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Diabetologia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812096/perceived-racism-and-incident-diabetes-in-the-black-women-s-health-study
#1
Kathryn L Bacon, Sherri O Stuver, Yvette C Cozier, Julie R Palmer, Lynn Rosenberg, Edward A Ruiz-Narváez
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Our aim was to assess the association of perceived racism with type 2 diabetes, and the possible mediating influence of diet and BMI. METHODS: The Black Women's Health Study, a follow-up of 59,000 African-American women, began in 1995. Over 16 years 5344 incident cases of diabetes occurred during 576,577 person-years. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimated HRs and 95% CIs for categories of 'everyday racism' (interpersonal racism in daily life) and 'lifetime racism' (reporting ever treated unfairly due to race with respect to police, housing or work) and incident type 2 diabetes...
August 15, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801705/gastrointestinal-motility-in-people-with-type-1-diabetes-and-peripheral-neuropathy
#2
LETTER
Chinmay S Marathe, Christopher K Rayner, Karen L Jones, Michael Horowitz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 12, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795195/53-rd-easd-annual-meeting-of-the-european-association-for-the-study-of-diabetes-lisbon-portugal-11-15-september-2017
#3
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 9, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791439/metabolic-crosstalk-between-fatty-pancreas-and-fatty-liver-effects-on-local-inflammation-and-insulin-secretion
#4
Felicia Gerst, Robert Wagner, Gabriele Kaiser, Madhura Panse, Martin Heni, Jürgen Machann, Malte N Bongers, Tina Sartorius, Bence Sipos, Falko Fend, Christian Thiel, Silvio Nadalin, Alfred Königsrainer, Norbert Stefan, Andreas Fritsche, Hans-Ulrich Häring, Susanne Ullrich, Dorothea Siegel-Axel
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Obesity-linked ectopic fat accumulation is associated with the development of type 2 diabetes. Whether pancreatic and liver steatosis impairs insulin secretion is controversial. We examined the crosstalk of human pancreatic fat cells with islets and the role of diabetogenic factors, i.e. palmitate and fetuin-A, a hepatokine released from fatty liver. METHODS: Human pancreatic resections were immunohistochemically stained for insulin, glucagon, somatostatin and the macrophage/monocyte marker CD68...
August 8, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779213/screening-for-neonatal-diabetes-at-day-5-of-life-using-dried-blood-spot-glucose-measurement
#5
Timothy J McDonald, Rachel E Besser, Mandy Perry, Tarig Babiker, Bridget A Knight, Maggie H Shepherd, Sian Ellard, Sarah E Flanagan, Andrew T Hattersley
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The majority of infants with neonatal diabetes mellitus present with severe ketoacidosis at a median of 6 weeks. The treatment is very challenging and can result in severe neurological sequelae or death. The genetic defects that cause neonatal diabetes are present from birth. We aimed to assess if neonatal diabetes could be diagnosed earlier by measuring glucose in a dried blood spot collected on day 5 of life. METHODS: In this retrospective case-control study we retrieved blood spot cards from 11 infants with genetically confirmed neonatal diabetes (median age of diagnosis 6 [range 2-112] days)...
August 5, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779212/topical-administration-of-dpp-iv-inhibitors-prevents-retinal-neurodegeneration-in-experimental-diabetes
#6
Cristina Hernández, Patricia Bogdanov, Cristina Solà-Adell, Joel Sampedro, Marta Valeri, Xavier Genís, Olga Simó-Servat, Marta García-Ramírez, Rafael Simó
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The main aims of the present study were: (1) to assess the expression and content of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) in human and db/db mouse retinas, and in human vitreous fluid; and (2) to determine whether the topical administration of the DPP-IV inhibitors (DPP-IVi) would prevent retinal neurodegeneration and vascular leakage in db/db mice by reducing endogenous glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) degradation. METHODS: To assess the expression and content of DPP-IV, human samples of vitreous fluid and retinas were obtained from participants with type 2 diabetes (n = 8) and age-matched non-diabetic individuals (n = 8), as well as from db/db (n = 72) and db/+ (n = 28) mice...
