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Journal of Public Health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525616/a-community-laboratory-drop-off-option-for-bowel-screening-test-kits-increases-participation-rates-results-from-an-interrupted-time-series-analysis
#1
P Sandiford, A Buckley, T Robinson, G Tozer, D Holdsworth, J Badkar
Background: Countries with population-based colorectal cancer screening using faecal occult blood test kits performed in the home and posted to the laboratory struggle to achieve higher than 60% uptake. We measured the impact on participation of offering a community laboratory drop-off (CLD) alternative to postal return in New Zealand's Bowel Screening Pilot. Methods: From May to September, 2015, a flyer added to the bowel screening test kit offered CLD as an alternative to returning the kit by post...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525612/an-effectiveness-hierarchy-of-preventive-interventions-neglected-paradigm-or-self-evident-truth
#2
Simon Capewell, Ann Capewell
Non-communicable disease prevention strategies usually target the four major risk factors of poor diet, tobacco, alcohol and physical inactivity. Yet, the most effective approaches remain disputed. However, increasing evidence supports the concept of an effectiveness hierarchy. Thus, 'downstream' preventive activities targeting individuals (such as 1:1 personal advice, health education, 'nudge' or primary prevention medications) consistently achieve a smaller population health impact than interventions aimed further 'upstream' (for instance, smoke-free legislation, alcohol minimum pricing or regulations eliminating dietary transfats)...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525566/weight-changes-since-age-20-and-cardiovascular-risk-factors-in-a-middle-aged-chinese-population
#3
Yu Zhou, Yu-Jie Xuan, Lin-Sheng Yang, Erigene Rutayisire, Liang-Jian Zhang, Peng Xuan, Xing-Yong Tao, Jie Sheng, Fang-Biao Tao, Su-Fang Wang
Background: Little is known about the association between weight changes and adverse health outcomes among Chinese adults. Methods: A total of 1715 Chinese adults, 45-60 years of age, have been recruited to participate in the Hefei Nutrition and Health Study started in 2012. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the association of weight changes since age 20 (loss ≥5.0 kg; maintain [±4.9 kg]; gain 5.0-9.9 kg; gain ≥10.0 kg) with cardiovascular risk factors...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505378/overweight-and-abdominal-obesity-in-women-of-childbearing-age-of-russian-somali-and-kurdish-origin-and-the-general-finnish-population
#4
Tarja I Kinnunen, Natalia Skogberg, Tommi Härkänen, Annamari Lundqvist, Tiina Laatikainen, Päivikki Koponen
Background: Migrant background and higher parity may increase the risk of being overweight. We compared the prevalence of overweight (body mass index ≥25 kg/m2) and abdominal obesity (waist-to-height ratio ≥0.5) between non-pregnant migrant and Finnish women aged 18-45 years. Methods: The participants were 165 Russian, 164 Somali and 179 Kurdish origin women from the cross-sectional Migrant Health and Wellbeing study. The reference group included 388 women from the general Finnish population...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505347/body-weight-and-psychological-well-being-in-the-uk-general-population
#5
Olga Archangelidi, Emmanouil Mentzakis
Background: While the consequences of body weight for physical health are well explored, the evidence for psychological well-being is less straightforward. An instrumental variable approach is used to address the endogenous relationship between body weight and well-being in the UK general population. Methods: Data from the Health Survey for England (2003, 2004 and 2006) are used to fit linear and ordered probit instrument variable models for a sample of 13 862 individuals, with frequent white meat consumption instrumenting for body-weight...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505346/breast-cancer-screening-bcs-chart-a-basic-and-preliminary-model-for-making-screening-mammography-more-productive-and-efficient
#6
Jalal Poorolajal, Mohammad Esmaeil Akbari, Fatane Ziaee, Manoochehr Karami, Mahshid Ghoncheh
BACKGROUND: The breast cancer screening (BCS) chart is suggested as a basic and preliminary tool to improve efficiency of screening mammography. METHODS: We conducted this case-control study in 2016 and enrolled 1422 women aged 30-75 years, including 506 women with breast cancer (cases) and 916 women without breast cancer (controls). We developed the BCS chart using a multiple logistic regression analysis. We combined the risks of breast cancer to predict the individual risk of breast cancer...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505324/inequalities-in-smoking-prevalence-a-missed-opportunity-for-tobacco-control-in-pakistan
#7
Haleema Masud, Oyinlola Oyebode
