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Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298477/central-role-of-the-trehalose-biosynthesis-pathway-in-the-pathogenesis-of-human-fungal-infections-opportunities-and-challenges-for-therapeutic-development
#1
REVIEW
Arsa Thammahong, Srisombat Puttikamonkul, John R Perfect, Richard G Brennan, Robert A Cramer
Invasive fungal infections cause significant morbidity and mortality in part due to a limited antifungal drug arsenal. One therapeutic challenge faced by clinicians is the significant host toxicity associated with antifungal drugs. Another challenge is the fungistatic mechanism of action of some drugs. Consequently, the identification of fungus-specific drug targets essential for fitness in vivo remains a significant goal of medical mycology research. The trehalose biosynthetic pathway is found in a wide variety of organisms, including human-pathogenic fungi, but not in humans...
June 2017: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179396/the-antigenic-structure-of-zika-virus-and-its-relation-to-other-flaviviruses-implications-for-infection-and-immunoprophylaxis
#2
REVIEW
Franz X Heinz, Karin Stiasny
Zika virus was discovered ∼70 years ago in Uganda and maintained a low profile as a human disease agent in Africa and Asia. Only recently has it caused explosive outbreaks in previously unaffected regions, first in Oceania and then in the Americas since 2015. Of special concern is the newly identified link between congenital malformations (especially microcephaly) and Zika virus infections during pregnancy. At present, it is unclear whether Zika virus changed its pathogenicity or whether the huge number of infections allowed the recognition of a previously cryptic pathogenic property...
March 2017: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123057/prokaryotic-heme-biosynthesis-multiple-pathways-to-a-common-essential-product
#3
REVIEW
Harry A Dailey, Tamara A Dailey, Svetlana Gerdes, Dieter Jahn, Martina Jahn, Mark R O'Brian, Martin J Warren
The advent of heme during evolution allowed organisms possessing this compound to safely and efficiently carry out a variety of chemical reactions that otherwise were difficult or impossible. While it was long assumed that a single heme biosynthetic pathway existed in nature, over the past decade, it has become clear that there are three distinct pathways among prokaryotes, although all three pathways utilize a common initial core of three enzymes to produce the intermediate uroporphyrinogen III. The most ancient pathway and the only one found in the Archaea converts siroheme to protoheme via an oxygen-independent four-enzyme-step process...
March 2017: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077462/bromodomains-in-protozoan-parasites-evolution-function-and-opportunities-for-drug-development
#4
REVIEW
Victoria Jeffers, Chunlin Yang, Sherri Huang, William J Sullivan
Parasitic infections remain one of the most pressing global health concerns of our day, affecting billions of people and producing unsustainable economic burdens. The rise of drug-resistant parasites has created an urgent need to study their biology in hopes of uncovering new potential drug targets. It has been established that disrupting gene expression by interfering with lysine acetylation is detrimental to survival of apicomplexan (Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium spp.) and kinetoplastid (Leishmania spp...
March 2017: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031352/phosphoribosyl-diphosphate-prpp-biosynthesis-enzymology-utilization-and-metabolic-significance
#5
REVIEW
Bjarne Hove-Jensen, Kasper R Andersen, Mogens Kilstrup, Jan Martinussen, Robert L Switzer, Martin Willemoës
Phosphoribosyl diphosphate (PRPP) is an important intermediate in cellular metabolism. PRPP is synthesized by PRPP synthase, as follows: ribose 5-phosphate + ATP → PRPP + AMP. PRPP is ubiquitously found in living organisms and is used in substitution reactions with the formation of glycosidic bonds. PRPP is utilized in the biosynthesis of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides, the amino acids histidine and tryptophan, the cofactors NAD and tetrahydromethanopterin, arabinosyl monophosphodecaprenol, and certain aminoglycoside antibiotics...
March 2017: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974513/bacterial-proteasomes-mechanistic-and-functional-insights
#6
REVIEW
Samuel H Becker, K Heran Darwin
Regulated proteolysis is essential for the normal physiology of all organisms. While all eukaryotes and archaea use proteasomes for protein degradation, only certain orders of bacteria have proteasomes, whose functions are likely as diverse as the species that use them. In this review, we discuss the most recent developments in the understanding of how proteins are targeted to proteasomes for degradation, including ATP-dependent and -independent mechanisms, and the roles of proteasome-dependent degradation in protein quality control and the regulation of cellular physiology...
