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Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30305312/curli-containing-enteric-biofilms-inside-and-out-matrix-composition-immune-recognition-and-disease-implications
#1
REVIEW
Sarah A Tursi, Çagla Tükel
Biofilms of enteric bacteria are highly complex, with multiple components that interact to fortify the biofilm matrix. Within biofilms of enteric bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella species, the main component of the biofilm is amyloid curli. Other constituents include cellulose, extracellular DNA, O antigen, and various surface proteins, including BapA. Only recently, the roles of these components in the formation of the enteric biofilm individually and in consortium have been evaluated. In addition to enhancing the stability and strength of the matrix, the components of the enteric biofilm influence bacterial virulence and transmission...
December 2018: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30257993/oxidoreductases-and-reactive-oxygen-species-in-conversion-of-lignocellulosic-biomass
#2
REVIEW
Bastien Bissaro, Anikó Várnai, Åsmund K Røhr, Vincent G H Eijsink
Biomass constitutes an appealing alternative to fossil resources for the production of materials and energy. The abundance and attractiveness of vegetal biomass come along with challenges pertaining to the intricacy of its structure, evolved during billions of years to face and resist abiotic and biotic attacks. To achieve the daunting goal of plant cell wall decomposition, microorganisms have developed many (enzymatic) strategies, from which we seek inspiration to develop biotechnological processes. A major breakthrough in the field has been the discovery of enzymes today known as lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs), which, by catalyzing the oxidative cleavage of recalcitrant polysaccharides, allow canonical hydrolytic enzymes to depolymerize the biomass more efficiently...
December 2018: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30209071/interplay-between-peptidoglycan-biology-and-virulence-in-gram-negative-pathogens
#3
REVIEW
Carlos Juan, Gabriel Torrens, Isabel Maria Barceló, Antonio Oliver
The clinical and epidemiological threat of the growing antimicrobial resistance in Gram-negative pathogens, particularly for β-lactams, the most frequently used and relevant antibiotics, urges research to find new therapeutic weapons to combat the infections caused by these microorganisms. An essential previous step in the development of these therapeutic solutions is to identify their potential targets in the biology of the pathogen. This is precisely what we sought to do in this review specifically regarding the barely exploited field analyzing the interplay among the biology of the peptidoglycan and related processes, such as β-lactamase regulation and virulence...
December 2018: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30209070/cytosolic-recognition-of-microbes-and-pathogens-inflammasomes-in-action
#4
REVIEW
Jenni A Hayward, Anukriti Mathur, Chinh Ngo, Si Ming Man
Infection is a dynamic biological process underpinned by a complex interplay between the pathogen and the host. Microbes from all domains of life, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoan parasites, have the capacity to cause infection. Infection is sensed by the host, which often leads to activation of the inflammasome, a cytosolic macromolecular signaling platform that mediates the release of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-18 and cleavage of the pore-forming protein gasdermin D, leading to pyroptosis...
December 2018: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30158254/microbial-production-of-conjugated-linoleic-acid-and-conjugated-linolenic-acid-relies-on-a-multienzymatic-system
#5
REVIEW
Ana S Salsinha, Lígia L Pimentel, Ana L Fontes, Ana M Gomes, Luis M Rodríguez-Alcalá
Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) and conjugated linolenic acids (CLNAs) have gained significant attention due to their anticarcinogenic and lipid/energy metabolism-modulatory effects. However, their concentration in foodstuffs is insufficient for any therapeutic application to be implemented. From a biotechnological standpoint, microbial production of these conjugated fatty acids (CFAs) has been explored as an alternative, and strains of the genera Propionibacterium , Lactobacillus , and Bifidobacterium have shown promising producing capacities...
December 2018: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30045954/experimental-design-population-dynamics-and-diversity-in-microbial-experimental-evolution
#6
REVIEW
Bram Van den Bergh, Toon Swings, Maarten Fauvart, Jan Michiels
In experimental evolution, laboratory-controlled conditions select for the adaptation of species, which can be monitored in real time. Despite the current popularity of such experiments, nature's most pervasive biological force was long believed to be observable only on time scales that transcend a researcher's life-span, and studying evolution by natural selection was therefore carried out solely by comparative means. Eventually, microorganisms' propensity for fast evolutionary changes proved us wrong, displaying strong evolutionary adaptations over a limited time, nowadays massively exploited in laboratory evolution experiments...
September 2018: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898897/replication-fork-breakage-and-restart-in-escherichia-coli
#7
REVIEW
Bénédicte Michel, Anurag K Sinha, David R F Leach
In all organisms, replication impairments are an important source of genome rearrangements, mainly because of the formation of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) ends at inactivated replication forks. Three reactions for the formation of dsDNA ends at replication forks were originally described for Escherichia coli and became seminal models for all organisms: the encounter of replication forks with preexisting single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) interruptions, replication fork reversal, and head-to-tail collisions of successive replication rounds...
