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Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118049/the-first-microbial-colonizers-of-the-human-gut-composition-activities-and-health-implications-of-the-infant-gut-microbiota
#1
REVIEW
Christian Milani, Sabrina Duranti, Francesca Bottacini, Eoghan Casey, Francesca Turroni, Jennifer Mahony, Clara Belzer, Susana Delgado Palacio, Silvia Arboleya Montes, Leonardo Mancabelli, Gabriele Andrea Lugli, Juan Miguel Rodriguez, Lars Bode, Willem de Vos, Miguel Gueimonde, Abelardo Margolles, Douwe van Sinderen, Marco Ventura
The human gut microbiota is engaged in multiple interactions affecting host health during the host's entire life span. Microbes colonize the neonatal gut immediately following birth. The establishment and interactive development of this early gut microbiota are believed to be (at least partially) driven and modulated by specific compounds present in human milk. It has been shown that certain genomes of infant gut commensals, in particular those of bifidobacterial species, are genetically adapted to utilize specific glycans of this human secretory fluid, thus representing a very intriguing example of host-microbe coevolution, where both partners are believed to benefit...
December 2017: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070658/sensory-repertoire-of-bacterial-chemoreceptors
#2
REVIEW
Álvaro Ortega, Igor B Zhulin, Tino Krell
Chemoreceptors in bacteria detect a variety of signals and feed this information into chemosensory pathways that represent a major mode of signal transduction. The five chemoreceptors from Escherichia coli have served as traditional models in the study of this protein family. Genome analyses revealed that many bacteria contain much larger numbers of chemoreceptors with broader sensory capabilities. Chemoreceptors differ in topology, sensing mode, cellular location, and, above all, the type of ligand binding domain (LBD)...
December 2017: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021219/stochastic-community-assembly-does-it-matter-in-microbial-ecology
#3
REVIEW
Jizhong Zhou, Daliang Ning
Understanding the mechanisms controlling community diversity, functions, succession, and biogeography is a central, but poorly understood, topic in ecology, particularly in microbial ecology. Although stochastic processes are believed to play nonnegligible roles in shaping community structure, their importance relative to deterministic processes is hotly debated. The importance of ecological stochasticity in shaping microbial community structure is far less appreciated. Some of the main reasons for such heavy debates are the difficulty in defining stochasticity and the diverse methods used for delineating stochasticity...
December 2017: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904024/polyamines-and-their-role-in-virus-infection
#4
REVIEW
Bryan C Mounce, Michelle E Olsen, Marco Vignuzzi, John H Connor
Polyamines are small, abundant, aliphatic molecules present in all mammalian cells. Within the context of the cell, they play a myriad of roles, from modulating nucleic acid conformation to promoting cellular proliferation and signaling. In addition, polyamines have emerged as important molecules in virus-host interactions. Many viruses have been shown to require polyamines for one or more aspects of their replication cycle, including DNA and RNA polymerization, nucleic acid packaging, and protein synthesis...
December 2017: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794225/the-divided-bacterial-genome-structure-function-and-evolution
#5
REVIEW
George C diCenzo, Turlough M Finan
Approximately 10% of bacterial genomes are split between two or more large DNA fragments, a genome architecture referred to as a multipartite genome. This multipartite organization is found in many important organisms, including plant symbionts, such as the nitrogen-fixing rhizobia, and plant, animal, and human pathogens, including the genera Brucella, Vibrio, and Burkholderia. The availability of many complete bacterial genome sequences means that we can now examine on a broad scale the characteristics of the different types of DNA molecules in a genome...
September 2017: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701329/multisubunit-dna-dependent-rna-polymerases-from-vaccinia-virus-and-other-nucleocytoplasmic-large-dna-viruses-impressions-from-the-age-of-structure
#6
REVIEW
Yeva Mirzakhanyan, Paul D Gershon
The past 17 years have been marked by a revolution in our understanding of cellular multisubunit DNA-dependent RNA polymerases (MSDDRPs) at the structural level. A parallel development over the past 15 years has been the emerging story of the giant viruses, which encode MSDDRPs. Here we link the two in an attempt to understand the specialization of multisubunit RNA polymerases in the domain of life encompassing the large nucleocytoplasmic DNA viruses (NCLDV), a superclade that includes the giant viruses and the biochemically well-characterized poxvirus vaccinia virus...
September 2017: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659491/physiological-and-molecular-understanding-of-bacterial-polysaccharide-monooxygenases
#7
REVIEW
Marco Agostoni, John A Hangasky, Michael A Marletta
Bacteria have long been known to secrete enzymes that degrade cellulose and chitin. The degradation of these two polymers predominantly involves two enzyme families that work synergistically with one another: glycoside hydrolases (GHs) and polysaccharide monooxygenases (PMOs). Although bacterial PMOs are a relatively recent addition to the known biopolymer degradation machinery, there is an extensive amount of literature implicating PMO in numerous physiological roles. This review focuses on these diverse and physiological aspects of bacterial PMOs, including facilitating endosymbiosis, conferring a nutritional advantage, and enhancing virulence in pathogenic organisms...
