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Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743338/helicobacter-pylori-biofilm-formation-and-its-potential-role-in-pathogenesis
#1
REVIEW
Skander Hathroubi, Stephanie L Servetas, Ian Windham, D Scott Merrell, Karen M Ottemann
Despite decades of effort, Helicobacter pylori infections remain difficult to treat. Over half of the world's population is infected by H. pylori , which is a major cause of duodenal and gastric ulcers as well as gastric cancer. During chronic infection, H. pylori localizes within the gastric mucosal layer, including deep within invaginations called glands; thanks to its impressive ability to survive despite the harsh acidic environment, it can persist for the host's lifetime. This ability to survive and persist in the stomach is associated with urease production, chemotactic motility, and the ability to adapt to the fluctuating environment...
June 2018: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695497/transcriptomic-studies-of-malaria-a-paradigm-for-investigation-of-systemic-host-pathogen-interactions
#2
REVIEW
Hyun Jae Lee, Athina Georgiadou, Thomas D Otto, Michael Levin, Lachlan J Coin, David J Conway, Aubrey J Cunnington
Transcriptomics, the analysis of genome-wide RNA expression, is a common approach to investigate host and pathogen processes in infectious diseases. Technical and bioinformatic advances have permitted increasingly thorough analyses of the association of RNA expression with fundamental biology, immunity, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and prognosis. Transcriptomic approaches can now be used to realize a previously unattainable goal, the simultaneous study of RNA expression in host and pathogen, in order to better understand their interactions...
June 2018: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643171/fungal-morphogenesis-from-the-polarized-growth-of-hyphae-to-complex-reproduction-and-infection-structures
#3
REVIEW
Meritxell Riquelme, Jesús Aguirre, Salomon Bartnicki-García, Gerhard H Braus, Michael Feldbrügge, Ursula Fleig, Wilhelm Hansberg, Alfredo Herrera-Estrella, Jörg Kämper, Ulrich Kück, Rosa R Mouriño-Pérez, Norio Takeshita, Reinhard Fischer
Filamentous fungi constitute a large group of eukaryotic microorganisms that grow by forming simple tube-like hyphae that are capable of differentiating into more-complex morphological structures and distinct cell types. Hyphae form filamentous networks by extending at their tips while branching in subapical regions. Rapid tip elongation requires massive membrane insertion and extension of the rigid chitin-containing cell wall. This process is sustained by a continuous flow of secretory vesicles that depends on the coordinated action of the microtubule and actin cytoskeletons and the corresponding motors and associated proteins...
June 2018: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29592895/kinetic-modeling-of-virus-growth-in-cells
#4
REVIEW
John Yin, Jacob Redovich
When a virus infects a host cell, it hijacks the biosynthetic capacity of the cell to produce virus progeny, a process that may take less than an hour or more than a week. The overall time required for a virus to reproduce depends collectively on the rates of multiple steps in the infection process, including initial binding of the virus particle to the surface of the cell, virus internalization and release of the viral genome within the cell, decoding of the genome to make viral proteins, replication of the genome, assembly of progeny virus particles, and release of these particles into the extracellular environment...
June 2018: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540453/emergency-services-of-viral-rnas-repair-and-remodeling
#5
REVIEW
Vadim I Agol, Anatoly P Gmyl
Reproduction of RNA viruses is typically error-prone due to the infidelity of their replicative machinery and the usual lack of proofreading mechanisms. The error rates may be close to those that kill the virus. Consequently, populations of RNA viruses are represented by heterogeneous sets of genomes with various levels of fitness. This is especially consequential when viruses encounter various bottlenecks and new infections are initiated by a single or few deviating genomes. Nevertheless, RNA viruses are able to maintain their identity by conservation of major functional elements...
June 2018: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436479/the-ontogeny-of-a-neutrophil-mechanisms-of-granulopoiesis-and-homeostasis
#6
REVIEW
Shelley M Lawrence, Ross Corriden, Victor Nizet
Comprising the majority of leukocytes in humans, neutrophils are the first immune cells to respond to inflammatory or infectious etiologies and are crucial participants in the proper functioning of both innate and adaptive immune responses. From their initial appearance in the liver, thymus, and spleen at around the eighth week of human gestation to their generation in large numbers in the bone marrow at the end of term gestation, the differentiation of the pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell into a mature, segmented neutrophil is a highly controlled process where the transcriptional regulators C/EBP-α and C/EBP-ε play a vital role...
June 2018: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436478/regulation-of-sensing-transportation-and-catabolism-of-nitrogen-sources-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#7
REVIEW
Weiping Zhang, Guocheng Du, Jingwen Zhou, Jian Chen
Nitrogen is one of the most important essential nutrient sources for biogenic activities. Regulation of nitrogen metabolism in microorganisms is complicated and elaborate. For this review, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was chosen to demonstrate the regulatory mechanism of nitrogen metabolism because of its relative clear genetic background. Current opinions on the regulation processes of nitrogen metabolism in S. cerevisiae , including nitrogen sensing, transport, and catabolism, are systematically reviewed...
