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Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805956/measuring-medical-students-empathy-exploring-the-underlying-constructs-of-and-associations-between-two-widely-used-self-report-instruments-in-five-countries
#1
Patrício Costa, Marco Antonio de Carvalho-Filho, Marcelo Schweller, Pia Thiemann, Ana Salgueira, John Benson, Manuel João Costa, Thelma Quince
PURPOSE: Understanding medical student empathy is important to future patient care; however, the definition and development of clinical empathy remain unclear. The authors sought to examine the underlying constructs of two of the most widely used self-report instruments-Davis's Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) and the Jefferson Scale of Empathy version for medical students (JSE-S)-plus, the distinctions and associations between these instruments. METHOD: Between 2007 and 2014, the authors administered the IRI and JSE-S in three separate studies in five countries, (Brazil, Ireland, New Zealand, Portugal, and the United Kingdom)...
November 1, 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805955/why-does-this-learner-perform-poorly-on-tests-using-self-regulated-learning-theory-to-diagnose-the-problem-and-implement-solutions
#2
Mary A Andrews, William F Kelly, Kent J DeZee
PROBLEM: Learners who underperform on standardized tests are common throughout all levels of medical education and require considerable faculty time and effort to remediate. Current methods for remediating test-taking difficulties are typically not grounded in educational theory or supported by high-quality evidence. APPROACH: A test-taking assessment was developed based on self-regulated learning (SRL) microanalytic assessment and training and used during academic year 2012-2013...
November 1, 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805954/residency-placement-fever-is-it-time-for-a-reevaluation
#3
Philip A Gruppuso, Eli Y Adashi
The transition from undergraduate medical education to graduate medical education (GME) involves a process rooted in the final year of medical school. Students file applications through the Electronic Residency Application Service platform, interview with residency training (i.e., GME) programs from which they have received invitations, and generate a rank-ordered preference list. The National Resident Matching Program reconciles applicant and program rank lists with an eye towards matching students and GME programs...
November 1, 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805953/seven-dirty-words-hot-button-language-that-undermines-interprofessional-education-and-practice
#4
Peter S Cahn
An increasingly common goal of health professions education is preparing learners to collaborate with the full range of members on a health care team. While curriculum developers have identified many logistical and conceptual barriers to interprofessional education, one overlooked factor threatens to undermine interprofessional education and practice: language. Language reveals the mental metaphors governing thoughts and actions. The words that faculty members and health care providers use send messages that can-consciously or not-undermine explicit lessons about valuing each member of the care team...
November 1, 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805952/improving-learner-handovers-in-medical-education
#5
Eric J Warm, Robert Englander, Anne Pereira, Paul Barach
Multiple studies have demonstrated that the information included in the Medical Student Performance Evaluation fails to reliably predict medical students' future performance. This faulty transfer of information can lead to harm when poorly prepared students fail out of residency or, worse, are shuttled through the medical education system without an honest accounting of their performance. Such poor learner handovers likely arise from two root causes: (1) the absence of agreed-on outcomes of training and/or accepted assessments of those outcomes, and (2) the lack of standardized ways to communicate the results of those assessments...
November 1, 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805951/the-development-and-evaluation-of-a-novel-instrument-assessing-residents-discharge-summaries
#6
Musab S Hommos, Ethan F Kuperman, Aparna Kamath, Clarence D Kreiter
PURPOSE: To develop and determine the reliability of a novel measurement instrument assessing the quality of residents' discharge summaries. METHOD: In 2014, the authors created a discharge summary evaluation instrument based on consensus recommendations from national regulatory bodies and input from primary care providers at their institution. After a brief pilot, they used the instrument to evaluate discharge summaries written by first-year internal medicine residents (n = 24) at a single U...
November 1, 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805950/three-year-md-programs-perspectives-from-the-consortium-of-accelerated-medical-pathway-programs-campp
#7
Joan Cangiarella, Tonya Fancher, Betsy Jones, Lisa Dodson, Shou Ling Leong, Matthew Hunsaker, Robert Pallay, Robert Whyte, Amy Holthouser, Steven B Abramson
In the last decade, there has been renewed interest in three-year MD pathway programs. In 2015, with support from the Josiah Macy Jr., Foundation, eight North American medical schools with three-year accelerated medical pathway programs formed the Consortium of Accelerated Medical Pathway Programs (CAMPP). The schools are two campuses of the Medical College of Wisconsin; McMaster University Michael G. DeGroote School of Medicine; Mercer University School of Medicine; New York University School of Medicine; Penn State College of Medicine; Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center School of Medicine; University of California, Davis School of Medicine; and University of Louisville School of Medicine...
