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Jingchuan Guo, Sebhat A Erqou, Rachel G Miller, Daniel Edmundowicz, Trevor J Orchard, Tina Costacou
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We sought to assess the role of coronary artery calcification (CAC) and its progression in predicting incident coronary artery disease (CAD) in individuals with type 1 diabetes using data from the Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications (EDC) Study. METHODS: The present study examined 292 participants who had at least one CAC measure and were free from CAD at baseline; 181 (62%) had repeat CAC assessments 4-8 years later and did not develop CAD between the two CAC measures...
November 14, 2018: Diabetologia
Ravi Retnakaran, Jin Luo, Baiju R Shah
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: In common with type 2 diabetes, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with a propensity for hepatic fat deposition. We hypothesised that GDM predicts future lifetime risk of serious liver-disease outcomes, such as cirrhosis, liver failure and need for transplantation. METHODS: From population-based administrative databases, we identified all women in Ontario, Canada, who had a pregnancy resulting in live birth between April 1994 and March 2002 (N = 698,078)...
November 13, 2018: Diabetologia
Steef Kurstjens, Jeroen H F de Baaij, Caro Overmars-Bos, Inge C L van den Munckhof, Veronica Garzero, Marijke A de Vries, Benjamin Burggraaf, Janna A van Diepen, Niels P Riksen, Joost H W Rutten, Mihai G Netea, Manuel Castro Cabezas, René J M Bindels, Frances M Ashcroft, Cees J J Tack, Joost G J Hoenderop
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The blood triacylglycerol level is one of the main determinants of blood Mg2+ concentration in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Hypomagnesaemia (blood Mg2+ concentration <0.7 mmol/l) has serious consequences as it increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes and accelerates progression of the disease. This study aimed to determine the mechanism by which triacylglycerol levels affect blood Mg2+ concentrations. METHODS: Using samples from 285 overweight individuals (BMI >27 kg/m2 ) who participated in the 300-Obesity study (an observational cross-sectional cohort study, as part of the Human Functional Genetics Projects), we investigated the association between serum Mg2+ with laboratory variables, including an extensive lipid profile...
November 13, 2018: Diabetologia
Parth Narendran
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 13, 2018: Diabetologia
Mladen Savikj, Brendan M Gabriel, Petter S Alm, Jonathon Smith, Kenneth Caidahl, Marie Björnholm, Tomas Fritz, Anna Krook, Juleen R Zierath, Harriet Wallberg-Henriksson
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Exercise is recommended for the treatment and prevention of type 2 diabetes. However, the most effective time of day to achieve beneficial effects on health remains unknown. We aimed to determine whether exercise training at two distinct times of day would have differing effects on 24 h blood glucose levels in men with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Eleven men with type 2 diabetes underwent a randomised crossover trial. Inclusion criteria were 45-68 years of age and BMI between 23 and 33 kg/m2 ...
November 13, 2018: Diabetologia
Padma Kaul, Samantha L Bowker, Anamaria Savu, Roseanne O Yeung, Lois E Donovan, Edmond A Ryan
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: This study aimed to examine the association of maternal diabetes, being large for gestational age (LGA) and breast-feeding with being overweight or obese in pre-school-aged children. METHODS: Data on height and weight at the time of their pre-school (age 4-6 years) immunisation visit between January 2009 and August 2017, as well as breast-feeding status in the first 5 months of life, for 81,226 children born between January 2005 and August 2013 were linked with maternal hospitalisation and outpatient records and birth registry data...
November 13, 2018: Diabetologia
Wolfgang Rathmann, Klaus Strassburger, Brenda Bongaerts, Oliver Kuss, Karsten Müssig, Volker Burkart, Julia Szendroedi, Jörg Kotzka, Birgit Knebel, Hadi Al-Hasani, Michael Roden
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to investigate the modifying effect of the glucose transporter (GLUT2) gene SLC2A2 (rs8192675) variant on the glycaemic response to metformin in individuals recently diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Individuals with type 2 diabetes (n = 508) from the prospective German Diabetes Study (age [mean ± SD] 53 ± 10 years; 65% male; BMI 32 ± 6 kg/m2 , metformin use 57%) underwent detailed metabolic characterisation (hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp, IVGTT) during the first year after diagnosis...
November 9, 2018: Diabetologia
Man Wang, Yangningzhi Wang, Tianhua Xie, Pengfei Zhan, Jian Zou, Xiaowei Nie, Jun Shao, Miao Zhuang, Chengye Tan, Jianxin Tan, Youai Dai, Jie Sun, Jiantao Li, Yuehua Li, Qian Shi, Jing Leng, Xiaolu Wang, Yong Yao
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Diabetic retinopathy is a common microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus and is initiated by inflammation and apoptosis-associated retinal endothelial cell damage. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) has emerged as a critical regulator of these biological processes. We hypothesised that modulating PGE2 and its E-prostanoid receptor (EP2 R) would prevent diabetes mellitus-induced inflammation and microvascular dysfunction. METHODS: In a streptozotocin (STZ)-induced rat model of diabetes, rats received intravitreal injection of PGE2 , butaprost (a PGE2 /EP2 R agonist) or AH6809 (an EP2 R antagonist)...
