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Diabetologia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333574/unique-metabolic-activation-of-adipose-tissue-macrophages-in-obesity-promotes-inflammatory-responses
#1
Lily Boutens, Guido J Hooiveld, Sourabh Dhingra, Robert A Cramer, Mihai G Netea, Rinke Stienstra
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Recent studies have identified intracellular metabolism as a fundamental determinant of macrophage function. In obesity, proinflammatory macrophages accumulate in adipose tissue and trigger chronic low-grade inflammation, that promotes the development of systemic insulin resistance, yet changes in their intracellular energy metabolism are currently unknown. We therefore set out to study metabolic signatures of adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) in lean and obese conditions...
January 14, 2018: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332196/bioelectronic-modulation-of-carotid-sinus-nerve-activity-in-the-rat-a-potential-therapeutic-approach-for-type-2-diabetes
#2
Joana F Sacramento, Daniel J Chew, Bernardete F Melo, Matteo Donegá, Wesley Dopson, Maria P Guarino, Alison Robinson, Jesus Prieto-Lloret, Sonal Patel, Bradley J Holinski, Nishan Ramnarain, Victor Pikov, Kristoffer Famm, Silvia V Conde
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: A new class of treatments termed bioelectronic medicines are now emerging that aim to target individual nerve fibres or specific brain circuits in pathological conditions to repair lost function and reinstate a healthy balance. Carotid sinus nerve (CSN) denervation has been shown to improve glucose homeostasis in insulin-resistant and glucose-intolerant rats; however, these positive effects from surgery appear to diminish over time and are heavily caveated by the severe adverse effects associated with permanent loss of chemosensory function...
January 14, 2018: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330559/a-post-translational-balancing-act-the-good-and-the-bad-of-sumoylation-in-pancreatic-islets
#3
EDITORIAL
Patrick E MacDonald
Post-translational modification of proteins contributes to the control of cell function and survival. The balance of these in insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells is important for the maintenance of glucose homeostasis. Protection from the damaging effects of reactive oxygen species is required for beta cell survival, but if this happens at the expense of insulin secretory function then the ability of islets to respond to changing metabolic conditions may be compromised. In this issue of Diabetologia, He et al ( https://doi...
January 12, 2018: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322220/diabetes-and-pregnancy-national-trends-over-a-15%C3%A2-year-period
#4
Sharon T Mackin, Scott M Nelson, Joannes J Kerssens, Rachael Wood, Sarah Wild, Helen M Colhoun, Graham P Leese, Sam Philip, Robert S Lindsay
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We aimed to examine time trends in national perinatal outcomes in pregnancies complicated by pre-existing type 1 or type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We analysed episode-level data on all obstetric inpatient delivery events (live or stillbirth) between 1 April 1998 and 31 March 2013 (n = 813,921) using the Scottish Morbidity Record (SMR02). Pregnancies to mothers with type 1 (n = 3229) and type 2 (n = 1452) diabetes were identified from the national diabetes database (Scottish Care Information-Diabetes), and perinatal outcomes were compared among women with type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes and those without diabetes...
January 11, 2018: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322219/sirt6-mediated-transcriptional-suppression-of-txnip-is-critical-for-pancreatic-beta-cell-function-and-survival-in-mice
#5
Kunhua Qin, Ning Zhang, Zhao Zhang, Michael Nipper, Zhenxin Zhu, Jake Leighton, Kexin Xu, Nicolas Musi, Pei Wang
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Better understanding of how genetic and epigenetic components control beta cell differentiation and function is key to the discovery of novel therapeutic approaches to prevent beta cell dysfunction and failure in the progression of type 2 diabetes. Our goal was to elucidate the role of histone deacetylase sirtuin 6 (SIRT6) in beta cell development and homeostasis. METHODS: Sirt6 endocrine progenitor cell conditional knockout and beta cell-specific knockout mice were generated using the Cre-loxP system...
