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Journal of Public Health

Myron Anthony Godinho, Nachiket Gudi, Maja Milkowska, Shruti Murthy, Ajay Bailey, N Sreekumaran Nair
Background: This study reviewed the completeness of reporting in Indian qualitative public health research (QPHR) studies using the 'Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Research' (COREQ) checklist. Methods: Search results from five electronic databases were screened by two independent reviewers. We included English-language, primary QPHR studies from India, which were assessed for their compliance with the COREQ checklist. Each COREQ item was noted as either reported or unreported...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Public Health
R A K Kennedy, C M E Reynolds, S Cawley, E O'Malley, D M McCartney, M J Turner
Background: Maternal nutrition is a determinant of pregnancy outcomes. Few studies have evaluated the potential of online nutrition resources to modify behaviour. This randomized controlled trial aimed to determine whether access to a customized evidence-based nutrition website in pregnancy improved neonatal outcomes. Methods: Women <18 weeks gestation were recruited at their convenience. The control group received standard care. In addition to standard care, the intervention group received access to an evidence-based nutrition website, customized to the preferences of pregnant women...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Public Health
I V Walker, J A Cresswell
Background: Maternal obesity is known to be associated with a range of adverse outcomes, both for the mothers and their children. It may be more prevalent in areas with higher deprivation as measured by the Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD), but this has not been demonstrated consistently. This study focused primarily on the relationship between maternal obesity and deprivation in a setting where areas of significant deprivation are surrounded by the overall affluent South East England...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Public Health
Brittany Barker, Scott E Hadland, Huiru Dong, Kate Shannon, Thomas Kerr, Kora DeBeck
Background: The risks of suicidality among street-involved youth who use drugs and engage in sex work are not well described. This study sought to evaluate if street-involved youth who engage in sex work were at an elevated risk for attempting suicide. Methods: Data were derived from the At-Risk Youth Study, a prospective cohort of street-involved youth who use drugs in Vancouver, Canada. Multivariable generalized estimating equation analyses were employed to examine whether youth who engaged in sex work were at elevated risk of attempting suicide, controlling for possible confounders...
July 11, 2018: Journal of Public Health
R C H Brown, H Maslen, J Savulescu
This article considers the role of responsibility in public health promotion. Efforts to tackle non-communicable diseases which focus on changing individual behaviour and reducing risk factor exposure sometimes invoke individual responsibility for adopting healthy lifestyles. We provide a critical discussion of this tendency. First, we outline some key distinctions in the philosophical literature on responsibility, and indicate how responsibility is incorporated into health promotion policies in the UK. We argue that the use of some forms of responsibility in health promotion is inappropriate...
July 11, 2018: Journal of Public Health
Nuria Matilla-Santander, Cristina Lidón-Moyano, Adrián González-Marrón, Kailey Bunch, Juan Carlos Martín-Sánchez, Jose M Martínez-Sánchez
Background: The objective of this study is to describe the prevalence of precarious employment in the European Union (EU) using a multidimensional approach, 8 years into the economic crisis (2014). Methods: We use data from the Flash Eurobarometer 398 among salaried workers (n = 7702). We calculated the proportion and its 95% confidence intervals (CI 95%) for each of the precarious employment dimensions (not having the ability to exercise rights, vulnerability, disempowerment and temporariness), the prevalence of precarious employment (presenting at least one dimension) and the proportion of workers presenting one, two, three or four dimensions...
July 9, 2018: Journal of Public Health
Poonam Mathur, Emily Comstock, Jean Damascene Makuza, Benjamin Emmanuel, Jackson Sebeza, Athanase Kiromera, Eleanor Wilson, Sarah Kattakuzhy, Amy Nelson, Shyamasundaran Kottilil, David J Riedel
Background: There has been an evolution in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C (HCV) due to highly effective direct-acting antivirals, however, restriction of treatment to medical specialists hinders escalation of HCV treatment. This is particularly true in resource-limited settings (RLS), which disproportionately represent the burden of HCV worldwide. The ASCEND study in Washington, DC, demonstrated that complete task-shifting can safely and effectively overcome a low provider-to-patient ratio and expand HCV treatment...
July 6, 2018: Journal of Public Health
Kai Sing Sun, Tai Pong Lam, Kwok Fai Lam, Tak Lam Lo, David Vai Kiong Chao, Edmund Wing Wo Lam, Dan Wu
Background: While qualitative studies suggested that continuity of care by primary care physicians (PCPs) facilitated consultations for psychological problems, there was limited quantitative evidence. This survey compared management of psychological distress between patients with and without a regular PCP. Methods: A questionnaire survey was conducted with 1626 adult primary care attenders from 13 private and 6 public clinics in Hong Kong. Management of psychological distress between respondents with a regular PCP and those without were compared...
July 4, 2018: Journal of Public Health
Mireia Julià, Francesc Belvis, Alejandra Vives, Gemma Tarafa, Joan Benach
Background: The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of informal workers and their working conditions and employment precariousness in the EU-27; and to explore the association of different contract arrangements with health outcomes and how they are influenced by working and employment conditions. Methods: A sample of 27 245 working-age employees from the fifth European Working Condition Survey of 2010 was analysed. Logistic regression models were fitted to estimate the contribution of different contract arrangement (permanent, temporary and informal) and working and employment precariousness variables on health outcomes (psychosocial well-being and self-rated health)...
