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Nature Reviews. Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626231/the-resilience-of-the-intestinal-microbiota-influences-health-and-disease
#1
REVIEW
Felix Sommer, Jacqueline Moltzau Anderson, Richa Bharti, Jeroen Raes, Philip Rosenstiel
The composition of the intestinal microbiota varies among individuals and throughout development, and is dependent on host and environmental factors. However, although the microbiota is constantly exposed to environmental challenges, its composition and function in an individual are stable against perturbations, as microbial communities are resilient and resistant to change. The maintenance of a beneficial microbiota requires a homeostatic equilibrium within microbial communities, and also between the microorganisms and the intestinal interface of the host...
June 19, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626230/engineering-of-obligate-intracellular-bacteria-progress-challenges-and-paradigms
#2
REVIEW
Erin E McClure, Adela S Oliva Chávez, Dana K Shaw, Jason A Carlyon, Roman R Ganta, Susan M Noh, David O Wood, Patrik M Bavoil, Kelly A Brayton, Juan J Martinez, Jere W McBride, Raphael H Valdivia, Ulrike G Munderloh, Joao H F Pedra
It is estimated that approximately one billion people are at risk of infection with obligate intracellular bacteria, but little is known about the underlying mechanisms that govern their life cycles. The difficulty in studying Chlamydia spp., Coxiella spp., Rickettsia spp., Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia spp. and Orientia spp. is, in part, due to their genetic intractability. Recently, genetic tools have been developed; however, optimizing the genomic manipulation of obligate intracellular bacteria remains challenging...
June 19, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603279/variant-surface-antigens-of-plasmodium-falciparum-and-their-roles-in-severe-malaria
#3
REVIEW
Mats Wahlgren, Suchi Goel, Reetesh R Akhouri
Proliferation and differentiation inside erythrocytes are important steps in the life cycle of Plasmodium spp. To achieve these, the parasites export polypeptides to the surface of infected erythrocytes; for example, to import nutrients and to bind to other erythrocytes and the host microvasculature. Binding is mediated by the adhesive polypeptides Plasmodium falciparum-encoded repetitive interspersed families of polypeptides (RIFINs), subtelomeric variant open reading frame (STEVOR) and P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1), which are encoded by multigene families to ensure antigenic variation and evasion of host immunity...
June 12, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603278/transmission-of-the-gut-microbiota-spreading-of-health
#4
REVIEW
Hilary P Browne, B Anne Neville, Samuel C Forster, Trevor D Lawley
Transmission of commensal intestinal bacteria between humans could promote health by establishing, maintaining and replenishing microbial diversity in the microbiota of an individual. Unlike pathogens, the routes of transmission for commensal bacteria remain unappreciated and poorly understood, despite the likely commonalities between both. Consequently, broad infection control measures that are designed to prevent pathogen transmission and infection, such as oversanitation and the overuse of antibiotics, may inadvertently affect human health by altering normal commensal transmission...
June 12, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555073/pathways-to-zoonotic-spillover
#5
REVIEW
Raina K Plowright, Colin R Parrish, Hamish McCallum, Peter J Hudson, Albert I Ko, Andrea L Graham, James O Lloyd-Smith
Zoonotic spillover, which is the transmission of a pathogen from a vertebrate animal to a human, presents a global public health burden but is a poorly understood phenomenon. Zoonotic spillover requires several factors to align, including the ecological, epidemiological and behavioural determinants of pathogen exposure, and the within-human factors that affect susceptibility to infection. In this Opinion article, we propose a synthetic framework for animal-to-human transmission that integrates the relevant mechanisms...
May 30, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529326/persistent-bacterial-infections-and-persister-cells
#6
REVIEW
Robert A Fisher, Bridget Gollan, Sophie Helaine
Many bacteria can infect and persist inside their hosts for long periods of time. This can be due to immunosuppression of the host, immune evasion by the pathogen and/or ineffective killing by antibiotics. Bacteria can survive antibiotic treatment if they are resistant or tolerant to a drug. Persisters are a subpopulation of transiently antibiotic-tolerant bacterial cells that are often slow-growing or growth-arrested, and are able to resume growth after a lethal stress. The formation of persister cells establishes phenotypic heterogeneity within a bacterial population and has been hypothesized to be important for increasing the chances of successfully adapting to environmental change...
May 22, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529325/anticancer-effects-of-the-microbiome-and-its-products
#7
REVIEW
Laurence Zitvogel, Romain Daillère, María Paula Roberti, Bertrand Routy, Guido Kroemer
The human gut microbiome modulates many host processes, including metabolism, inflammation, and immune and cellular responses. It is becoming increasingly apparent that the microbiome can also influence the development of cancer. In preclinical models, the host response to cancer treatment has been improved by modulating the gut microbiome; this is known to have an altered composition in many diseases, including cancer. In addition, cancer treatment with microbial agents or their products has the potential to shrink tumours...
