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Gait & Posture

Danilo de Oliveira Silva, Christian John Barton, Ronaldo Valdir Briani, Bianca Taborda, Amanda Schenatto Ferreira, Marcella Ferraz Pazzinatto, Fábio Mícolis de Azevedo
BACKGROUND: Evidence indicates the presence of both kinesiophobia and knee extension strength deficits in women with patellofemoral pain (PFP). Both impairments may contribute to apparent compensatory gait patterns including reduced cadence and peak knee flexion during stair negotiation. RESEARCH QUESTION: Is kinesiophobia or knee extension strength associated with movement pattern in women with patellofemoral pain? METHODS: Forty women with PFP were assessed with three-dimensional kinematic analyses during stair descent; isokinetic dynamometry of the knee extensors (isometric, concentric and eccentric); and the Tampa scale for kinesiophobia...
November 1, 2018: Gait & Posture
Enrica Papi, Anthony M J Bull, Alison H McGregor
BACKGROUND: Considering the thoracic, lumbar spine or whole spine as rigid segments has been the norm until recent studies highlighted the importance of more detailed modelling. A better understanding of the requirement for spine multi-segmental analysis could guide planning of future studies and avoid missing clinically-relevant information. RESEARCH QUESTION: This study aims to assess the correlation between adjacent spine segments movement thereby evaluating segmental redundancy in both healthy and participants with low back pain (LBP)...
October 29, 2018: Gait & Posture
S Telfer, J J Bigham
BACKGROUND: The measurement of plantar pressure distributions during gait can provide insights into the effects of musculoskeletal disease on foot function. A range of hardware, software, and protocols are available for the collection of this type of data, with sometimes disparate and conflicting results reported between individual studies. In this systematic review and meta-regression analysis of dynamic regional peak pressures, we aimed to test if 1) the system used to obtain the pressure measurements and 2) the characteristics of the study populations had a significant effect on the results...
October 26, 2018: Gait & Posture
Dario Martelli, Boxi Xia, Antonio Prado, Sunil K Agrawal
BACKGROUND: Virtual reality (VR) has been used to study locomotor adaptability during balance-demanding tasks by exploring how humans react and adapt to the virtual environment (VE) and discordant sensorimotor stimulations. Previous research primarily focused on treadmill walking and little is known regarding the propensity for gait adaptations during overground walking and over time. RESEARCH QUESTION: To what extent healthy young adults modify and adapt gait during overground walking in a VE and with continuous multidirectional perturbations of the visual field while wearing a VR headset? METHODS: Twelve healthy young adults walked for 6 min on an instrumented walkway in four different conditions: RE, VE, and VE with antero-posterior (AP) and medio-lateral (ML) pseudo-random oscillations of the visual field...
October 26, 2018: Gait & Posture
Sarah A Roelker, Mark G Bowden, Steven A Kautz, Richard R Neptune
BACKGROUND: Although walking speed is the most common measure of gait performance post-stroke, improved walking speed following rehabilitation does not always indicate the recovery of paretic limb function. Over the last decade, the measure paretic propulsion (Pp, defined as the propulsive impulse generated by the paretic leg divided by the sum of the propulsive impulses of both legs) has been established as a measure of paretic limb output and recently targeted in post-stroke rehabilitation paradigms...
October 25, 2018: Gait & Posture
Halina Bruce, Laurence Lai, Louis Bherer, Maxime Lussier, Nancy St-Onge, Karen Z H Li
BACKGROUND: Older adults exhibit declines in auditory and motor functioning, which are compensated for through the recruitment of cognitive resources. Cognitive or physical training alone has been shown to improve cognitive functioning and transfer to motor tasks, but results are mixed when these are combined in studies of healthy older adults, and few studies have included those with age-related hearing loss (ARHL), who are at a higher risk of falls. RESEARCH QUESTION: To examine format effects in mixed training, we used a repeated measures intervention design to compare the efficacy of Simultaneous and Sequential multimodal training formats...
October 23, 2018: Gait & Posture
I Hanzlíková, J Richards, K Hébert-Losier, D Smékal
BACKGROUND: Injury to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is common among young athletes and can impact knee stability and control. Wearing proprioceptive knee braces can improve knee control and may reduce the risk factors associated with injury and re-injury, although the effect of such braces after ACL reconstruction (ACLR) is unclear. RESEARCH QUESTION: This study aimed to determine the effect of proprioceptive knee bracing on knee control and subjective rating of participants post ACLR during three dynamic tasks...
