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Journal of Invertebrate Pathology

Noèlia Carrasco, Michal Voorbergen-Laarman, Beatriz Lacuesta, Dolors Furones, Marc Y Engelsma
Species belonging to the genus Marteilia are protozoan parasites of bivalves. The species Marteilia refringens, jeopardizing the health of European bivalves, is included on the list of OIE notifiable pathogens. Two genotypes of Marteilia refringens are distinguished: type "O" affecting mainly oysters, and type "M" affecting mainly mussels. Historically, detection of Marteilia species is primarily carried out by histology. In recent years molecular assays are more frequently used for the detection of mollusc pathogens, also in routine monitoring...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Japo Jussila, Al Vrezec, Tina Jaklič, Hobo Kukkonen, Jenny Makkonen, Harri Kokko
Aphanomyces astaci infection is the cause of crayfish plague in European crayfish. Here the virulence of an A. astaci As strain isolated from apparently healthy stone crayfish (Austropotamobius torrentium) from Slovenia was compared to that of the Psl-Puujärvi A. astaci isolate in 3 crayfish species: noble crayfish (Astacus astacus), signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus) from Finland and stone crayfish from Slovenia. All 3 crayfish species were challenged with PsI-Puujärvi A. astaci and succumbed to crayfish plague, with both noble crayfish and stone crayfish showing 100% mortality, while 25% of the signal crayfish died during the challenge...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Il-Hwan Kim, Jerald Ensign, Do-Young Kim, Hoe-Yune Jung, Na-Ri Kim, Bo-Hwa Choi, Sun-Min Park, Que Lan, Walter G Goodman
Reduction of mosquito-borne diseases relies, in part, on the use of synthetic pesticides to control pest mosquitoes. This reliance has led to genetic resistance, environmental contamination and the nondiscriminatory elimination of both pest and non-pest species. To expand our options for control, we screened entomopathogenic bacteria for potential larvicidal activity. A lipopeptide from the bacterium, Xenorhabdus innexi, was discovered that displayed potent larvicidal activity. The LC50s of the lipopeptide towards Aedes aegypti, Culex pipiens and Anopheles gambiae larvae were 1...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Vadim Kryukov, Olga Yaroslavtseva, Maksim Tyurin, Yuriy Akhanaev, Evgeniy Elisaphenko, Ting-Chi Wen, Oksana Tomilova, Yuri Tokarev, Viktor Glupov
Thirty-four isolates of Metarhizium spp. from Russian collections were genotyped using 5' EF-1α gene sequence analysis. Four species were identified, of which M. robertsii and M. brunneum were the most frequent, whereas M. anisopliae and M. pemphigum were sporadic. Radial growth studies in the temperature range of 10-40°C revealed that growth at high temperatures (35-37.5°C) was inherent for M. robertsii isolates but not for M. brunneum isolates. In contrast, M. brunneum isolates were more active at cold temperatures (10°C) compared to M...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Binod Acharya, Graham P Head, Paula A Price, Fangneng Huang
Cry2Ab2 is a Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) protein expressed in transgenic corn and cotton targeting above-ground lepidopteran pests including the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith). The objective of this study was to characterize fitness costs and inheritance of Cry2Ab2 resistance in S. frugiperda. To determine if fitness costs were associated with the resistance, life history parameters (larval survival, growth, development and egg production) of Cry2Ab2-resistant, -susceptible, and two reciprocal F1 colonies of S...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Maria Elita B Castro, Fernando L Melo, Marina Tagliari, Peter W Inglis, Saluana R Craveiro, Zilda Maria A Ribeiro, Bergmann M Ribeiro, Sônia N Báo
Condylorrhiza vestigialis (Lepidoptera: Cambridae), commonly known as the Brazilian poplar moth or Alamo moth, is a serious defoliating pest of poplar, a crop of great economic importance for the production of wood, fiber, biofuel and other biomaterials as well as its significant ecological and environmental value. The complete genome sequence of a new alphabaculovirus isolated from C. vestigialis was determined and analyzed. Condylorrhiza vestigialis nucleopolyhedrovirus (CoveNPV) has a circular double-stranded DNA genome of 125,767bp with a GC content of 42...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
ZhiHong Li, GuoQing Pan, ZhenGang Ma, Bing Han, Bin Sun, Qi Ni, Jie Chen, Tian Li, TongBao Liu, MengXian Long, ChunFeng Li, ZeYang Zhou
