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Journal of Public Health

C M E Reynolds, B Egan, E G O'Malley, R A K Kennedy, S R Sheehan, M J Turner
Background: This longitudinal study examined the profile and pregnancy-related behaviours of women who reported smoking in two successive pregnancies when they presented for prenatal care in a large maternity hospital. Methods: Using the hospital electronic medical records, women who delivered two successive singleton pregnancies during the years 2011-15 were analyzed. Standardized data were computerized by a midwife at the first prenatal visit, following delivery and before discharge...
January 4, 2019: Journal of Public Health
Benjamin J Gray, Stephanie E Perrett, Brian Gudgeon, Ananda Giri Shankar
Background: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major global public health issue and in low-incidence countries guidance identifies the need to screen for and treat latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) with the prison environment recommended as a setting to perform LTBI screening. This study describes the findings of a LTBI screening programme which took place on entry to a remand prison in the UK. Methods: Testing for LTBI was undertaken alongside screening for blood borne viruses in 567 men...
January 4, 2019: Journal of Public Health
Ka Yan Ho, William Ho Cheung Li, Katherine Ka Wai Lam, Man Ping Wang, Wei Xia, Lok Yin Ho, Laurie Long Kwan Ho, Tai Hing Lam, Sophia Siu Chee Chan
Background: Females are less willing than males to seek help from smoking cessation services; the present study examined how the use of these services by females could be enhanced by training young female ambassadors to deliver a brief intervention. Methods: We collaborated with the Hong Kong Girl Guides Association. Fifty of the association's Girl Guides served as smoking cessation and reduction ambassadors to deliver a brief intervention to at least two female smokers...
January 4, 2019: Journal of Public Health
Sarah R Blake, Claire Roome, Adeel Shahzad, Ian Kemp, Christine Mars, Keith Wilson, Rod H Stables
Background: This study aims to compare information from hospital episode statistics (HES) and traditional direct patient contact to identify readmission and clinical events in the follow-up of a randomized controlled trial (RCT). Methods: The study followed 1812 patients for 28 days using direct contact (DC). In addition, we obtained HES for this period. We examined medical records for all suspected readmissions and determined confirmed events by adjudication. We compared the ability of the individual DC and HES methods to determine readmission and the occurrence of trial-specific events, confirmed at adjudication...
January 4, 2019: Journal of Public Health
Juan C Martín-Sánchez, Adrián González-Marrón, Cristina Lidón-Moyano, Nuria Matilla-Santander, Marcela Fu, Carmen Vidal, Montse Garcia, Jose M Martinez-Sanchez
Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe the smoking prevalence, the smoking pattern, and the risk of lung cancer among women who participated in a cancer screening (breast, cervical and colorectal) in Spain. Methods: We used data from the Spanish National Health Survey of 2011-12, a cross-sectional study of the adult Spanish population from women in the age of participation in the population cancer screening. We used two definitions of the high risk of lung cancer according to the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) criteria and the NELSON criteria...
January 4, 2019: Journal of Public Health
R Gupta, S Gupta, R Mehrotra, P Sodhani
Background: This review aims at evaluating the awareness of risk factors for breast cancer (BC) and the knowledge of breast self-examination (BSE) among Indian women and health care professionals (HCPs). Methods: Literature search was conducted on multiple bibliographic databases with restrictions applied to English peer-reviewed journals. Results: We reviewed 37 published articles on this topic. The mean level of awareness for risk factors such as age at menarche (22...
January 4, 2019: Journal of Public Health
Lobna S Mostafa, Nagwa Ali Sabri, Ali M El-Anwar, Sara M Shaheen
Background: Medication errors made by nurses are common in general practice and can lead to harm in patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of pharmacist-led educational implementations in reducing medication errors made by nurses in an emergency hospital in Cairo, Egypt. Methods: A prospective pre-post-interventional study was conducted in an emergency hospital using direct observation for the detection of errors. The rate and severity of medication errors were determined before and after the implementation of educational tools...
