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IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749343/a-potential-based-inverse-spectral-method-to-non-invasively-localize-discordant-distributions-of-alternans-on-the-heart-from-the-ecg
#1
Jaume Coll-Font, Burak Erem, Dana H Brooks
T-wave alternans (TWA), defined as the beat-to-beat alternation in amplitude of the T-waves, has been shown to be linked to ventricular fibrillation (VF). However, current TWA tests have high sensitivity but low specificity in determining who is at risk. To overcome this limitation, it might be helpful to determine the spatial distribution of any regions on the heart that alternate in opposite phase. Understanding these spatial distributions in relation to the regular activation of the heart could help explain the mechanism for the genesis of VF and thus disambiguate the low specificity of TWA...
July 26, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749342/broadband-vibration-detection-in-tissue-phantoms-using-a-fiber-fabry-perot-cavity
#2
Jack Barnes, Sijia Li, Apoorv Goyal, Purang Abolmaesumi, Parvin Mousavi, Hans-Peter Loock
A fiber optic vibration sensor is developed and characterized with an ultra-wide dynamic sensing range, from less than 1 Hz to clinical ultrasound frequencies near 6 MHz. The vibration sensor consists of a matched pair of fiber Bragg gratings coupled to a custom-built signal processing circuit. The wavelength of a laser diode is locked to one of the many cavity resonances using the Pound-Drever-Hall scheme. A calibrated piezoelectric vibration element was used to characterize the sensor's strain, temperature, and noise responses...
July 24, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742027/a-regularized-deep-learning-approach-for-clinical-risk-prediction-of-acute-coronary-syndrome-using-electronic-health-records
#3
Zhengxing Huang, Wei Dong, Huilong Duan, Jiquan Liu
OBJECTIVE: Acute coronary syndrome (ACS), as a common and severe cardiovascular disease, is a leading cause of death and the principal cause of serious long-term disability globally. Clinical risk prediction of ACS is important for early intervention and treatment. Existing ACS risk scoring models are based mainly on a small set of hand-picked risk factors and often dichotomize predictive variables to simplify the score calculation [1-3]. METHODS: This study develops a regularized stacked denoising auto-encoder (SDAE) model to stratify clinical risks of ACS patients from a large volume of electronic health records (EHR)...
July 24, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715324/electrical-impedance-tomography-tissue-properties-to-image-measures
#4
Andy Adler, Alistair Boyle
Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) uses electrical stimulation and measurement at the body surface to image the electrical properties of internal tissues. It has the advantage of non-invasiveness and high temporal resolution but suffers from poor spatial resolution and sensitivity to electrode movement and contact quality. EIT can be useful to applications where there are conductive contrasts between tissues, fluids or gasses, such as imaging of cancerous or ischemic tissue or functional monitoring of breathing, blood flow, gastric motility and neural activity...
July 17, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715323/spiral-gradient-coil-design-for-use-in-cylindrical-mri-systems
#5
Yaohui Wang, Xuegang Xin, Feng Liu, Stuart Crozier
In Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), the stream function-based method is commonly used in the design of gradient coils. However, this method can be prone to errors associated with the discretization of continuous current density and wire connections. In this work, we propose a novel gradient coil design scheme that works directly in the wire space, avoiding the system errors that may appear in the stream function approaches. Specifically, the gradient coil pattern is described with dedicated spiral functions adjusted to allow the coil to produce the required field gradients in the imaging area, minimal stray field and other engineering terms...
July 13, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715322/optimal-mixed-tracking-impedance-control-with-application-to-transfemoral-prostheses-with-energy-regeneration
#6
Gholamreza Khademi, Hanieh Mohammadi, Hanz Richter, Dan Simon
OBJECTIVE: We design an optimal passivity-based tracking / impedance control system for a robotic manipulator with energy regenerative electronics, where the manipulator has both actively and semi-actively controlled joints. The semi-active joints are driven by a regenerative actuator that includes an energy-storing element. METHOD: External forces can have a large influence on energy regeneration characteristics. Impedance control is used to impose a desired relationship between external forces and deviation from reference trajectories...
July 13, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708542/an-ambulatory-gait-monitoring-system-with-activity-classification-and-gait-parameter-calculation-based-on-a-single-foot-inertial-sensor
#7
Minsu Song, Jonghyun Kim
GOAL: For healthcare and clinical use, ambulatory gait monitoring systems using inertial sensors have been developed to estimate the user gait parameters, such as walking speed, stride time, and stride length. However, to adapt the systems effectively to daily-life activities, they need to be able to classify the gait activities of daily-life to obtain the parameters for each activity. In this study, we propose a simple classification algorithm based on a single inertial sensor for ease of use, which classifies three major gait activities: leveled walk, ramp walk, and stair walk...
