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Journal of Public Health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30395301/the-relationship-between-disability-and-suicide-prospective-evidence-from-the-ten-to-men-cohort
#1
Allison Milner, Anne-Marie Bollier, Eric Emerson, Anne Kavanagh
Background: People with disabilities often face a range of social and economic adversities. Evidence suggests that these disadvantages result in poorer mental health. Some research also indicates that people with disabilities are more likely experience thoughts about suicide than people without disability, although most of this research is based on small cross-sectional samples. Methods: We explored the relationship between self-reported disability (measured at baseline) and likelihood of reporting thoughts of suicide (measured at follow up) using a large longitudinal cohort of Australian males...
November 5, 2018: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30395299/the-virtuous-epidemiologist
#2
E C Ip
This article addresses the scholarly gap in the ethics of epidemiology by exploring what virtue ethics, one of the oldest ethical traditions in moral philosophy, has to say about 'the virtuous epidemiologist'. It expounds comparatively the content and merits of a virtue ethics approach against more popular contemporary schools of thought such as consequentialism and deontology. Without necessarily dismissing the value of principles and standards, it presents a vision that a virtuous epidemiologist should cultivate wisdom in making prudential judgments in conditions of uncertainty; fortitude in dealing with powerful politicians and administrators which does not sacrifice truth; temperance and self-restraint in keeping one's ideological views from compromising one's scientific credibility; and justice in giving due weight to individual rights and the public interest when doing research and giving advice on public health interventions...
November 5, 2018: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30388251/long-term-medical-consequences-of-the-crisis-at-the-us-mexico-border
#3
Marcela Almeida, Maxwell R Rovner
The recent changes in policy at the Southern American Border have urged a number of medical entities and social and human rights organizations to become vocal about its possible long-term outcomes in the lives of the affected families. This reaction is supported by robust scientific evidence on the impact of adverse childhood experiences and perceived racial discrimination, among others, on mental and physical health outcomes.
November 2, 2018: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30388246/health-inequalities-and-health-equity-challenges-for-victims-of-modern-slavery
#4
Coral J Dando, Robin Brierley, Karen Saunders, Jay-Marie Mackenzie
Background: Modern slavery is a serious organized crime, with severe consequences for the physical and mental health of victims, and so has public health implications. Anecdotally many victims of sex slavery experience difficulties accessing healthcare. Public Health England recently articulated the importance of health engagement to address modern slavery but little is known about the experiences of the survivors. Methods: We conducted in depth interviews with Albanian female survivors of sex slavery who all displayed significant and complex health needs...
November 2, 2018: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30388245/evaluating-the-impact-of-an-international-short-term-medical-mission-through-diabetic-glycemic-control
#5
John C Mach, Hope Barone, Christopher Boni, Humberto Jimenez, Michael Tinglin
Background: This prospective observational study evaluated the impact of a primary care-based, international, short-term medical mission's (STMM) impact on diabetes disease burden as represented through reductions in hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c). Methods: From November 2016 to May 2017, we tracked the HbA1c's of diabetic individuals in Dajabon, Dominican Republic through care provided by Waves of Health (WOH). Participants were provided counseling, glucose monitoring equipment, a 6-month supply of anti-diabetic medications, and received a 'check-in' phone call at 3 months...
November 2, 2018: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30380066/nice-public-health-guidance-update
#6
Maria Van Hove, Rachel Kettle, Rachel Walsh, Gillian Leng
This article covers recent National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidance relevant to public health. The article includes an overview of key public health aspects of the Community pharmacy: promoting health and wellbeing guideline, summarizing recommendations for commissioners and health promoting organizations and professionals around the potential to integrate community pharmacies into wider health and care pathways.
October 31, 2018: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30371806/a-qualitative-exploration-of-school-based-staff-s-experiences-of-delivering-an-alcohol-screening-and-brief-intervention-in-the-high-school-setting-findings-from-the-sips-jr-high-trial
#7
G J McGeechan, E L Giles, S Scott, R McGovern, S Boniface, A Ramsay, H Sumnall, D Newbury-Birch, E Kaner
Background: Whilst underage drinking in the UK has been declining in recent years, prevalence is still higher than in most other Western European countries. Therefore, it is important to deliver effective interventions to reduce risk of harm. Methods: Semi-structured interviews with staff delivering an alcohol screening and brief intervention in the high-school setting. The analysis was informed by normalization process theory (NPT), interviews were open coded and then a framework applied based on the four components of NPT...