January 10, 2018: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318343/short-term-progression-of-cardiometabolic-risk-factors-in-relation-to-age-at-type-2-diabetes-diagnosis-a-longitudinal-observational-study-of-100-606-individuals-from-the-swedish-national-diabetes-register
#6
Andri O Steinarsson, Araz Rawshani, Soffia Gudbjörnsdottir, Stefan Franzén, Ann-Marie Svensson, Naveed Sattar
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The reasons underlying a greater association of premature mortality with early-onset type 2 diabetes relative to late-onset disease are unclear. We evaluated the clinical characteristics at type 2 diabetes diagnosis and the broad trajectories in cardiometabolic risk factors over the initial years following diagnosis in relation to age at diagnosis. METHODS: Our cohort consisted of 100,606 individuals with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes enrolled in the Swedish National Diabetes Register from 2002 to 2012...
January 9, 2018: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318342/group-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-and-weight-regain-after-diet-in-type-2-diabetes-results-from-the-randomised-controlled-power-trial
#7
Kirsten A Berk, Hanneke I M Buijks, Adrie J M Verhoeven, Monique T Mulder, Behiye Özcan, Adriaan van 't Spijker, Reinier Timman, Jan J Busschbach, Eric J Sijbrands
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Weight-loss programmes for adults with type 2 diabetes are less effective in the long term owing to regain of weight. Our aim was to determine the 2 year effectiveness of a cognitive behavioural group therapy (group-CBT) programme in weight maintenance after diet-induced weight loss in overweight and obese adults with type 2 diabetes, using a randomised, parallel, non-blinded, pragmatic study design. METHODS: We included 158 obese adults (median BMI 36...
January 9, 2018: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308539/haemoglobin-glycation-index-and-risk-for-diabetes-related-complications-in-the-action-in-diabetes-and-vascular-disease-preterax-and-diamicron-modified-release-controlled-evaluation-advance-trial
#8
Sigrid C van Steen, Mark Woodward, John Chalmers, Qiang Li, Michel Marre, Mark E Cooper, Pavel Hamet, Giuseppe Mancia, Stephen Colagiuri, Bryan Williams, Diederick E Grobbee, J Hans DeVries
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Previous studies have suggested that the haemoglobin glycation index (HGI) can be used as a predictor of diabetes-related complications in individuals with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. We investigated whether HGI was a predictor of adverse outcomes of intensive glucose lowering and of diabetes-related complications in general, using data from the Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron Modified Release Controlled Evaluation (ADVANCE) trial. METHODS: We studied participants in the ADVANCE trial with data available for baseline HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) (n = 11,083)...
January 8, 2018: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306997/extracellular-matrix-molecules-and-their-potential-contribution-to-the-function-of-transplanted-pancreatic-islets
#9
REVIEW
L Alberto Llacua, Marijke M Faas, Paul de Vos
Extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules are responsible for structural and biochemical support, as well as for regulation of molecular signalling and tissue repair in many organ structures, including the pancreas. In pancreatic islets, collagen type IV and VI, and laminins are the most abundant molecules, but other ECM molecules are also present. The ECM interacts with specific combinations of integrin α/β heterodimers on islet cells and guides many cellular processes. More specifically, some ECM molecules are involved in beta cell survival, function and insulin production, while others can fine tune the susceptibility of islet cells to cytokines...
January 6, 2018: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305626/hyperglycaemia-is-associated-with-cancer-related-but-not-non-cancer-related-deaths-evidence-from-the-ipc-cohort
#10
Jean-Marc Simon, Frederique Thomas, Sebastien Czernichow, Olivier Hanon, Cedric Lemogne, Tabassome Simon, Bruno Pannier, Nicolas Danchin
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Hyperglycaemia has been associated with the incidence of all and specific types of cancer, distinct from the risks related to diabetes. The relationships between blood glucose and mortality rates related to all and specific cancers were analysed in comparison with all-cause or non-cancer-related mortality rates in a large, general primary care population in France. METHODS: Between January 1991 and December 2008, 301,948 participants (193,221 men and 108,727 women), aged 16-95 years (mean ± SD 44...
January 5, 2018: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305625/ifn-%C3%AE-induces-a-preferential-long-lasting-expression-of-mhc-class-i-in-human-pancreatic-beta-cells
#11
Alexandra Coomans de Brachène, Reinaldo S Dos Santos, Laura Marroqui, Maikel L Colli, Lorella Marselli, Raghavendra G Mirmira, Piero Marchetti, Decio L Eizirik
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: IFN-α, a cytokine expressed in human islets from individuals affected by type 1 diabetes, plays a key role in the pathogenesis of diabetes by upregulating inflammation, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and MHC class I overexpression, three hallmarks of islet histology in early type 1 diabetes. We tested whether expression of these mediators of beta cell loss is reversible upon IFN-α withdrawal or IFN-α pathway inhibition. METHODS: IFN-α-induced MHC class I overexpression, ER stress and inflammation were evaluated by flow cytometry, immunofluorescence and real-time PCR in human EndoC-βH1 cells or human islets exposed to IFN-α with or without the presence of Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors...