July 2, 2018: Journal of Public Health
G Davis, N Baboolal, A McRae, R Stewart
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2, 2018: Journal of Public Health
Jack E James
Public financing to incentivise private sector innovation in antimicrobial pharmaceuticals is believed by many to be necessary to defeat growing threats from antimicrobial resistance. Large cash incentives from the public sector are said to be essential to stimulate 'normal' market forces capable of unleashing much-needed innovation. However, there is little evidence to suggest that lack of innovation in drug development is peculiar to antimicrobials or that current deficits in the supply of antimicrobials is due to unique inefficiencies in the antimicrobial market...
July 2, 2018: Journal of Public Health
Sudhir Venkatesan, Cristina Carias, Matthew Biggerstaff, Angela P Campbell, Jonathan S Nguyen-Van-Tam, Emily Kahn, Puja R Myles, Martin I Meltzer
Background: Many countries have acquired antiviral stockpiles for pandemic influenza mitigation and a significant part of the stockpile may be focussed towards community-based treatment. Methods: We developed a spreadsheet-based, decision tree model to assess outcomes averted and cost-effectiveness of antiviral treatment for outpatient use from the perspective of the healthcare payer in the UK. We defined five pandemic scenarios-one based on the 2009 A(H1N1) pandemic and four hypothetical scenarios varying in measures of transmissibility and severity...
June 28, 2018: Journal of Public Health
José Ignacio Nazif-Muñoz, Arijit Nandi, Mónica Ruiz-Casares
Background: In 2010, Brazil introduced child restraint legislation (CRL). We assessed the effectiveness of CRL in reducing child (aged 0-8 years) injuries and fatalities by race. We performed an evaluation study with an interrupted time-series design. Methods: We measured the effect of CRL on two outcomes-number of child deaths and number of child injured in traffic collisions per child population, stratified by race, from 2008 to 2014. We controlled for time, unemployment rate and oil consumption (barrels/day in thousands)...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Public Health
J Lewney, R D Holmes, J Rankin, C Exley
Background: Inequalities in dental decay in young children persist, resulting in high admission rates for general anaesthetics for tooth extractions. Health visitors have the potential to improve dental attendance and oral health in families least likely to engage with dental services. There is little evidence on health visitor views on this. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 17 health visitors working in both affluent and deprived areas in a single UK city...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Public Health
Kate Stephen, Hugo van Woerden, Sandra MacRury
Background: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of urinary incontinence in fitness instructors, experience of teaching pelvic floor muscle exercises (PFME), and attitudes to incorporating such exercises into classes. Method: An online survey was undertaken of fitness instructors working in Scotland based on the Urinary Incontinence Short Form (ICIQ-UI). Results: The survey was at least partially completed by 106, of whom 73...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Public Health
Xiao Zhang, Yunhui Gong, Peng Jia, Jieyi Zhang, Hongmei Xue, Liming Quan, Guo Tian, Jingyuan Xiong, Lishi Zhang, Yu Wang, Lin Zhang, Guo Cheng
Background: Little is known about the relationships between diet cost, dietary intake and obesity in Chinese populations. This study explored how diet cost was related to diet quality and obesity among school-aged children in Southwest China. Methods: Data from a cross-sectional study was analysed. Diet cost was estimated based on dietary intake assessed with 24-h dietary recalls and retail food prices. Diet quality was measured using the Chinese Children Dietary Index...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Public Health
W P Rennert, M Hindiyeh, F M Abu-Awwad, H Marzouqa, A Ramlawi
Background: Introducing childhood immunization poses challenges in environments of societal fragility. The Palestinian territories (Pt) are considered 'fragile' because of their lack of political, economic and territorial sovereignty. Poverty is rife, infant mortality high, and diseases associated with overcrowding widespread. Under these circumstances the Rostropovich Vishneskaya Foundation (RVF) has assembled a network of public and private stakeholders to introduce a country-wide rotavirus immunization program...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Public Health
Shuai Yuan, Hong-Liang Xue, Hong-Jie Yu, Yao Huang, Bo-Wen Tang, Xu-Hao Yang, Qing-Xiao Li, Qi-Qiang He
Background: Few studies have investigated the effect of smoking on type 2 diabetes in women compared with men, even though several epidemiological studies provided a clear picture of the risk among the entire population. Methods: We systematically searched PubMed and Embase up to August 2017 for prospective studies that were stratified by sex with measures of the relative risk (RR) for type 2 diabetes and current smoking compared with non-smoking. The sex-specific RRs and their ratios (RRRs), comparing women with man, were pooled using random-effects models...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Public Health
M J Hossain, S Xie
Background: We performed the first epidemiologic investigation to examine association of demographics and clinical characteristics at diagnosis, as well as health care expense coverage, with survival of US children with aplastic anemia (AA). Methods: We obtained electronic medical record data of 1140 children aged 0-19 years diagnosed with AA followed at a pediatric health system between 2004 and 2014. Kaplan-Meier curve and Cox proportional hazards regressions were used...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Public Health
Kira E Riehm, Eric Latimer, Amélie Quesnel-Vallée, Gonneke W J M Stevens, Geneviève Gariépy, Frank J Elgar
Background: Scant evidence exists on the relation between the availability of health professionals and adolescent health, and whether the size of the health workforce equally benefits adolescents across socioeconomic strata. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of adolescent health in 38 countries. Data from 218 790 adolescents were drawn from the 2013/2014 Health Behavior in School-aged Children survey. We used multilevel regression analyses to examine the association between the density of the health workforce and psychosomatic and mental health symptoms with differences in country wealth and income inequality controlled...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Public Health
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