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Journal of Public Health

Yotam Ophir, Kathleen Hall Jamieson
Background: People's intentions to use vaccines are influenced by their beliefs about both the specific vaccine and the disease it prevents. In the absence of firm beliefs about Zika virus (ZIKV), individuals may base their intentions to vaccinate against it on beliefs about other vaccines, and specifically the misbelief that MMR causes autism. Methods: A survey of 3337 Americans, using a random-digit-dialing sample of landline telephone households and cell-phones...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Public Health
J South, A M Connolly, J A Stansfield, P Johnstone, G Henderson, K A Fenton
There is a strong evidence-based rationale for community capacity building and community empowerment as part of a strategic response to reduce health inequalities. Within the current UK policy context, there are calls for increased public engagement in prevention and local decision-making in order to give people greater control over the conditions that determine health. With reference to the challenges and opportunities within the English public health system, this essay seeks to open debate about what is required to mainstream community-centred approaches and ensure that the public is central to public health...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Public Health
N M Kriznik, A L Kinmonth, T Ling, M P Kelly
Background: A strong focus on individual choice and behaviour informs interventions designed to reduce health inequalities in the UK. We review evidence for wider mechanisms from a range of disciplines, demonstrate that they are not yet impacting on programmes, and argue for their systematic inclusion in policy and research. Methods: We identified potential mechanisms relevant to health inequalities and their amelioration from different disciplines and analysed six policy documents published between 1976 and 2010 using Bacchi's 'What's the problem represented to be?' framework for policy analysis...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Public Health
M Hobbs, M J Duncan, P Collins, J Mckenna, S Schoeppe, A L Rebar, S Alley, C Short, C Vandelanotte
Background: The co-occurrence of unhealthy lifestyles, calls for interventions that target multiple health behaviours. This study investigates the clustering of health behaviours and examines demographic differences between each cluster. Methods: In total, 934 adults from Queensland, Australia completed a cross-sectional survey assessing multiple health behaviours. A two-step hierarchical cluster analysis using multiple iterations identified the optimal number of clusters and the subset of distinguishing health behaviour variables...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Public Health
Fiona M Nea, L Kirsty Pourshahidi, John M Kearney, M Barbara E Livingstone, Carolina Bassul, Clare A Corish
Background: Approximately 17% of the European workforce is engaged in shift work. How the experience of shift work impacts on the dietary and lifestyle practices of workers is unclear. Methods: Overall, 15 focus groups were conducted by two researchers, with 109 participants. The initial focus group was carried out with both researchers present, to ensure consistency in facilitation. Both researchers thematically analysed all data collected. Results: Shift work was described as affecting many areas of workers' lives...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Public Health
Tin Aung, May Me Thet, May Sudhinaraset, Nadia Diamond-Smith
Myanmar has experienced slowly rising levels of contraceptive use in recent years. Between 2014 and 2016, Population Services International (PSI)/Myanmar implemented a multi-pronged intervention to increase contraceptive use by leveraging its social marketing clinics and providers, and providing additional community outreach. The aim of this study is to explore trends over time in contraceptive uptake and assess whether exposure to the PSI program was associated with women adopting a method. Baseline and end line data were collected using a repeated cross-sectional survey of married women of reproductive age in 2014 and 2016...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Public Health
Monica Teng, Hui Jun Zhou, Liang Lin, Pang Hung Lim, Doreen Yeo, Suzanne Goh, Soon Yin Tjan, Boon Peng Lim
Background: The study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of hydrotherapy versus land-based therapy in patients with musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) in Singapore. Methods: A decision-analytic model was constructed to compare the cost-effectiveness of hydrotherapy to land-based therapy over 3 months from societal perspective. Target population comprised patients with low back pain (LBP), osteoarthritis (OA), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), total hip replacement (THR) and total knee replacement (TKR)...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Public Health
B P Bergman, D F Mackay, J P Pell
Background: While traumatic limb loss in military personnel is widely known, the threat posed by peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in those who have served is less well recognized. The aim of our study was to examine the risk of PAD in a Scotland-wide cohort of veterans who served between 1960 and 2012. Methods: Retrospective 30-year cohort study of 56 205 veterans born 1945-85, and 172 741 non-veterans, matched for age, sex and area of residence, using Cox proportional hazard models to examine the association between veteran status, birth cohort, length of service and risk of PAD leading to hospitalization or death...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Public Health
S A Darfour-Oduro, J E Andrade, D S Grigsby-Toussaint
Background: Inadequate physical activity (PA) and consumption of fruits and vegetables (FV) are known risk factors for non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Consequently, the World Health Organization (WHO) encourages the development of policies to increase PA and FV consumption. We reviewed available policies between 2004 and 2013 to increase FV consumption and PA from a convenience sample of 49 LMICs. Method: Information on national policies were obtained from government ministries involved with the formulation of nutrition and PA policies, WHO databases and from PubMed and Scopus...