October 29, 2018: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30358860/a-content-analysis-of-alcohol-content-in-uk-television
#8
Alexander B Barker, Kathy Whittamore, John Britton, Rachael L Murray, Jo Cranwell
Background: Exposure to audio-visual alcohol content in media is associated with subsequent alcohol use in young people, but the extent of exposure contained in UK free-to-air prime-time television has not been explored since 2010. We report an analysis of alcohol content in a sample of UK free-to-air prime-time television broadcasts in 2015 and compare this with a similar analysis from 2010. Methods: Content analysis of all programmes and advertisement/trailer breaks broadcast on the five national UK free-to-air channels in the UK between 6 and 10 pm during three separate weeks in September, October and November 2015...
October 25, 2018: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30351415/distance-to-treatment-as-a-factor-for-loss-to-follow-up-of-hepatitis-c-patients-in-north-east-england
#9
H Simpson, P Manley, J Lawler, S Morey, E Buchanan, M Hewett, J Knowles, C Miller, B McCarron, M Valappil, S McPherson
Background: A large proportion of the 200 000 HCV-infected individuals in the UK are undiagnosed or lost to follow-up. Engaging known infected individuals in treatment is essential for elimination. Methods: Using PHE surveillance data and HCV treatment registers from North East of England (NE) treatment centres for 1997-2016, we estimated the number of HCV cases not linked to treatment and the proportion with active infection. We compared distances of treated and untreated cases to treatment services, and assessed the effect of expanding HCV treatment into existing drug and alcohol treatment centres in the NEE on treatment accessibility...
October 23, 2018: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30351408/prevalence-of-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-and-uptake-of-hepatitis-b-vaccine-among-healthcare-workers-makueni-county-kenya-2017
#10
E N Kisangau, A Awour, B Juma, D Odhiambo, T Muasya, S N Kiio, R Too, S A Lowther
Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a vaccine-preventable infection that can spread in healthcare setting. Data on HBV infections and vaccine in African healthcare workers (HCWs) are limited. We estimated HBV infection prevalence, hepatitis B vaccination status and identified factors associated with vaccination in one Kenyan county. Methods: Randomly selected HCWs completed a questionnaire about HBV exposure and self-reported immunization histories, and provided blood for testing of selected HBV biomarkers to assess HBV infection and vaccination status: HBV core antibodies (anti-HBc), HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) and HBV surface antibodies (anti-HBs)...
October 23, 2018: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30346577/characteristics-associated-with-influenza-vaccination-uptake-among-adults
#11
Changwei Tian, Hua Wang, Wenming Wang, Xiaoming Luo
Background: Annual influenza vaccination has been recommended for all adults since 2010. This study aimed to identify characteristics associated with influenza vaccination among adults. Methods: Data from the National Health Interview Survey from 2011 to 2016 were analyzed. Results: Influenza vaccination coverage among adults increased from 38.28% in 2011 to 44.75% in 2016 (1.50% per year on average). In multivariate analysis, the largest magnitude of association was found with pneumococcal vaccine (lowest and highest odds ratios from 2011 to 2016: 3...
October 20, 2018: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30346575/physical-activity-and-preventable-premature-deaths-from-non-communicable-diseases-in-brazil
#12
Leandro Fórnias Machado de Rezende, Leandro Martin Totaro Garcia, Grégore Iven Mielke, Dong Hoon Lee, Edward Giovannucci, José Eluf-Neto
Background: Studies on the impact of counterfactual scenarios of physical activity on premature deaths from non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are sparse in the literature. We estimated preventable premature deaths from NCDs (diabetes, ischemic heart disease, stroke, and breast and colon cancers) in Brazil by increasing population-wide physical activity (i) to theoretical minimum risk exposure levels; (ii) reaching the physical activity recommendation; (iii) reducing insufficient physical activity by 10%; and (iv) eliminating the gender differences in physical activity...
October 20, 2018: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30346570/activpal-measured-sitting-levels-and-patterns-in-9-10-years-old-children-from-a-uk-city
#13
Aron P Sherry, Natalie Pearson, Nicola D Ridgers, Sally E Barber, Daniel D Bingham, Liana C Nagy, Stacy A Clemes
Background: There is insufficient evidence of sitting time in UK children from validated objective measures. This study explored sitting patterns in primary school children from Bradford, UK, using the validated activPAL inclinometer. Methods: Overall, 79 children (9.8 (SD 0.3) years old, 52% boys; 70% South Asian) wore activPALs for 7 days. Total sitting time, sitting time accumulated in different bout lengths, and the proportion of wear time spent in these variables were explored and compared across different periods of the week...
