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IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering

Johanna Metsomaa, Jukka Sarvas, Risto J Ilmoniemi
OBJECTIVE: Blind source separation (BSS) can be used to decompose complex electroencephalography (EEG) or magnetoencephalography data into simpler components based on statistical assumptions without using a physical model. Applications include brain-computer interfaces, artifact removal and identifying parallel neural processes. We wish to address the issue of applying BSS to event-related responses which is challenging because of non-stationary data. METHODS: We introduce a new BSS approach called momentary-uncorrelated component analysis (MUCA) which is tailored for event-related multi-trial data...
October 12, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
Farzad Khosrow-Khavar, Kouhyar Tavakolian, Andrew Blaber, Carlo Menon
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this research was to design a delineation algorithm that could detect specific fiducial points of the seismocardiogram (SCG) signal with or without using the electrocardiogram (ECG) R-wave as the reference point. The detected fiducial points were used to estimate cardiac time intervals. Due to complexity and sensitivity of the SCG signal, the algorithm was designed to robustly discard the low-quality cardiac cycles, which are the ones that contain unrecognizable fiducial points...
October 12, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
Abbas Sohrabpour, Shuai Ye, Gregory A Worrell, Wenbo Zhang, Bin He
: Combined source imaging techniques and directional connectivity analysis can provide useful information about the underlying brain networks in a noninvasive fashion. Source imaging techniques have been used successfully to either determine the source of activity or to extract source time-courses for Granger causality analysis, previously. In this work, we utilize source imaging algorithms to both find the network nodes (regions of interest) and then extract the activation time series for further Granger causality analysis...
October 11, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
Po-Yen Wu, Chih-Wen Cheng, Chanchala Kaddi, Janani Venugopalan, Ryan Hoffman, May D Wang
OBJECTIVE: Rapid advances of high-throughput technologies and wide adoption of electronic health records (EHRs) have led to fast accumulation of -omic and EHR data. These voluminous complex data contain abundant information for precision medicine, and big data analytics can extract such knowledge to improve the quality of health care. METHODS: In this article, we present -omic and EHR data characteristics, associated challenges, and data analytics including data pre-processing, mining, and modeling...
October 10, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
Huaming Yan, Monica Romero-Lopez, H B Frieboes, C C W Hughes, J S Lowengrub
OBJECTIVE: In glioblastoma, the crosstalk between vascular endothelial cells (VECs) and glioma stem cells (GSCs) has been shown to enhance tumor growth. We propose a multiscale mathematical model to study this mechanism, explore tumor growth under various initial and microenvironmental conditions and investigate the effects of blocking this crosstalk. METHODS: We develop a hybrid continuum-discrete model of highly organized, vascularized tumors. VEC-GSC crosstalk is modeled via VEGF production by tumor cells and by secretion of soluble factors by VECs that promote GSC self-renewal and proliferation...
October 7, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
Timothy J OBrien, Ali R Roghani, Philip A Jones, Charles H Aardema, John L Robertson, Thomas E Diller
A new thin-filmed perfusion sensor was developed using a heat flux gauge, thin-film thermocouple, and a heating element. This sensor, termed "CHFT+", is an enhancement of the previously established CHFT (combined heat flux - temperature) sensor technology predominately used to quantify the severity of burns [1]. The CHFT+ sensor was uniquely designed to measure tissue perfusion on explanted organs destined for transplantation, but could be functionalized and used in a wide variety of other biomedical applications...
October 5, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
Stefan Calder, Gregory O'Grady, Leo Cheng, Peng Du
Routine screening and accurate diagnosis of chronic gastrointestinal motility disorders represents a significant problem in current clinical practice. The electrogastrography (EGG) provides a non-invasive option for assessing gastric slow waves, as a means of diagnosing gastric dysrhythmias, but its uptake in motility practice has been limited partly due to an incomplete sensitivity and specificity. This paper presents the development of a human whole-organ gastric model to enable virtual (insilico) testing of gastric electrophysiological dispersion in order to improve the diagnostic accuracy of EGG...
