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Journal of Invertebrate Pathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30414760/disseminated-neoplasia-in-cultured-crassostrea-gasar-oysters-from-northeast-brazil
#1
Patricia Mirella da Silva, Natanael Dantas Farias, Fernando Ramos Queiroga, Hélène Hégaret, Philippe Soudant
Disseminated neoplasia (DN) is a disease that affects bivalves worldwide and can lead to mass mortalities. In the present study, a pathological survey conducted from December 2011 to August 2012 in Crassostrea gasar, an oyster of commercial interest in northeast Brazil, revealed the occurrence of DN in oysters reared in the Mamanguape estuary, Paraíba State, Brazil. The present work describes the pathological and functional aspects of the disease in C. gasar by light microscopy (haemolymph cell monolayer and histological section) and flow cytometry analyses...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30389324/identification-of-an-entomopathogenic-bacterium-xenorhabdus-ehlersii-ksy-from-steinernema-longicaudum-gnus101-and-its-immunosuppressive-activity-against-insect-host-by-inhibiting-eicosanoid-biosynthesis
#2
Hyeonghwan Kim, Soyeon Keum, Ariful Hasan, Hyoil Kim, Younghack Jung, Dongwoon Lee, Yonggyun Kim
Steinernema longicaudum GNUS101, an entomopathogenic nematode, was isolated from soils in Korea. Its internal transcribed space sequence was highly similar to the known S. longicaudum species. Infective juveniles (IJs) of S. longicaudum were highly virulent to lepidopteran and coleopteran insects. Two different bacteria were isolated from the hemolymph of lepidopteran larvae infected with S. longicaudum. They exhibited blue and red colonies on nutrient bromothymol blue agar. The red-colored bacterium was identified as Enterococcus mundtii KHY while the blue-colored bacterium was identified as Xenorhabdus ehlersii KSY based on 16S rRNA sequencing and biochemical characters...
October 30, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30367870/morphology-and-molecular-systematic-of-marine-gregarines-apicomplexa-from-southwestern-atlantic-spionid-polychaetes
#3
S Rueckert, N Glasinovich, M E Diez, F Cremonte, N Vázquez
Gregarines are a common group of parasites that infect the intestines of marine invertebrates, and particularly polychaetes. Here, we describe for the first time four gregarine species that inhabit the intestines of three spionid species: Dipolydora cf. flava, Spio quadrisetosa and Boccardia proboscidea from the Patagonian coast, Argentina, using light and scanning electron microscopy and molecular phylogenetic analyses of small subunit (SSU) rDNA sequences. Even though the spionid species thrive in the same environments, our results showed a high host specificity of the gregarine species...
October 24, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30359568/immunological-response-to-bacterial-infection-in-a-pelagic-tunicate-inflammation-in-the-salp-thalia-democratica
#4
Francesca Cima, Federico Caicci, Valeria Nittoli, Rita Marino, Fabio Crocetta, Paolo Sordino
Thaliaceans are pelagic tunicates that play a key role in trophic chains of the oceans. In the field of tunicate immunity, a notable gap is the lack of data on their inflammatory response. The common salp, Thalia democratica, possesses scant immunocytes, represented by a phagocytic line (hyaline amebocytes) and a mast cell-like line (granular cells). We aimed to provide the first investigation of defense reactions upon exposure to a large amount of bacteria (Bacillus clausii). We detected i) bacterial phagocytosis by hyaline amebocytes, ii) degradation of phagocytizing hyaline amebocytes in the tunic after transcellular diapedesis from the hemocoel, and iii) release of heparin, histamine, and TNF-α by granular cells...
October 22, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30352218/induction-of-hemocyte-apoptosis-by-ovomermis-sinensis-implications-for-host-immune-suppression
#5
Zhenlong Jiao, Guigui Wen, Siying Tao, Jialin Wang, Guoxiu Wang
The entomopathogenic nematode, Ovomermis sinensis, is a parasite of some common lepidopteran pests. O. sinensis is able to overcome the immune system of its hosts and eventually kill the hosts when it emerges. We provide insight into how the mermithid nematode overcomes the immune response of the host Helicoverpa armigera. Our results indicate that O. sinensis actively inhibits host immune responses as evidenced by hemocyte nodulation, spreading behavior, lysozyme activity and melanization. However, O. sinensis did not inhibit host immune responses through immune gene activation...
