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Journal of Community Health

Ronald O Valdiserri, David R Holtgrave
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 8, 2019: Journal of Community Health
Mohsin Ali, Marsha D Williams
Mystery patient drills using simulated patients have been used in hospitals to assess emergency preparedness for infectious diseases, but these drills have seldom been reported in primary care settings. We conducted three rounds of mystery patient drills designed to simulate either influenza-like illness (ILI) or measles at 41 community health centers in New York City from April 2015 through December 2016. Among 50 drills conducted, 49 successfully screened the patient-actor (defined as provision of a mask or referral to the medical team given concern of infection requiring potential isolation), with 35 (70%) drills completing screening without any challenges...
January 2, 2019: Journal of Community Health
Kulthanit Wanaratna, Weerasak Muangpaisan, Vilai Kuptniratsaikul, Chalobol Chalermsri, Apiwan Nuttamonwarakul
Physical frailty and cognitive impairment are risk factors for adverse outcomes in older people with osteoarthritis of the knee (knee OA). This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and associated factors of frailty and cognitive frailty among community-dwelling older patients with knee OA in four representative cities of Thailand. Data composed of three parts, Part 1: Demographic data, Part 2: The assessment of frailty by Fried phenotype and cognitive function by MiniCog and Part 3: The assessment of factors associated with frailty...
January 2, 2019: Journal of Community Health
Xiaoxiao Lu, Hee-Soon Juon, Xin He, Cher M Dallal, Ming Qi Wang, Sunmin Lee
Prior research suggests that stress plays role in the etiology and progression of hypertension. To lend a more accurate depiction of the underlying mechanisms between stress and hypertension, this study aims to assess the associations between perceived stress and hypertension across varying levels of social support and social network among Asian Americans. We conducted a cross-sectional study using data on 530 Chinese, Korean and Vietnamese Americans recruited from a liver cancer prevention program in the Washington D...
January 2, 2019: Journal of Community Health
Tyler Lennon, Constance Gundacker, Melodee Nugent, Pippa Simpson, Norma K Magallanes, Christal West, Earnestine Willis
Increasing HPV vaccination rates may decrease the disproportionately high HPV-associated disease incidence and mortality in African Americans (AA) and lower socioeconomic individuals. Data from a community-based participatory research (CBPR) study addressing immunization disparities among 19-35 month old children was analyzed to identify ancillary benefits in HPV immunization rates for adolescent siblings. Sub-study analysis inclusion criteria: AA (N = 118), 13-17 years old, younger sibling enrolled in parent study, and enrolled ≥ 9 months...
January 2, 2019: Journal of Community Health
Kathleen H Reilly, Eileen Johns, Nebahat Noyan, Maryanne Schretzman, Tsu-Yu Tsao
This study assessed neighborhood-level association between jail incarceration and premature mortality and estimated the number of potentially avertable premature deaths associated with jail incarceration in NYC. The study outcome was premature mortality rate and the main predictor of interest was jail incarceration rate. Variables associated with premature mortality in bivariate analysis were considered for inclusion in the multivariable ordinary least squares model and in the multivariable linear mixed effects model accounting for spatial correlation...
January 2, 2019: Journal of Community Health
Jung Hee Yeo, Hyunjeong Park, Eun-Young Kim
While the age of sexual intercourse initiation has decreased in South Korea, its correlates have not been identified using a nationally representative sample. This study investigated the predictors of the timing of sexual intercourse initiation among high school students in South Korea. A total of 10,810 students in the twelfth grade were selected from the Youth Health Behavior Online Survey (2016), and their data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and survival analysis. Approximately 11.6% of boys and 5...
January 2, 2019: Journal of Community Health
E Blanco, M Reyes, R Burrows, S Gahagan
In reports among mostly, US, white, preschool and young school-age children eating in the absence of hunger (EAH) has been positively related to adiposity, with some support for a sex-specific relationship. There is considerable interest in EAH and obesity in populations at risk for obesity-like populations of countries that have undergone rapid development. We assessed adolescents (n = 679) after an overnight fast with anthropometry and an EAH paradigm beginning with an ad lib pre-load meal. Participants reported satisfaction and perceived ability to eat more food, and then proceeded to a room with freely available snacks where they were permitted to eat ad lib for 20 min...
December 20, 2018: Journal of Community Health
Michelle M Hughes, Nazia S Saiyed, Pamela T Roesch, Lisa Masinter, Ashima Sarup
Breastfeeding confers substantial health benefits to women and infants. While disparities in breastfeeding persist in the United States, the extent of these disparities at the local level is unclear. This study aimed to identify local level and racial/ethnic breastfeeding disparities within Chicago. A community-based representative survey including questions on breastfeeding was conducted in Chicago. We estimated the proportion of women who breastfed their last child for any length of time and who breastfed at 6 months by neighborhood and maternal characteristics...
December 19, 2018: Journal of Community Health
Veronica Fitzpatrick, Myles Castro, Jacquelyn Jacobs, Nadew Sebro, Jhoanna Gulmatico, Maureen Shields, Sharon Marie Homan
This paper examines the epidemiology of nonfatal firearm violence (NFFV) on the Westside of Chicago over three finite time periods: 2005-2008, 2009-2012, and 2013-2016. The trend analysis will look at any significant changes over the time periods and describe the demographic characteristics of NFFV. A descriptive analysis of Mount Sinai Hospital (MSH) Emergency Department (ED) data was conducted. NFFV patients were identified by specific firearm ICD-9 primary eCode injury categories: accident, assault, legal intervention, undetermined intent, suicide or self-inflicted injury, and legal intervention...
