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Journal of Public Health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633511/cardiovascular-risk-at-health-checks-performed-opportunistically-or-following-an-invitation-letter-cohort-study
#1
Martin C Gulliford, Bernadette Khoshaba, Lisa McDermott, Victoria Cornelius, Mark Ashworth, Frances Fuller, Jane Miller, Hiten Dodhia, Alison J Wright
Background: A population-based programme of health checks has been established in England. Participants receive postal invitations through a population-based call-recall system but health check providers may also offer health checks opportunistically. We compared cardiovascular risk scores for 'invited' and 'opportunistic' health checks. Methods: Cohort study of all health checks completed at 18 general practices from July 2013 to June 2015. For each general practice, cardiovascular (CVD) risk scores were compared by source of check and pooled using meta-analysis...
June 17, 2017: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633509/a-qualitative-study-exploring-awareness-and-attitudes-towards-tuberculosis-in-migrant-populations-in-a-metropolitan-district-council-in-the-north-of-england
#2
C E Humphreys, A Lee, C Offer, R Spencer-Henshall, E Okereke
Background: The majority of tuberculosis (TB) cases in the UK occur among people born in high-burden countries (73%), and are concentrated in large urban centres. This study explores migrants' attitudes and beliefs towards TB in an English District where the incidence is higher than the UK average. Methods: Community engagement workers ran 26 focus groups using a standardized questionnaire. Purposeful sampling was used to obtain a cross-section of migrant communities...
June 17, 2017: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633500/examining-the-health-status-of-homeless-adults-entering-permanent-supportive-housing
#3
Benjamin F Henwood, John Lahey, Harmony Rhoades, Hailey Winetrobe, Suzanne L Wenzel
Background: Permanent supportive housing (PSH) has been recognized as an effective intervention and the national policy for addressing chronic homelessness in the United States. Due to an aging cohort of homeless adults and prioritizing those who are most vulnerable for housing, the health status of those entering PSH is likely worse than those previously reported in the literature. Methods: This report examined the self-reported health and health conditions of a sample of 421 homeless adults entering PSH between 2014 and 2016...
June 17, 2017: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633484/disparities-in-cigarette-smoking-and-use-of-other-tobacco-products-in-minnesota-2003-14
#4
Raymond G Boyle, Joanne D'silva, Cassandra A Stanton, Charles Carusi, Zhiqun Tang
Background: Despite efforts to reduce disadvantages across society, widening health disparities have been observed in Minnesota. This research examined whether observed declines in state-wide smoking prevalence were experienced equally by all adults with varying educational attainment. Methods: Serial cross-sectional data from the 2003, 2007, 2010 and 2014 Minnesota Adult Tobacco Survey (MATS) were analyzed. Weighted regression analyses for smoking status, time to first cigarette, cigarettes per day and non-cigarette other tobacco products (OTP) were conducted across education levels...
June 17, 2017: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633479/geographical-inequalities-in-uptake-of-nhs-funded-eye-examinations-poisson-modelling-of-small-area-data-for-essex-uk
#5
Darren Shickle, Tracey M Farragher, Chris J Davey, Sarah V Slade, James Syrett
Background: Small-area analysis of National Health Service (NHS)-funded sight test uptake in Leeds showed significant inequalities in access among people aged <16 or ≥60. Methods: Data were extracted from 604 126 valid General Ophthalmic Services (GOS)1 claim forms for eye examinations for Essex residents between October 2013 and July 2015. Expected GOS1 uptake for each lower super output area was based on England annual uptake. Poisson regression modelling explored associations in GOS1 uptake ratio with deprivation...
June 17, 2017: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633458/causes-of-death-and-mortality-trends-of-all-individuals-reported-with-hiv-aids-in-israel-1985-2010
#6
Zohar Mor, Rivka Sheffer, Daniel Chemtob
Background: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has changed life-expectancy and mortality trends among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) since 1996. This retrospective cohort study aimed to assess the mortality epidemiology of PLWHA in Israel and analyze the causes of death. Methods: This cohort study included all adult Israeli-citizens PLWHA between 1985 and 2010 and crossed matched with the Civil Registry to identify those who died. Death certificates were classified into AIDS or non-AIDS deaths related-causes...