Nosema bombycis is an obligate intracellular parasite, which can cause pébrine disease. To investigate the effects of N. bombycis infection, 5(th)-instar silkworms were challenged with N. bombycis isolate CQ1, and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis was performed to analyze the differentially expressed proteins in infected and uninfected silkworm fat bodies 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 days post-infection (dpi). 46 differentially expressed proteins were identified at the 5 time points using MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. The changed proteins mainly involved in immune response, energy metabolism, and molecular synthesis...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
María Fernández-Bravo, Alejandro Flores-León, Salvador Calero-López, Fernando Gutiérrez-Sánchez, Pablo Valverde-García, Enrique Quesada-Moraga
Recent studies have demonstrated the presence of Metarhizium species on the epigeal areas of weeds and woody plants in various Mediterranean ecosystems, and the question arises whether isolates from the phylloplane, which experiences greater exposure to environmental UV-B radiation than soil isolates do, could have better UV-B radiation tolerance. The in vitro response of 18 Metarhizium strains isolated from phylloplane and soil of several Mediterranean ecosystems to UV-B radiation and the in vitro and in vivo effects of UV-B radiation on the viability and virulence of a selected M...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Karthigayani Thayappan, Maghil Denis, Sivakumar Mullaivanam Ramasamy, Arumugam Munusamy
The mole crab, Emerita emeritus, collected from the sandy shores of a Chennai beach, was investigated for cellular immune responses based on the morphology and defensive reactions of the circulating haemocytes. Three haemocyte morphotypes were identified using light and electron microscopy, and separated in a discontinuous percoll gradient. A phagocytosis study using human B erythrocyte as a target cell under phase-contrast optics showed that granular and semi-granular haemocytes were phagocytic, and this response was enhanced by using serum (opsonin)-coated human B erythrocyte in unfractionated and fractionated haemocytes...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Kwang-Zin Lee, Andreas Vilcinskas
The invasive insect pest Drosophila suzukii infests ripening fruits and causes massive agricultural damage in North America and Europe (Cini et al., 2012). Environmentally sustainable strategies are urgently needed to control the spread of this species, and entomopathogenic viruses offer one potential solution for global crop protection. Here we report the status of intrinsic and extrinsic factors that influence the susceptibility of D. suzukii to three model insect viruses: Drosophila C virus, Cricket paralysis virus and Flock house virus...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Mohammad Shaef Ullah, Un Taek Lim
Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), a major pest of many agricultural crops, is mainly controlled with chemical acaricides. However, predatory mites and entomopathogens have been proposed as alternative control agents. In this study, the effect of the BotaniGard(®) GHA strain of Beauveria bassiana on the survival, longevity, fecundity, and egg hatch rate of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae) were studied under laboratory conditions. When B. bassiana was applied directly to P...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
A Ríos-Moreno, I Garrido-Jurado, M C Raya-Ortega, E Quesada-Moraga
Destruxin A is among the major secondary metabolites produced by the entomopathogenic ascomycete Metarhizium sp., and the lack of studies concerning production of destruxin A by the fungus is most likely the biggest obstacle for the registration of new fungal strains. Although several studies focus on the production of destruxin A in culture media, few studies examine destruxin A in vivo during host infection. In the current work, Galleria mellonella was used as an insect model to develop for the first time in vivo real-time PCR- and HPLC-MS-based quantification of fungal growth and metabolite production, respectively, during infection by two strains of M...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Adriano Magesky, Claude Belzile, Émilien Pelletier
In this study, successive infectious stages by diatom Cylindrotheca closterium (Bacillariophyceae) are described for the first time during the early development of sea urchin at low temperature (8°C). Diatom cell-types enclosed or not by typical theca were capable of infection. As an immune response, red spherulocytes and amoebocytes migrated towards infested areas and restrained the infection spreading over shells in 2- and 3-month old urchins. Only amoebocyte cells appeared to be involved in the immune reaction of 1-month old specimens which turned out to be a less effective fence to stop infestation...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Fangyan Liu, Qiang Ma, Xiaoqun Dang, Ying Wang, Yue Song, Xianzhi Meng, Jialing Bao, Jie Chen, Guoqing Pan, Zeyang Zhou