July 12, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692959/dedicated-entropy-measures-for-early-assessment-of-pregnancy-progression-from-single-channel-electrohysterography
#8
Massimo Mischi, Chuan Chen, Tanya Ignatenko, Hinke de Lau, Beijing Ding, Guid S Oei, Chiara Rabotti
OBJECTIVE: Preterm birth is a large-scale clinical problem involving over 10% infants. Diagnostic means for timely risk assessment are lacking and the underlying physiological mechanisms unclear. To improve the evaluation of pregnancy before term, we introduce dedicated entropy measures derived from a single-channel electrohysterogram (EHG). METHODS: The estimation of Approximate Entropy (ApEn) and Sample Entropy (SampEn) is adjusted to monitor variations in the regularity of single-channel EHG recordings, reflecting myoelectrical changes due to pregnancy progression...
July 10, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692960/sequential-therapeutic-response-modeling-for-tumor-treatment-using-computational-hybrid-control-systems-approach
#9
Wasiu Opeyemi Oduola, Xiangfang Li, Chang Duan, Lijun Qian, Edward R Dougherty
Tumorigenesis is due to uncontrolled cell division arising from mutations and alterations in the proliferative controls of the cell population. The fight against tumor growth and development has often relied on combination therapy which has been acclaimed as one of the main standards of care in cancer therapeutics and prevention of drug-related resistances. The toxicity of the combinatorial drugs raises a significant concern whenever patients take two or more drugs concurrently at the maximum tolerated dose...
July 6, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692958/grift-a-device-for-quantifying-physiological-and-pathological-mirror-movements-in-children
#10
E Jaspers, K Klingels, C Simon-Martinez, H Feys, D G Woolley, N Wenderoth
Mirror movements (MM) typically occur during unilateral actions and manifest as involuntary muscle activity of the passive limb, which "mirror" voluntary actions executed by the contralateral homologous body part. They are a normal motor feature in young children and gradually disappear during the first decade of life. In children suffering from neurological disorders, e.g. due to an early brain lesion as in unilateral cerebral palsy, the amplitude and occurrence of MM has been proposed to yield relevant information for diagnosis and therapy...
July 5, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692957/passive-wearable-skin-patch-sensor-measures-limb-hemodynamics-based-on-electromagnetic-resonance
#11
Kim Cluff, Ryan A Becker, Balakumar Jayakumar, Kiyun Han, Ernie Condon, Kenneth Dudley, George Szatkowski, Iraklis I Pipinos, Ryan Z Amick, Jeremy Patterson
OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to design and develop an open circuit electromagnetic resonant skin patch sensor, characterize the fluid volume and resonant frequency relationship and investigate the sensor's ability to measure limb hemodynamics and pulse volume waveform features. METHODS: The skin patch was designed from an open circuit electromagnetic resonant sensor comprised of a single baseline trace of copper configured into a square planar spiral which had a self-resonating response when excited by an external radio frequency (RF) sweep...
July 4, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682245/a-fiber-bragg-grating-sensor-for-radial-artery-pulse-waveform-measurement
#12
Dagong Jia, Jing Chao, Shuai Li, Hongxia Zhang, Yingzhan Yan, Tiegen Liu, Ye Sun
In this paper, we report the design and experimental validation of a novel optical sensor for radial artery pulse measurement based on fiber Bragg grating (FBG) and lever amplification mechanism. Pulse waveform analysis (PWA) is a diagnostic tool for clinical examination and disease diagnosis. High fidelity radial artery pulse waveform has been investigated in clinical studies for estimating central aortic pressure which is proved to be predictors of cardiovascular diseases. As a three-dimensional cylinder, the radial artery needs to be examined from different locations to achieve optimal pulse waveform for estimation and diagnosis...
June 30, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682244/minimizing-the-translation-error-in-the-application-of-an-oblique-single-cut-rotation-osteotomy-where-to-cut
#13
Johannes G G Dobbe, Simon D Strackee, Geert J Streekstra
OBJECTIVE: An oblique single cut rotation osteotomy enables correcting angular bone alignment in the coronal, sagittal and transverse planes, with just a single oblique osteotomy, and by rotating one bone segment in the osteotomy plane. However, translational malalignment is likely to exist if the bone is curved or deformed and the location of the oblique osteotomy is not obvious. METHODS: In this paper we investigate how translational malalignment depends on the osteotomy location...