August 4, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779211/the-effect-of-interleukin-22-treatment-on-autoimmune-diabetes-in-the-nod-mouse
#7
Danielle J Borg, Ran Wang, Lydia Murray, Hui Tong, Raymond J Steptoe, Michael A McGuckin, Sumaira Z Hasnain
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to determine whether therapy with the cytokine IL-22 could be used to prevent the development of, or treat, autoimmune diabetes in the NOD mouse. METHODS: Six-week-old NOD mice were administered bi-weekly either recombinant mouse IL-22 (200 ng/g) or PBS (vehicle control) intraperitoneally until overt diabetes was diagnosed as two consecutive measurements of non-fasting blood glucose ≥ 11 mmol/l. At this time, NOD mice in the control arm were treated with LinBit insulin pellets and randomised to bi-weekly therapeutic injections of either PBS or IL-22 (200 ng/g) and followed until overt diabetes was diagnosed, as defined above...
August 4, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776086/the-mechanisms-of-action-of-metformin
#8
REVIEW
Graham Rena, D Grahame Hardie, Ewan R Pearson
Metformin is a widely-used drug that results in clear benefits in relation to glucose metabolism and diabetes-related complications. The mechanisms underlying these benefits are complex and still not fully understood. Physiologically, metformin has been shown to reduce hepatic glucose production, yet not all of its effects can be explained by this mechanism and there is increasing evidence of a key role for the gut. At the molecular level the findings vary depending on the doses of metformin used and duration of treatment, with clear differences between acute and chronic administration...
August 3, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776085/60-years-of-metformin-use-a-glance-at-the-past-and-a-look-to-the-future
#9
EDITORIAL
Sally M Marshall
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 3, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776084/the-association-of-depressive-symptoms-and-diabetes-distress-with-glycaemic-control-and-diabetes-complications-over-2%C3%A2-years-in-newly-diagnosed-type-2-diabetes-a-prospective-cohort-study
#10
Khalida Ismail, Calum D Moulton, Kirsty Winkley, John C Pickup, Stephen M Thomas, Roy A Sherwood, Daniel Stahl, Stephanie A Amiel
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We examined the associations between depressive symptoms and diabetes distress with glycaemic control and diabetes complications over 2 years, after diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. METHODS: In a multi-ethnic, primary care cohort (n = 1735) of adults, all with recent (<6 months) diagnosis of type 2 diabetes, we measured the associations between depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-9 [PHQ-9] score ≥10) and diabetes distress (Problem Areas in Diabetes [PAID] score ≥40), with change in 2 year HbA1c as the primary outcome and with incident rates of diabetes complications as secondary outcomes...
August 3, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776083/diabetic-cardiomyopathy-a-hyperglycaemia-and-insulin-resistance-induced-heart-disease
#11
REVIEW
Guanghong Jia, Adam Whaley-Connell, James R Sowers
Diabetic cardiomyopathy is characterised in its early stages by diastolic relaxation abnormalities and later by clinical heart failure in the absence of dyslipidaemia, hypertension and coronary artery disease. Insulin resistance, hyperinsulinaemia and hyperglycaemia are each independent risk factors for the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy. The pathophysiological factors in diabetes that drive the development of cardiomyopathy include systemic metabolic disorders, inappropriate activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, subcellular component abnormalities, oxidative stress, inflammation and dysfunctional immune modulation...
August 3, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776082/up-front
#12
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 3, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776081/metformin-historical-overview
#13
EDITORIAL
Clifford J Bailey
Metformin (dimethylbiguanide) has become the preferred first-line oral blood glucose-lowering agent to manage type 2 diabetes. Its history is linked to Galega officinalis (also known as goat's rue), a traditional herbal medicine in Europe, found to be rich in guanidine, which, in 1918, was shown to lower blood glucose. Guanidine derivatives, including metformin, were synthesised and some (not metformin) were used to treat diabetes in the 1920s and 1930s but were discontinued due to toxicity and the increased availability of insulin...