September 30, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
Thanh M Bui, Alain Coron, Jonathan Mamou, Emi Saegusa-Beecroft, Tadashi Yamaguchi, Eugene Yanagihara, Junji Machi, S Lori Bridal, Ernest J Feleppa
OBJECTIVE: To detect metastases in freshly excised human lymph nodes (LNs) using 3-dimensional (3D), high-frequency, quantitative ultrasound (QUS) methods, the LN parenchyma (LNP) must be segmented to preclude QUS analysis of data in regions outside the LNP and to compensate ultrasound attenuation effects due to overlying layers of LNP and residual perinodal fat (PNF). METHODS: After restoring saturated radio-frequency signals from PNF using an approach based on smoothing-cubic splines, the three regions, i...
September 28, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
Shigeyuki Okahara, Zu Soh, Satoshi Miyamoto, Hidenobu Takahashi, Shinya Takahashi, Taijiro Sueda, Toshio Tsuji
This paper proposes an algorithm that estimates blood viscosity during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and validates its application in clinical cases. The proposed algorithm involves adjustable parameters based on the oxygenator and fluid types and estimates blood viscosity based on pressure-flow characteristics of the fluid perfusing through the oxygenator. This novel nonlinear model requires four parameters that were derived by in-vitro experiments. The results estimated by the proposed method were then compared with a conventional linear model to demonstrate the former's optimal curve fitting...
September 19, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
Parviz Ghaderi, Hamid Reza Marateb
: The aim of this study was to reconstruct low-quality High-density surface EMG (HDsEMG) signals, recorded with 2-d electrode arrays, using image inpainting and surface reconstruction methods. METHODS: It is common that some fraction of the electrodes may provide low-quality signals. We used variety of image inpainting methods, based on partial differential equations (PDEs), and surface reconstruction methods, to reconstruct the time-averaged or instantaneous muscle activity maps of those outlier channels...
September 19, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
Christian Wachinger, Matthew Brennan, Greg Sharp, Polina Golland
OBJECTIVE: We introduce descriptor-based segmentation that extends existing patch-based methods by combining intensities, features and location information. Since it is unclear which image features are best suited for patch selection, we perform a broad empirical study on a multitude of different features. We extend non-local means segmentation by including image features and location information. We search larger windows with an efficient nearest neighbor search based on kd-trees. We compare a large number of image features...
September 16, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
Alexander von Luhmann, Heidrun Wabnitz, Tilmann Sander, Klaus-Robert Muller
OBJECTIVE: For the further development of the fields of telemedicine, neurotechnology and Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI), advances in hybrid multimodal signal acquisition and processing technology are invaluable. Currently, there are no commonly available hybrid devices combining bio-electrical and bio-optical neurophysiological measurements (here Electroencephalography (EEG) and functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS)). Our objective was the design of such an instrument, and that in a miniaturized, customizable and wireless form...
September 9, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
Noemi Picco, Robert A Gatenby, Alexander R A Anderson
OBJECTIVE: Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been hypothesized to initiate and drive tumor growth and recurrence due to their self-renewal ability. If correct, this hypothesis implies that successful therapy must focus primarily on eradication of this CSC fraction. However, recent evidence suggests stemness is niche dependent and may represent one of many phenotypic states that can be accessed by many cancer genotypes when presented with specific environmental cues. A better understanding of the relationship of stemness to niche-related phenotypic plasticity could lead to alternative treatment strategies...
September 8, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
Nima Karimian, Zimu Guo, Mark Tehranipoor, Domenic Forte
Traditional passwords are inadequate as cryptographic keys, as they are easy to forge and are vulnerable to guessing. Human biometrics have been proposed as a promising alternative due to their intrinsic nature. Electrocardiogram (ECG) is an emerging biometric that is extremely difficult to forge and circumvent, but has not yet been heavily investigated for cryptographic key generation. ECG has challenges with respect to immunity to noise, abnormalities, etc. In this paper, we propose a novel key generation approach that extracts keys from real valued ECG features with high reliability and entropy in mind...
