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Gait & Posture

Scott W Ducharme, Colleen J Sands, Christopher C Moore, Elroy J Aguiar, Joseph Hamill, Catrine Tudor-Locke
BACKGROUND: Step length and cadence (i.e., step frequency or steps/minute) maintain an invariant proportion across a range of walking speeds, known as the walk ratio (WR = step length/cadence). While step length is a difficult parameter to manipulate, cadence is readily modifiable using rhythmic auditory cuing (RAC; e.g., synchronizing step timing to a metronome or music tempo). RESEARCH QUESTION: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of RAC-guided cadences on enacted cadence, step length, WR, and gait speed during overground walking...
September 10, 2018: Gait & Posture
Josephine Merker, Matthias Hartmann, Johannes-Peter Haas, Ansgar Schwirtz
BACKGROUND: Children suffering from juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), a heterogeneous group of chronic inflammatory joint diseases, adapt to individual gait patterns to avoid loading of inflamed, swollen and painful joints. As the interpretability of previous studies is limited, this study aims to assess the functional capacity, loads and plantar pressure distribution in the gait of a homogeneous JIA group. RESEARCH QUESTION: Does a symmetrical lower limb joint involvement influence the gait dynamics in JIA patients, and how are the results of three-dimensional gait analysis (3DGA) and pedobarography related? METHODS: Fifty JIA patients with symmetrical hip, knee and ankle joint arthritis and 27 healthy controls performed 3DGA and pedobarography at self-selected walking speeds...
September 9, 2018: Gait & Posture
Mitsuhiro Masaki, Hiroshige Tateuchi, Yumiko Koyama, Kaoru Sakuma, Naoki Otsuka, Noriaki Ichihashi
BACKGROUND: Quadruped upper and lower extremity lift (QULEL) is performed for selective training of the lumbar multifidus muscle in patients with low back pain (LBP) or individuals with LBP history (LBPH). However, the activities of the back muscles and sagittal spinal alignment during QULEL are not clarified in individuals with LBPH. RESEARCH QUESTION: This study aimed to analyze the activities of the back muscles and sagittal spinal alignment during QULEL in young male with LBPH...
September 6, 2018: Gait & Posture
Hiroshi Maeda, Kazuya Ikoma, Shogo Toyama, Daigo Taniguchi, Masamitsu Kido, Suzuyo Ohashi, Shuichi Kubo, Norikazu Hishikawa, Koshiro Sawada, Yasuo Mikami, Toshikazu Kubo
BACKGROUND: The biomechanical abnormalities in patients with posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD) have been described, but few studies have investigated biomechanical chains of adjacent joints. Therefore, we examined the gait pattern of the lower extremity in subjects with PTTD, focusing on the hip and knee joints. METHODS: We compared 19 PTTD patients (average age: 67.1) with 30 age-matched control subjects (average age: 65.1). Gait analysis was performed with a nine-camera motion-capture system and four force plates, using the Vicon Plug-In-Gait and Vicon Nexus software...
September 5, 2018: Gait & Posture
Motosi Gomi, Katsuhiko Maezawa, Masahiko Nozawa, Takahito Yuasa, Munehiko Sugimoto, Akito Hayashi, Saiko Mikawa, Kazuo Kaneko
BACKGROUND: As improvement of gait is an important reason for patients to undergo total hip arthroplasty (THA) and they generally tend to evaluate its success based on postoperative walking ability, objective functional evaluation of postoperative gait is important. However, the patient's normal gait before osteoarthritis is unknown and the changes that will occur postoperatively are unclear. We investigated the change in gait and hip joint muscle strength after THA by using a portable gait rhythmograph (PGR) and muscle strength measuring device...
September 3, 2018: Gait & Posture
Sebastian Becker, Ferdinand Bergamo, Klaus J Schnake, Sylvia Schreyer, Ingo V Rembitzki, Catherine Disselhorst-Klug
BACKGROUND: Alterations in the activity of the lumbar erector spinae (LES) muscles on both sides of the spine have been inconsistently reported in patients with specific low back pain (sLBP) after measuring the muscular activity with surface electromyography (sEMG). It also remains unclear whether these alterations in LES activity can be related to the functional level of patients with sLBP. RESEARCH QUESTION: This study investigated the LES activity in patients with sLBP during activities of daily living (ADL) which included dynamic and static movement tasks...