March 2017: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903656/yeast-hmo1-linker-histone-reinvented
#7
REVIEW
Arvind Panday, Anne Grove
Eukaryotic genomes are packaged in chromatin. The higher-order organization of nucleosome core particles is controlled by the association of the intervening linker DNA with either the linker histone H1 or high mobility group box (HMGB) proteins. While H1 is thought to stabilize the nucleosome by preventing DNA unwrapping, the DNA bending imposed by HMGB may propagate to the nucleosome to destabilize chromatin. For metazoan H1, chromatin compaction requires its lysine-rich C-terminal domain, a domain that is buried between globular domains in the previously characterized yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae linker histone Hho1p...
March 2017: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903655/random-versus-cell-cycle-regulated-replication-initiation-in-bacteria-insights-from-studying-vibrio-cholerae-chromosome-2
#8
REVIEW
Revathy Ramachandran, Jyoti Jha, Johan Paulsson, Dhruba Chattoraj
Bacterial chromosomes initiate replication at a fixed time in the cell cycle, whereas there is generally no particular time for plasmid replication initiation or chromosomal replication initiation from integrated plasmids. In bacteria with divided genomes, the replication system of one of the chromosomes typically resembles that of bacteria with undivided genomes, whereas the remaining chromosomes have plasmid-like replication systems. For example, in Vibrio cholerae, a bacterium with two chromosomes (chromosome 1 [Chr1] and Chr2), the Chr1 system resembles that of the Escherichia coli chromosome, and the Chr2 system resembles that of iteron-based plasmids...
March 2017: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784798/regulatory-rnas-in-bacillus-subtilis-a-gram-positive-perspective-on-bacterial-rna-mediated-regulation-of-gene-expression
#9
REVIEW
Ruben A T Mars, Pierre Nicolas, Emma L Denham, Jan Maarten van Dijl
Bacteria can employ widely diverse RNA molecules to regulate their gene expression. Such molecules include trans-acting small regulatory RNAs, antisense RNAs, and a variety of transcriptional attenuation mechanisms in the 5' untranslated region. Thus far, most regulatory RNA research has focused on Gram-negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella. Hence, there is uncertainty about whether the resulting insights can be extrapolated directly to other bacteria, such as the Gram-positive soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis...
December 2016: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784797/yopj-family-effectors-promote-bacterial-infection-through-a-unique-acetyltransferase-activity
#10
REVIEW
Ka-Wai Ma, Wenbo Ma
Gram-negative bacterial pathogens rely on the type III secretion system to inject virulence proteins into host cells. These type III secreted "effector" proteins directly manipulate cellular processes to cause disease. Although the effector repertoires in different bacterial species are highly variable, the Yersinia outer protein J (YopJ) effector family is unique in that its members are produced by diverse animal and plant pathogens as well as a nonpathogenic microsymbiont. All YopJ family effectors share a conserved catalytic triad that is identical to that of the C55 family of cysteine proteases...
December 2016: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784796/deconstructing-the-antiviral-neutralizing-antibody-response-implications-for-vaccine-development-and-immunity
#11
REVIEW
Laura A VanBlargan, Leslie Goo, Theodore C Pierson
The antibody response plays a key role in protection against viral infections. While antiviral antibodies may reduce the viral burden via several mechanisms, the ability to directly inhibit (neutralize) infection of cells has been extensively studied. Eliciting a neutralizing-antibody response is a goal of many vaccine development programs and commonly correlates with protection from disease. Considerable insights into the mechanisms of neutralization have been gained from studies of monoclonal antibodies, yet the individual contributions and dynamics of the repertoire of circulating antibody specificities elicited by infection and vaccination are poorly understood on the functional and molecular levels...
December 2016: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681641/the-blueprint-of-a-minimal-cell-minibacillus
#12
REVIEW
Daniel R Reuß, Fabian M Commichau, Jan Gundlach, Bingyao Zhu, Jörg Stülke
Bacillus subtilis is one of the best-studied organisms. Due to the broad knowledge and annotation and the well-developed genetic system, this bacterium is an excellent starting point for genome minimization with the aim of constructing a minimal cell. We have analyzed the genome of B. subtilis and selected all genes that are required to allow life in complex medium at 37°C. This selection is based on the known information on essential genes and functions as well as on gene and protein expression data and gene conservation...
December 2016: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630250/marine-bacterial-and-archaeal-ion-pumping-rhodopsins-genetic-diversity-physiology-and-ecology
#13
REVIEW
Jarone Pinhassi, Edward F DeLong, Oded Béjà, José M González, Carlos Pedrós-Alió
The recognition of a new family of rhodopsins in marine planktonic bacteria, proton-pumping proteorhodopsin, expanded the known phylogenetic range, environmental distribution, and sequence diversity of retinylidene photoproteins. At the time of this discovery, microbial ion-pumping rhodopsins were known solely in haloarchaea inhabiting extreme hypersaline environments. Shortly thereafter, proteorhodopsins and other light-activated energy-generating rhodopsins were recognized to be widespread among marine bacteria...
