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Journal of Public Health

A Mackay, D F Mackay, C A Celis-Morales, D M Lyall, S R Gray, N Sattar, J M R Gill, J P Pell, J J Anderson
Background: Driving is a common type of sedentary behaviour; an independent risk factor for poor health. The study explores whether driving is also associated with other unhealthy lifestyle factors. Methods: In a cross-sectional study of UK Biobank participants, driving time was treated as an ordinal variable and other lifestyle factors dichotomized into low/high risk based on guidelines. The associations were explored using chi-square tests for trend and binary logistic regression...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Public Health
L Wartberg, L Kriston, R Thomasius
Background: Alcohol use in youth is regarded as an important public health concern and in a recent survey in 35 European countries, every third student reported heavy episodic drinking. While prevalence estimates for problem drinking in adults from representative population samples are available, corresponding numbers for adolescents in Germany are currently lacking. Methods: A representative sample of 1531 12-25 years old in Germany was investigated with a standardized questionnaire concerning problem drinking (assessed with the AUDIT-C) and psychosocial aspects (anxiety with the GAD-2, depressive symptoms with the PHQ-2 and smoking behavior)...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Public Health
Helen Cheng, Adrian Furnham
Objective: To investigate to what extent locus of control, self-esteem, psychological distress, physical exercise, as well as socio-demographic factors are associated with obesity in 42-year-old adults in a longitudinal birth cohort study. Method: The sample consisted of 5645 participants born in Great Britain in 1970 and followed up at 10, 34 and 42 years with data on body mass index measured at 34 and 42 years. Results: There was an increase of adult obesity from 15...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Public Health
Baltazar Nunes, Marta Barreto, Ana P Gil, Irina Kislaya, Sónia Namorado, Liliana Antunes, Vânia Gaio, Ana J Santos, Ana P Rodrigues, Joana Santos, Rita Roquette, Clara Alves-Alves, Emília Castilho, Eugénio Cordeiro, Ana Dinis, Tamara Prokopenko, Ana C Silva, Patrícia Vargas, Heidi Lyshol, Carlos M Dias
Background: In Health Examination Surveys interview information is complemented with objective information, providing more accurate indicators than self-reported data. We report the study design, planning and implementation of the first Portuguese Health Examination Survey (INSEF). Methods: INSEF was a cross-sectional population-based study representative at regional and national level. Individuals aged between 25 and 74 years old, residing in Portugal were selected from the national health users' registry through multi-stage stratified probabilistic sampling...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Public Health
F Atherton, C Beynon
Background: Not all gambling exposes people to the same level of harm. Harm from gambling is found at the individual, social (family and friends) and community levels. This includes financial hardship, psychological distress and interpersonal conflict or relationship breakdown. The harm from gambling to wider society includes fraud, theft, loss of productivity in the workforce and the cost of treating this addiction. The annual estimated excess cost of gambling for Wales is between £40 and £70 million...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Public Health
Zhenhua Gao
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 15, 2018: Journal of Public Health
Gary Ka-Ki Chung, Roger Yat-Nork Chung, Dicken Cheong-Chun Chan, Francisco Tsz-Tsun Lai, Hung Wong, Maggie Ka-Wai Lau, Samuel Yeung-Shan Wong, Eng-Kiong Yeoh
Background: Individual-level deprivation takes into account the non-monetary aspects of poverty that neither income poverty nor socio-economic factors could fully capture; however, it has rarely been considered in existing studies on social inequality in obesity. Therefore, we examined the associations of deprivation, beyond income poverty, with both general and abdominal obesity. Methods: A territory-wide two-stage stratified random sample of 2282 community-dwelling Hong Kong adults was surveyed via face-to-face household interviews between 2014 and 2015...
September 12, 2018: Journal of Public Health
S J Kamper, Z A Michaleff, P Campbell, K M Dunn, T P Yamato, R K Hodder, J Wiggers, C M Williams
Background: During adolescence, prevalence of pain and health risk factors such as smoking, alcohol use and poor mental health all rise sharply. The aim of this study was to describe the relationship between back pain and health risk factors in adolescents. Methods: Cross-sectional data from the Healthy Schools Healthy Futures study, and the Australian Child Wellbeing Project was used, mean age: 14-15 years. Children were stratified according to back pain frequency...
September 10, 2018: Journal of Public Health
Jack Birch, Robert Petty, Lucie Hooper, Linda Bauld, Gillian Rosenberg, Jyotsna Vohra
Background: Foods high in fat, sugar and salt (HFSS) are known to contribute to overweight and obesity. In addition to overweight and obesity, smoking, alcohol consumption and physical inactivity are known risk factors for non-communicable diseases, including several cancers and cardiovascular disease. Methods: Secondary analysis of UK-representative cross-sectional survey data of 3293 adults aged 18+. Regression analyses were undertaken to understand the relationship between consumption of HFSS food and soft drinks, alcohol and tobacco and socio-demographics...
September 6, 2018: Journal of Public Health
F R Coban, A E Kunst, M M Van Stralen, M Richter, K Rathmann, J Perelman, J Alves, B Federico, A Rimpelä, V Lorant, M A G Kuipers
Background: Nicotine dependence during adolescence increases the risk of continuing smoking into adulthood. The magnitude of nicotine dependence among adolescents in the European Union (EU) has not been established. We aimed to estimate the number of nicotine dependent 15-year-old adolescents in the EU, and identify high-risk groups. Methods: The number of nicotine dependent 15-year-olds in the EU was derived combining: (i) total number of 15-year-olds in the EU (2013 Eurostat), (ii) smoking prevalence among 15-year-olds (2013/2014 HBSC survey) and (iii) proportion of nicotine dependent 15-year-olds in six EU countries (2013 SILNE survey)...