September 8, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
James A Grogan, Bostjan Markelc, Anthony J Connor, Ruth J Muschel, Joe M Pitt-Francis, Philip K Maini, Helen M Byrne
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to investigate how theoretical predictions of tumour response to radiotherapy depend on the morphology and spatial representation of the microvascular network. METHODS: A hybrid multiscale model, that couples a cellular automaton model of tumour growth with a model for oxygen transport from blood vessels, is used to predict the viable fraction of cells following one week of simulated radiotherapy. Both artificial and biologically derived three-dimensional vessel networks of well vascularized tumours are considered and predictions compared with two-dimensional descriptions...
September 8, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
Yue Ruan, Malgorzata E Wilinska, Hood Thabit, Roman Hovorka
Parameters of physiological models of glucose-insulin regulation in type 1 diabetes have previously been estimated using data collected over short periods of time and lack the quantification of day-to-day variability. We developed a new hierarchical model to relate subcutaneous insulin delivery and carbohydrate intake to continuous glucose monitoring over 12 weeks while describing day-to-day variability. Sensor glucose data sampled every 10 min, insulin aspart delivery and meal intake were analyzed from 8 adults with type 1 diabetes (male/female 5/3, age 39...
September 8, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
Alan Paris, George Atia, Azadeh Vosoughi, Stephen A Berman
OBJECTIVE: A characteristic of neurological signal processing is high levels of noise from sub-cellular ion channels up to whole-brain processes. In this paper, we propose a new model of electroencephalogram (EEG) background periodograms, based on a family of functions which we call generalized van der Ziel- McWhorter (GVZM) power spectral densities (PSDs). To the best of our knowledge, the GVZM PSD function is the only EEG noise model which has relatively few parameters, matches recorded EEG PSD's with high accuracy from 0 Hz to over 30 Hz, and has approximately 1=f behavior in the mid-frequencies without infinities...
September 7, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
Kyle Weigand, Russell Witte, Talal Moukabary, Ike Chinyere, Jordan Lancaster, Mary Kaye Pierce, Steven Goldman, Elizabeth Juneman
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to define the clinical relevance of in-vivo electrophysiologic (EP) studies in a rat model of chronic ischemic heart failure (CHF). METHODS: Electrical activation sequences, voltage amplitudes, and monophasic action potentials (MAPs) were recorded from adult male Sprague-Dawley rats six weeks after left coronary artery ligation. Programmed electrical stimulation (PES) sequences were developed to induce sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT)...
September 2, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
Idit Diamant, Eyal Klang, Michal Amitai, Eli Konen, Jacob Goldberger, Hayit Greenspan
OBJECTIVE: We present a novel variant of the Bagof- Visual-Words (BoVW) method for automated medical image classification. METHODS: Our approach improves the BoVW model by learning a task driven dictionary of the most relevant visual words per task using a mutual information based criterion. Additionally, we generate relevance maps to visualize and localize the decision of the automatic classification algorithm. These maps demonstrate how the algorithm works and show the spatial layout of the most relevant words...
September 1, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
Biqin Dong, Cheng Sun, Hao Zhang
OBJECTIVE: Photoacoustic (PA) imaging emerges as a unique tool to study biological samples based on optical absorption contrast. In PA imaging, piezoelectric transducers are commonly used to detect laser-induced ultrasonic waves. However, they typically lack adequate broadband sensitivity at ultrasonic frequency higher than 100 MHz while their bulky size and optically opaque nature cause technical difficulties in integrating PA imaging with conventional optical imaging modalities. To overcome these limitations, optical methods of ultrasound detection were developed and shown their unique applications in photoacoustic imaging...
September 1, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
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