June 2018: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321222/multiple-inhibitory-factors-act-in-the-late-phase-of-hiv-1-replication-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#8
REVIEW
Jean-François Gélinas, Deborah R Gill, Stephen C Hyde
The use of lentiviral vectors for therapeutic purposes has shown promising results in clinical trials. The ability to produce a clinical-grade vector at high yields remains a critical issue. One possible obstacle could be cellular factors known to inhibit human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). To date, five HIV restriction factors have been identified, although it is likely that more factors are involved in the complex HIV-cell interaction. Inhibitory factors that have an adverse effect but do not abolish virus production are much less well described...
March 2018: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237726/transmission-evolution-and-endogenization-lessons-learned-from-recent-retroviral-invasions
#9
REVIEW
Alex D Greenwood, Yasuko Ishida, Sean P O'Brien, Alfred L Roca, Maribeth V Eiden
Viruses of the subfamily Orthoretrovirinae are defined by the ability to reverse transcribe an RNA genome into DNA that integrates into the host cell genome during the intracellular virus life cycle. Exogenous retroviruses (XRVs) are horizontally transmitted between host individuals, with disease outcome depending on interactions between the retrovirus and the host organism. When retroviruses infect germ line cells of the host, they may become endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), which are permanent elements in the host germ line that are subject to vertical transmission...
March 2018: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187516/amyloid-like-%C3%AE-aggregates-as-force-sensitive-switches-in-fungal-biofilms-and-infections
#10
REVIEW
Peter N Lipke, Stephen A Klotz, Yves F Dufrene, Desmond N Jackson, Melissa C Garcia-Sherman
Cellular aggregation is an essential step in the formation of biofilms, which promote fungal survival and persistence in hosts. In many of the known yeast cell adhesion proteins, there are amino acid sequences predicted to form amyloid-like β-aggregates. These sequences mediate amyloid formation in vitro. In vivo , these sequences mediate a phase transition from a disordered state to a partially ordered state to create patches of adhesins on the cell surface. These β-aggregated protein patches are called adhesin nanodomains, and their presence greatly increases and strengthens cell-cell interactions in fungal cell aggregation...
March 2018: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118049/the-first-microbial-colonizers-of-the-human-gut-composition-activities-and-health-implications-of-the-infant-gut-microbiota
#11
REVIEW
Christian Milani, Sabrina Duranti, Francesca Bottacini, Eoghan Casey, Francesca Turroni, Jennifer Mahony, Clara Belzer, Susana Delgado Palacio, Silvia Arboleya Montes, Leonardo Mancabelli, Gabriele Andrea Lugli, Juan Miguel Rodriguez, Lars Bode, Willem de Vos, Miguel Gueimonde, Abelardo Margolles, Douwe van Sinderen, Marco Ventura
The human gut microbiota is engaged in multiple interactions affecting host health during the host's entire life span. Microbes colonize the neonatal gut immediately following birth. The establishment and interactive development of this early gut microbiota are believed to be (at least partially) driven and modulated by specific compounds present in human milk. It has been shown that certain genomes of infant gut commensals, in particular those of bifidobacterial species, are genetically adapted to utilize specific glycans of this human secretory fluid, thus representing a very intriguing example of host-microbe coevolution, where both partners are believed to benefit...
December 2017: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070658/sensory-repertoire-of-bacterial-chemoreceptors
#12
REVIEW
Álvaro Ortega, Igor B Zhulin, Tino Krell
Chemoreceptors in bacteria detect a variety of signals and feed this information into chemosensory pathways that represent a major mode of signal transduction. The five chemoreceptors from Escherichia coli have served as traditional models in the study of this protein family. Genome analyses revealed that many bacteria contain much larger numbers of chemoreceptors with broader sensory capabilities. Chemoreceptors differ in topology, sensing mode, cellular location, and, above all, the type of ligand binding domain (LBD)...
December 2017: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021219/stochastic-community-assembly-does-it-matter-in-microbial-ecology
#13
REVIEW
Jizhong Zhou, Daliang Ning
Understanding the mechanisms controlling community diversity, functions, succession, and biogeography is a central, but poorly understood, topic in ecology, particularly in microbial ecology. Although stochastic processes are believed to play nonnegligible roles in shaping community structure, their importance relative to deterministic processes is hotly debated. The importance of ecological stochasticity in shaping microbial community structure is far less appreciated. Some of the main reasons for such heavy debates are the difficulty in defining stochasticity and the diverse methods used for delineating stochasticity...
