence of F418 gfp tr3 in pasteurised and non-sterile soil over 4 months...
July 9, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Yurika Yada, Melbourne Rio Talactac, Kodai Kusakisako, Emmanuel Pacia Hernandez, Remil Linggatong Galay, Masako Andoh, Kozo Fujisaki, Tetsuya Tanaka
Ticks are key vectors of some important diseases of humans and animals. Although they are carriers of disease agents, the viability and development of ticks are not harmed by the infectious agents due to their innate immunity. Antimicrobial peptides directly protect hosts against pathogenic agents such as viruses, bacteria, and parasites. Among the identified and characterized antimicrobial peptides, defensins have been considerably well studied. Defensins are commonly found among fungi, plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates...
July 9, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Diana Minardi, David J Studholme, Mark van der Giezen, Tobia Pretto, Birgit Oidtmann
The oomycete Aphanomyces astaci causes crayfish plague, the most important disease of European freshwater crayfish species. Presumably introduced into Europe 150 years ago with the import of North American crayfish, A. astaci is highly pathogenic to European crayfish species. Five genotypes (A, B, C, D, and E) have been defined based on random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis (RAPD-PCR) from A. astaci pure cultures. The distinction of genotypes is an essential tool to conduct molecular epidemiological studies on crayfish plague and it has been used to clarify and better understand the history and spread of this disease in Europe...
June 25, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Rui Guo, Dafu Chen, Cuiling Xiong, Chunsheng Hou, Yanzhen Zheng, Zhongmin Fu, Qingyun Diao, Lu Zhang, Hongquan Wang, Zhixian Hou, Wendong Li, Dhiraj Kumar, Qin Liang
Ascospheara apis is a widespread fungal pathogen that exclusively invades honeybee larvae. Thus far, non-coding RNA in A. apis has not yet been documented. In this study, we sequenced A. apis using strand specific cDNA library construction and Illumina RNA sequencing methods, and identified 379 lncRNAs, including antisense lncRNAs, lincRNAs, intronic lncRNAs and sense lncRNAs. Additionally, these lncRNAs were found to be shorter in length and have fewer exons and transcript isoforms than protein-coding genes, similar to those identified in mammals and plants...
June 9, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Kelly Cristina Gonçalves, Arlindo Leal Boiça Júnior, Rogerio Teixeira Duarte, Laís Fernanda Moreira, Joacir do Nascimento, Ricardo Antônio Polanczyk
Single concentration and virulence (mean lethal concentration) bioassays were performed to evaluate the susceptibility of S. albula second instar larvae to seven Bacillus thuringiensis-based biopesticides. Bioassays were conducted using three replicates and repeated three times at 25 °C, 70 ± 10% RH, and a 12:12 (light/dark) photoperiod; mortality was recorded seven days after treatment. The results were subjected to a Tukey's test and Probit analysis. Agree, DiPel SC, and XenTari achieved mortality rates of up to 80%, with the first of these being the most virulent against S...
May 25, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Shabbir Ahmed, Yonggyun Kim
Immunity negatively influences bacterial pathogenicity. Eicosanoids mediate both cellular and humoral immune responses in insects. This study tested a hypothesis that differential bacterial virulence of Xenorhabdus/Photorhabdus is dependent on their inhibitory activity against phospholipase A2 (PLA2 ) activity. P. temperata subsp. temperata ('Ptt') was more than 40 times more potent than X. hominickii ('Xh'). Although both bacteria suppressed cellular immune responses, Ptt infection suppressed hemocyte nodule formation much more than Xh infection...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Jörn Panteleit, Nina Sophie Keller, Javier Diéguez-Uribeondo, Jenny Makkonen, Laura Martín-Torrijos, Viorica Patrulea, Mălina Pîrvu, Cristina Preda, Anne Schrimpf, Lucian Pârvulescu
The crayfish plague agent Aphanomyces astaci is one of the world's most threatening invasive species. Originally from North America, the pathogen is being imported alongside American crayfish species, which are used for various purposes. In this study, we investigated the marginal, currently known distribution area of the pathogen in Eastern Europe by sampling narrow-clawed crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus) and spiny-cheek crayfish (Orconectes limosus) populations. In addition, using specific real-time PCR, we tested several marine decapod species, which also occur in brackish waters of the Danube at the West coast of the Black Sea and the Dniester River basin...
May 19, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Yuliya Y Sokolova, Robin M Overstreet
We report a new microsporidium from a key species of the estuarine communities of the Gulf States, the Riverine grass shrimp, Palaemonetes paludosus. A milky-white shrimp was found in the Mobile Bay Delta, a large, oligohaline-freshwater wetland in Alabama, USA. Light microscopy of smears and thick sections of the abdominal tissues demonstrated infection with microsporidian spores enclosed in sporophorous vesicles (SVs) in sets of eight. Broadly oval spores measured 2.9 ± 0.06 × 1.7 ± 0.03 µm (2...