June 29, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682243/orbit-segmentation-by-surface-reconstruction-with-automatic-sliced-vertex-screening
#14
Tai Chiu Hsung, John Lo, Mei-Man Chong, Tazuko K Goto, Lim Cheung
In segmentation of human orbit in computer tomography (CT) images, traditional approaches are slice-by-slice manual editing or shape interpolation with selected slices interactively. It is not only time consuming, but also inefficient, exhibits inter-operator variability and repeatability problems. In this study, we aim to develop a computational approach to the segmentation of orbits. The first step is to perform Hounsfield unit thresholding to segment the bony structure around the orbit. Then a three dimensional (3D) mesh model is generated...
June 29, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682242/low-rank-enhanced-matrix-recovery-of-hybrid-time-and-frequency-data-in-fast-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy
#15
Hengfa Lu, Xinlin Zhang, Tianyu Qiu, Jian Yang, Jiaxi Ying, Di Guo, Zhong Chen, Xiaobo Qu
GOAL: The two dimensional magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) possesses many important applications in bio-engineering but suffers from long acquisition duration. Nonuniform sampling has been applied to the spatiotemporally encoded ultrafast MRS, but results in missing data in the hybrid time and frequency plane. An approach is proposed to recover this missing signal, of which enables high quality spectrum reconstruction. METHODS: The natural exponential characteristic of MRS is exploited to recover the hybrid time and frequency signal...
June 29, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678699/turn-intent-detection-for-control-of-a-lower-limb-prosthesis
#16
Corey Pew, Glenn Klute
OBJECTIVE: An adaptable lower limb prosthesis with variable stiffness in the transverse plane requires a control method to effect changes in real time during amputee turning. This study aimed to identify classification algorithms that can accurately predict turning using inertial measurement unit (IMU) signals from the shank with adequate time to enact a change in stiffness during the swing phase of gait when the prosthesis is unloaded. METHODS: To identify if a turning step is imminent, classification models were developed around activities of daily living including 90? spin turns, 90? step turns, 180? turns, and straight walking using simulated IMU data from the prosthesis shank...
June 28, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678698/a-novel-telemanipulated-robotic-assistant-for-surgical-endoscopy-preclinical-application-to-esd
#17
Lucile Zorn, Florent Nageotte, Philippe Zanne, Andras Legner, Bernard Dallemagne, Jacques Marescaux, Michel de Mathelin
Minimally invasive surgical interventions in the gastrointestinal tract, such as Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection (ESD), are very difficult for surgeons when performed with standard flexible endoscopes. Robotic flexible systems have been identified as a solution to improve manipulation. However, only a few such systems have been brought to preclinical trials as of now. As a result, novel robotic tools are required.
June 28, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678697/in-ear-audio-wearable-measurement-of-heart-and-breathing-rates-for-health-and-safety-monitoring
#18
Alexis Martin, Jeremie Voix
OBJECTIVE: This paper examines the integration of a non-invasive vital sign monitoring feature into the workers' hearing protection devices (HPDs) by using a microphone positioned within the earcanal under the HPD. METHODS: 25 test-subjects were asked to breathe at various rhythms and intensities and these realistic sound events were recorded in the earcanal. Digital signal processing algorithms were then developed to assess heart and breathing rates. Finally, to test the robustness of theses algorithms in noisy work environments, industrial noise was added to the in-ear recorded signals and an adaptive denoising filter was used...
June 27, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650805/an-in-vitro-and-numerical-study-of-moxibustion-therapy-on-biological-tissue
#19
Ying Li, Chao Sun, Jiujie Kuang, Changchun Ji, Shangsheng Feng, Jiangtao Wu, Haojun You
OBJECTIVE: Moxibustion therapy achieves satisfactory therapeutic effects largely depending on the heat stimulation of burning moxa. Understanding the thermal characteristics of heating process is an effective way to reveal the underlying mechanisms of moxibustion therapy. METHODS: This paper performs experimental study on temperature distributions of burning moxa sticks and fresh in-vitro porcine abdominal tissue using an infrared camera and thermocouples. Meanwhile, a moxibustion model incorporating moxa stick burning model and tissue heat transfer model was established with consideration of radiation propagation and water evaporation...
June 26, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650804/limb-position-tolerant-pattern-recognition-for-myoelectric-prosthesis-control-with-adaptive-sparse-representations-from-extreme-learning
#20
Joseph L Betthauser, Christopher L Hunt, Luke E Osborn, Matthew R Masters, Gyorgy Levay, Rahul Reddy Kaliki, Nitish V Thakor
Myoelectric signals can be used to predict the intended movements of an amputee for prosthesis control. However, untrained effects like limb position changes influence myoelectric signal characteristics, hindering the ability of pattern recognition algorithms to discriminate among motion classes. Despite frequent and long training sessions, these deleterious conditional influences may result in poor performance and device abandonment. GOAL: We present a robust sparsity-based adaptive classification method that is significantly less sensitive to signal deviations resulting from untrained conditions...
June 23, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
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