November 8, 2018: Diabetologia
Marja A Heiskanen, Kumail K Motiani, Andrea Mari, Jari-Joonas Eskelinen, Kirsi A Virtanen, Eliisa Löyttyniemi, Kari K Kalliokoski, Jarna C Hannukainen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 8, 2018: Diabetologia
Shruti Gupta, Roland D Eavey, Molin Wang, Sharon G Curhan, Gary C Curhan
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Type 2 diabetes mellitus has been implicated as a risk factor for hearing loss, with possible mechanisms including microvascular disease, acoustic neuropathy or oxidative stress. A few small studies have examined the longitudinal association between type 2 diabetes and hearing loss, but larger studies are needed. Our objective was to examine whether type 2 diabetes (including diabetes duration) is associated with incident hearing loss in two prospective cohorts: Nurses' Health Studies (NHS) I and II...
November 6, 2018: Diabetologia
Payam Amini, Sevda Moharamzadeh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 6, 2018: Diabetologia
Stuart I Mannering, Anthony R Di Carluccio, Colleen M Elso
Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease caused by T cell-mediated destruction of pancreatic insulin-producing beta cells. The epitopes recognised by pathogenic T cells in human type 1 diabetes are poorly defined; however, a growing body of evidence suggests that T cell responses against neoepitopes contribute to beta cell destruction in type 1 diabetes. Neoepitopes are formed when self-proteins undergo post-translational modification to create a new epitope that is recognised by T- or B cells. Here we review the role of human T cell responses against neoepitopes in the immune pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes...
November 6, 2018: Diabetologia
Flemming Pociot
Since the 1970s, C-peptide has been used as a surrogate marker for monitoring the progression of type 1 and type 2 diabetes and to determine the effects of interventions designed to preserve or improve residual beta cell function. C-peptide measurement is a well-established surrogate of residual beta cell activity and of clinical significance as it is associated with HbA1c , risk for microvascular complications and the incidence of hyperglycaemia in longitudinal studies. Measurement of C-peptide after a mixed meal tolerance test is considered the gold standard of measuring beta cell function in type 1 diabetes, but the method is laborious and inconvenient...
November 3, 2018: Diabetologia
Toshiaki Ohkuma, Sanne A E Peters, Mark Woodward
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 3, 2018: Diabetologia
Erin S Coyne, Nathalie Bédard, Ying Jia Gong, May Faraj, André Tchernof, Simon S Wing
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Elucidating the molecular mechanisms of fat accumulation and its metabolic consequences is crucial to understanding and treating obesity, an epidemic disease. We have previously observed that Usp19 deubiquitinating enzyme-null mice (Usp19-/- ) have significantly lower fat mass than wild-type (WT) mice. Thus, this study aimed to provide further understanding of the role of ubiquitin-specific peptidase 19 (USP19) in fat development, obesity and diabetes. METHODS: In this study, the metabolic phenotypes of WT and Usp19-/- mice were compared...
November 1, 2018: Diabetologia
Mariëtte R Boon, Mark J W Hanssen, Boudewijn Brans, Cindy J M Hülsman, Joris Hoeks, Kimberly J Nahon, Charlotte Bakker, Jan B van Klinken, Bas Havekes, Gert Schaart, Ingrid M Jazet, Patrick C N Rensen, Wouter D van Marken Lichtenbelt
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Individuals of South Asian origin are at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus and associated comorbidities compared with Europids. Disturbances in energy metabolism may contribute to this increased risk. Skeletal muscle and possibly also brown adipose tissue (BAT) are involved in human energy metabolism and nitric oxide (NO) is suggested to play a pivotal role in regulating mitochondrial biogenesis in both tissues. We aimed to investigate the effects of 6 weeks of supplementation with L-arginine, a precursor of NO, on energy metabolism by BAT and skeletal muscle, as well as glucose metabolism in South Asian men compared with men of European descent...
October 30, 2018: Diabetologia
Rachel Dankner, Lital Keinan Boker, Laurence S Freedman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 27, 2018: Diabetologia
Xue Bao, Yan Borné, Iram Faqir Muhammad, Jan Nilsson, Lars Lind, Olle Melander, Kaijun Niu, Marju Orho-Melander, Gunnar Engström
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) is an anti-inflammatory cytokine of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily. Circulating levels of GDF-15 are associated with hyperglycaemia among people with obesity or diabetes, but longitudinal evidence on the association between GDF-15 levels and diabetes risk is scarce. Our aim was to explore whether circulating levels of GDF-15 at baseline are positively associated with future diabetes incidence in a middle-aged urban population...
October 22, 2018: Diabetologia
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 22, 2018: Diabetologia
Tao Zhang, Jie Xu, Shengxu Li, Lydia A Bazzano, Jiang He, Paul K Whelton, Wei Chen
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to characterise longitudinal profiles of BMI from childhood and to examine the impact of level-independent childhood BMI trajectories on adult type 2 diabetes. METHODS: The longitudinal cohort consisted of 2449 adults (1613 white and 836 black) who had their BMI measured between four and 15 times from childhood (4-19 years) to adulthood (20-51 years) and fasting glucose measured in adulthood. Model-estimated levels and linear slopes of BMI at childhood age points were calculated in 1-year intervals using growth-curve parameters and their first derivatives, respectively...
October 20, 2018: Diabetologia
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