August 3, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776080/repurposing-metformin-for-the-prevention-of-cancer-and-cancer-recurrence
#14
REVIEW
Brandy M Heckman-Stoddard, Andrea DeCensi, Vikrant V Sahasrabuddhe, Leslie G Ford
Multiple epidemiological studies have documented an association between metformin, used for treatment of type 2 diabetes, and reduced cancer incidence and mortality. Cell line models may not accurately reflect the effects of metformin in the clinical setting. Moreover, findings from animal model studies have been inconsistent, whilst those from more recent epidemiological studies have tempered the overall effect size. The purpose of this review is to examine metformin's chemopreventive potential by outlining relevant mechanisms of action, the most recent epidemiologic evidence, and recently completed and ongoing clinical trials...
August 3, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770331/the-pharmacogenetics-of-metformin
#15
REVIEW
Jose C Florez
Despite its widespread use as the first-line agent for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, it has become clear that metformin does not work optimally for everyone. Elucidating who are the likely metformin responders and non-responders is hampered by our limited knowledge of its precise molecular mechanism of action. One approach to achieve the related goals of stratifying patients into response subgroups and identifying the molecular targets of metformin involves the deployment of agnostic genome-wide approaches in cohorts of appropriate size to attain sufficient statistical power...
August 3, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770330/metformin-therapy-for-the-reproductive-and-metabolic-consequences-of-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#16
EDITORIAL
Susan Sam, David A Ehrmann
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the most common hormonal disorder among women of reproductive age, has various metabolic and reproductive consequences. Metformin was originally shown to lower testosterone levels in women with PCOS in the 1990s, an effect presumably related to its insulin sensitising actions. However, the precise mechanisms of metformin action in PCOS remain unclear and there is considerable heterogeneity in the clinical response to this therapy in women with PCOS. Recent evidence indicates that genetic factors may play a significant role in predicting response to metformin therapy in PCOS and future studies are needed to further identify women who are most likely to benefit from this therapy...
August 3, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770329/normoalbuminuric-chronic-kidney-disease-in-type-1-diabetes-is-it-real-and-is-it-serious-reply-to-rigalleau-v-blanco-l-alexandre-l-et-al-letter
#17
LETTER
Giuseppe Penno, Eleonora Russo, Monia Garofolo, Giuseppe Daniele, Daniela Lucchesi, Laura Giusti, Veronica Sancho Bornez, Cristina Bianchi, Angela Dardano, Roberto Miccoli, Stefano Del Prato
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770328/metformin-and-ageing-improving-ageing-outcomes-beyond-glycaemic-control
#18
REVIEW
Willy Marcos Valencia, Ana Palacio, Leonardo Tamariz, Hermes Florez
In a world where the population is ageing, there is growing interest and demand for research evaluating strategies that address the ageing process. After 60 years of successful use of metformin in our pharmaceutical armamentarium, we are learning that, beyond improving glycaemic control, metformin may have additional mechanisms and pathways of action that need further study. Although, metformin's effect on clinical ageing outcomes may still be considered speculative, the findings from studies into cellular and animal models and from observational and pilot human studies support the existence of beneficial effects on ageing...
August 2, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770327/a-new-perspective-on-metformin-therapy-in-type-1-diabetes
#19
REVIEW
Rachel Livingstone, James G Boyle, John R Petrie
Metformin is quite frequently used off-label in type 1 diabetes to limit insulin dose requirement. Guidelines recommend that it can improve glucose control in those who are overweight and obese but evidence in support of this is limited. Recently-published findings from the REducing with MetfOrmin Vascular Adverse Lesions (REMOVAL) trial suggest that metformin therapy in type 1 diabetes can reduce atherosclerosis progression, weight and LDL-cholesterol levels. This provides a new perspective on metformin therapy in type 1 diabetes and suggests a potential role for reducing the long-term risk of cardiovascular disease...
August 2, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770326/the-effects-of-metformin-on-gut-microbiota-and-the-immune-system-as-research-frontiers
#20
REVIEW
Michael Pollak
Recent studies have revealed that metformin influences gut microbiota and the immune system although neither is a classic target of the drug. This research has revealed complexity not previously appreciated, and opened new research directions. The extent to which immunomodulatory effects and actions on the microbiota are related to each other and account for effects on host energy metabolism remains to be determined. These sites of action may be relevant not only to the efficacy of metformin for its established use in type 2 diabetes, but also to proposed novel indications in oncology and other diseases...
August 2, 2017: Diabetologia
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