September 2017: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615286/the-physiology-of-phagocytosis-in-the-context-of-mitochondrial-origin
#8
REVIEW
William F Martin, Aloysius G M Tielens, Marek Mentel, Sriram G Garg, Sven B Gould
How mitochondria came to reside within the cytosol of their host has been debated for 50 years. Though current data indicate that the last eukaryote common ancestor possessed mitochondria and was a complex cell, whether mitochondria or complexity came first in eukaryotic evolution is still discussed. In autogenous models (complexity first), the origin of phagocytosis poses the limiting step at eukaryote origin, with mitochondria coming late as an undigested growth substrate. In symbiosis-based models (mitochondria first), the host was an archaeon, and the origin of mitochondria was the limiting step at eukaryote origin, with mitochondria providing bacterial genes, ATP synthesis on internalized bioenergetic membranes, and mitochondrion-derived vesicles as the seed of the eukaryote endomembrane system...
September 2017: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615285/vaccination-against-salmonella-infection-the-mucosal-way
#9
REVIEW
Rémi Gayet, Gilles Bioley, Nicolas Rochereau, Stéphane Paul, Blaise Corthésy
Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica includes several serovars infecting both humans and other animals and leading to typhoid fever or gastroenteritis. The high prevalence of associated morbidity and mortality, together with an increased emergence of multidrug-resistant strains, is a current global health issue that has prompted the development of vaccination strategies that confer protection against most serovars. Currently available systemic vaccine approaches have major limitations, including a reduced effectiveness in young children and a lack of cross-protection among different strains...
September 2017: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566466/the-ecology-of-prions
#10
REVIEW
Mark Zabel, Aimee Ortega
Chronic wasting disease (CWD) affects cervids and is the only known prion disease readily transmitted among free-ranging wild animal populations in nature. The increasing spread and prevalence of CWD among cervid populations threaten the survival of deer and elk herds in North America, and potentially beyond. This review focuses on prion ecology, specifically that of CWD, and the current understanding of the role that the environment may play in disease propagation. We recount the discovery of CWD, discuss the role of the environment in indirect CWD transmission, and consider potentially relevant environmental reservoirs and vectors...
September 2017: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404790/forest-soil-bacteria-diversity-involvement-in-ecosystem-processes-and-response-to-global-change
#11
REVIEW
Salvador Lladó, Rubén López-Mondéjar, Petr Baldrian
The ecology of forest soils is an important field of research due to the role of forests as carbon sinks. Consequently, a significant amount of information has been accumulated concerning their ecology, especially for temperate and boreal forests. Although most studies have focused on fungi, forest soil bacteria also play important roles in this environment. In forest soils, bacteria inhabit multiple habitats with specific properties, including bulk soil, rhizosphere, litter, and deadwood habitats, where their communities are shaped by nutrient availability and biotic interactions...
June 2017: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356329/effectors-of-filamentous-plant-pathogens-commonalities-amid-diversity
#12
REVIEW
Marina Franceschetti, Abbas Maqbool, Maximiliano J Jiménez-Dalmaroni, Helen G Pennington, Sophien Kamoun, Mark J Banfield
Fungi and oomycetes are filamentous microorganisms that include a diversity of highly developed pathogens of plants. These are sophisticated modulators of plant processes that secrete an arsenal of effector proteins to target multiple host cell compartments and enable parasitic infection. Genome sequencing revealed complex catalogues of effectors of filamentous pathogens, with some species harboring hundreds of effector genes. Although a large fraction of these effector genes encode secreted proteins with weak or no sequence similarity to known proteins, structural studies have revealed unexpected similarities amid the diversity...
June 2017: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298477/central-role-of-the-trehalose-biosynthesis-pathway-in-the-pathogenesis-of-human-fungal-infections-opportunities-and-challenges-for-therapeutic-development
#13
REVIEW
Arsa Thammahong, Srisombat Puttikamonkul, John R Perfect, Richard G Brennan, Robert A Cramer
Invasive fungal infections cause significant morbidity and mortality in part due to a limited antifungal drug arsenal. One therapeutic challenge faced by clinicians is the significant host toxicity associated with antifungal drugs. Another challenge is the fungistatic mechanism of action of some drugs. Consequently, the identification of fungus-specific drug targets essential for fitness in vivo remains a significant goal of medical mycology research. The trehalose biosynthetic pathway is found in a wide variety of organisms, including human-pathogenic fungi, but not in humans...