October 22, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30347207/molecular-characterisation-of-apolipophorin-iii-gene-in-samia-cynthia-ricini-and-its-roles-in-response-to-bacterial-infection
#6
Hai-Zhong Yu, Jie Wang, Shang-Zhi Zhang, Shahzad Toufeeq, Bing Li, Zhen Li, Li-Ang Yang, Pei Hu, Jia-Ping Xu
Apolipophorin-III (ApoLp-III) is an abundant hemolymph protein mainly involved in lipid transport and innate immunity in insects. In the present study, the gene Samia cynthia ricini ApoLp-III (ScApoLp-III) was identified from a transcriptome database, and contained 790 nucleotides with a putative open reading frame (ORF) of 561 bp encoding 186 amino acid residues. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that ScApoLp-III had significant homology with ApoLp-III protein from Antheraea pernyi. Higher ScApoLp-III expression levels were found in the fat body and silk gland by reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR)...
October 19, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30347206/microbial-biopesticides-for-insect-pest-management-in-india-current-status-and-future-prospects
#7
REVIEW
K Kiran Kumar, J Sridhar, Ramasamy Kanagaraj Murali-Baskaran, Sengottayan Senthil-Nathan, Pankaj Kaushal, Surendra K Dara, Steven Arthurs
The biopesticide industry in India is undergoing rapid change, reflecting increased global trade in agricultural commodities, a changing regulatory environment and evolving consumer preferences. Currently biopesticides comprise ≈ 5% of the Indian pesticide market, with at least 15 microbial species and 970 microbial formulations registered through the Central Insecticides Board and Registration Committee (CIBRC). As of 2017, over 200 products based on entomopathogenic fungi (Beauveria bassiana, B. brongniartii, Metarhizium anisopliae s...
October 19, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30336144/infected-host-macerate-enhances-entomopathogenic-nematode-movement-towards-hosts-and-infectivity-in-a-soil-profile
#8
Shaohui Wu, Fatma Kaplan, Edwin Lewis, Hans T Alborn, David I Shapiro-Ilan
Vertical dispersal and infectivity of the infective juveniles (IJs) of three entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs), Steinernema carpocapsae, S. feltiae, and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, were tested in the presence or absence of cadaver macerate of nematode-infected Tenebrio molitor. Infected host macerate applied on the top of column surface induced higher numbers of IJs to move to the bottom of the column for all three species, indicating a dispersal-enhancing effect of host cadaver on IJs. Among the three EPNs, H...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30312627/prevalence-typing-and-phylogenetic-analysis-of-melissococcus-plutonius-strains-from-bee-colonies-of-the-state-of-chihuahua-mexico
#9
Adrián Ponce de León-Door, Alejandro Romo-Chacón, Claudio Rios-Velasco, Paul Baruk Zamudio-Flores, José de Jesús Ornelas-Paz, Carlos H Acosta-Muñiz
European foulbrood (EFB) caused by Melissococcus plutonius is an important bee brood disease but, in Mexico, information about this bacterium is limited. We evaluated the prevalence of typical and atypical strains in beehives of seven apicultural regions of the state of Chihuahua, Mexico. We performed MLST and phylogenetic analysis to characterize the isolates. Prevalence was highest 59%, in the region of Chihuahua, and lowest, 14%, in the regions of Cuauhtémoc and Nuevo Casas Grandes. Typical and atypical strains were identified in hives from all regions; however, in the regions of Parral, Cuauhtémoc and Aldama, the atypical strains were only detected in combination with typical strains...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30300631/molecular-and-structural-assessment-of-microsporidia-infecting-daphnids-the-obtusa-like-microsporidia-a-branch-of-the-monophyletic-agglomeratidae-clade-with-the-establishment-of-a-new-genus-conglomerata
#10
Jiří Vávra, Ivan Fiala, Pavla Krylová, Adam Petrusek, Miroslav Hyliš
Microsporidia (Opisthosporidia, Microsporidia) are frequent parasites of planktonic cladocerans, including Daphnia (Crustacea, Branchiopoda). Analysis of available molecular data (ITS region and partial ssu and lsu rDNA) of these parasites indicates that many microsporidia infecting daphnids have a common ancestor and represent a large clade, which splits during evolution into a number of well supported subclades. These subclades are cytologically different but may be most conveniently characterised by their specific ITS barcode...