Background: Pakistan is one of the highest tobacco consuming countries in South Asia and consumption is increasing. To implement equity orientated tobacco control policies, the most vulnerable groups must be identified. We aimed to identify these groups using the Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey (PDHS) 2012-13. Methods: Descriptive statistics, univariate and multivariate analyses were used to explore household and participant characteristics associated with smoking inside the home or tobacco smoking, respectively...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505296/varenicline-is-associated-with-a-modest-limitation-in-weight-gain-in-smokers-after-smoking-cessation-a-meta-analysis
#8
Yanxin Sun, Wenhou Duan, Xin Meng, Huijie Li, Chongqi Jia
Objective: To assess the effect of treatment on limiting weight gain in abstainers using and not using varenicline and during the nontreatment phase. Methods: The PubMed, Medline, EMBASE and Cochrane Library databases were searched to identify relevant studies published in English or Chinese. A meta-analysis was performed to calculate pooled weighted mean differences (WMDs) in weight gain in smokers after smoking cessation between varenicline and control groups and their corresponding 95% CIs...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498968/the-involvement-of-alcohol-in-hospital-treated-self-harm-and-associated-factors-findings-from-two-national-registries
#9
Eve Griffin, Ella Arensman, Ivan J Perry, Brendan Bonner, Denise O'Hagan, Caroline Daly, Paul Corcoran
Background: Alcohol is often involved in hospital-treated self-harm. Therefore it is important to establish the role of alcohol in self-harm as well as to identify associated factors, in order to best inform service provision. Methods: Data on self-harm presentations to hospital emergency departments in Ireland and Northern Ireland from April 2012 to December 2013 were analysed. We calculated the prevalence of alcohol consumption in self-harm. Using Poisson regression models, we identified the factors associated with having consumed alcohol at the time of a self-harm act...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486650/factors-influencing-the-decision-to-attend-screening-for-cancer-in-the-uk-a-meta-ethnography-of-qualitative-research
#10
B Young, L Bedford, D Kendrick, K Vedhara, J F R Robertson, R das Nair
Background: This review aimed to better understand experiences of being invited to cancer screening and associated decision-making. Methods: Qualitative evidence explaining UK cancer screening attendance decisions was systematically identified. Data were extracted and meta-ethnography used to identify shared themes, synthesize findings and generate higher level interpretations. Results: Thirty-four studies met inclusion criteria. They related to uptake of breast, cervical, colorectal, prostate, ovarian and lung cancer screening...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472516/-one-day-i-will-find-the-right-words-and-they-will-be-simple-rethinking-dnacpr-at-a-national-level
#11
Therese Callus
Evidence has shown a diversity of practices and terminology concerning the implementation and documentation of Do Not Attempt Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation (DNACPR) notices across different hospital Trusts in England and Wales, and the Resuscitation Council (UK) has recently proposed a standard approach for how DNACPR notices can be better incorporated into overall care plans. However, the Council can only make recommendations for good practice. This discussion reviews current practices and suggests that the time has come for a national standardized approach to the process of initiating and documenting DNACPR, along with a dedicated programme to increase public understanding of what is involved...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453710/prescription-of-antibiotics-to-pre-school-children-from-2005-to-2014-in-japan-a-retrospective-claims-database-study
#12
Satomi Yoshida, Masato Takeuchi, Koji Kawakami
Background: Antibiotics are the most frequently prescribed medications for children but inappropriate antibiotic prescribing is prevalent. The purpose of our study was to access the nationwide trend in antibiotic prescriptions, and to ascertain inappropriate prescribing for upper respiratory infections (URIs) in pre-school children in Japan. Methods: Data from the administrative claims database from 2005 January to 2014 September in Japan were examined. We identified outpatient antibiotic prescription claims and described prescription patterns of subjects who were followed from birth to 6 years of age...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453666/inequalities-in-rural-communities-adapting-national-deprivation-indices-for-rural-settings
#13
D Fecht, A Jones, T Hill, T Lindfield, R Thomson, A L Hansell, R Shukla
Background: Deprivation indices have been widely used in healthcare research and planning in the United Kingdom. Existing indices, however, are dominated by characteristics of urban populations that may be less relevant in capturing the nature of rural deprivation. We explore if deprivation indices can be modified to make them more sensitive to displaying rural disadvantage in England. Methods: The analysis focussed on the 2011 Carstairs Index (Carstairs2011) and the 2010 English Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD2010)...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430995/is-popular-radio-a-source-of-exposure-to-alcohol-references-in-mid-to-later-life-a-content-analysis