June 17, 2017: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591852/morbidity-and-mortality-in-opioid-dependent-patients-after-entering-an-opioid-pharmacotherapy-compared-with-a-cohort-of-non-dependent-controls
#7
Erin Kelty, Gary Hulse
Aims: To compare morbidity and mortality in opioid dependence patients following the commencement of treatment with the general population. Methods: Morbidity and mortality in all patients treated with methadone, buprenorphine or implant naltrexone for opioid dependence for the first time between 2001 and 2010 in Western Australia was compared to a cohort of age and gender matched controls using state health records. Results: Compared to community controls rates of all-cause mortality, hospital admissions and Emergency Department attendances are significantly elevated in opioid dependent persons following the commencement of their first treatment...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591813/the-energy-expenditure-benefits-of-reallocating-sedentary-time-with-physical-activity-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
Aviroop Biswas, Paul I Oh, Guy E Faulkner, Alis Bonsignore, Maureen T Pakosh, David A Alter
Background: We compared direct and daily cumulative energy expenditure (EE) differences associated with reallocating sedentary time to physical activity in adults for meaningful EE changes. Methods: Peer-reviewed studies in PubMed, Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched from inception to March 2017. Randomized and non-randomized interventions with sedentary time and EE outcomes in adults were included...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591807/improving-the-quality-and-impact-of-public-health-social-media-activity-in-scotland-during-2016-scotpublichealth
#9
Douglas Graham Mackenzie
Background: Social media, including Twitter, potentially provides a route to communicate public health messages to a large audience. Simple measures can boost onward broadcast to other users ('retweeting'). This study compares the impact of a structured programme of social media activity in Scotland during 2016 (using #ScotPublicHealth hashtag) with previous years. Methods: The Twitter search function was used to identify tweets between 2014 and 2016 inclusive. The first three tweets from each Twitter user were selected for each period...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591792/corporate-sponsorship-of-physical-activity-promotion-programmes-part-of-the-solution-or-part-of-the-problem
#10
B Jane, K Gibson
Background: Parklives is a programme intended to raise levels of physical activity across the UK, funded by Coca-Cola GB and delivered in association with Local Authorities and other organizations. Such public-private partnerships have been advocated by many however critics suggest that the conflict between stakeholder motives is too great. Methods: This study conducted a content analysis of twitter content related to the ParkLives physical activity programme. Images and text were analysed from two separate weeks, one from the school vacation period and one during school term time...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541459/is-the-linkage-of-census-and-health-data-justified-views-from-a-public-panel-of-the-scottish-health-and-ethnicity-linkage-study
#11
Anne Douglas, Hester J T Ward, Raj Bhopal, Theresa Kirkpatrick, Arma Sayed-Rafiq, Laurence Gruer
Background: Using routine health data for research aimed at improving health requires the public's awareness and trust. The Scottish Health and Ethnicity Linkage study explores variations in health between ethnic groups. We aimed to establish a public panel to obtain their views on its methods, findings and dissemination, including use of routine health data without individual opt-in consent. Methods: Adult applicants were sought via a range of sources, aiming for a balance of age, gender and ethnicity...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541440/estimating-the-number-of-people-who-inject-drugs-a-proposal-to-provide-figures-nationwide-and-its-application-to-france
#12
Eric Janssen
Background: This article provides an original method of estimating the prevalence of injecting drug users (IDU) in France. Method: In order to overcome legal restrictions hampering data linkage, the method relies on a single-source capture-recapture framework and makes use of individual data collected by a standardized survey conducted within treatment centres. Taking the hierarchical structure of data collection into consideration, a multilevel Zelterman regression model was used...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525616/a-community-laboratory-drop-off-option-for-bowel-screening-test-kits-increases-participation-rates-results-from-an-interrupted-time-series-analysis
#13
P Sandiford, A Buckley, T Robinson, G Tozer, D Holdsworth, J Badkar
Background: Countries with population-based colorectal cancer screening using faecal occult blood test kits performed in the home and posted to the laboratory struggle to achieve higher than 60% uptake. We measured the impact on participation of offering a community laboratory drop-off (CLD) alternative to postal return in New Zealand's Bowel Screening Pilot. Methods: From May to September, 2015, a flyer added to the bowel screening test kit offered CLD as an alternative to returning the kit by post...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525612/an-effectiveness-hierarchy-of-preventive-interventions-neglected-paradigm-or-self-evident-truth