October 23, 2018: Gait & Posture
Katherine M Steele, Meghan E Munger, Keshia M Peters, Benjamin R Shuman, Michael H Schwartz
BACKGROUND: Clinical gait analysis is commonly used in the evaluation and treatment of children with cerebral palsy (CP). While the repeatability of kinematic and kinetic measures of gait has previously been evaluated, the repeatability of electromyography (EMG) recordings or measures calculated from EMG data, such as muscle synergies, remains unclear for this population. RESEARCH QUESTION: Are EMG recordings and muscle synergies from clinical gait analysis repeatable between visits for children with CP? METHODS: We recruited 20 children with bilateral CP who had been referred for clinical gait analysis...
October 22, 2018: Gait & Posture
Maura D Iversen, Eva Weidenhielm-Broström, Ruoli Wang, Anna-Clara Esbjörnsson, Stefan Hagelberg, Per Åstrand
BACKGROUND: Children and adolescents with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) exhibit deviations in ankle dynamic joint stiffness (DJS, or moment-angle relationship) compared to healthy peers, but the relationship between ankle DJS and self-reported walking impairments has not been studied. This secondary analysis aimed to investigate the relationship between ankle DJS and self-reported walking disability in juveniles with JIA, and to determine whether intraarticular corticosteroid foot injections (IACI) were associated with long term changes in ankle DJS...
October 21, 2018: Gait & Posture
Danielle M Torp, Abbey C Thomas, Luke Donovan
BACKGROUND: Individuals with chronic ankle instability (CAI) commonly present with an altered walking gait which favors the lateral aspect of their foot. Current rehabilitative protocols are unable to address these gait modifications which are potentially hindering improvements in patient-reported outcomes. Protocols for gait retraining are scarce, thus there is a need to develop intervention strategies and instruments to specifically target foot motion to address gait deficits in individuals with CAI...
October 21, 2018: Gait & Posture
Arnold Y L Wong, Tommy P M Chan, Alex W M Chau, Hon Tung Cheung, Keith C K Kwan, Alan K H Lam, Peter Y C Wong, Diana De Carvalho
BACKGROUND: Static sitting is thought to be related to low back pain. Of various common seated postures, slouched sitting has been suggested to cause viscoelastic creep. This, in turn, may compromise trunk muscle activity and proprioception, and heightening the risk of low back pain. To date, no research has evaluated immediate and short-term effects of brief exposures to different sitting postures on spinal biomechanics and trunk proprioception. RESEARCH QUESTION: This study aimed to compare the impacts of 20 min of static slouched, upright and supported sitting with a backrest on trunk range of motion, muscle activity, and proprioception immediately after and 30 min after the sitting tasks...
October 21, 2018: Gait & Posture
Aner Weiss, Talia Herman, Anat Mirelman, Shirley Shema Shiratzky, Nir Giladi, Lisa L Barnes, David A Bennett, Aron S Buchman, Jeffrey M Hausdorff
BACKGROUND: When older adults turn to sit, about 80% of the subjects complete the turn before starting to sit i.e., a distinct-strategy, while in about 20%, part of the turning and sitting take place concurrently, i.e., an overlapping-strategy. A prolonged duration of the separation between tasks in the distinct-strategy (D-interval) and a prolonged duration of the overlap interval in overlapping-strategy (O-interval) are related to worse motor symptoms and poorer cognition. In the present study, we evaluated what strategy is employed by patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) when they transition from turning to sitting...
October 21, 2018: Gait & Posture
Jody A Feld, Prudence Plummer
BACKGROUND: An epidemic of pedestrian accidents when walking while texting suggests that people are less aware of their surroundings during distracted walking, and highlights the importance of visual scanning for pedestrian safety. Quantitative examination of visual scanning during distracted walking is still lacking. RESEARCH QUESTION: Is visual scanning behavior altered by distracted walking in healthy young adults? METHODS: We compared visual scanning behavior in 20 young adults during usual (single-task) walking, walking while performing a letter-fluency task, and walking while texting...