December 18, 2018: Journal of Community Health
Navaneeth Narayanan, Nupur Gulati, Bishakha Ghoshal, Kristina Feja, Amisha Malhotra, Rajita Bhavaraju, Arpita Jindani, Sunanda Gaur, Sabah Kalyoussef
Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) remains a problem in the United States as reactivation leads to active TB disease particularly in persons with risk factors. The objective of this study is to assess the knowledge, attitudes and health behaviors related to testing and treatment of LTBI among non-US-born South Asians (SA) in New Jersey (NJ). A cross-sectional, community-based survey was the primary tool for gathering data. Eligibility criteria included being at least 18 years of age, self-identifying as SA, verbal consent for participation, and birth in a high TB endemic country...
December 17, 2018: Journal of Community Health
Alexander Testa, Dylan B Jackson
The purpose of this study is to investigate the association between two food-related hardships-food insecurity and living in a food desert-on waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). Data on participants from waves I and IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) were analyzed. The association between food-related hardships and waist-to-height ratio were examined using logistic regression. Models were stratified by sex and race/ethnicity to examine potential moderating effects. Study results suggest food insecurity has a positive association with WHtR among female respondents (OR = 1...
December 17, 2018: Journal of Community Health
Elizabeth Radcliff, Charity B Breneman, Elizabeth Crouch, Icelynn Baldwin
In addition to individual-level characteristics, characteristics of the social and physical environments in which individuals reside may adversely impact health outcomes. Careful attention to the role of "place" can result in programs that successfully deliver services to those most at risk. This retrospective, cross-sectional study used geocoded residential addresses from 3090 households enrolled in a South Carolina (SC) home visiting program, 2013-2016, and corresponding years of data for maternal and child health outcomes obtained from vital records data...
December 15, 2018: Journal of Community Health
Dieu-My T Tran
Cardiovascular risk factors in young adults at a national level are less than ideal specifically for hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, and diabetes. Explore college students' perception of their 30-year cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk using cluster analysis technique with internal validation. This is a descriptive and cross-sectional study. A total of 133 college students, aged 20-36 with no known history of CVD, were recruited and used to perform cluster analysis with internal validation. The mean age of the sample was 24...
December 15, 2018: Journal of Community Health
Bridgette E Blebu, Annie Ro, Jennifer B Kane, Tim A Bruckner
The foreign-born black population contributes a considerable amount of heterogeneity to the US black population. In 2005, black immigrants accounted for 20% of the US black population. Compared to native-born black women, black immigrant women are at lower risk for adverse birth outcomes, including preterm birth. Some scholars posit that differential exposures to socioeconomic disadvantage and structural racism in the residential context may account for this advantage. However, to date, few studies offer comprehensive examinations of the black immigrant residential social context, particularly in settlement regions beyond predominantly black and historically segregated regions...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Community Health
Corey H Basch, Danna Ethan, Charles E Basch
Over the past 5 years, the number of regular cyclists in New York City (NYC) increased by ~ 140,000 to over 800,000 regular riders. Aiming to promote safe cycling, NYC has developed over 1000 miles of planned commuting and recreational bike paths across its five boroughs. Bike lane obstructions pose a safety risk to cyclists but the extent of such obstructions is unknown. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to document the frequency and rate of obstructions in protected bike lanes throughout Manhattan, NYC...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Community Health
Adrian R King, Tamira Moon, Gena Agnew, Robert A Bednarczyk
HPV-related cancers can be prevented through HPV vaccination, however uptake and completion of the vaccination in the state of Georgia remains suboptimal. The research team conducted two online focus groups with members of the Georgia Cancer Control Consortium HPV Work Group in efforts to better understand the role that the working group could have on increasing vaccination uptake and completion in the state of Georgia. Analysis of the focus groups was completed using a Grounded Theory approach. Various aspects of the Working Group were discussed throughout the focus groups with a number of key points for growth identified both by the participants during the discussion, and by the research team during analysis...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Community Health
Amy Gatto, Sarah E Powell, Emily F Walters, Shahriar Zamani, Liberty B Sales, Rita DeBate
The study aims to evaluate the enforcement, opinions, and effectiveness of the University of South Florida's tobacco free policy one year following implementation. By assessing readiness to change and using geographic information system (GIS) mapping this study sought to introduce a unique and effective way of evaluating college tobacco free policies. A cross-sectional survey was administered to students, faculty, and staff to assess knowledge of policy and resources, tobacco use observations, stage change regarding policy enforcement, self-efficacy to enforce, and policy impact on perceived campus tobacco use (n = 5242)...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Community Health
Simona Ispas, Samuel So, Mehlika Toy
Chronic hepatitis B infection (CHB) is a condition that needs ongoing care such as monitoring for liver enzymes (ALT) and HBV DNA tests in treated and untreated patients, and annual imaging evaluation for liver cancer. Although follow-up care and treatment might seem straight forward, an estimated two-thirds of those who are aware of their infection are not seeing a health care provider, and more than half of those who are eligible for treatment do not receive it. This study aimed to compile and examine studies related to the barriers of disease monitoring, treatment, and liver cancer surveillance for CHB patients in the United States (US)...
December 11, 2018: Journal of Community Health
Stephen J Mooney, Bella Lee, Allyson W O'Connor
Wearing a helmet when bicycling prevents traumatic brain injury in the event of a crash. Most cyclists nationwide use helmets when riding. However, the growth of free-floating bike sharing systems, which offer short-term access to bicycles but not helmets, may erode helmet-wearing norms among cyclists. We counted cyclists over several hours at four locations in Seattle, WA. We categorized each rider according to whether he or she was wearing a helmet and to whether or not he or she was riding a bike share bike...
December 11, 2018: Journal of Community Health
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