September 2018: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743338/helicobacter-pylori-biofilm-formation-and-its-potential-role-in-pathogenesis
#8
REVIEW
Skander Hathroubi, Stephanie L Servetas, Ian Windham, D Scott Merrell, Karen M Ottemann
Despite decades of effort, Helicobacter pylori infections remain difficult to treat. Over half of the world's population is infected by H. pylori , which is a major cause of duodenal and gastric ulcers as well as gastric cancer. During chronic infection, H. pylori localizes within the gastric mucosal layer, including deep within invaginations called glands; thanks to its impressive ability to survive despite the harsh acidic environment, it can persist for the host's lifetime. This ability to survive and persist in the stomach is associated with urease production, chemotactic motility, and the ability to adapt to the fluctuating environment...
June 2018: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695497/transcriptomic-studies-of-malaria-a-paradigm-for-investigation-of-systemic-host-pathogen-interactions
#9
REVIEW
Hyun Jae Lee, Athina Georgiadou, Thomas D Otto, Michael Levin, Lachlan J Coin, David J Conway, Aubrey J Cunnington
Transcriptomics, the analysis of genome-wide RNA expression, is a common approach to investigate host and pathogen processes in infectious diseases. Technical and bioinformatic advances have permitted increasingly thorough analyses of the association of RNA expression with fundamental biology, immunity, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and prognosis. Transcriptomic approaches can now be used to realize a previously unattainable goal, the simultaneous study of RNA expression in host and pathogen, in order to better understand their interactions...
June 2018: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643171/fungal-morphogenesis-from-the-polarized-growth-of-hyphae-to-complex-reproduction-and-infection-structures
#10
REVIEW
Meritxell Riquelme, Jesús Aguirre, Salomon Bartnicki-García, Gerhard H Braus, Michael Feldbrügge, Ursula Fleig, Wilhelm Hansberg, Alfredo Herrera-Estrella, Jörg Kämper, Ulrich Kück, Rosa R Mouriño-Pérez, Norio Takeshita, Reinhard Fischer
Filamentous fungi constitute a large group of eukaryotic microorganisms that grow by forming simple tube-like hyphae that are capable of differentiating into more-complex morphological structures and distinct cell types. Hyphae form filamentous networks by extending at their tips while branching in subapical regions. Rapid tip elongation requires massive membrane insertion and extension of the rigid chitin-containing cell wall. This process is sustained by a continuous flow of secretory vesicles that depends on the coordinated action of the microtubule and actin cytoskeletons and the corresponding motors and associated proteins...
June 2018: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29592895/kinetic-modeling-of-virus-growth-in-cells
#11
REVIEW
John Yin, Jacob Redovich
When a virus infects a host cell, it hijacks the biosynthetic capacity of the cell to produce virus progeny, a process that may take less than an hour or more than a week. The overall time required for a virus to reproduce depends collectively on the rates of multiple steps in the infection process, including initial binding of the virus particle to the surface of the cell, virus internalization and release of the viral genome within the cell, decoding of the genome to make viral proteins, replication of the genome, assembly of progeny virus particles, and release of these particles into the extracellular environment...
June 2018: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540453/emergency-services-of-viral-rnas-repair-and-remodeling
#12
REVIEW
Vadim I Agol, Anatoly P Gmyl
Reproduction of RNA viruses is typically error-prone due to the infidelity of their replicative machinery and the usual lack of proofreading mechanisms. The error rates may be close to those that kill the virus. Consequently, populations of RNA viruses are represented by heterogeneous sets of genomes with various levels of fitness. This is especially consequential when viruses encounter various bottlenecks and new infections are initiated by a single or few deviating genomes. Nevertheless, RNA viruses are able to maintain their identity by conservation of major functional elements...
June 2018: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436479/the-ontogeny-of-a-neutrophil-mechanisms-of-granulopoiesis-and-homeostasis
#13
REVIEW
Shelley M Lawrence, Ross Corriden, Victor Nizet
Comprising the majority of leukocytes in humans, neutrophils are the first immune cells to respond to inflammatory or infectious etiologies and are crucial participants in the proper functioning of both innate and adaptive immune responses. From their initial appearance in the liver, thymus, and spleen at around the eighth week of human gestation to their generation in large numbers in the bone marrow at the end of term gestation, the differentiation of the pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell into a mature, segmented neutrophil is a highly controlled process where the transcriptional regulators C/EBP-α and C/EBP-ε play a vital role...