October 19, 2018: Gait & Posture
Yusuke Suzuki, Takayuki Muraki, Yusuke Sekiguchi, Hiroaki Ishikawa, Haruki Yaguchi, Yutaro Suzuki, Shuhe Morise, Keita Honda, Shin-Ichi Izumi
BACKGROUND: Throwing injuries to the shoulder joint often occur during shoulder external rotation. An appropriate combination of thoracic, scapular, and humeral motion during throwing is important to prevent such injuries, but it is unclear how thoracic posture contributes to shoulder motion during throwing. RESEARCH QUESTION: The purpose of this study, therefore, was to clarify the influence of thoracic posture on scapulothoracic and glenohumeral motion during shoulder external rotation...
October 19, 2018: Gait & Posture
Michail Doumas, Theofilos Ch Valkanidis, Vassilia Hatzitaki
BACKGROUND: Postural control relies on sensory information from visual, vestibular and proprioceptive channels, with proprioception being the key sensory modality in this task. Two well-established ways of manipulating proprioceptive information in postural control are tendon vibration and sway referencing. The aim of the present study was to assess postural adaptation when inaccurate proprioceptive information is introduced using tendon vibration and sway referencing in isolation and combination...
October 19, 2018: Gait & Posture
Imke Jansen, Alexandra Philipsen, Daniela Dalin, Isabella Katharina Wiesmeier, Christoph Maurer
BACKGROUND: Apart from inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity, ADHD in childhood presents with an impairment of motor coordination and balance functions. Until now, literature is scarce about sensorimotor deficits in adult ADHD. This is a pilot study that identifies and quantifies the role of sensory, motor, and central adaptation mechanisms for adult ADHD patients' sensorimotor deficits in a systematic way, using postural control. METHODS: We analyzed spontaneous and externally perturbed stance in ten adult patients suffering from ADHD...
October 17, 2018: Gait & Posture
Josh R Baxter, Michael W Hast
BACKGROUND: Plantarflexor structure is an important predictor of function in healthy, athletic, and some patient populations. Computational simulations are powerful tools capable of testing the isolated effects of muscle-tendon structure on gait function. RESEARCH QUESTION: The purpose of this study was to characterize the sensitivity of plantarflexor muscle function based on muscle-tendon unit (MTU) parameters. We hypothesized that plantarflexor metabolics and shortening dynamics would be sensitive to MTU parameters...
October 17, 2018: Gait & Posture
Arthur I Mallinson, Anouk C M Kuijpers, Gusta Van Zwieten, Juzer Kakal, Warren Mullings, Neil S Longridge
BACKGROUND: Computerized Dynamic Posturography (CDP)was developed by the American space program to assess imbalance in astronauts, and eventually evolved into a clinical diagnostic tool. However it is not a specific measure of vestibular function. Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potential testing (VEMPs) is a new clinical tool which is sensitive and specific for measuring otolithic pathology, especially in the atypical vestibular patient. RESEARCH QUESTION: As posturography measures ability to maintain balance, and VEMP testing measures the structures responsible for this, we wondered if CDP results would correlate with VEMP abnormalities in the clinical setting...
October 16, 2018: Gait & Posture
Yi-Liang Kuo, Pei-San Wang, Po-Yen Ko, Kuo-Yuan Huang, Yi-Ju Tsai
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have investigated various types of postural biofeedback devices on different body regions to improve posture; however, they focused only on healthy adults without a history of chronic musculoskeletal disorders. In addition, those postural biofeedback devices used in previous studies are often designed for experimental research. The designs are usually bulky with many wires, which is not practical for everyday use. RESEARCH QUESTION: The aim of this study was to determine the immediate effect of a commercially available real-time postural biofeedback device on spinal posture, muscle activity, and perceived pain severity in adults with neck pain...
October 15, 2018: Gait & Posture
C M Kerr, A B Zavatsky, T Theologis, J Stebbins
BACKGROUND: Flatfoot is a common presentation in children. It is usually asymptomatic, though a small number of children experience pain. Foot function during flatfoot walking is rarely considered, yet as an activity that places significant demands on the feet, this could explain the differences in terms of symptoms. RESEARCH QUESTION: This paper investigates walking patterns in neutral and flat feet, with and without symptoms, to determine which kinematic parameters are associated with symptomatic flat feet...
October 13, 2018: Gait & Posture
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