#14
Simon Capewell, Ann Capewell
Non-communicable disease prevention strategies usually target the four major risk factors of poor diet, tobacco, alcohol and physical inactivity. Yet, the most effective approaches remain disputed. However, increasing evidence supports the concept of an effectiveness hierarchy. Thus, 'downstream' preventive activities targeting individuals (such as 1:1 personal advice, health education, 'nudge' or primary prevention medications) consistently achieve a smaller population health impact than interventions aimed further 'upstream' (for instance, smoke-free legislation, alcohol minimum pricing or regulations eliminating dietary transfats)...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525566/weight-changes-since-age-20-and-cardiovascular-risk-factors-in-a-middle-aged-chinese-population
#15
Yu Zhou, Yu-Jie Xuan, Lin-Sheng Yang, Erigene Rutayisire, Liang-Jian Zhang, Peng Xuan, Xing-Yong Tao, Jie Sheng, Fang-Biao Tao, Su-Fang Wang
Background: Little is known about the association between weight changes and adverse health outcomes among Chinese adults. Methods: A total of 1715 Chinese adults, 45-60 years of age, have been recruited to participate in the Hefei Nutrition and Health Study started in 2012. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the association of weight changes since age 20 (loss ≥5.0 kg; maintain [±4.9 kg]; gain 5.0-9.9 kg; gain ≥10.0 kg) with cardiovascular risk factors...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505378/overweight-and-abdominal-obesity-in-women-of-childbearing-age-of-russian-somali-and-kurdish-origin-and-the-general-finnish-population
#16
Tarja I Kinnunen, Natalia Skogberg, Tommi Härkänen, Annamari Lundqvist, Tiina Laatikainen, Päivikki Koponen
Background: Migrant background and higher parity may increase the risk of being overweight. We compared the prevalence of overweight (body mass index ≥25 kg/m2) and abdominal obesity (waist-to-height ratio ≥0.5) between non-pregnant migrant and Finnish women aged 18-45 years. Methods: The participants were 165 Russian, 164 Somali and 179 Kurdish origin women from the cross-sectional Migrant Health and Wellbeing study. The reference group included 388 women from the general Finnish population...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505347/body-weight-and-psychological-well-being-in-the-uk-general-population
#17
Olga Archangelidi, Emmanouil Mentzakis
Background: While the consequences of body weight for physical health are well explored, the evidence for psychological well-being is less straightforward. An instrumental variable approach is used to address the endogenous relationship between body weight and well-being in the UK general population. Methods: Data from the Health Survey for England (2003, 2004 and 2006) are used to fit linear and ordered probit instrument variable models for a sample of 13 862 individuals, with frequent white meat consumption instrumenting for body-weight...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505346/breast-cancer-screening-bcs-chart-a-basic-and-preliminary-model-for-making-screening-mammography-more-productive-and-efficient
#18
Jalal Poorolajal, Mohammad Esmaeil Akbari, Fatane Ziaee, Manoochehr Karami, Mahshid Ghoncheh
BACKGROUND: The breast cancer screening (BCS) chart is suggested as a basic and preliminary tool to improve efficiency of screening mammography. METHODS: We conducted this case-control study in 2016 and enrolled 1422 women aged 30-75 years, including 506 women with breast cancer (cases) and 916 women without breast cancer (controls). We developed the BCS chart using a multiple logistic regression analysis. We combined the risks of breast cancer to predict the individual risk of breast cancer...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505324/inequalities-in-smoking-prevalence-a-missed-opportunity-for-tobacco-control-in-pakistan
#19
Haleema Masud, Oyinlola Oyebode
Background: Pakistan is one of the highest tobacco consuming countries in South Asia and consumption is increasing. To implement equity orientated tobacco control policies, the most vulnerable groups must be identified. We aimed to identify these groups using the Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey (PDHS) 2012-13. Methods: Descriptive statistics, univariate and multivariate analyses were used to explore household and participant characteristics associated with smoking inside the home or tobacco smoking, respectively...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505296/varenicline-is-associated-with-a-modest-limitation-in-weight-gain-in-smokers-after-smoking-cessation-a-meta-analysis
#20
Yanxin Sun, Wenhou Duan, Xin Meng, Huijie Li, Chongqi Jia
Objective: To assess the effect of treatment on limiting weight gain in abstainers using and not using varenicline and during the nontreatment phase. Methods: The PubMed, Medline, EMBASE and Cochrane Library databases were searched to identify relevant studies published in English or Chinese. A meta-analysis was performed to calculate pooled weighted mean differences (WMDs) in weight gain in smokers after smoking cessation between varenicline and control groups and their corresponding 95% CIs...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Public Health
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