June 2018: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436478/regulation-of-sensing-transportation-and-catabolism-of-nitrogen-sources-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#14
REVIEW
Weiping Zhang, Guocheng Du, Jingwen Zhou, Jian Chen
Nitrogen is one of the most important essential nutrient sources for biogenic activities. Regulation of nitrogen metabolism in microorganisms is complicated and elaborate. For this review, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was chosen to demonstrate the regulatory mechanism of nitrogen metabolism because of its relative clear genetic background. Current opinions on the regulation processes of nitrogen metabolism in S. cerevisiae , including nitrogen sensing, transport, and catabolism, are systematically reviewed...
June 2018: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321222/multiple-inhibitory-factors-act-in-the-late-phase-of-hiv-1-replication-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#15
REVIEW
Jean-François Gélinas, Deborah R Gill, Stephen C Hyde
The use of lentiviral vectors for therapeutic purposes has shown promising results in clinical trials. The ability to produce a clinical-grade vector at high yields remains a critical issue. One possible obstacle could be cellular factors known to inhibit human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). To date, five HIV restriction factors have been identified, although it is likely that more factors are involved in the complex HIV-cell interaction. Inhibitory factors that have an adverse effect but do not abolish virus production are much less well described...
March 2018: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237726/transmission-evolution-and-endogenization-lessons-learned-from-recent-retroviral-invasions
#16
REVIEW
Alex D Greenwood, Yasuko Ishida, Sean P O'Brien, Alfred L Roca, Maribeth V Eiden
Viruses of the subfamily Orthoretrovirinae are defined by the ability to reverse transcribe an RNA genome into DNA that integrates into the host cell genome during the intracellular virus life cycle. Exogenous retroviruses (XRVs) are horizontally transmitted between host individuals, with disease outcome depending on interactions between the retrovirus and the host organism. When retroviruses infect germ line cells of the host, they may become endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), which are permanent elements in the host germ line that are subject to vertical transmission...
March 2018: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187516/amyloid-like-%C3%AE-aggregates-as-force-sensitive-switches-in-fungal-biofilms-and-infections
#17
REVIEW
Peter N Lipke, Stephen A Klotz, Yves F Dufrene, Desmond N Jackson, Melissa C Garcia-Sherman
Cellular aggregation is an essential step in the formation of biofilms, which promote fungal survival and persistence in hosts. In many of the known yeast cell adhesion proteins, there are amino acid sequences predicted to form amyloid-like β-aggregates. These sequences mediate amyloid formation in vitro. In vivo , these sequences mediate a phase transition from a disordered state to a partially ordered state to create patches of adhesins on the cell surface. These β-aggregated protein patches are called adhesin nanodomains, and their presence greatly increases and strengthens cell-cell interactions in fungal cell aggregation...
March 2018: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118049/the-first-microbial-colonizers-of-the-human-gut-composition-activities-and-health-implications-of-the-infant-gut-microbiota
#18
REVIEW
Christian Milani, Sabrina Duranti, Francesca Bottacini, Eoghan Casey, Francesca Turroni, Jennifer Mahony, Clara Belzer, Susana Delgado Palacio, Silvia Arboleya Montes, Leonardo Mancabelli, Gabriele Andrea Lugli, Juan Miguel Rodriguez, Lars Bode, Willem de Vos, Miguel Gueimonde, Abelardo Margolles, Douwe van Sinderen, Marco Ventura
The human gut microbiota is engaged in multiple interactions affecting host health during the host's entire life span. Microbes colonize the neonatal gut immediately following birth. The establishment and interactive development of this early gut microbiota are believed to be (at least partially) driven and modulated by specific compounds present in human milk. It has been shown that certain genomes of infant gut commensals, in particular those of bifidobacterial species, are genetically adapted to utilize specific glycans of this human secretory fluid, thus representing a very intriguing example of host-microbe coevolution, where both partners are believed to benefit...
December 2017: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070658/sensory-repertoire-of-bacterial-chemoreceptors
#19
REVIEW
Álvaro Ortega, Igor B Zhulin, Tino Krell
Chemoreceptors in bacteria detect a variety of signals and feed this information into chemosensory pathways that represent a major mode of signal transduction. The five chemoreceptors from Escherichia coli have served as traditional models in the study of this protein family. Genome analyses revealed that many bacteria contain much larger numbers of chemoreceptors with broader sensory capabilities. Chemoreceptors differ in topology, sensing mode, cellular location, and, above all, the type of ligand binding domain (LBD)...
December 2017: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021219/stochastic-community-assembly-does-it-matter-in-microbial-ecology
#20
REVIEW
Jizhong Zhou, Daliang Ning
Understanding the mechanisms controlling community diversity, functions, succession, and biogeography is a central, but poorly understood, topic in ecology, particularly in microbial ecology. Although stochastic processes are believed to play nonnegligible roles in shaping community structure, their importance relative to deterministic processes is hotly debated. The importance of ecological stochasticity in shaping microbial community structure is far less appreciated. Some of the main reasons for such heavy debates are the difficulty in defining stochasticity and the diverse methods used for delineating stochasticity...
December 2017: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
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