January 5, 2018: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305624/evidence-of-a-liver-alpha-cell-axis-in-humans-hepatic-insulin-resistance-attenuates-relationship-between-fasting-plasma-glucagon-and-glucagonotropic-amino-acids
#12
Nicolai J Wewer Albrechtsen, Kristine Færch, Troels M Jensen, Daniel R Witte, Jens Pedersen, Yuvaraj Mahendran, Anna E Jonsson, Katrine D Galsgaard, Marie Winther-Sørensen, Signe S Torekov, Torsten Lauritzen, Oluf Pedersen, Filip K Knop, Torben Hansen, Marit E Jørgensen, Dorte Vistisen, Jens J Holst
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The secretion of glucagon is controlled by blood glucose and inappropriate secretion of glucagon contributes to hyperglycaemia in diabetes. Besides its role in glucose regulation, glucagon regulates amino acid metabolism in hepatocytes by increasing ureagenesis. Disruption of this mechanism causes hyperaminoacidaemia, which in turn increases glucagon secretion. We hypothesised that hepatic insulin resistance (secondary to hepatic steatosis) via defective glucagon signalling/glucagon resistance would lead to impaired ureagenesis and, hence, increased plasma concentrations of glucagonotropic amino acids and, subsequently, glucagon...
January 5, 2018: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299636/skeletal-muscle-insulin-resistance-is-induced-by-4-hydroxy-2-hexenal-a-by-product-of-n-3-fatty-acid-peroxidation
#13
Christophe O Soulage, Laura Sardón Puig, Laurent Soulère, Bader Zarrouki, Michel Guichardant, Michel Lagarde, Nicolas J Pillon
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Oxidative stress is involved in the pathophysiology of insulin resistance and its progression towards type 2 diabetes. The peroxidation of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids produces 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal (4-HHE), a lipid aldehyde with potent electrophilic properties able to interfere with many pathophysiological processes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of 4-HHE in the development of insulin resistance. METHODS: 4-HHE concentration was measured in plasma from humans and rats by GC-MS...
January 3, 2018: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299635/both-conditional-ablation-and-overexpression-of-e2-sumo-conjugating-enzyme-ubc9-in-mouse-pancreatic-beta-cells-result-in-impaired-beta-cell-function
#14
Xiaoyu He, Qiaohong Lai, Cai Chen, Na Li, Fei Sun, Wenting Huang, Shu Zhang, Qilin Yu, Ping Yang, Fei Xiong, Zhishui Chen, Quan Gong, Boxu Ren, Jianping Weng, Décio L Eizirik, Zhiguang Zhou, Cong-Yi Wang
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Post-translational attachment of a small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) to the lysine (K) residue(s) of target proteins (SUMOylation) is an evolutionary conserved regulatory mechanism. This modification has previously been demonstrated to be implicated in the control of a remarkably versatile regulatory mechanism of cellular processes. However, the exact regulatory role and biological actions of the E2 SUMO-conjugating enzyme (UBC9)-mediated SUMOylation function in pancreatic beta cells has remained elusive...
January 3, 2018: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275428/association-of-nefa-composition-with-insulin-sensitivity-and-beta-cell-function-in-the-prospective-metabolism-and-islet-cell-evaluation-promise-cohort
#15
Luke W Johnston, Stewart B Harris, Ravi Retnakaran, Adria Giacca, Zhen Liu, Richard P Bazinet, Anthony J Hanley
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Our aim was to determine the longitudinal associations of individual NEFA with the pathogenesis of diabetes, specifically with differences in insulin sensitivity and beta cell function over 6 years in a cohort of individuals who are at risk for diabetes. METHODS: In the Prospective Metabolism and Islet Cell Evaluation (PROMISE) longitudinal cohort, 477 participants had serum NEFA measured at the baseline visit and completed an OGTT at three time points over 6 years...