October 6, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30300630/synergistic-effects-of-pathogen-and-pesticide-exposure-on-honey-bee-apis-mellifera-survival-and-immunity
#11
Julia Grassl, Shannon Holt, Naomi Cremen, Marianne Peso, Dorothee Hahne, Boris Baer
Declines in native insect pollinator populations and substantial losses in managed honey bees have been reported on a global scale and become a widespread concern because of the importance of these insects for human food production and ecosystem stability. Several potential factors have been studied as possible causes of declining pollinator health, such as parasites and pathogens, exposure to agricultural pesticides, habitat loss and/or climate change. More recently, a combination of these factors rather than a single cause have been blamed for observed pollinator losses, but field studies of such interactions are challenging, especially in the presence of confounding environmental stressors...
October 6, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30300629/the-saprophytic-fungus-fusarium-solani-increases-the-insecticidal-efficacy-of-the-entomopathogenic-nematode-steinernema-diaprepesi
#12
Sheng-Yen Wu, Fahiem E El-Borai, Jim H Graham, Larry W Duncan
In two field surveys, high proportions of Galleria mellonella L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) sentinel larval cadavers were infected by Fusarium solani without evidence of concomitant entomopathogenic nematode (EPN) or entomopathogenic fungus (EPF) reproduction. Because F. solani is not considered entomopathogenic, the survey suggested the possibility that F. solani competes with EPNs. We tested the hypotheses that F. solani attracts the EPN, Steinernema diaprepesi, to facilitate infection of Diaprepes root weevils (Diaprepes abbreviatus L...
October 6, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30291866/perkinsus-olseni-in-the-short-neck-yellow-clam-paphia-malabarica-chemnitz-1782-from-the-southwest-coast-of-india
#13
P Shamal, P U Zacharia, C P Binesh, P Pranav, Gangadharan Suja, P K Asokan, M A Pradeep, Ranjan Rithesh, K K Vijayan, N K Sanil
Parasites of the genus Perkinsus predominantly infect bivalves, and two species among them, P. olseni and P. marinus, are notifiable to OIE. P. olseni infections are known to cause extensive damage to wild as well as farmed bivalves globally with enormous implications to its fishery. Consequent to the initiation of a surveillance programme for aquatic animal diseases in India, Perkinsus infections were observed in many species of bivalves. The present paper describes P. olseni infections in the short neck yellow clam, Paphia malabarica from the southwest coast of India...
October 3, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30291865/performance-of-bt-susceptible-and-heterozygous-genotypes-of-spodoptera-frugiperda-j-e-smith-possessing-single-or-dual-gene-resistance-alleles-in-sequential-feedings-of-non-bt-and-cry1a-105-cry2ab2-maize-leaf-tissues
#14
Yiwan Zhou, Ying Niu, Graham P Head, Paula A Price, Fangneng Huang
We simulated larval feeding behavior in seed blends of non-Bt and Bt maize to determine if seed blends create more favorable conditions for heterozygous-resistant insects over their Bt-susceptible counterparts. Survival, growth, development, and progeny production of four genotypes of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, Bt-susceptible (aabb), Cry1A.105 heterozygous resistant (Aabb), Cry2Ab2 heterozygous resistant (aaBb), and Cry1A.105/Cry2Ab2 heterozygous resistant (AaBb), were evaluated in eight feeding sequences (Seq 1-8) of non-Bt and MON89034 Bt maize leaf tissue expressing the Cry1A...
October 3, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30268676/nematodes-avoid-and-are-killed-by-bacillus-mycoides-produced-styrene
#15
Tian Luo, Shanshan Hou, Li Yang, Gaofu Qi, Xiuyun Zhao
Root-knot nematodes are obligate parasites that feed on plant roots and cause serious crop losses worldwide. Bacillus species (Bacilliaceae) can produce nematicidal metabolites and have shown good potential for biological control of nematodes. In this study, Bacillus mycoides strain R2 isolated from rhizosphere soil of tomato plants exhibited high nematicidal activity against the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. In a pot experiment, control efficiency of B...