December 2017: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904024/polyamines-and-their-role-in-virus-infection
#14
REVIEW
Bryan C Mounce, Michelle E Olsen, Marco Vignuzzi, John H Connor
Polyamines are small, abundant, aliphatic molecules present in all mammalian cells. Within the context of the cell, they play a myriad of roles, from modulating nucleic acid conformation to promoting cellular proliferation and signaling. In addition, polyamines have emerged as important molecules in virus-host interactions. Many viruses have been shown to require polyamines for one or more aspects of their replication cycle, including DNA and RNA polymerization, nucleic acid packaging, and protein synthesis...
December 2017: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794225/the-divided-bacterial-genome-structure-function-and-evolution
#15
REVIEW
George C diCenzo, Turlough M Finan
Approximately 10% of bacterial genomes are split between two or more large DNA fragments, a genome architecture referred to as a multipartite genome. This multipartite organization is found in many important organisms, including plant symbionts, such as the nitrogen-fixing rhizobia, and plant, animal, and human pathogens, including the genera Brucella, Vibrio, and Burkholderia. The availability of many complete bacterial genome sequences means that we can now examine on a broad scale the characteristics of the different types of DNA molecules in a genome...
September 2017: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701329/multisubunit-dna-dependent-rna-polymerases-from-vaccinia-virus-and-other-nucleocytoplasmic-large-dna-viruses-impressions-from-the-age-of-structure
#16
REVIEW
Yeva Mirzakhanyan, Paul D Gershon
The past 17 years have been marked by a revolution in our understanding of cellular multisubunit DNA-dependent RNA polymerases (MSDDRPs) at the structural level. A parallel development over the past 15 years has been the emerging story of the giant viruses, which encode MSDDRPs. Here we link the two in an attempt to understand the specialization of multisubunit RNA polymerases in the domain of life encompassing the large nucleocytoplasmic DNA viruses (NCLDV), a superclade that includes the giant viruses and the biochemically well-characterized poxvirus vaccinia virus...
September 2017: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659491/physiological-and-molecular-understanding-of-bacterial-polysaccharide-monooxygenases
#17
REVIEW
Marco Agostoni, John A Hangasky, Michael A Marletta
Bacteria have long been known to secrete enzymes that degrade cellulose and chitin. The degradation of these two polymers predominantly involves two enzyme families that work synergistically with one another: glycoside hydrolases (GHs) and polysaccharide monooxygenases (PMOs). Although bacterial PMOs are a relatively recent addition to the known biopolymer degradation machinery, there is an extensive amount of literature implicating PMO in numerous physiological roles. This review focuses on these diverse and physiological aspects of bacterial PMOs, including facilitating endosymbiosis, conferring a nutritional advantage, and enhancing virulence in pathogenic organisms...
September 2017: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615286/the-physiology-of-phagocytosis-in-the-context-of-mitochondrial-origin
#18
REVIEW
William F Martin, Aloysius G M Tielens, Marek Mentel, Sriram G Garg, Sven B Gould
How mitochondria came to reside within the cytosol of their host has been debated for 50 years. Though current data indicate that the last eukaryote common ancestor possessed mitochondria and was a complex cell, whether mitochondria or complexity came first in eukaryotic evolution is still discussed. In autogenous models (complexity first), the origin of phagocytosis poses the limiting step at eukaryote origin, with mitochondria coming late as an undigested growth substrate. In symbiosis-based models (mitochondria first), the host was an archaeon, and the origin of mitochondria was the limiting step at eukaryote origin, with mitochondria providing bacterial genes, ATP synthesis on internalized bioenergetic membranes, and mitochondrion-derived vesicles as the seed of the eukaryote endomembrane system...
September 2017: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615285/vaccination-against-salmonella-infection-the-mucosal-way
#19
REVIEW
Rémi Gayet, Gilles Bioley, Nicolas Rochereau, Stéphane Paul, Blaise Corthésy
Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica includes several serovars infecting both humans and other animals and leading to typhoid fever or gastroenteritis. The high prevalence of associated morbidity and mortality, together with an increased emergence of multidrug-resistant strains, is a current global health issue that has prompted the development of vaccination strategies that confer protection against most serovars. Currently available systemic vaccine approaches have major limitations, including a reduced effectiveness in young children and a lack of cross-protection among different strains...
September 2017: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566466/the-ecology-of-prions
#20
REVIEW
Mark Zabel, Aimee Ortega
Chronic wasting disease (CWD) affects cervids and is the only known prion disease readily transmitted among free-ranging wild animal populations in nature. The increasing spread and prevalence of CWD among cervid populations threaten the survival of deer and elk herds in North America, and potentially beyond. This review focuses on prion ecology, specifically that of CWD, and the current understanding of the role that the environment may play in disease propagation. We recount the discovery of CWD, discuss the role of the environment in indirect CWD transmission, and consider potentially relevant environmental reservoirs and vectors...
September 2017: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
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