#14
C Haighton, J Halligan, S Scott
Background: There is concern around alcohol consumption in mid to later life yet little understanding about what influences this behaviour. No previous research has explored the extent to which adults in mid to later life may be exposed to alcohol references in the media. This project aimed to determine the frequency of alcohol references on radio stations with a high proportion of listeners in mid to later life. Methods: Content analysis of alcohol references on four popular UK music-based radio stations with a high proportion of listeners aged 55-64 years over three time points...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419386/association-between-salinity-and-hospital-admission-for-hypertension-an-ecological-case-control-study-in-the-mekong-delta-region-in-vietnam
#15
Mohammad Radwanur Rahman Talukder, Shannon Rutherford, Cordia Chu, Trung Hieu Nguyen, Dung Phung
Background: Drinking water in the Mekong Delta Region (MDR) is highly vulnerable to salinity intrusion and this problem is expected to increase with the projected climate change and sea level rise. Despite this, research on health effects of saline contaminated water is scarce in this region. This study examines the risk of hospital admission for hypertension in salinity-affected areas of the MDR. Methods: Cases and controls were obtained from national/provincial hospital admission records for 2013...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419262/death-disease-and-indignity-serious-health-and-human-rights-concerns-persist-in-uk-immigration-detention-facilities
#16
James Smith
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 13, 2017: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398571/what-does-the-alcohol-industry-mean-by-responsible-drinking-a-comparative-analysis
#17
N Maani Hessari, M Petticrew
Background: The alcohol industry uses responsible drinking messaging as a central element of its corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities. It has been argued that such messaging is vague, and potentially part of broader CSR activities to protect industry interests at the expense of public health. This study aimed to identify how industry defines responsible drinking, and in what contexts it is used. Methods: This was a qualitative documentary analysis of publicly available documents and web pages, including company web pages, press releases, reports and blogs from a representative selection of alcohol producers, and industry social aspect/public relations organizations; these were compared to health NGOs and Public Health England...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398550/the-influence-of-socioeconomic-status-on-gestational-weight-gain-a-systematic-review
#18
E C O'Brien, G Alberdi, F M McAuliffe
Background: Despite a large number of publications regarding the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and gestational weight gain (GWG), the literature is inconsistent. We conducted a systematic review of current evidence relating to the association between SES and GWG, according to the Institute of Medicine (IOM) 2009 guidelines. Methods: Six electronic databases were searched, with the final search run on first July 2016. The PRISMA Statement guidelines were followed and a modified version of the RTI Item Bank was used to assess risk of bias within studies...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398488/who-are-community-health-workers-and-what-do-they-do-development-of-an-empirically-derived-reporting-taxonomy
#19
Beck Taylor, Jonathan Mathers, Jayne Parry
Objectives: To develop an empirically-informed reporting taxonomy for Community Health Worker (CHW) services to address concerns about the transparency and consistency of descriptions of these interventions in the existing literature. Methods: We undertook in-depth interviews (n = 43) with CHWs and service staff working in four case studies selected using maximum variation sampling. Interviewees were encouraged to talk about the service, how they had become involved with the service, the CHW role and relationship with clients...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369582/measuring-inequalities-in-health-from-survey-data-using-self-assessed-social-class
#20
Valerio Bacak
Background: Asking participants to assess their social class may be an efficient approach to examining inequalities in heath from survey data. The present study investigated this possibility empirically by testing whether subjective class identification is related to overall health. Methods: I used pooled cross-sectional data from the 2012 and the 2014 General Social Survey, a nationally representative survey carried out among adults in the United States. The association between health and class was estimated separately by gender, race and age...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Public Health
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