May 19, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Zi-Qi Li, Huan Yu, Guo-Hua Huang
Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae were used to analyze the regulation of lipid, protein and carbohydrate metabolism in host larvae infected with the Heliothis virescens ascovirus 3h (HvAV-3h). Using histological sections, significant pathological changes were found in the fat bodies of infected larvae from 24 h to 72 h post-infection (hpi). The lipid and protein contents of the infected larvae were significantly higher than those of the uninfected larvae, while the carbohydrate content of the infected larvae was significantly lower than that of the mock-infected larvae...
June 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Joaquín Gomis-Cebolla, Yuequin Wang, Yudong Quan, Kanglai He, Tom Walsh, Bill James, Sharon Downes, Wendy Kain, Ping Wang, Kathy Leonard, Tom Morgan, Brenda Oppert, Juan Ferré
Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3 proteins are synthesized and secreted during the vegetative growth phase. They are activated by gut proteases, recognize and bind to midgut receptors, form pores and lyse cells. We tested the susceptibility to Vip3Aa and Vip3Ca of Cry1A-, Cry2A-, Dipel- and Vip3-resistant insect colonies from different species to determine whether resistance to other insecticidal proteins confers cross-resistance to Vip3 proteins. As expected, the colonies resistant to Cry1A proteins, Dipel (Helicoverpa armigera, Trichoplusia ni, Ostrinia furnacalis and Plodia interpunctella) or Cry2Ab (H...
June 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Milan Zúbrik, Daniela Pilarska, Jan Kulfan, Marek Barta, Ann E Hajek, Tonya D Bittner, Peter Zach, Danail Takov, Andrej Kunca, Slavomír Rell, Anikó Hirka, György Csóka
We evaluated the presence and impact of Entomophaga maimaiga on both target and non-target phytophagous larvae. All six study plots, with low gypsy moth population density, were situated in Central and Southeastern European oak forests and E. maimaiga had previously been reported from these plots. Totally, 45 of 4,045 (1.13%) collected non-target larvae died due to fungal infections. No non-target insect specimen was infected by E.maimaiga, although the presence of the pathogen could not be fully excluded in three cadavers...
June 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Maria Giovanna Marche, Salvatore Camiolo, Andrea Porceddu, Luca Ruiu
The pathogenic action of the bacterium Brevibacillus laterosporus against invertebrates involves a toxin-mediated mechanism. Several studies, conducted with specific strains against diverse targets, suggested the implication of different toxins. Recent genome sequencing and annotation of some insecticidal strains revealed several putative virulence factors highly conserved in this species. After determining the pathogenicity of strain UNISS 18 against different Lepidopteran and Dipteran larvae, in this study we have investigated the actual expression of genes encoding for enzymes (i...
June 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Tongxiang Song, Huijie Liu, Tengteng Lv, Xuelin Zhao, Yina Shao, Qingxi Han, Chenghua Li, Weiwei Zhang
Under low iron bioavailability environment, many bacteria acquire iron for growth and survival through siderophore-mediated iron acquisition systems. However, until now, little research on the growth, siderophore production and siderophore receptors of Vibrio splendidus Vs under iron limited conditions has been reported. In our present study, V. splendidus Vs could survive in media supplemented with 160 µM 2,2'-dipyridyl (DIP), but 74.5% of the growth was suppressed at 48 h, while the siderophore production of V...
June 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Kui Wang, Changlong Shu, Mario Soberón, Alejandra Bravo, Jie Zhang
The goal of this work was to perform a systematic characterization of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) strains from the Bacillus Genetic Stock Center (BGSC) collection using Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST). Different genetic markers of 158 Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) strains from 73 different serovars stored in the BGSC, that represented 92% of the different Bt serovars of the BGSC were analyzed, the 8% that were not analyzed were not available. In addition, we analyzed 72 Bt strains from 18 serovars available at the pubMLST bcereus database, and Bt strains G03, HBF18 and Bt185, with no H serovars provided by our laboratory...
June 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Lusheng Xin, Bowen Huang, Changming Bai, Chongming Wang
Ostreid herpesvirus-1 (OsHV-1) presents interspecies transmission among bivalves. Recently, events of mass mortalities of ark clams (Scapharca broughtonii) infected with OsHV-1 have been recorded. To accurately assess the gene responding patterns of ark clams post OsHV-1 infection, constant stable housekeeping genes (HKGs) are needed as internal control to normalize raw mRNA expression data. In this study, ten candidate HKGs were selected, including 18S rRNA (18S), beta-actin (ACT), Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), NADH dehydrogenase subunit (NADH), Elongation factor-1a (EF-1a), Elongation factor-1β (EF-1β), Elongation factor-1γ (EF-1γ), Ribosomal protein L7 (RL7), Ribosomal protein L15 (RL15) and Ribosomal protein S18 (S18)...
June 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Yaqiang Hu, Chun Chen, Sudan Ye, Huajun Hu
Entomophthoralean fungi are important natural enemies of pests and highly co-evolved with their hosts. However, successful isolation of entomophthoralean fungi can be difficult due to their fastidious culture requirements; this is an important obstacle to research on Entomophthorales. In this study, we designed an isolation unit and evaluated it against the conventional 'descending conidia' isolation method. There was no difference in contamination rate between the methods (78% and 76% clean isolations) despite the isolation unit not requiring laminar-flow facilities...
June 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
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