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British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology

Ken A Fujimoto
Many item response theory (IRT) models take a multidimensional perspective to deal with sources that induce local item dependence (LID), with these models often making an orthogonal assumption about the dimensional structure of the data. One reason for this assumption is because of the indeterminacy issue in estimating the correlations among the dimensions in structures often specified to deal with sources of LID (e.g., bifactor and two-tier structures), and the assumption usually goes untested. Unfortunately, the mere fact that assessing these correlations is a challenge for some estimation methods does not mean that data seen in practice support such orthogonal structure...
June 7, 2018: British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology
Wenchao Ma
Constructed-response items have been shown to be appropriate for cognitively diagnostic assessments because students' problem-solving procedures can be observed, providing direct evidence for making inferences about their proficiency. However, multiple strategies used by students make item scoring and psychometric analyses challenging. This study introduces the so-called two-digit scoring scheme into diagnostic assessments to record both students' partial credits and their strategies. This study also proposes a diagnostic tree model (DTM) by integrating the cognitive diagnosis models with the tree model to analyse the items scored using the two-digit rubrics...
April 23, 2018: British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology
Shaobo Jin, Chunzheng Cao
The polychoric instrumental variable (PIV) approach is a recently proposed method to fit a confirmatory factor analysis model with ordinal data. In this paper, we first examine the small-sample properties of the specification tests for testing the validity of instrumental variables (IVs). Second, we investigate the effects of using different numbers of IVs. Our results show that specification tests derived for continuous data are extremely oversized at all sample sizes when applied to ordinal variables. Possible modifications for ordinal data are proposed in the present study...
May 2018: British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology
Sandip Sinharay
Tatsuoka suggested several extended caution indices and their standardized versions, and these have been used as person-fit statistics by various researchers. However, these indices are only defined for tests with dichotomous items. This paper extends two of the popular standardized extended caution indices for use with polytomous items and mixed-format tests. Two additional new person-fit statistics are obtained by applying the asymptotic standardization of person-fit statistics for mixed-format tests. Detailed simulations are then performed to compute the Type I error rate and power of the four new person-fit statistics...
May 2018: British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology
Douglas Steinley, Michael J Brusco
Two expectations of the adjusted Rand index (ARI) are compared. It is shown that the expectation derived by Morey and Agresti (1984, Educational and Psychological Measurement, 44, 33) under the multinomial distribution to approximate the exact expectation from the hypergeometric distribution (Hubert & Arabie, 1985, Journal of Classification, 2, 193) provides a poor approximation, and, in some cases, the difference between the two expectations can increase with the sample size. Proofs concerning the minimum and maximum difference between the two expectations are provided, and it is shown through simulation that the ARI can differ significantly depending on which expectation is used...
May 2018: British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology
Hao Wu
In structural equation modelling (SEM), a robust adjustment to the test statistic or to its reference distribution is needed when its null distribution deviates from a χ2 distribution, which usually arises when data do not follow a multivariate normal distribution. Unfortunately, existing studies on this issue typically focus on only a few methods and neglect the majority of alternative methods in statistics. Existing simulation studies typically consider only non-normal distributions of data that either satisfy asymptotic robustness or lead to an asymptotic scaled χ2 distribution...
May 2018: British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology
Shiyu Wang
The maximum likelihood classification rule is a standard method to classify examinee attribute profiles in cognitive diagnosis models (CDMs). Its asymptotic behaviour is well understood when the model is assumed to be correct, but has not been explored in the case of misspecified latent class models. This paper investigates the asymptotic behaviour of a two-stage maximum likelihood classifier under a misspecified CDM. The analysis is conducted in a general restricted latent class model framework addressing all types of CDMs...
May 2018: British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology
Dylan Molenaar, Maria Bolsinova, Jeroen K Vermunt
In item response theory, modelling the item response times in addition to the item responses may improve the detection of possible between- and within-subject differences in the process that resulted in the responses. For instance, if respondents rely on rapid guessing on some items but not on all, the joint distribution of the responses and response times will be a multivariate within-subject mixture distribution. Suitable parametric methods to detect these within-subject differences have been proposed. In these approaches, a distribution needs to be assumed for the within-class response times...
May 2018: British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology
Peida Zhan, Hong Jiao, Dandan Liao
To provide more refined diagnostic feedback with collateral information in item response times (RTs), this study proposed joint modelling of attributes and response speed using item responses and RTs simultaneously for cognitive diagnosis. For illustration, an extended deterministic input, noisy 'and' gate (DINA) model was proposed for joint modelling of responses and RTs. Model parameter estimation was explored using the Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method. The PISA 2012 computer-based mathematics data were analysed first...
May 2018: British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology
Xin Gu, Joris Mulder, Herbert Hoijtink
Informative hypotheses are increasingly being used in psychological sciences because they adequately capture researchers' theories and expectations. In the Bayesian framework, the evaluation of informative hypotheses often makes use of default Bayes factors such as the fractional Bayes factor. This paper approximates and adjusts the fractional Bayes factor such that it can be used to evaluate informative hypotheses in general statistical models. In the fractional Bayes factor a fraction parameter must be specified which controls the amount of information in the data used for specifying an implicit prior...