June 2017: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179396/the-antigenic-structure-of-zika-virus-and-its-relation-to-other-flaviviruses-implications-for-infection-and-immunoprophylaxis
#14
REVIEW
Franz X Heinz, Karin Stiasny
Zika virus was discovered ∼70 years ago in Uganda and maintained a low profile as a human disease agent in Africa and Asia. Only recently has it caused explosive outbreaks in previously unaffected regions, first in Oceania and then in the Americas since 2015. Of special concern is the newly identified link between congenital malformations (especially microcephaly) and Zika virus infections during pregnancy. At present, it is unclear whether Zika virus changed its pathogenicity or whether the huge number of infections allowed the recognition of a previously cryptic pathogenic property...
March 2017: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123057/prokaryotic-heme-biosynthesis-multiple-pathways-to-a-common-essential-product
#15
REVIEW
Harry A Dailey, Tamara A Dailey, Svetlana Gerdes, Dieter Jahn, Martina Jahn, Mark R O'Brian, Martin J Warren
The advent of heme during evolution allowed organisms possessing this compound to safely and efficiently carry out a variety of chemical reactions that otherwise were difficult or impossible. While it was long assumed that a single heme biosynthetic pathway existed in nature, over the past decade, it has become clear that there are three distinct pathways among prokaryotes, although all three pathways utilize a common initial core of three enzymes to produce the intermediate uroporphyrinogen III. The most ancient pathway and the only one found in the Archaea converts siroheme to protoheme via an oxygen-independent four-enzyme-step process...
March 2017: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077462/bromodomains-in-protozoan-parasites-evolution-function-and-opportunities-for-drug-development
#16
REVIEW
Victoria Jeffers, Chunlin Yang, Sherri Huang, William J Sullivan
Parasitic infections remain one of the most pressing global health concerns of our day, affecting billions of people and producing unsustainable economic burdens. The rise of drug-resistant parasites has created an urgent need to study their biology in hopes of uncovering new potential drug targets. It has been established that disrupting gene expression by interfering with lysine acetylation is detrimental to survival of apicomplexan (Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium spp.) and kinetoplastid (Leishmania spp...
March 2017: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031352/phosphoribosyl-diphosphate-prpp-biosynthesis-enzymology-utilization-and-metabolic-significance
#17
REVIEW
Bjarne Hove-Jensen, Kasper R Andersen, Mogens Kilstrup, Jan Martinussen, Robert L Switzer, Martin Willemoës
Phosphoribosyl diphosphate (PRPP) is an important intermediate in cellular metabolism. PRPP is synthesized by PRPP synthase, as follows: ribose 5-phosphate + ATP → PRPP + AMP. PRPP is ubiquitously found in living organisms and is used in substitution reactions with the formation of glycosidic bonds. PRPP is utilized in the biosynthesis of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides, the amino acids histidine and tryptophan, the cofactors NAD and tetrahydromethanopterin, arabinosyl monophosphodecaprenol, and certain aminoglycoside antibiotics...
March 2017: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974513/bacterial-proteasomes-mechanistic-and-functional-insights
#18
REVIEW
Samuel H Becker, K Heran Darwin
Regulated proteolysis is essential for the normal physiology of all organisms. While all eukaryotes and archaea use proteasomes for protein degradation, only certain orders of bacteria have proteasomes, whose functions are likely as diverse as the species that use them. In this review, we discuss the most recent developments in the understanding of how proteins are targeted to proteasomes for degradation, including ATP-dependent and -independent mechanisms, and the roles of proteasome-dependent degradation in protein quality control and the regulation of cellular physiology...
March 2017: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903656/yeast-hmo1-linker-histone-reinvented
#19
REVIEW
Arvind Panday, Anne Grove
Eukaryotic genomes are packaged in chromatin. The higher-order organization of nucleosome core particles is controlled by the association of the intervening linker DNA with either the linker histone H1 or high mobility group box (HMGB) proteins. While H1 is thought to stabilize the nucleosome by preventing DNA unwrapping, the DNA bending imposed by HMGB may propagate to the nucleosome to destabilize chromatin. For metazoan H1, chromatin compaction requires its lysine-rich C-terminal domain, a domain that is buried between globular domains in the previously characterized yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae linker histone Hho1p...
March 2017: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903655/random-versus-cell-cycle-regulated-replication-initiation-in-bacteria-insights-from-studying-vibrio-cholerae-chromosome-2
#20
REVIEW
Revathy Ramachandran, Jyoti Jha, Johan Paulsson, Dhruba Chattoraj
Bacterial chromosomes initiate replication at a fixed time in the cell cycle, whereas there is generally no particular time for plasmid replication initiation or chromosomal replication initiation from integrated plasmids. In bacteria with divided genomes, the replication system of one of the chromosomes typically resembles that of bacteria with undivided genomes, whereas the remaining chromosomes have plasmid-like replication systems. For example, in Vibrio cholerae, a bacterium with two chromosomes (chromosome 1 [Chr1] and Chr2), the Chr1 system resembles that of the Escherichia coli chromosome, and the Chr2 system resembles that of iteron-based plasmids...
March 2017: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
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