December 24, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275427/hope-vs-hype-where-are-we-in-type-1-diabetes
#16
REVIEW
Jay S Skyler
Much progress has been made in type 1 diabetes research. Biological replacement of islet function has been achieved with pancreas transplantation and with islet transplantation. In the future, human embryonic stem cells and/or induced pluripotent stem cells may offer a potentially unlimited source of cells for islet replacement. Another potential strategy is to induce robust beta cell replication so that regeneration of islets can be achieved. Immune interventions are being studied with the hope of arresting the type 1 diabetes disease process to either prevent the disease or help preserve beta cell function...
December 23, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273897/impact-of-flash-glucose-monitoring-on-hypoglycaemia-in-adults-with-type-1-diabetes-managed-with-multiple-daily-injection-therapy-a-pre-specified-subgroup-analysis-of-the-impact-randomised-controlled-trial
#17
Per Oskarsson, Ramiro Antuna, Petronella Geelhoed-Duijvestijn, Jens Krӧger, Raimund Weitgasser, Jan Bolinder
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Evidence for the effectiveness of interstitial glucose monitoring in individuals with type 1 diabetes using multiple daily injection (MDI) therapy is limited. In this pre-specified subgroup analysis of the Novel Glucose-Sensing Technology and Hypoglycemia in Type 1 Diabetes: a Multicentre, Non-masked, Randomised Controlled Trial' (IMPACT), we assessed the impact of flash glucose technology on hypoglycaemia compared with capillary glucose monitoring. METHODS: This multicentre, prospective, non-masked, RCT enrolled adults from 23 European diabetes centres...
December 23, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29270816/arctic-berry-extracts-target-the-gut-liver-axis-to-alleviate-metabolic-endotoxaemia-insulin-resistance-and-hepatic-steatosis-in-diet-induced-obese-mice
#18
Fernando F Anhê, Thibault V Varin, Mélanie Le Barz, Geneviève Pilon, Stéphanie Dudonné, Jocelyn Trottier, Philippe St-Pierre, Cory S Harris, Michel Lucas, Mélanie Lemire, Éric Dewailly, Olivier Barbier, Yves Desjardins, Denis Roy, André Marette
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: There is growing evidence that fruit polyphenols exert beneficial effects on the metabolic syndrome, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. In the present study, we aimed to analyse the effects of polyphenolic extracts from five types of Arctic berries in a model of diet-induced obesity. METHODS: Male C57BL/6 J mice were fed a high-fat/high-sucrose (HFHS) diet and orally treated with extracts of bog blueberry (BBE), cloudberry (CLE), crowberry (CRE), alpine bearberry (ABE), lingonberry (LGE) or vehicle (HFHS) for 8 weeks...
December 21, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29264632/social-deprivation-modifies-the-association-between-incident-foot-ulceration-and-mortality-in-type-1-and-type-2-diabetes-a-longitudinal-study-of-a-primary-care-cohort
#19
Simon G Anderson, Haika Shoo, Sushant Saluja, Christian D Anderson, Adnan Khan, Mark Livingston, Edward B Jude, Mark Lunt, George Dunn, Adrian H Heald
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to determine whether social deprivation in the presence of diabetes is an independent predictor of developing a foot ulcer and separately of mortality. METHODS: This was a primary-care-based retrospective analysis of 13,955 adults with type 1 (n = 1370) or type 2 (n = 12,585) diabetes after a median follow-up of 10.5 years. Demographic characteristics, indices of social deprivation and clinical variables were assessed at baseline...
December 21, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260253/rates-of-glycaemic-deterioration-in-a-real-world-population-with-type-2-diabetes
#20
Louise A Donnelly, Kaixin Zhou, Alex S F Doney, Chris Jennison, Paul W Franks, Ewan R Pearson
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: There is considerable variability in how diabetes progresses after diagnosis. Progression modelling has largely focused on 'time to failure' methods, yet determining a 'coefficient of failure' has many advantages. We derived a rate of glycaemic deterioration in type 2 diabetes, using a large real-world cohort, and aimed to investigate the clinical, biochemical, pharmacological and immunological variables associated with fast and slow rates of glycaemic deterioration. METHODS: An observational cohort study was performed using the electronic medical records from participants in the Genetics of Diabetes Audit and Research in Tayside Study (GoDARTS)...
December 19, 2017: Diabetologia
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