October 20, 2018: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30346565/socioeconomic-status-and-change-in-sports-activity-among-middle-aged-and-older-men-and-women-evidence-from-the-german-ageing-survey
#14
Gesa Lehne, Gabriele Bolte
Background: Sports activity (SA) behavior is unequally distributed across socioeconomic status (SES) groups. However, little is known about the impact of SES on change in SA over time. Methods: Based on data from the German Ageing Survey, we examined the role of objective (education, occupational prestige, household equivalent income, composite SES-index) and subjective (self-rated standard of living) SES indicators on negative and positive changes in SA during a follow-up of 6 years among adults aged 40+ years using logistic regression analysis...
October 20, 2018: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30346563/equal-north-how-can-we-reduce-health-inequalities-in-the-north-of-england-a-prioritization-exercise-with-researchers-policymakers-and-practitioners
#15
M Addison, E Kaner, P Johnstone, F Hillier-Brown, S Moffatt, S Russell, B Barr, P Holland, S Salway, M Whitehead, C Bambra
Background: The Equal North network was developed to take forward the implications of the Due North report of the Independent Inquiry into Health Equity. The aim of this exercise was to identify how to reduce health inequalities in the north of England. Methods: Workshops (15 groups) and a Delphi survey (3 rounds, 368 members) were used to consult expert opinion and achieve consensus. Round 1 answered open questions around priorities for action; Round 2 used a 5-point Likert scale to rate items; Round 3 responses were re-rated alongside a median response to each item...
October 20, 2018: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30329082/digital-health-gender-and-health-equity-invisible-imperatives
#16
Chaitali Sinha, Anne-Marie Schryer-Roy
m-Health, mHealth, eHealth, digital health, gender, health equity, women, SDGs, accountability, health systems.
October 17, 2018: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30321380/the-changing-face-of-risk-factors-for-non-communicable-disease-in-myanmar-findings-from-the-2009-and-2014-who-step-surveys
#17
Shekhar Grover, Dhirendra N Sinha, Sanjay Gupta, Prakash C Gupta, Ravi Mehrotra
Background: Myanmar is burdened with the dual problem of communicable and non-communicable diseases (NCD), and is constantly endeavoring to attain its health objectives with limited resources. This study compares the results for the 2009 and 2014 WHO STEPs surveys (the 'stepwise' approach to adult risk factor surveillance) in Myanmar to determine the change in NCD risk factors over time. Methodology: The proportion of individuals with major NCD risk factors such as current tobacco and alcohol consumption, <5 fruit/vegetable servings, physical activity, raised blood pressure (BP) and overweight and obesity from the year 2009 (n = 6414) and year 2014 (n = 8757) WHO STEP surveys were compared for the age group 25-64 and relative changes (RC) calculated...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30307537/information-equity-how-increased-access-to-information-can-enhance-equity-and-improve-health-outcomes-for-pregnant-women-in-peru
#18
Jose E Pérez-Lu, Angela M Bayer, Ruth Iguiñiz-Romero
Background: The Peruvian health system provides care through numerous, disconnected health establishments and information systems. Our objective was to explore information use and needs of pregnant women to improve quality of care. Methods: We carried out a mixed methods study in the Lima capital metropolitan area in 15 health centers. This included four focus groups with 34 pregnant women and surveys with 403 pregnant women. Results: Pregnant women's information needs depend on their age, number of pregnancies and environment...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30307517/gender-dynamics-in-digital-health-overcoming-blind-spots-and-biases-to-seize-opportunities-and-responsibilities-for-transformative-health-systems
#19
A S George, R Morgan, E Larson, A LeFevre
Much remains to ensure that digital health affirms rather than retrenches inequality, including for gender. Drawing from literature and from the SEARCH projects in this supplement, this commentary highlights key gender dynamics in digital health, including blind spots and biases, as well as transformative opportunities and responsibilities. Women face structural and social barriers that inhibit their participation in digital health, but are also frequently positioned as beneficiaries without opportunities to shape such projects to better fit their needs...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30307516/mhealth-use-for-non-communicable-diseases-care-in-primary-health-patients-perspective-from-rural-settings-and-refugee-camps
#20
Shadi Saleh, Angie Farah, Nour El Arnaout, Hani Dimassi, Christo El Morr, Carles Muntaner, Walid Ammar, Randa Hamadeh, Mohamad Alameddine
Background: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) account for 85% of deaths in Lebanon and contribute to remarkable morbidity and mortality among refugees and underserved populations. This study assesses the perspectives of individuals with hypertension and/or diabetes in rural areas and Palestinian refugee camps towards a population based mHealth intervention called 'eSahha'. Methods: The study employs a mixed-methods design to evaluate the effectiveness of SMSs on self-reported perceptions of lifestyle modifications...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Public Health
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