September 3, 2018: Gait & Posture
Takeshi Toyooka, Yukio Urabe, Shiro Sugiura, Akito Takata, Masanori Shinozaki, Yuka Takata, Tohru Ishizaki, Keita Nakamura, Kazumi Otsuki, Takato Oyama, Satoru Nishikawa
BACKGROUND: The single-limb stance with closed eyes has been widely used to evaluate chronic ankle instability as static balance; however, there was lack of consideration of whether difference in age, frequency of previous ankle sprain or physical ability influenced single-limb stance. RESEARCH QUESTION: We hypothesized that the single-limb stance might not reflect subjective ankle instability and function on physical activity in people who perform sports activities...
September 2, 2018: Gait & Posture
Tobias Weber, Sauro E Salomoni, Dorothée Debuse, François Hug, Nick Caplan, Enrico De Martino, Jonathan Scott, Julie Hides, Paul Hodges
This study investigated the effects of a single exercise session using a device developed for postural muscle training on the function of postural muscles in healthy, pain free individuals. During standardised rapid arm movements, timing of onset of electromyography (EMG) was measured using intramuscular and surface recordings of the transversus abdominis (TrA), obliquus internus abdominis (OI), obliquus externus abdominis (OE), lumbar multifidus (LM) and lumbar erector spinae (LES) muscles. A single exercise session with the device led to significantly (main effect of time: P = 0...
September 2, 2018: Gait & Posture
B Horsak, B Pobatschnig, C Schwab, A Baca, A Kranzl, H Kainz
BACKGROUND: In recent years, the reliability of inverse (IK) and direct kinematic (DK) models in gait analysis have been assessed intensively, but mainly for lean populations. However, obesity is a growing issue. So far, the sparse results available for the reliability of clinical gait analysis in obese populations are limited to direct kinematic models. Reliability error-margins for inverse kinematic models in obese populations have not been reported yet. RESEARCH QUESTIONS: Is there a difference in the reliability of IK models compared with a DK model in obese children? Are there any differences in the joint kinematic output between IK and DK models? METHODS: A test-retest study was conducted using three-dimensional gait analysis data from two obese female and eight obese male participants from an earlier study...
September 1, 2018: Gait & Posture
Meng Zhou, Shuai An, Mingli Feng, Zheng Li, Huiliang Shen, Kuan Zhang, Jun Sun, Guanglei Cao
BACKGROUND: The main objective of total knee arthroplasty is to relieve pain, restore normal knee function, and improve gait stability. Significant flexion contractures can severely impair function after surgery. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of implementing a continuous proximal sciatic nerve block in conjunction with aggressive physical therapy to treat patients with persistent flexion contractures that were recalcitrant to rehabilitation efforts following primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA)...
August 31, 2018: Gait & Posture
Matthew Roberts, Christopher Talbot, Anthony Kay, Michael Price, Mathew Hill
BACKGROUND: Anterior load carriage represents a common daily and occupational activity. Carrying loads in front of the body could potentially increase instability during standing and walking. RESEARCH QUESTION: This study examined the effects of anterior load carriage on postural sway and gait parameters in healthy adults. METHODS: Twenty-nine participants (19 males, 10 females, age = 33.8 ± 12.7 years, height = 1.73 ± 0.07 m, mass = 75...
August 31, 2018: Gait & Posture
Miray-Su Yılmaz Topçuoğlu, Britta K Krautwurst, Matthias Klotz, Thomas Dreher, Sebastian I Wolf
BACKGROUND: Walking on inclined surfaces is an everyday task, which challenges stability and propulsion even in healthy adults. Children with cerebral palsy adapt similarly to inclines like healthy children do. However, how stability and propulsion in these subjects are influenced by different inclines remained unaddressed as of yet. RESEARCH QUESTION: The aim was to examine the feeling of safety, stability and propulsion of children with cerebral palsy when walking on inclines to gain insight into the challenges they might face on these conditions...
August 28, 2018: Gait & Posture
Daniel Flores, Christopher P Connolly, Nigel Campbell, Robert D Catena
BACKGROUND: Altered standing balance during pregnancy has been previously reported. To date, body center of mass (bCOM) motion has not been used to track balance changes in this population. We recently compared three methods to determine the torso center of mass (tCOM) location (via force plate acquired center of pressure calculation, using Pavol surface anthropometry measurements, and a combination of the two) to use in calculating the bCOM during pregnancy. RESEARCH QUESTION: This current research explored two questions: (1) does walking balance change during pregnancy, and (2) do the methods for identifying tCOM location affect the resulting balance measures? METHODS: Fifteen pregnant women were recruited to perform 60-second trial of treadmill walking at 4-week intervals from 12 weeks gestation until delivery...
