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Diabetologia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550517/early-prediction-of-autoimmune-type-1-diabetes
#1
REVIEW
Simon E Regnell, Åke Lernmark
Underlying type 1 diabetes is a genetic aetiology dominated by the influence of specific HLA haplotypes involving primarily the class II DR-DQ region. In genetically predisposed children with the DR4-DQ8 haplotype, exogenous factors, yet to be identified, are thought to trigger an autoimmune reaction against insulin, signalled by insulin autoantibodies as the first autoantibody to appear. In children with the DR3-DQ2 haplotype, the triggering reaction is primarily against GAD signalled by GAD autoantibodies (GADA) as the first-appearing autoantibody...
May 26, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547133/hsf1-acetylation-decreases-its-transcriptional-activity-and-enhances-glucolipotoxicity-induced-apoptosis-in-rat-and-human-beta-cells
#2
Indri Purwana, Jun J Liu, Bernard Portha, Jean Buteau
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Heat shock factor protein 1 (HSF1) is a transcription factor that regulates the expression of key molecular chaperones, thereby orchestrating the cellular response to stress. This system was recently implicated in the control of insulin sensitivity and is therefore being scrutinised as a novel therapeutic avenue for type 2 diabetes. However, the regulation and biological actions of HSF1 in beta cells remain elusive. Herein, we sought to investigate the regulation of HSF1 in pancreatic beta cells and to study its potential role in cell survival...
May 25, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547132/retinal-oxygen-extraction-in-individuals-with-type-1-diabetes-with-no-or-mild-diabetic-retinopathy
#3
Klemens Fondi, Piotr A Wozniak, Kinga Howorka, Ahmed M Bata, Gerold C Aschinger, Alina Popa-Cherecheanu, Katarzyna J Witkowska, Anton Hommer, Doreen Schmidl, René M Werkmeister, Gerhard Garhöfer, Leopold Schmetterer
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to compare retinal oxygen extraction in individuals with diabetes with no or mild non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy and healthy age- and sex-matched volunteers. METHODS: A total of 24 participants with type 1 diabetes and 24 healthy age- and sex-matched volunteers were included in this cross-sectional study. Retinal oxygen extraction was measured by combining total retinal blood flow measurements using a custom-built bi-directional Doppler optical coherence tomography system with measurements of oxygen saturation using spectroscopic reflectometry...
May 25, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540459/up-front
#4
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 24, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540458/antigen-specific-immunotherapy-and-influenza-vaccination-in-type-1-diabetes-timing-is-everything
#5
EDITORIAL
Lorraine Yeo, Mark Peakman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 24, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534195/identification-of-a-small-molecule-that-facilitates-the-differentiation-of-human-ipscs-escs-and-mouse-embryonic-pancreatic-explants-into-pancreatic-endocrine-cells
#6
Yasushi Kondo, Taro Toyoda, Ryo Ito, Michinori Funato, Yoshiya Hosokawa, Satoshi Matsui, Tomomi Sudo, Masahiro Nakamura, Chihiro Okada, Xiaotong Zhuang, Akira Watanabe, Akira Ohta, Nobuya Inagaki, Kenji Osafune
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Pancreatic beta-like cells generated from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) or human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) offer an appealing donor tissue source. However, differentiation protocols that mainly use growth factors are costly. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to establish efficient differentiation protocols to change hiPSCs/hESCs to insulin (INS)(+) cells using novel small-molecule inducers. METHODS: We screened small molecules that increased the induction rate of INS(+) cells from hESC-derived pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 (PDX1)(+) pancreatic progenitor cells...
May 22, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528402/impact-of-brown-rice-specific-%C3%AE-oryzanol-on-epigenetic-modulation-of-dopamine-d2-receptors-in-brain-striatum-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-in-mice
#7
Chisayo Kozuka, Tadashi Kaname, Chigusa Shimizu-Okabe, Chitoshi Takayama, Masato Tsutsui, Masayuki Matsushita, Keiko Abe, Hiroaki Masuzaki
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Overeating of dietary fats causes obesity in humans and rodents. Recent studies in humans and rodents have demonstrated that addiction to fats shares a common mechanism with addiction to alcohol, nicotine and narcotics in terms of a dysfunction of brain reward systems. It has been highlighted that a high-fat diet (HFD) attenuates dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) signalling in the striatum, a pivotal regulator of the brain reward system, resulting in hedonic overeating. We previously reported that the brown rice-specific bioactive constituent γ-oryzanol attenuated the preference for an HFD via hypothalamic control...
