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Nature Reviews. Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529326/persistent-bacterial-infections-and-persister-cells
#1
REVIEW
Robert A Fisher, Bridget Gollan, Sophie Helaine
Many bacteria can infect and persist inside their hosts for long periods of time. This can be due to immunosuppression of the host, immune evasion by the pathogen and/or ineffective killing by antibiotics. Bacteria can survive antibiotic treatment if they are resistant or tolerant to a drug. Persisters are a subpopulation of transiently antibiotic-tolerant bacterial cells that are often slow-growing or growth-arrested, and are able to resume growth after a lethal stress. The formation of persister cells establishes phenotypic heterogeneity within a bacterial population and has been hypothesized to be important for increasing the chances of successfully adapting to environmental change...
May 22, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529325/anticancer-effects-of-the-microbiome-and-its-products
#2
REVIEW
Laurence Zitvogel, Romain Daillère, María Paula Roberti, Bertrand Routy, Guido Kroemer
The human gut microbiome modulates many host processes, including metabolism, inflammation, and immune and cellular responses. It is becoming increasingly apparent that the microbiome can also influence the development of cancer. In preclinical models, the host response to cancer treatment has been improved by modulating the gut microbiome; this is known to have an altered composition in many diseases, including cancer. In addition, cancer treatment with microbial agents or their products has the potential to shrink tumours...
May 22, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502981/mechanisms-of-gene-flow-in-archaea
#3
REVIEW
Alexander Wagner, Rachel J Whitaker, David J Krause, Jan-Hendrik Heilers, Marleen van Wolferen, Chris van der Does, Sonja-Verena Albers
Archaea are diverse, ecologically important, single-celled microorganisms. They have unique functions and features, such as methanogenesis and the composition of their cell envelope, although many characteristics are shared with the other domains of life, either through ancestry or through promiscuous horizontal gene transfer. The exchange of genetic material is a major driving force for genome evolution across the tree of life and has a role in archaeal speciation, adaptation and maintenance of diversity. In this Review, we discuss our current knowledge of archaeal mechanisms of DNA transfer and highlight the role of gene transfer in archaeal evolution...
May 15, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479603/ustilago-maydis-effectors-and-their-impact-on-virulence
#4
REVIEW
Daniel Lanver, Marie Tollot, Gabriel Schweizer, Libera Lo Presti, Stefanie Reissmann, Lay-Sun Ma, Mariana Schuster, Shigeyuki Tanaka, Liang Liang, Nicole Ludwig, Regine Kahmann
Biotrophic fungal plant pathogens establish an intimate relationship with their host to support the infection process. Central to this strategy is the secretion of a range of protein effectors that enable the pathogen to evade plant immune defences and modulate host metabolism to meet its needs. In this Review, using the smut fungus Ustilago maydis as an example, we discuss new insights into the effector repertoire of smut fungi that have been gained from comparative genomics and discuss the molecular mechanisms by which U...
May 8, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461690/m%C3%A3-nage-%C3%A3-trois-in-the-human-gut-interactions-between-host-bacteria-and-phages
#5
REVIEW
Mohammadali Khan Mirzaei, Corinne F Maurice
The human gut is host to one of the densest microbial communities known, the gut microbiota, which contains bacteria, archaea, viruses, fungi and other microbial eukaryotes. Bacteriophages in the gut are largely unexplored, despite their potential to regulate bacterial communities and thus human health. In addition to helping us understand gut homeostasis, applying an ecological perspective to the study of bacterial and phage communities in the gut will help us to understand how this microbial system functions...
May 2, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420885/oxidative-stress-protein-damage-and-repair-in-bacteria
#6
REVIEW
Benjamin Ezraty, Alexandra Gennaris, Frédéric Barras, Jean-François Collet
Oxidative damage can have a devastating effect on the structure and activity of proteins, and may even lead to cell death. The sulfur-containing amino acids cysteine and methionine are particularly susceptible to reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive chlorine species (RCS), which can damage proteins. In this Review, we discuss our current understanding of the reducing systems that enable bacteria to repair oxidatively damaged cysteine and methionine residues in the cytoplasm and in the bacterial cell envelope...
April 19, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420883/leukocidins-staphylococcal-bi-component-pore-forming-toxins-find-their-receptors
#7
REVIEW
András N Spaan, Jos A G van Strijp, Victor J Torres
Staphylococcus aureus is a major bacterial pathogen that causes disease worldwide. The emergence of strains that are resistant to commonly used antibiotics and the failure of vaccine development have resulted in a renewed interest in the pathophysiology of this bacterium. Staphylococcal leukocidins are a family of bi-component pore-forming toxins that are important virulence factors. During the past five years, cellular receptors have been identified for all of the bi-component leukocidins. The identification of the leukocidin receptors explains the cellular tropism and species specificity that is exhibited by these toxins, which has important biological consequences...