March 3, 2018: Journal of Public Health
Andrea Franco Amoras Magalhães, Eloisa Dutra Caldas
Background: Poisoning is a worldwide public health problem that involves individuals of all ages and a wide range of chemicals. This study investigated the data from two health information systems to characterize poisoning events in the Federal District (DF), Brazil. Methods: Data related to the period from 2009 to 2013 were obtained from the poison information center (Centro de Informação Toxicológica, CIT) and the Notifiable Diseases Information System (Sistema Nacional de Agravos de Notificação, SINAN) of the DF...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Public Health
Anjana Roy, Sarah R Anderson, Éamonn O'Moore
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2, 2018: Journal of Public Health
Masoumeh Abedzadeh-Kalahroudi, Ebrahim Razi, Mojtaba Sehat
Background: The burden of trauma is not equally distributed among all groups of societies and often disproportionately affects poor populations. This study aimed to examine the relationship of socioeconomic status (SES) and trauma outcomes. Methods: In this cohort study, 600 trauma patients in Kashan, Iran were studied. Data were gathered by demographic and trauma-related questionnaires, a socioeconomic assessment scale, the Hospital Care Index and the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule-II...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Public Health
Feng-Jen Tsai, Valérie Junod
Taking advantage of its single-payer, universal insurance system, Taiwan has leveraged its exhaustive database of health claims data for research purposes. Researchers can apply to receive access to pseudonymized (coded) medical data about insured patients, notably their diagnoses, health status and treatments. In view of the strict safeguards implemented, the Taiwanese government considers that this research use does not require patients' consent (either in the form of an opt-in or in the form of an opt-out)...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Public Health
David Spiegelhalter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2018: Journal of Public Health
Jaclyn M White Hughto, Sari L Reisner, Trace S Kershaw, Fredrick L Altice, Katie B Biello, Matthew J Mimiaga, Robert Garofalo, Lisa M Kuhns, John E Pachankis
Background: Transgender women are disproportionately incarcerated in the US relative to the general population. A dearth of research has explored the factors that predict incarceration among transgender women or the longitudinal impact of incarceration on the health of this population. Methods: Between 2012 and 2015, 221 transgender women ages 16-29 from Boston, MA and Chicago, IL were prospectively assessed at baseline, 4, 8 and 12 months. Mixed effects models were used to identify risk factors for incarceration and examine whether incarceration predicts somatic, anxiety and depressive symptoms, illicit drug use, and binge drinking over time, controlling for baseline psychiatric and substance use disorders...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Public Health
Julien Mercille
Background: Privatization has transformed health care systems over the last several decades. This article examines trends in bed supply in Ireland between 1980 and 2015 within the context of government policy on bed provision in a system of inequitable access to care. Ireland has not published bed data on private hospitals since the 1980s, even if they comprise about one-quarter of all hospitals. However, this article presents, for the first time, annual bed data since the 1980s collected from private hospitals and used to trace the evolution of bed supply over time...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Public Health
Kay Nolan, Peter Shearn, Maryam Gholitabar, Judith Richardson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 16, 2018: Journal of Public Health
Richard Whittington, Kathleen Whittington, John Whittington, Joel Porter, Karla Zimmermann, Holly Case, Stacey Berg
Background: Morbidity and mortality from prescription opioids has reached unprecedented levels. Opioids remain part of chronic pain treatment in primary care. This study was designed to determine whether one-on-one care management increases procurement of Naloxone, an opioid antagonist shown to reduce morbidity and mortality in opioid overdoses. Methods: Participants included all patients ≥18 years enrolled in a primary care-based chronic pain management program and who were prescribed a daily dose of opioids for treatment of chronic pain...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Public Health
Giovanni Piumatti, Simon Moore, Damon Berridge, Chinmoy Sarkar, John Gallacher
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 16, 2018: Journal of Public Health
Pam White, Helen Skirrow, Abraham George, Anjum Memon
Background: Since 2013, local authorities in England have been responsible for commissioning preventative public health interventions. The aim of this systematic review was to support commissioning by collating published data on economic evaluations and modelling of local authority commissioned public health preventative interventions in the UK. Methods: Following the PRISMA protocol, we searched for economic evaluations of preventative intervention studies in four different areas: overweight and obesity, physical inactivity, alcohol and illicit drugs use and smoking cessation...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Public Health
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