May 2018: British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology
Yueqin Hu, Raymond Treinen
Differential equation models are frequently used to describe non-linear trajectories of longitudinal data. This study proposes a new approach to estimate the parameters in differential equation models. Instead of estimating derivatives from the observed data first and then fitting a differential equation to the derivatives, our new approach directly fits the analytic solution of a differential equation to the observed data, and therefore simplifies the procedure and avoids bias from derivative estimations...
April 6, 2018: British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology
Michael J Brusco, Douglas Steinley, Jordan Stevens, J Dennis Cradit
Affinity propagation is a message-passing-based clustering procedure that has received widespread attention in domains such as biological science, physics, and computer science. However, its implementation in psychology and related areas of social science is comparatively scant. In this paper, we describe the basic principles of affinity propagation, its relationship to other clustering problems, and the types of data for which it can be used for cluster analysis. More importantly, we identify the strengths and weaknesses of affinity propagation as a clustering tool in general and highlight potential opportunities for its use in psychological research...
April 6, 2018: British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology
Jiannan Lu, Yixuan Qiu, Alex Deng
Motivated by the recent replication and reproducibility crisis, Gelman and Carlin (2014, Perspect. Psychol. Sci., 9, 641) advocated focusing on controlling for Type S/M errors, instead of the classic Type I/II errors, when conducting hypothesis testing. In this paper, we aim to fill several theoretical gaps in the methodology proposed by Gelman and Carlin (2014, Perspect. Psychol. Sci., 9, 641). In particular, we derive the closed-form expression for the expected Type M error, and study the mathematical properties of the probability of Type S error as well as the expected Type M error, such as monotonicity...
March 23, 2018: British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology
Hyeon-Ah Kang, Ya-Hui Su, Hua-Hua Chang
A monotone relationship between a true score (τ) and a latent trait level (θ) has been a key assumption for many psychometric applications. The monotonicity property in dichotomous response models is evident as a result of a transformation via a test characteristic curve. Monotonicity in polytomous models, in contrast, is not immediately obvious because item response functions are determined by a set of response category curves, which are conceivably non-monotonic in θ. The purpose of the present note is to demonstrate strict monotonicity in ordered polytomous item response models...
March 8, 2018: British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology
Yanlou Liu, Tao Xin, Björn Andersson, Wei Tian
Two new methods to estimate the asymptotic covariance matrix for marginal maximum likelihood estimation of cognitive diagnosis models (CDMs), the inverse of the observed information matrix and the sandwich-type estimator, are introduced. Unlike several previous covariance matrix estimators, the new methods take into account both the item and structural parameters. The relationships between the observed information matrix, the empirical cross-product information matrix, the sandwich-type covariance matrix and the two approaches proposed by de la Torre (2009, J...
March 6, 2018: British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology
Po-Hsien Huang
In the past two decades, statistical modelling with sparsity has become an active research topic in the fields of statistics and machine learning. Recently, Huang, Chen and Weng (2017, Psychometrika, 82, 329) and Jacobucci, Grimm, and McArdle (2016, Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 23, 555) both proposed sparse estimation methods for structural equation modelling (SEM). These methods, however, are restricted to performing single-group analysis. The aim of the present work is to establish a penalized likelihood (PL) method for multi-group SEM...
March 3, 2018: British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology
Fien Gistelinck, Tom Loeys, Mieke Decuyper, Marieke Dewitte
When considering dyadic data, one of the questions is whether the roles of the two dyad members can be considered equal. This question may be answered empirically using indistinguishability tests in the actor-partner interdependence model. In this paper several issues related to such indistinguishability tests are discussed: the difference between maximum likelihood and restricted maximum likelihood based tests for equality in variance parameters; the choice between the structural equation modelling and multilevel modelling framework; and the use of sequential testing rather than one global test for a set of indistinguishability tests...
February 15, 2018: British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology
Nicolas Gauvrit, Fabien Mathy
The time-based resource sharing (TBRS) model is a prominent model of working memory that is both predictive and simple. TBRS is a mainstream decay-based model and the most susceptible to competition with interference-based models. A connectionist implementation of TBRS, TBRS*, has recently been developed. However, TBRS* is an enriched version of TBRS, making it difficult to test general characteristics resulting from TBRS assumptions. Here, we describe a novel model, TBRS2, built to be more transparent and simple than TBRS*...
February 2018: British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology
Zijun Ke, Zhiyong Johnny Zhang
Autocorrelation and partial autocorrelation, which provide a mathematical tool to understand repeating patterns in time series data, are often used to facilitate the identification of model orders of time series models (e.g., moving average and autoregressive models). Asymptotic methods for testing autocorrelation and partial autocorrelation such as the 1/T approximation method and the Bartlett's formula method may fail in finite samples and are vulnerable to non-normality. Resampling techniques such as the moving block bootstrap and the surrogate data method are competitive alternatives...
February 2018: British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology
Wolfgang Wiedermann, Edgar C Merkle, Alexander von Eye
Methods to determine the direction of a regression line, that is, to determine the direction of dependence in reversible linear regression models (e.g., x→y vs. y→x), have experienced rapid development within the last decade. However, previous research largely rested on the assumption that the true predictor is measured without measurement error. The present paper extends the direction dependence principle to measurement error models. First, we discuss asymmetric representations of the reliability coefficient in terms of higher moments of variables and the attenuation of skewness and excess kurtosis due to measurement error...
February 2018: British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology
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