September 27, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30268675/impact-of-the-microsporidian-nosema-ceranae-on-the-gut-epithelium-renewal-of-the-honeybee-apis-mellifera
#16
Johan Panek, Laurianne Paris, Diane Roriz, Anne Mone, Aurore Dubuffet, Frédéric Delbac, Marie Diogon, Hicham El Alaoui
The invasive microsporidian species, Nosema ceranae, causes nosemosis in honeybees and is suspected to be involved in Western honeybee (Apis mellifera) declines worldwide. The midgut of honeybees is the site of infection; the microsporidium can disturb the functioning of this organ and, thus, the bee physiology. Host defense against pathogens is not limited to resistance (i.e. the immune response) but also involves resilience. This process implies that the host can tolerate and repair damage inflicted by the infection- by the pathogen itself or by an excessive host immune response...
September 27, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30240583/using-the-fungus-arthrobotrys-cladodes-var-macroides-as-a-sustainable-strategy-to-reduce-numbers-of-infective-larvae-of-bovine-gastrointestinal-parasitic-nematodes
#17
Isabela de Castro Oliveira, Lorendane Millena de Carvalho, Ítalo Stoupa Vieira, Artur Kanadani Campos, Samuel Galvão Freitas, Juliana Milani de Araujo, Fábio Ribeiro Braga, Jackson Victor de Araújo
Research in the area of sanitation in ruminant production has focused on discovery of potential agents for biological control of helminths with nematophagous fungi and has provided evidence of success. The antagonistic potential of the fungus Arthrobotrys cladodes var. macroides on infective larvae of bovine gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. Additionally, an in vivo test of the resistance to digestive processes and viability of the fungus was carried out using a formulation based on sodium alginate administered orally in cattle...
September 18, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30240582/infection-with-the-multi-host-micro-parasite-apicystis-bombi-apicomplexa-neogregarinorida-decreases-survival-of-the-solitary-bee-osmia-bicornis
#18
Tian Tian, Niels Piot, Ivan Meeus, Guy Smagghe
The micro-parasites present in the Apidae pollinator community are mostly multi-host pathogens. To study the impact of these multi-host pathogens on the Apidae pollinator community, as a driver of wild bee decline, pathological studies are needed for different hosts. Yet data on the pathogenesis of these pathogens for different genera and species is scarce or lacking, especially for solitary bee species. In this study, we monitored the effect of the multi-host micro-parasite Apicystis bombi on the lifespan of Osmia bicornis, a common solitary bee...
September 18, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30222956/bioactivity-under-laboratory-conditions-of-brevibacillus-laterosporus-towards-larvae-and-adults-of-chrysomya-putoria-diptera-calliphoridae
#19
Lorrane de A Pereira, Ricardo M Junqueira, Isabel N Carramaschi, Margareth M C Queiroz, Viviane Zahner
Brevibacillus laterosporus was tested for entomopathogenic activity towards larvae and adults of Chrysomya putoria (Diptera: Calliphoridae) under laboratory conditions. Sublethal effects related to feeding activity or development were observed, including reduction in larval weight gain, probably by inhibition of feeding, and variation in the duration of the developmental stages of the insect. Larval mortality was dose dependent following ingestion. The experiments were performed with newly emerged adults exposed to a sugar based diet containing spore suspensions...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30193778/influence-of-the-symbiont-wolbachia-on-life-history-traits-of-the-cabbage-root-fly-delia-radicum
#20
Valérie Lopez, Anne Marie Cortesero, Denis Poinsot
Wolbachia is an endocellular bacteria infecting arthropods and nematodes and is only transmitted vertically by females via the cytoplasm of the egg. It is often a manipulator of host reproduction, causing cytoplasmic incompatibility, thelytokous parthenogenesis, feminization or male killing, which all increase the proportion of infected females in the population. However, Wolbachia can modify life history traits of the host without causing the above phenotypes and each species illustrates the variability of relationships between this remarkably versatile symbiont and its many hosts...
September 5, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
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