September 6, 2018: Journal of Public Health
Jiaan Zhang, Sara J McLaughlin, Lydia W Li
Background: Research on the health effects of exposure to air pollution is growing. However, relatively little attention has been paid to the effects of long-term and cumulative exposure to air pollutants. Individual-level studies on the health consequences of air pollution in China are especially scarce. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of cumulative exposure to sulfur dioxide (SO2), an air pollutant of particular concern in China, on all-cause mortality in older Chinese adults...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Public Health
Dennis Raphael
Background: This article overviews Canadian work on the social determinants of oral and general health noting their affinities and differences. Methods: A literature search identified Canadian journal articles addressing the social determinants of oral health and/or oral health inequalities. Analysis identified affinities and differences with six themes in the general social determinants of health literature. Results: While most Canadian social determinants activity focuses on physical and mental health there is a growing literature on oral health-literature reviews, empirical studies and policy analyses-with many affinities to the broader literature...
August 28, 2018: Journal of Public Health
Akira Akabayashi, Eisuke Nakazawa, Hiroyasu Ino, Reina Ozeki-Hayashi, Nancy S Jecker
Background: In the aftermath of the 2011 Fukushima nuclear plant accident, many workers helped restore the contaminated site, exposing themselves to a highly radioactive environment. They were referred to as the 'Fukushima 50' and applauded as heroes who saved Japan. A cohort study targeting those emergency workers is, currently, underway. We object to the study on ethical grounds. Methods: Ethical and content analyses. Results: First, the low participation rate raises ethical questions about why potential participants declined...
August 28, 2018: Journal of Public Health
M R Esmaeili Dooki, L Moslemi, A A Moghadamnia, M Alijanpour Aghamaleki, A Bijani, M Pornasrollah, H Ashrafianamiri
Background: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among preschool children in rural and urban areas of Northern Iran and need for continuing vitamin D supplementation after 2 years of age. Method: A sample of 406 children aged 30-72 months was selected from health centres. Serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), demographic data, anthropometric characteristics and total body surface area, were evaluated. Results: Subnormal vitamin D levels were found in 68...
August 22, 2018: Journal of Public Health
Winifred Ekezie, Stephen Timmons, Puja Myles, Penelope Siebert, Manpreet Bains, Catherine Pritchard
Background: Armed conflict in Nigeria resulted in more than 2 million internally displaced persons (IDPs). IDPs live in poor conditions lacking basic resources with variable provision across different locations. This audit aimed to determine the health-related resources available to IDPs in camp-like settings in Nigeria and whether these met international standards. Methods: Using a cross-sectional study approach, information was collected in nine camps across seven states from camp managers, and direct observation in September-October 2016...
August 22, 2018: Journal of Public Health
Sana El Mhamdi, Andrine Lemieux, Hela Abroug, Arwa Ben Salah, Ines Bouanene, Kamel Ben Salem, Mustafa al'Absi
Background: We sought to investigate the relationship between social violence and adult overweight/obesity and the role of common mental disorders (CMD) in mediating this relationship. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from January to June 2016 in Tunisia. Participants were selected from randomly selected Primary Health Care Centers. The Arabic version of the Adverse Childhood Experiences-International Questionnaire (ACE-IQ) was used. Results: A total of 2120 participants were included...
August 22, 2018: Journal of Public Health
L M T Byrne-Davis, D Marchant, E R Bull, D Gyles, E Dean, J K Hart
Background: Increasingly, public sector workers are being required to expand their roles into public health. Fire and rescue services, as part of the Emergency Medical Response trial, are at the forefront of role expansion, with increasing capacity due to reducing numbers of fires in recent years. Firefighter roles, successfully implemented, include responding to cardiac arrests and conducting checks on health and wellbeing in people's own homes. In this study, we explored fire service members' perceptions about this role expansion, to increase understanding of how role expansion can be introduced and supported...
August 21, 2018: Journal of Public Health
Bruce Jennings
In public health, acting ethically and fulfilling obligations to the public requires careful reflection and intentional decision making. This article discusses the role that an ethics code in public health can play in providing both an educational tool and a behavioral standard. It argues that maintaining public trust requires that public health personnel to live up to standards of professionalism in their conduct, and in order to do so they must have the capabilities necessary to cope in an ethically reflective manner with the pressures and decisions they face...
August 21, 2018: Journal of Public Health
Jonathan Sher, John W Frank, Lawrence Doi, Linda de Caestecker
It is assumed that long-established research findings and internationally accepted evidence should, and will, be translated into policy and practice. Knowledge about what prevents harm and promotes health has, in fact, guided and resulted in numerous beneficial public health actions. However, such is not always the case. The authors examine three notable, and unwelcome, exceptions in the UK-all in the field of reproductive health and all focused on the period prior to pregnancy. The three examples of counterproductive inaction discussed are: fortifying flour with Vitamin B9 (folic acid); preventing foetal alcohol spectrum disorders; and reducing risks and better regulating a highly teratogenic medication (valproate)...
August 18, 2018: Journal of Public Health
Janet Ige, Paul Pilkington, Judy Orme, Ben Williams, Emily Prestwood, D Black, Laurence Carmichael, Gabriel Scally
Background: The built environment exerts one of the strongest directly measurable effects on physical and mental health, yet the evidence base underpinning the design of healthy urban planning is not fully developed. Method: This study provides a systematic review of quantitative studies assessing the impact of buildings on health. In total, 7127 studies were identified from a structured search of eight databases combined with manual searching for grey literature...
August 18, 2018: Journal of Public Health
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