November 1, 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805949/creating-a-cadre-of-fellowship-trained-medical-educators-part-ii-a-formal-needs-assessment-to-structure-postgraduate-fellowships-in-medical-education-scholarship-and-leadership
#8
Jaime Jordan, Lalena M Yarris, Sally A Santen, Todd A Guth, Steven Rougas, Daniel P Runde, Wendy C Coates
PURPOSE: Education leaders at the 2012 Academic Emergency Medicine Consensus Conference on education research proposed that dedicated postgraduate education scholarship fellowships (ESFs) might provide an effective model for developing future faculty as scholars. A formal needs assessment was performed to understand the training gap and inform the development of ESFs. METHOD: A mixed-methods needs assessment was conducted of four emergency medicine national stakeholder groups in 2013: department chairs; faculty education/research leaders; existing education fellowship directors; and current education fellows/graduates...
November 1, 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805948/from-infancy-to-adolescence-the-kansas-university-school-of-medicine-salina-a-rural-medical-campus-story
#9
William Cathcart-Rake, Michael Robinson, Anthony Paolo
The University of Kansas School of Medicine established a rural regional campus in Salina, Kansas, in 2011. The creation of a four-year medical campus of only 32 total students in a town of less than 50,000 inhabitants appeared to contradict all previous practices where medical schools have been situated in large metropolitan cities with student bodies frequently in the hundreds. The rationale to open the Salina campus was to attract medical students with a desire to train in a rural environment, hoping that many would eventually elect to practice primary care in rural Kansas...
November 1, 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782919/the-causes-of-errors-in-clinical-reasoning-cognitive-biases-knowledge-deficits-and-dual-process-thinking
#10
Geoffrey R Norman, Sandra D Monteiro, Jonathan Sherbino, Jonathan S Ilgen, Henk G Schmidt, Sylvia Mamede
Contemporary theories of clinical reasoning espouse a dual processing model, which consists of a rapid, intuitive component (Type 1) and a slower, logical and analytical component (Type 2). Although the general consensus is that this dual processing model is a valid representation of clinical reasoning, the causes of diagnostic errors remain unclear. Cognitive theories about human memory propose that such errors may arise from both Type 1 and Type 2 reasoning. Errors in Type 1 reasoning may be a consequence of the associative nature of memory, which can lead to cognitive biases...
October 25, 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782918/knowledge-syntheses-in-medical-education-demystifying-scoping-reviews
#11
Aliki Thomas, Stuart Lubarsky, Steven J Durning, Meredith E Young
An unprecedented rise in health professions education (HPE) research has led to increasing attention and interest in knowledge syntheses. There are many different types of knowledge syntheses in common use, including systematic reviews, meta-ethnography, rapid reviews, narrative reviews, and realist reviews. In this Perspective, the authors examine the nature, purpose, value, and appropriate use of one particular method: scoping reviews. Scoping reviews are iterative and flexible and can serve multiple main purposes: to examine the extent, range, and nature of research activity in a given field; to determine the value and appropriateness of undertaking a full systematic review; to summarize and disseminate research findings; and to identify research gaps in the existing literature...
October 25, 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782917/becoming-a-doctor-in-different-cultures-toward-a-cross-cultural-approach-to-supporting-professional-identity-formation-in-medicine
#12
Esther Helmich, Huei-Ming Yeh, Adina Kalet, Mohamed Al-Eraky
Becoming a doctor is fundamentally about developing a new, professional identity as a physician, which in and of itself may evoke many emotions. Additionally, medical trainees are increasingly moving from one cultural context to another and are challenged with navigating the resulting shifts in their professional identify. In this Article, the authors aim to address medical professional identity formation from a polyvocal, multidisciplinary, cross-cultural perspective. They delineate the cultural approaches to medical professionalism, reflect on professional identity formation in different cultures and on different theories of identity development, and advocate for a context-specific approach to professional identity formation...