January 4, 2019: Journal of Public Health
Fran E Carroll, Hareth Al-Janabi, Leila Rooshenas, Amanda Owen-Smith, Sandra Hollinghurst, Alastair D Hay
Background: Pre-school children's daycare is associated with increased incidence of respiratory and diarrhoeal illnesses. While the incidence might be reduced if all unwell children were kept at home, parental employment pressures make this difficult when children are marginally unwell. Methods: A discrete choice experiment (DCE) was conducted to identify what aspects of daycare policy and provision would affect parents' decisions to keep marginally unwell children home...
December 20, 2018: Journal of Public Health
Elizabeth Such, Ravi Jaipaul, Sarah Salway
Modern slavery is crime of extreme exploitation. It includes the use of coercion, force, deception and abuse of vulnerability for such purposes as trafficking, labour, sexual exploitation, forced criminal activity and domestic servitude. It is a topic of growing interest in the UK and beyond as it has emerged as an issue of considerable scale and consequence. To date, debates have been dominated by a law enforcement perspective. Less apparent has been an articulation of the implications of modern slavery for the health sector...
December 20, 2018: Journal of Public Health
Emma Halliday, Jennie Popay, Rachel Anderson de Cuevas, Paula Wheeler
In the context of health inequalities, spatial stigma refers to the ways that areas experiencing socioeconomic inequalities become negatively portrayed and labelled in public, official and policy discourses. With respect to the body of research on social determinants of health and health inequalities, and attention accorded to this issue in policy or practice, spatial stigma remains significantly under-represented compared with other possible causal factors. We suggest three explanations contributing to this neglect...
December 20, 2018: Journal of Public Health
R L'e Brennen, C L MacRae, H Irving, B J Zeman, S L Lorentzen
Background: There are unique life-stage and psychosocial barriers to attendance for women referred for postnatal and continence physiotherapy. These barriers affect access to care, clinic utilization and patient waiting lists. In a patient-focused bookings system, the patient is invited to contact the health service to book their appointment at a time and day that suits them, increasing patient choice and engagement in the booking process. Methods: A patient-focussed bookings approach was implemented in outpatient women's health and continence physiotherapy clinics across four sites of a public health service in Australia...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Public Health
Grainne E Crealey, Ciaran O'Neill
Background: Hearing loss (HL) affects an estimated 17% of adults in Britain, 19% in Canada and 16% in the USA. Evidence points to the impact of HL on aspects of physical and mental health as well as autonomy, cognition, memory and social isolation. This suggests the relationship between HL and service use may arise indirectly as well as directly, an issue that warrants investigation. Methods: We used data from Health Survey for England (2014) on objectively and subjectively measured HL, mental and physical health as well as aspects of well-being related to autonomy, cognition, memory and social isolation within a series of bivariate probit models to examine the relationship between health and GP use in the past two weeks...
November 27, 2018: Journal of Public Health
Russell M Viner, Dougal S Hargreaves
Background: We investigated differing trajectories of childhood obesity prevalence amongst English local authorities (LAs). Methods: Data on prevalence of childhood obesity (BMI ≥ 95th centile) for Reception year and Year 6 for 150 LAs in England from 2006/07 to 2015/16 were obtained from the National Child Measurement Programme (NCMP). Latent class mixture modelling (LCCM) was used to identify classes of change in obesity prevalence. Results: In Reception, most LAs showed little change across the period (Class 1; stable, moderate obesity prevalence;84%), with a smaller group with a high prevalence that fell thereafter (Class 2; high but falling obesity prevalence; 16%)...
November 22, 2018: Journal of Public Health
Jalal Poorolajal, Younes Mohammadi, Ali Reza Soltanian, Jamal Ahmadpoor
Background: Multiple risk-taking behaviors are associated with increased risk of poor educational attainment, morbidity and premature mortality. This study involved a large representative sample of Iranian university students addressing multiple risk behaviors and associated factors. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 4261 participants, involving 13 medical universities throughout the country in 2017. The following six risky behaviors were addressed: (a) smoking cigarettes during the past month, (b) using some kinds of illicit drugs during the past month, (c) drinking alcohol during the past month, (d) engaging unprotected sex during the past year, (e) having suicidal ideation during the past month or attempting suicide in the past year, (f) and Internet addiction...