May 20, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528401/cardiovascular-disease-biomarkers-are-associated-with-declining-renal-function-in-type-2-diabetes
#8
Sara J Jenks, Bryan R Conway, Stela McLachlan, Wei Leng Teoh, Rachel M Williamson, David J Webb, Paul Welsh, Naveed Sattar, Mark W J Strachan, Jackie F Price
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We investigated whether biochemical cardiovascular risk factors and/or markers of subclinical cardiovascular disease were associated with the development of reduced renal function in people with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: A cohort of 1066 Scottish men and women aged 60-74 years with type 2 diabetes from the Edinburgh Type 2 Diabetes Study were followed up for a median of 6.7 years. New-onset reduced renal function was defined as two eGFRs <60 ml(-1) min(-1) (1...
May 20, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526921/glp-1-signalling-compensates-for-impaired-insulin-signalling-in-regulating-beta-cell-proliferation-in-%C3%AE-irko-mice
#9
Dan Kawamori, Jun Shirakawa, Chong Wee Liew, Jiang Hu, Tomoaki Morioka, Alokesh Duttaroy, Bryan Burkey, Rohit N Kulkarni
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We aimed to investigate potential interactions between insulin and glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 signalling pathways in the regulation of beta cell-cycle dynamics in vivo, in the context of the therapeutic potential of GLP-1 to modulate impaired beta cell function. METHODS: Beta cell-specific insulin receptor knockout (βIRKO) mice, which exhibit beta cell dysfunction and an age-dependent decrease in beta cell mass, were treated with the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor vildagliptin...
May 20, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526919/antibodies-to-post-translationally-modified-insulin-as-a-novel-biomarker-for-prediction-of-type-1-diabetes-in-children
#10
Rocky Strollo, Chiara Vinci, Nicola Napoli, Paolo Pozzilli, Johnny Ludvigsson, Ahuva Nissim
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We have shown that autoimmunity to insulin in type 1 diabetes may result from neoepitopes induced by oxidative post-translational modifications (oxPTM). Antibodies specific to oxPTM-insulin (oxPTM-INS-Ab) are present in most newly diagnosed individuals with type 1 diabetes and are more common than autoantibodies to native insulin. In this study, we investigated whether oxPTM-INS-Ab are present before clinical onset of type 1 diabetes, and evaluated the ability of oxPTM-INS-Ab to identify children progressing to type 1 diabetes...
May 20, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526920/effects-of-semaglutide-on-beta-cell-function-and-glycaemic-control-in-participants-with-type-2-diabetes-a-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#11
Christoph Kapitza, Kirsten Dahl, Jacob B Jacobsen, Mads B Axelsen, Anne Flint
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Semaglutide is a glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue in development for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Its effects on first- and second-phase insulin secretion and other measures of beta cell function and glycaemic control were assessed. METHODS: In this single-centre, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial, conducted at the Profil Institut für Stoffwechselforschung, Germany, 75 adult (aged 18-64 years) participants with type 2 diabetes (eligibility: HbA1c of 6...
May 19, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516213/expression-of-concern-aspirin-attenuates-insulin-resistance-in-muscle-of-diet-induced-obese-rats-by-inhibiting-inducible-nitric-oxide-synthase-production-and-s-nitrosylation-of-ir%C3%AE-irs-1-and-akt
#12
M A Carvalho-Filho, E R Ropelle, R J Pauli, D E Cintra, D M L Tsukumo, L R Silveira, R Curi, J B C Carvalheira, L A Velloso, M J A Saad
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 17, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508093/expression-of-concern-modulation-of-gut-microbiota-by-antibiotics-improves-insulin-signalling-in-high-fat-fed-mice
#13
B M Carvalho, D Guadagnini, D M L Tsukumo, A A Schenka, P Latuf-Filho, J Vassallo, J C Dias, L T Kubota, J B C Carvalheira, M J A Saad
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 15, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501906/medication-use-for-the-treatment-of-diabetes-in-obese-individuals
#14
REVIEW
John P H Wilding
Obesity is a major cause of type 2 diabetes and may complicate type 1 diabetes. Weight loss for obese individuals with diabetes has many health benefits, often leads to improvement in glucose control and sometimes, in type 2 diabetes, near normalisation of abnormal glucose metabolism. Weight loss is difficult to maintain and attempts to lose weight may be undermined by some diabetes treatments such as sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones and insulin. Whilst lifestyle support should be the primary approach to aid individuals who wish to lose weight, pharmacological approaches can also be considered...