December 2016: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27582258/plasmodium-helical-interspersed-subtelomeric-phist-proteins-at-the-center-of-host-cell-remodeling
#14
REVIEW
Jan D Warncke, Ioannis Vakonakis, Hans-Peter Beck
During the asexual cycle, Plasmodium falciparum extensively remodels the human erythrocyte to make it a suitable host cell. A large number of exported proteins facilitate this remodeling process, which causes erythrocytes to become more rigid, cytoadherent, and permeable for nutrients and metabolic products. Among the exported proteins, a family of 89 proteins, called the Plasmodium helical interspersed subtelomeric (PHIST) protein family, has been identified. While also found in other Plasmodium species, the PHIST family is greatly expanded in P...
December 2016: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27512101/correction-for-chakroun-et-al-bacterial-vegetative-insecticidal-proteins-vip-from-entomopathogenic-bacteria
#15
Maissa Chakroun, Núria Banyuls, Yolanda Bel, Baltasar Escriche, Juan Ferré
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27512100/lipoproteins-of-gram-positive-bacteria-key-players-in-the-immune-response-and-virulence
#16
REVIEW
Minh Thu Nguyen, Friedrich Götz
Since the discovery in 1973 of the first of the bacterial lipoproteins (Lpp) in Escherichia coli, Braun's lipoprotein, the ever-increasing number of publications indicates the importance of these proteins. Bacterial Lpp belong to the class of lipid-anchored proteins that in Gram-negative bacteria are anchored in both the cytoplasmic and outer membranes and in Gram-positive bacteria are anchored only in the cytoplasmic membrane. In contrast to the case for Gram-negative bacteria, in Gram-positive bacteria lipoprotein maturation and processing are not vital...
September 2016: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27466284/stress-physiology-of-lactic-acid-bacteria
#17
REVIEW
Konstantinos Papadimitriou, Ángel Alegría, Peter A Bron, Maria de Angelis, Marco Gobbetti, Michiel Kleerebezem, José A Lemos, Daniel M Linares, Paul Ross, Catherine Stanton, Francesca Turroni, Douwe van Sinderen, Pekka Varmanen, Marco Ventura, Manuel Zúñiga, Effie Tsakalidou, Jan Kok
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are important starter, commensal, or pathogenic microorganisms. The stress physiology of LAB has been studied in depth for over 2 decades, fueled mostly by the technological implications of LAB robustness in the food industry. Survival of probiotic LAB in the host and the potential relatedness of LAB virulence to their stress resilience have intensified interest in the field. Thus, a wealth of information concerning stress responses exists today for strains as diverse as starter (e...
September 2016: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27466283/jnk-signaling-regulation-and-functions-based-on-complex-protein-protein-partnerships
#18
REVIEW
András Zeke, Mariya Misheva, Attila Reményi, Marie A Bogoyevitch
The c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs), as members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family, mediate eukaryotic cell responses to a wide range of abiotic and biotic stress insults. JNKs also regulate important physiological processes, including neuronal functions, immunological actions, and embryonic development, via their impact on gene expression, cytoskeletal protein dynamics, and cell death/survival pathways. Although the JNK pathway has been under study for >20 years, its complexity is still perplexing, with multiple protein partners of JNKs underlying the diversity of actions...
September 2016: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27466282/the-cell-biology-of-fission-yeast-septation
#19
REVIEW
Juan C García Cortés, Mariona Ramos, Masako Osumi, Pilar Pérez, Juan Carlos Ribas
In animal cells, cytokinesis requires the formation of a cleavage furrow that divides the cell into two daughter cells. Furrow formation is achieved by constriction of an actomyosin ring that invaginates the plasma membrane. However, fungal cells contain a rigid extracellular cell wall surrounding the plasma membrane; thus, fungal cytokinesis also requires the formation of a special septum wall structure between the dividing cells. The septum biosynthesis must be strictly coordinated with the deposition of new plasma membrane material and actomyosin ring closure and must occur in such a way that no breach in the cell wall occurs at any time...
September 2016: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27466281/the-expanding-landscape-of-moonlighting-proteins-in-yeasts
#20
REVIEW
Carlos Gancedo, Carmen-Lisset Flores, Juana M Gancedo
Moonlighting proteins are multifunctional proteins that participate in unrelated biological processes and that are not the result of gene fusion. A certain number of these proteins have been characterized in yeasts, and the easy genetic manipulation of these microorganisms has been useful for a thorough analysis of some cases of moonlighting. As the awareness of the moonlighting phenomenon has increased, a growing number of these proteins are being uncovered. In this review, we present a crop of newly identified moonlighting proteins from yeasts and discuss the experimental evidence that qualifies them to be classified as such...
September 2016: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
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