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Diabetologia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343278/the-berlin-declaration-building-upon-st-vincent
#1
LETTER
Anne-Marie Felton, Sanjay Kalra
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 26, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343277/pancreatic-alpha-cell-selective-deletion-of-tcf7l2-impairs-glucagon-secretion-and-counter-regulatory-responses-to-hypoglycaemia-in-mice
#2
Gabriela da Silva Xavier, Angeles Mondragon, Vishnou Mourougavelou, Céline Cruciani-Guglielmacci, Jessica Denom, Pedro Luis Herrera, Christophe Magnan, Guy A Rutter
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) is a high mobility group (HMG) box-containing transcription factor and downstream effector of the Wnt signalling pathway. SNPs in the TCF7L2 gene have previously been associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes in genome-wide association studies. In animal studies, loss of Tcf7l2 function is associated with defective islet beta cell function and survival. Here, we explore the role of TCF7L2 in the control of the counter-regulatory response to hypoglycaemia by generating mice with selective deletion of the Tcf7l2 gene in pancreatic alpha cells...
March 25, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337513/up-front
#3
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 23, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331967/decreased-basal-hepatic-glucose-uptake-in-impaired-fasting-glucose
#4
Mariam Alatrach, Christina Agyin, John Adams, Ralph A DeFronzo, Muhammad A Abdul-Ghani
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: This research aimed to define the pathophysiological defects responsible for the elevated fasting plasma glucose (FPG) concentration and excessive rise in post-load plasma glucose observed in individuals with impaired fasting glucose (IFG). METHODS: We used tracer techniques to quantify basal splanchnic (primarily hepatic) glucose uptake and glucose fluxes following glucose ingestion in individuals with normal glucose tolerance (NGT; n = 10) and IFG (n = 10)...
March 22, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321468/hyperglycaemic-memory-affects-the-neurovascular-unit-of-the-retina-in-a-diabetic-mouse-model
#5
Patrick Friedrichs, Andrea Schlotterer, Carsten Sticht, Matthias Kolibabka, Paulus Wohlfart, Axel Dietrich, Thomas Linn, Grietje Molema, Hans-Peter Hammes
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to evaluate damage to the neurovascular unit in a mouse model of hyperglycaemic memory. METHODS: A streptozotocin-induced mouse model of diabetes (C57BL/6J background) received insulin-releasing pellets and pancreatic islet-cell transplantation. Damage to the neurovascular unit was studied by quantitative retinal morphometry for microvascular changes and microarray analysis, with subsequent functional annotation clustering, for changes of the retinal genome...
March 20, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315950/ins-egfp-transgenic-pigs-a-novel-reporter-system-for-studying-maturation-growth-and-vascularisation-of-neonatal-islet-like-cell-clusters
#6
LETTER
Elisabeth Kemter, Christian M Cohrs, Matthias Schäfer, Marion Schuster, Klaus Steinmeyer, Lelia Wolf-van Buerck, Andrea Wolf, Annegret Wuensch, Mayuko Kurome, Barbara Kessler, Valeri Zakhartchenko, Matthias Loehn, Yuri Ivashchenko, Jochen Seissler, Anke M Schulte, Stephan Speier, Eckhard Wolf
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 18, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314946/late-onset-islet-autoimmunity-in-childhood-the-diabetes-autoimmunity-study-in-the-young-daisy
#7
Brigitte I Frohnert, Lisa Ide, Fran Dong, Anna E Barón, Andrea K Steck, Jill M Norris, Marian J Rewers
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We sought to assess the frequency, determinants and prognosis for future diabetes in individuals with islet autoimmunity and whether these factors differ depending on the age of onset of islet autoimmunity. METHODS: A prospective cohort (n = 2547) of children from the general population who had a high-risk HLA genotype and children who had a first-degree relative with type 1 diabetes were followed for up to 21 years. Those with the persistent presence of one or more islet autoantibodies were categorised as early-onset (<8 years of age, n = 143, median 3...
March 17, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314945/precision-diabetes-learning-from-monogenic-diabetes
#8
REVIEW
Andrew T Hattersley, Kashyap A Patel
The precision medicine approach of tailoring treatment to the individual characteristics of each patient or subgroup has been a great success in monogenic diabetes subtypes, MODY and neonatal diabetes. This review examines what has led to the success of a precision medicine approach in monogenic diabetes (precision diabetes) and outlines possible implications for type 2 diabetes. For monogenic diabetes, the molecular genetics can define discrete aetiological subtypes that have profound implications on diabetes treatment and can predict future development of associated clinical features, allowing early preventative or supportive treatment...