August 28, 2018: Gait & Posture
Zainb Al-Bayati, Ilke Coskun Benlidayi, Neslihan Gokcen
BACKGROUND: There are many contributors of knee osteoarthritis including the postural abnormalities of the adjacent joints. The relationship between foot posture and the clinical-radiological parameters of knee osteoarthritis is poorly understood. RESEARCH QUESTION: Is foot posture related to the clinical and radiological parameters in patients with knee osteoarthritis? METHODS: Patients diagnosed with primary clinical and radiographic medial tibiofemoral knee osteoarthritis were included in the study...
August 28, 2018: Gait & Posture
Sheng-Che Yen, Eric Folmar, Katherine A Friend, Ying-Chih Wang, Kevin K Chui
BACKGROUND: Individuals with chronic ankle instability (CAI) tend to walk with an overly inverted foot, which increases the risk of ankle sprains during stance phase. Clinicians could perform ankle taping using kinesiotape (KT) or athletic tape (AT) to address this issue. Because KT is elastic while AT is not, the techniques and underlying mechanisms for applying these tapes are different, which may lead to different outcomes. RESEARCH QUESTION: To compare the effects of KT and AT interventions on foot motion in the frontal plane and tibial motion in the transverse plane during stance phase of walking...
August 28, 2018: Gait & Posture
Daniel Hamacher, Dennis Hamacher, Michèle Hohnbaum, Karsten Gerth, Lutz Schega, Astrid Zech
BACKGROUND: While the effects of diseases, performance of proprioceptors, anxiety or pain on gait stability or automaticity of walking are well-explored, physical fatigue might be another relevant factor whose consequences are not sufficiently investigated, yet. RESEARCH QUESTION: The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of physical exhaustion on local dynamic stability (LDS) and automaticity of gait. METHODS: In a randomized controlled trial, 30 young and healthy adults were randomly assigned to either a passive control group or a fatigue group...
August 27, 2018: Gait & Posture
Feng Yang, Patrick Cereceres, Mu Qiao
BACKGROUND: Treadmill-based gait-slip training shows to be effective in reducing the risk of slip-related falls. In previous relevant studies, the number of repeated slip perturbations ranged from 12 to 30. RESEARCH QUESTION: It is unclear if a reduced number of treadmill-slips can still yield adaptive strategies to lower the likelihood of falls after a slip over ground. This study examined if eight repeated slips on a treadmill reduced the risk of falls among young adults when they were exposed to a novel overground slip...
August 25, 2018: Gait & Posture
Sho Nakakubo, Takehiko Doi, Hyuma Makizako, Kota Tsutsumimoto, Ryo Hotta, Satoshi Kurita, Minji Kim, Takao Suzuki, Hiroyuki Shimada
BACKGROUND: Walk ratio (WR), calculated by dividing step length by cadence, can be used to represent the gait characteristics of human beings to maintain their gait speed. RESEARCH QUESTION: The aim of this study was to examine whether WR could distinguish fallers from community-dwelling elderly people. METHODS: We recruited 9205 elderly people (mean age: 73.7 ± 5.6 years, 4218 men and 4987 women) from the National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology - Study of Geriatric Syndromes...
August 25, 2018: Gait & Posture
Felix Kluge, Julius Hannink, Cristian Pasluosta, Jochen Klucken, Heiko Gaßner, Kolja Gelse, Bjoern M Eskofier, Sebastian Krinner
BACKGROUND: Despite the general success of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) regarding patient-reported outcome measures, studies investigating gait function have shown diverse functional outcomes. Mobile sensor-based systems have recently been employed for accurate clinical gait assessments, as they allow a better integration of gait analysis into clinical routines as compared to laboratory based systems. RESEARCH QUESTION: In this study, we sought to examine whether an accurate assessment of gait function of knee osteoarthritis patients with respect to surgery outcome evaluation after TKA using a mobile sensor-based gait analysis system is possible...
August 24, 2018: Gait & Posture
D Commandeur, M D Klimstra, S MacDonald, K Inouye, M Cox, D Chan, S R Hundza
BACKGROUND: As the proportion of older adults in the population increases, so does the associated prevalence of falls, making falls the leading cause of fatal and nonfatal injuries among adults aged ≥65 years. In response, researchers and clinicians seek to develop a clinical tool that accurately predicts fall risk. These Investigations have included measures of clinical mobility and balance tests, strength, physiologically based tests, postural sway, and mean and variability of gait measures...
August 23, 2018: Gait & Posture
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