Nosema bombycis is the pathogen of pébrine which brings heavy losses to sericulture every year. As a member of serine proteases, subtilisin-like protease (SLP) is related to the pathogenicity in fungi. In this study, we characterized a novel 63.8kDa subtilisin-like protease NbSLP2 with a predicted transmembrane domain from Microsporidia, N. bombycis. RT-PCR showed that the transcript of NbSLP2 was detected from third day post infection. Immunofluorescence assay (IFA) indicated that NbSLP2 mainly scattered around the spore wall of N...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Diana Medina Félix, José Antonio López Elías, Ángel Isidro Campa Córdova, Luis Rafael Martínez Córdova, Antonio Luna González, Edilmar Cortes Jacinto, Nolberta Huerta Aldaz, Fernando Cano Mendoza, María Guadalupe Burboa Zazueta
Survival of Litopenaeus vannamei was evaluated during a Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection. This bacteria has been causing significant economic losses in the shrimp industry due to the appearance of early mortality syndrome (EMS), also known as acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND). Control of bacteria in ponds is difficult to achieve with antibiotics due to environmental infections and antibiotic resistance. New methods have been proposed to control and prevent the impact of bacterial infections. The physiological response indicated by plasma biochemical parameters in shrimp can determine their health and stress status...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Alex P Arp, Xavier Martini, Kirsten S Pelz-Stelinski
Citrus production worldwide is currently threatened by Huanglongbing, or citrus greening disease. The associated pathogen, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), is transmitted by the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri. Annotation of the D. citri genome revealed a reduced innate immune system lacking a number of antimicrobial peptides and the Imd pathway associated with defense against Gram-negative bacteria. We characterized this apparent immune reduction in survival assays in which D. citri were exposed to Gram-negative or Gram-positive bacteria...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Ronnie Dotaona, Bree A L Wilson, Gavin J Ash, Joanne Holloway, Mark M Stevens
Metarhizium anisopliae has a wide range of coleopteran hosts, including weevils. Some susceptible insects are known to modify their behavior to prevent infection, typically detecting virulent strains by olfaction, and avoiding physical contact with sources of infection. Laboratory olfactometer assays were conducted on the sweetpotato weevil Cylas formicarius to test the hypothesis that insects would avoid a more virulent strain of M. anisopliae when presented with a strain of low virulence or an untreated control...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Arran J Folly, Hauke Koch, Philip C Stevenson, Mark J F Brown
Disease transmission networks are key for understanding parasite epidemiology. Within the social insects, structured contact networks have been suggested to limit the spread of diseases to vulnerable members of their society, such as the queen or brood. However, even these complex social structures do not provide complete protection, as some diseases, which are transmitted by workers during brood care, can still infect the brood. Given the high rate of feeding interactions that occur in a social insect colony, larvae may act as disease transmission hubs...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Luísa Magalhães, Xavier de Montaudouin, Rosa Freitas, Guillemine Daffe, Etelvina Figueira, Patrice Gonzalez
Bivalve populations are controlled by several biotic and abiotic factors. Parasitism is among the biotic factors but is often neglected. In the present study, we focused on the transcriptomic and biochemical responses of Cerastoderma edule when parasitized as first intermediate host by the trematode Bucephalus minimus (sporocyst, the most damaging stage), and taking into account seasonal patterns. In order to test the hypothesis that the presence of B. minimus compromises cockle regular gene expression and biochemical performance and increases their vulnerability to other parasite species infection, cockles were sampled every other month during one year in Arcachon Bay (French Atlantic coast)...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Stephen A Rehner, Ryan M Kepler
An essential first step to elucidating the ecology and life histories of Metarhizium anisopliae-group species as entomopathogens, endophytes and soil-adapted fungi is the ability to define species limits and confidently infer a species phylogeny. In a multilocus phylogeny of the core Metarhizium anisopliae species complex, the majority of isolates sampled herein group within the currently defined limits of M. pingshaense, M. anisopliae, M. robertsii and M. brunneum, designated informally as the "PARB" clade...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
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