March 17, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314944/the-case-for-too-little-melatonin-signalling-in-increased-diabetes-risk
#9
EDITORIAL
Amélie Bonnefond, Philippe Froguel
Genome-wide association studies have detected an association between type 2 diabetes risk and a non-coding SNP located in MTNR1B, the gene encoding melatonin receptor 2 (MT2). Melatonin regulates circadian rhythms and sleep and associates with metabolic disorders. However, the mechanisms underlying these actions are still unclear. Functional genomic, animal and clinical studies have not reached the same conclusions: while some studies have reported that decreased melatonin signalling increases type 2 diabetes risk, others have found the opposite...
March 17, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314943/predicting-hospital-stay-mortality-and-readmission-in-people-admitted-for-hypoglycaemia-prognostic-models-derivation-and-validation
#10
Francesco Zaccardi, David R Webb, Melanie J Davies, Nafeesa N Dhalwani, Laura J Gray, Sudesna Chatterjee, Gemma Housley, Dominick Shaw, James W Hatton, Kamlesh Khunti
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Hospital admissions for hypoglycaemia represent a significant burden on individuals with diabetes and have a substantial economic impact on healthcare systems. To date, no prognostic models have been developed to predict outcomes following admission for hypoglycaemia. We aimed to develop and validate prediction models to estimate risk of inpatient death, 24 h discharge and one month readmission in people admitted to hospital for hypoglycaemia. METHODS: We used the Hospital Episode Statistics database, which includes data on all hospital admission to National Health Service hospital trusts in England, to extract admissions for hypoglycaemia between 2010 and 2014...
March 17, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303304/precision-diabetes-a-realistic-outlook-on-a-promising-approach
#11
EDITORIAL
Sally M Marshall
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 16, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303303/melatonin-signalling-and-type-2-diabetes-risk-too-little-too-much-or-just-right
#12
EDITORIAL
Hindrik Mulder
Of the associations of genetic variants with type 2 diabetes, the one of an SNP in an intron of the gene encoding the melatonin receptor 1B (MTNR1B) has been remarkably robust. Work from our group and others has provided support for a model where carriers of this risk G allele exhibit increased MTNR1B expression in islets of Langerhans. Most published studies to date favour that melatonin's action on the beta cell is inhibition of insulin secretion. Hence, our model proposes that this inhibitory effect of melatonin is exaggerated in carriers of the MTNR1B risk G allele...
March 16, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299380/conditional-islet-hypovascularisation-does-not-preclude-beta-cell-expansion-during-pregnancy-in-mice
#13
Willem Staels, Yves Heremans, Gunter Leuckx, Naomi Van Gassen, Ciro Salinno, Sofie De Groef, Martine Cools, Eli Keshet, Yuval Dor, Harry Heimberg, Nico De Leu
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Endothelial-endocrine cell interactions and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A signalling are deemed essential for maternal islet vascularisation, glucose control and beta cell expansion during mouse pregnancy. The aim of this study was to assess whether pregnancy-associated beta cell expansion was affected under conditions of islet hypovascularisation. METHODS: Soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFLT1), a VEGF-A decoy receptor, was conditionally overexpressed in maternal mouse beta cells from 1...
March 16, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299379/effects-of-hepatic-glycogen-on-food-intake-and-glucose-homeostasis-are-mediated-by-the-vagus-nerve-in-mice
#14
Iliana López-Soldado, Rebeca Fuentes-Romero, Jordi Duran, Joan J Guinovart
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Liver glycogen plays a key role in regulating food intake and blood glucose. Mice that accumulate large amounts of this polysaccharide in the liver are protected from high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity by reduced food intake. Furthermore, these animals show reversal of the glucose intolerance and hyperinsulinaemia caused by the HFD. The aim of this study was to examine the involvement of the hepatic branch of the vagus nerve in regulating food intake and glucose homeostasis in this model...
March 15, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283684/pharmacogenetics-in-type-2-diabetes-precision-medicine-or-discovery-tool
#15
REVIEW
Jose C Florez
In recent years, technological and analytical advances have led to an explosion in the discovery of genetic loci associated with type 2 diabetes. However, their ability to improve prediction of disease outcomes beyond standard clinical risk factors has been limited. On the other hand, genetic effects on drug response may be stronger than those commonly seen for disease incidence. Pharmacogenetic findings may aid in identifying new drug targets, elucidate pathophysiology, unravel disease heterogeneity, help prioritise specific genes in regions of genetic association, and contribute to personalised or precision treatment...