October 25, 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782916/the-perils-and-rewards-of-critical-consciousness-raising-in-medical-education
#13
Alan Bleakley
Inequalities in society are reflected in patterns of disease and access to health care, where the disadvantaged suffer most. Traditionally, doctors have kept politics out of their work, even though politics often shape medicine. What political responsibilities, then, should doctors have as they facilitate the learning of medical students? The article in this issue by Kumagai, Jackson, and Razack goes straight to the heart of this question. These authors ask whether educators should be wary of "cutting close to the bone" in discussing issues that may restimulate trauma in some medical students...
October 25, 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782915/cutting-close-to-the-bone-student-trauma-free-speech-and-institutional-responsibility-in-medical-education
#14
Arno K Kumagai, Brittani Jackson, Saleem Razack
Learning the societal roles and responsibilities of the physician may involve difficult, contentious conversations about topics such as race, gender, sexual orientation, and class, as well as violence, inequities, sexual assault, and child abuse. If not done well, these discussions may be deeply traumatizing to learners for whom these subjects "cut close to the bone." Equally traumatizing is exposure to injustice and mistreatment, as well as to the sights, sounds, and smells of suffering and pain in the clinical years...
October 25, 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782914/interprofessional-team-training-at-the-prelicensure-level-a-review-of-the-literature
#15
Sioban Nelson, Catriona F White, Brian D Hodges, Maria Tassone
PURPOSE: The authors undertook a descriptive analysis review to gain a better understanding of the various approaches to and outcomes of team training initiatives in prelicensure curricula since 2000. METHOD: In July and August 2014, the authors searched the MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Embase, Business Source Premier, and CINAHL databases to identify evaluative studies of team training programs' effects on the team knowledge, communication, and skills of prelicensure students published from 2000 to August 2014...
October 25, 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759707/can-academic-medicine-lead-the-way-in-the-refugee-crisis
#16
Amir A Afkhami
The world is currently in the midst of the largest refugee crisis since World War II, with the highest interval of mass displacement in recorded history according to the United Nations. The United States has pledged to maintain its position as one of the world's top resettlement countries in response to this crisis. These new immigrants will arrive with exceptional chronic and acute medical needs, including higher rates of behavioral health disorders. The author describes the health care challenges experienced by refugees seeking asylum in the United States and outlines the ways in which our health care system is currently deficient in helping refugee patients to overcome these challenges...
October 18, 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759706/advancing-women-s-health-and-women-s-leadership-with-endowed-chairs-in-women-s-health
#17
Molly Carnes, Paula Johnson, Wendy Klein, Marjorie Jenkins, C Noel Bairey Merz
Gender-based bias and conflation of gender and status are root causes of disparities in women's health care and the slow advancement of women to leadership in academic medicine. More than a quarter of women physicians train in internal medicine and its subspecialties, and women physicians almost exclusively constitute the women's health focus within internal medicine. Thus, internal medicine has considerable opportunity to develop women leaders in academic medicine and promote women's health equity.To probe whether holding an endowed chair-which confers status-in women's health may be an effective way to advance women leaders in academic medicine and women's health, the authors explored the current status of endowed chairs in women's health in internal medicine...
October 18, 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759705/what-matters-more-about-the-interpersonal-reactivity-index-and-the-jefferson-scale-of-empathy-their-underlying-constructs-or-their-relationships-with-pertinent-measures-of-clinical-competence-and-patient-outcomes
#18
Mohammadreza Hojat, Joseph S Gonnella
In their study published in this issue of Academic Medicine, Costa and colleagues confirmed the underlying constructs of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) and the Jefferson Scale of Empathy (JSE) in medical students. The authors of this Commentary propose that in comparing two instruments that both purport to measure empathy, researchers or test users must pay close attention to the target populations, the conceptualizations of empathy, and the validity evidence in relation to pertinent criterion measures...
October 18, 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749310/avoiding-common-data-analysis-pitfalls-in-health-professions-education-research
#19
Jimmie Leppink, Kulamakan M Kulasegaram
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 4, 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749309/responsible-conduct-of-research-education-what-why-and-does-it-work
#20
Michael Kalichman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 4, 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
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