May 22, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502981/mechanisms-of-gene-flow-in-archaea
#8
REVIEW
Alexander Wagner, Rachel J Whitaker, David J Krause, Jan-Hendrik Heilers, Marleen van Wolferen, Chris van der Does, Sonja-Verena Albers
Archaea are diverse, ecologically important, single-celled microorganisms. They have unique functions and features, such as methanogenesis and the composition of their cell envelope, although many characteristics are shared with the other domains of life, either through ancestry or through promiscuous horizontal gene transfer. The exchange of genetic material is a major driving force for genome evolution across the tree of life and has a role in archaeal speciation, adaptation and maintenance of diversity. In this Review, we discuss our current knowledge of archaeal mechanisms of DNA transfer and highlight the role of gene transfer in archaeal evolution...
May 15, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579611/anti-trypanosomatid-drug-discovery-an-ongoing-challenge-and-a-continuing-need
#9
Mark C Field, David Horn, Alan H Fairlamb, Michael A J Ferguson, David W Gray, Kevin D Read, Manu De Rycker, Leah S Torrie, Paul G Wyatt, Susan Wyllie, Ian H Gilbert
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579610/bacterial-physiology-an-inside-job-on-metabolism
#10
Ashley York
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579609/bacterial-evolution-the-origins-of-pathogenic-enterococci
#11
Shimona Starling
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579608/genome-watch-klebsiella-pneumoniae-when-a-colonizer-turns-bad
#12
Matthew J Dorman, Francesca L Short
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555074/viral-evolution-zika-is-on-point-to-increase-spread
#13
Andrea Du Toit
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555072/bacterial-pathogenesis-campylobacter-follows-the-clues
#14
Irene Vacca
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479603/ustilago-maydis-effectors-and-their-impact-on-virulence
#15
REVIEW
Daniel Lanver, Marie Tollot, Gabriel Schweizer, Libera Lo Presti, Stefanie Reissmann, Lay-Sun Ma, Mariana Schuster, Shigeyuki Tanaka, Liang Liang, Nicole Ludwig, Regine Kahmann
Biotrophic fungal plant pathogens establish an intimate relationship with their host to support the infection process. Central to this strategy is the secretion of a range of protein effectors that enable the pathogen to evade plant immune defences and modulate host metabolism to meet its needs. In this Review, using the smut fungus Ustilago maydis as an example, we discuss new insights into the effector repertoire of smut fungi that have been gained from comparative genomics and discuss the molecular mechanisms by which U...
July 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461690/m%C3%A3-nage-%C3%A3-trois-in-the-human-gut-interactions-between-host-bacteria-and-phages
#16
REVIEW
Mohammadali Khan Mirzaei, Corinne F Maurice
The human gut is host to one of the densest microbial communities known, the gut microbiota, which contains bacteria, archaea, viruses, fungi and other microbial eukaryotes. Bacteriophages in the gut are largely unexplored, despite their potential to regulate bacterial communities and thus human health. In addition to helping us understand gut homeostasis, applying an ecological perspective to the study of bacterial and phage communities in the gut will help us to understand how this microbial system functions...
July 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420885/oxidative-stress-protein-damage-and-repair-in-bacteria
#17
REVIEW
Benjamin Ezraty, Alexandra Gennaris, Frédéric Barras, Jean-François Collet
Oxidative damage can have a devastating effect on the structure and activity of proteins, and may even lead to cell death. The sulfur-containing amino acids cysteine and methionine are particularly susceptible to reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive chlorine species (RCS), which can damage proteins. In this Review, we discuss our current understanding of the reducing systems that enable bacteria to repair oxidatively damaged cysteine and methionine residues in the cytoplasm and in the bacterial cell envelope...
July 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420883/leukocidins-staphylococcal-bi-component-pore-forming-toxins-find-their-receptors
#18
REVIEW
András N Spaan, Jos A G van Strijp, Victor J Torres
Staphylococcus aureus is a major bacterial pathogen that causes disease worldwide. The emergence of strains that are resistant to commonly used antibiotics and the failure of vaccine development have resulted in a renewed interest in the pathophysiology of this bacterium. Staphylococcal leukocidins are a family of bi-component pore-forming toxins that are important virulence factors. During the past five years, cellular receptors have been identified for all of the bi-component leukocidins. The identification of the leukocidin receptors explains the cellular tropism and species specificity that is exhibited by these toxins, which has important biological consequences...
July 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392565/next-generation-approaches-to-understand-and-combat-the-antibiotic-resistome
#19
REVIEW
Terence S Crofts, Andrew J Gasparrini, Gautam Dantas
Antibiotic resistance is a natural feature of diverse microbial ecosystems. Although recent studies of the antibiotic resistome have highlighted barriers to the horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance genes between habitats, the rapid global spread of genes that confer resistance to carbapenem, colistin and quinolone antibiotics illustrates the dire clinical and societal consequences of such events. Over time, the study of antibiotic resistance has grown from focusing on single pathogenic organisms in axenic culture to studying antibiotic resistance in pathogenic, commensal and environmental bacteria at the level of microbial communities...
July 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607380/parasite-biology-new-insights-into-plasmodium-hepatocyte-entry
#20
Irene Vacca
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 13, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
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