May 14, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500396/sglt2-inhibitors-and-diabetic-ketoacidosis-data-from-the-fda-adverse-event-reporting-system
#15
Gian Paolo Fadini, Benedetta Maria Bonora, Angelo Avogaro
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) are indicated for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and may also improve glucose control in type 1 diabetes. In 2015, regulatory agencies warned that SGLT2i may favour diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). We provide a detailed analysis of DKA reports in which an SGLT2i was listed among suspect or concomitant drugs in the US Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS). METHODS: We first analysed the entire public FAERS up to September (third quarter [Q3]) 2016 to extract the number of reports, background indications and concomitant medications, and to calculate proportional reporting ratios (PRRs) and safety signals...
May 12, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500395/the-human-serum-protein-c4b-binding-protein-inhibits-pancreatic-iapp-induced-inflammasome-activation
#16
Klaudia Kulak, Gunilla T Westermark, Nikolina Papac-Milicevic, Erik Renström, Anna M Blom, Ben C King
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Inflammasome activation and subsequent IL-1β production is a driver of islet pathology in type 2 diabetes. Oligomers, but not mature amyloid fibrils, of human islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP), which is co-secreted with insulin, trigger NOD-like receptor pyrin domain containing-3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation. C4b-binding protein (C4BP), present in serum, binds to IAPP and affects transition of IAPP monomers and oligomers to amyloid fibrils. We therefore hypothesised that C4BP inhibits IAPP-mediated inflammasome activation and IL-1β production...
May 12, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500394/bed-rest-and-resistive-vibration-exercise-unveil-novel-links-between-skeletal-muscle-mitochondrial-function-and-insulin-resistance
#17
Helena C Kenny, Floriane Rudwill, Laura Breen, Michele Salanova, Dieter Blottner, Tim Heise, Martina Heer, Stephane Blanc, Donal J O'Gorman
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Physical inactivity has broad implications for human disease including insulin resistance, sarcopenia and obesity. The present study tested the hypothesis that (1) impaired mitochondrial respiration is linked with blunted insulin sensitivity and loss of muscle mass in healthy young men, and (2) resistive vibration exercise (RVE) would mitigate the negative metabolic effects of bed rest. METHODS: Participants (n = 9) were maintained in energy balance during 21 days of bed rest with RVE and without (CON) in a crossover study...
May 12, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500393/association-of-serum-micrornas-with-islet-autoimmunity-disease-progression-and-metabolic-impairment-in-relatives-at-risk-of-type-1-diabetes
#18
Isaac V Snowhite, Gloria Allende, Jay Sosenko, Ricardo L Pastori, Shari Messinger Cayetano, Alberto Pugliese
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key regulators of gene expression and novel biomarkers for many diseases. We investigated the hypothesis that serum levels of some miRNAs would be associated with islet autoimmunity and/or progression to type 1 diabetes. METHODS: We measured levels of 93 miRNAs most commonly detected in serum. This retrospective cohort study included 150 autoantibody-positive and 150 autoantibody-negative family-matched siblings enrolled in the TrialNet Pathway to Prevention Study...
May 12, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497164/metformin-prevents-ischaemic-ventricular-fibrillation-in-metabolically-normal-pigs
#19
Li Lu, Shuyu Ye, Rebecca L Scalzo, Jane E B Reusch, Clifford R Greyson, Gregory G Schwartz
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Metformin is the drug most often used to treat type 2 diabetes. Evidence suggests that metformin may reduce mortality of individuals with type 2 diabetes, but the mechanism of such an effect is unknown and outcomes of metformin treatment in people without diabetes have not been determined. If metformin favourably affected mortality of non-diabetic individuals, it might have even broader therapeutic utility. We evaluated the effect of metformin on myocardial energetics and ischaemic ventricular fibrillation (VF) in metabolically normal pigs...
May 11, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492964/studies-into-severe-famine-in-early-life-and-diabetes-in-adulthood-the-need-to-control-for-differences-in-participant-age-and-location
#20
LETTER
Chihua Li, L H Lumey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 10, 2017: Diabetologia
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