April 19, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392565/next-generation-approaches-to-understand-and-combat-the-antibiotic-resistome
#8
REVIEW
Terence S Crofts, Andrew J Gasparrini, Gautam Dantas
Antibiotic resistance is a natural feature of diverse microbial ecosystems. Although recent studies of the antibiotic resistome have highlighted barriers to the horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance genes between habitats, the rapid global spread of genes that confer resistance to carbapenem, colistin and quinolone antibiotics illustrates the dire clinical and societal consequences of such events. Over time, the study of antibiotic resistance has grown from focusing on single pathogenic organisms in axenic culture to studying antibiotic resistance in pathogenic, commensal and environmental bacteria at the level of microbial communities...
April 10, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239154/anti-trypanosomatid-drug-discovery-an-ongoing-challenge-and-a-continuing-need
#9
REVIEW
Mark C Field, David Horn, Alan H Fairlamb, Michael A J Ferguson, David W Gray, Kevin D Read, Manu De Rycker, Leah S Torrie, Paul G Wyatt, Susan Wyllie, Ian H Gilbert
The WHO recognizes human African trypanosomiasis, Chagas disease and the leishmaniases as neglected tropical diseases. These diseases are caused by parasitic trypanosomatids and range in severity from mild and self-curing to near invariably fatal. Public health advances have substantially decreased the effect of these diseases in recent decades but alone will not eliminate them. In this Review, we discuss why new drugs against trypanosomatids are required, approaches that are under investigation to develop new drugs and why the drug discovery pipeline remains essentially unfilled...
February 27, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239151/corrigendum-nuclear-landscape-of-hiv-1-infection-and-integration
#10
Marina Lusic, Robert F Siliciano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 27, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461689/parasite-development-plasmodium-breaks-the-linkage
#11
Andrea Du Toit
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461688/bacterial-physiology-shuttling-lipids-across-bacterial-membranes
#12
Irene Vacca
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435161/biofilms-communities-in-sync
#13
Shimona Starling
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420884/a-crispr-toolbox-to-study-virus-host-interactions
#14
REVIEW
Andreas S Puschnik, Karim Majzoub, Yaw Shin Ooi, Jan E Carette
Viruses depend on their hosts to complete their replication cycles; they exploit cellular receptors for entry and hijack cellular functions to replicate their genome, assemble progeny virions and spread. Recently, genome-scale CRISPR-Cas screens have been used to identify host factors that are required for virus replication, including the replication of clinically relevant viruses such as Zika virus, West Nile virus, dengue virus and hepatitis C virus. In this Review, we discuss the technical aspects of genome-scale knockout screens using CRISPR-Cas technology, and we compare these screens with alternative genetic screening technologies...
June 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392566/assembly-structure-function-and-regulation-of-type-iii-secretion-systems
#15
REVIEW
Wanyin Deng, Natalie C Marshall, Jennifer L Rowland, James M McCoy, Liam J Worrall, Andrew S Santos, Natalie C J Strynadka, B Brett Finlay
Type III secretion systems (T3SSs) are protein transport nanomachines that are found in Gram-negative bacterial pathogens and symbionts. Resembling molecular syringes, T3SSs form channels that cross the bacterial envelope and the host cell membrane, which enable bacteria to inject numerous effector proteins into the host cell cytoplasm and establish trans-kingdom interactions with diverse hosts. Recent advances in cryo-electron microscopy and integrative imaging have provided unprecedented views of the architecture and structure of T3SSs...
June 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344348/metal-homeostasis-and-resistance-in-bacteria
#16
REVIEW
Pete Chandrangsu, Christopher Rensing, John D Helmann
Metal ions are essential for many reactions, but excess metals can be toxic. In bacteria, metal limitation activates pathways that are involved in the import and mobilization of metals, whereas excess metals induce efflux and storage. In this Review, we highlight recent insights into metal homeostasis, including protein-based and RNA-based sensors that interact directly with metals or metal-containing cofactors. The resulting transcriptional response to metal stress takes place in a stepwise manner and is reinforced by post-transcriptional regulatory systems...
June 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496165/corrigendum-assembly-structure-function-and-regulation-of-type-iii-secretion-systems
#17
Wanyin Deng, Natalie C Marshall, Jennifer L Rowland, James M McCoy, Liam J Worrall, Andrew S Santos, Natalie C J Strynadka, B Brett Finlay
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 12, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496164/biofilms-new-ways-for-streptococci-to-settle-down
#18
Irene Vacca
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 12, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496163/reshaping-the-tree-of-life
#19
Eva Heinz, Daryl Domman
This month's Genome Watch highlights how metagenomics is continuing to reveal the diversity of microorganisms in the environment and how it is challenging and expanding our understanding of how life evolved on Earth.
May 12, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496162/viral-pathogenesis-masked-by-macrophages
#20
Ashley York
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 12, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
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