November 17, 2018: Journal of Public Health
B N Wright, S MacDermid Wadsworth, A Wellnitz, H A Eicher-Miller
Background: Rural, low-income US veterans face additional barriers to accessing food and resources compared to urban veterans. Based on both social-ecological and cultural competence approaches, the Reaching Rural Veterans (RRV) pilot intervention built on the existing infrastructure of food pantries to improve food security and connect rural, low-income veterans with resources. This article describes the process of implementing and evaluating RRV. Methods: Five rural food pantries within each of two states, Indiana and Kentucky, received training in cultural competence and held monthly outreach events where food and services were offered to veterans...
November 17, 2018: Journal of Public Health
Matthew Wade, Nicola Brown, Bernadette Dancy, Steven Mann, Conor Gissane, Anne Majumdar
Background: Participant dropout reduces intervention effectiveness. Predicting dropout has been investigated for Exercise Referral Schemes, but not physical activity (PA) interventions with Motivational Interviewing (MI). Methods: Data from attendees (n = 619) to a community-based PA programme utilizing MI techniques were analysed using a chi-squared test to determine dropout and attendance group differences. Binary logistic regression investigated the likelihood of dropout before 12 weeks...
November 17, 2018: Journal of Public Health
Patricia A Cavazos-Rehg, Melissa J Krauss, Shaina J Costello, Alex T Ramsey, Demetrie Petkas, Sean Gunderson, Laura J Bierut, Lisa A Marsch
Background: Digital therapeutic tools (e.g. mobile applications) can be accessible, low-cost interventions that counter misconceptions about medication assisted treatment (MAT) and/or improve deficits in MAT knowledge that are common barriers to treatment entry among individuals with opioid dependence. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the preliminary effectiveness of a mobile application, 'uMAT-R', that includes health information about OUD recovery supported by science and MAT benefits...
November 16, 2018: Journal of Public Health
André O Werneck, Adewale L Oyeyemi, Célia L Szwarcwald, Danilo R Silva
Background: Our aim was to investigate the association between physical activity and alcohol consumption, as well as the sociodemographic and behavioral patterns of this association in a representative sample of Brazilian adults. Methods: Data from the Brazilian Health Survey (PNS), a nationally representative survey conducted in 2013 (n = 60 202; age≥18 years), were used. Time spent in leisure physical activity, alcohol consumption as well as sociodemographic (chronological age, educational status and skin color) and associated behavioral factors (TV viewing and tobacco smoking) were collected via interview...
November 16, 2018: Journal of Public Health
Hugh McLeod
Background: Tobacco smoking is a key cause of mortality, morbidity and health inequalities. The unprecedented English health inequalities strategy (1999-2010) sought to reduce health inequalities, by, in part, instigating NHS Stop Smoking Services (SSS), initially targeted in deprived 'Spearhead' localities. Performance of SSS is assessed here in light of its role supporting the strategy, which evidence suggests achieved a reduction in health inequalities. Methods: SSS enrolment and four-week quits in Spearhead and non-Spearhead localities were compared during and after the strategy period, using regression models and routine monitoring data...
November 14, 2018: Journal of Public Health
Chichen Zhang, Huining Zhao, Ruifang Zhu, Jiao Lu, Lihong Hou, Xiaozhao Yousef Yang, Mei Yin, Tingzhong Yang
Background: China has the world's largest elderly population and an increasing number of empty-nest elderly. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the Self-Mutual-Group model on social support of the empty-nest elderly, thus providing reference for improving their quality of life. Methods: A intervention study was conducted between October 2016 and May 2017 at six communities in Taiyuan, Shanxi Province, China. A total of 350 empty-nest elderly aged 60-88 years were randomly assigned in the intervention group (n = 167) with a 7-month SMG-based intervention or to a control group (n = 183) with no intervention...
November 14, 2018: Journal of Public Health
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