March 10, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280903/microrna-21-targets-bcl2-mrna-to-increase-apoptosis-in-rat-and-human-beta-cells
#16
Emily K Sims, Alexander J Lakhter, Emily Anderson-Baucum, Tatsuyoshi Kono, Xin Tong, Carmella Evans-Molina
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The role of beta cell microRNA (miR)-21 in the pathophysiology of type 1 diabetes has been controversial. Here, we sought to define the context of beta cell miR-21 upregulation in type 1 diabetes and the phenotype of beta cell miR-21 overexpression through target identification. METHODS: Islets were isolated from NOD mice and mice treated with multiple low doses of streptozotocin, as a mouse model of diabetes. INS-1 832/13 beta cells and human islets were treated with IL-1β, IFN-γ and TNF-α to mimic the milieu of early type 1 diabetes...
March 9, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280902/ginsenoside-rg5-attenuates-hepatic-glucagon-response-via-suppression-of-succinate-associated-hif-1%C3%AE-induction-in-hfd-fed-mice
#17
Na Xiao, Meng-Die Lou, Yi-Tong Lu, Le-Le Yang, Qun Liu, Baolin Liu, Lian-Wen Qi, Ping Li
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Ginsenosides regulate glucose homeostasis. This study investigated the effect of ginsenoside Rg5 (Rg5) on the hepatic glucagon response, focusing on the regulation of metabolism. METHODS: Mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) showed increased hepatic glucose production (HGP). We observed the effects of Rg5 on hepatic fatty acid oxidation and glucagon response. The regulation of phosphodiesterase (PDE) 4B by succinate was also investigated in hepatocytes...
March 9, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280901/does-training-of-general-practitioners-for-intensive-treatment-of-people-with-screen-detected-diabetes-have-a-spillover-effect-on-mortality-and-cardiovascular-morbidity-in-at-risk-individuals-with-normoglycaemia-results-from-the-addition-denmark-cluster-randomised
#18
Rebecca K Simmons, Niels H Bruun, Daniel R Witte, Knut Borch-Johnsen, Marit E Jørgensen, Annelli Sandbæk, Torsten Lauritzen
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Within a trial of intensive treatment of people with screen-detected diabetes, we aimed to assess a potential spillover effect of the trial intervention on incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality among people who screened positive on a diabetes risk questionnaire but who were normoglycaemic. METHODS: In the Anglo-Danish-Dutch Study of Intensive Treatment In People with Screen-Detected Diabetes in Primary Care (ADDITION)-Denmark trial, 175 general practices were cluster-randomised into: (1) screening plus routine care of individuals with screen-detected diabetes (control group); or (2) screening plus training and support in intensive multifactorial treatment of individuals with screen-detected diabetes (intervention group)...
March 9, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280900/paracrine-gaba-and-insulin-regulate-pancreatic-alpha-cell-proliferation-in-a-mouse-model-of-type-1-diabetes
#19
Allen L Feng, Yun-Yan Xiang, Le Gui, Gesthika Kaltsidis, Qingping Feng, Wei-Yang Lu
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: This study aimed to elucidate the mechanism of increased proliferation of alpha cells in recent-onset type 1 diabetes. Pancreatic beta cells express GAD and produce γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which inhibits alpha cell secretion of glucagon. We explored the roles of GABA in alpha cell proliferation in conditions corresponding to type 1 diabetes in a mouse model and in vitro. METHODS: Type 1 diabetes was induced by injecting the mice with streptozotocin (STZ)...
March 9, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280899/cognitive-deficits-associated-with-impaired-awareness-of-hypoglycaemia-in-type-1-diabetes
#20
Tor I Hansen, Sandra E Olsen, Elise C D Haferstrom, Trond Sand, Brian M Frier, Asta K Håberg, Marit R Bjørgaas
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to compare cognitive function in adults with type 1 diabetes who have impaired awareness of hypoglycaemia with those who have normal awareness of hypoglycaemia. A putative association was sought between cognitive test scores and a history of severe hypoglycaemia. METHODS: A total of 68 adults with type 1 diabetes were included: 33 had impaired and 35 had normal awareness of hypoglycaemia, as confirmed by formal testing...
March 9, 2017: Diabetologia
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