journal
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Nature Reviews. Microbiology

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316330/the-microbiota-of-the-respiratory-tract-gatekeeper-to-respiratory-health
#1
REVIEW
Wing Ho Man, Wouter A A de Steenhuijsen Piters, Debby Bogaert
The respiratory tract is a complex organ system that is responsible for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide. The human respiratory tract spans from the nostrils to the lung alveoli and is inhabited by niche-specific communities of bacteria. The microbiota of the respiratory tract probably acts as a gatekeeper that provides resistance to colonization by respiratory pathogens. The respiratory microbiota might also be involved in the maturation and maintenance of homeostasis of respiratory physiology and immunity...
March 20, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316329/xerotolerant-bacteria-surviving-through-a-dry-spell
#2
REVIEW
Pedro H Lebre, Pieter De Maayer, Don A Cowan
Water is vital for many biological processes and is essential for all living organisms. However, numerous macroorganisms and microorganisms have adapted to survive in environments in which water is scarce; such organisms are collectively termed xerotolerant. With increasing global desertification due to climate change and human-driven desertification processes, it is becoming ever more important to understand how xerotolerant organisms cope with a lack of water. In this Review, we discuss the environmental, physiological and molecular adaptations that enable xerotolerant bacteria to survive in environments in which water is scarce and highlight insights from modern 'omics' technologies...
March 20, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260786/virulence-of-the-zoonotic-agent-of-leptospirosis-still-terra-incognita
#3
REVIEW
Mathieu Picardeau
Pathogenic leptospires are the bacterial agents of leptospirosis, which is an emerging zoonotic disease that affects animals and humans worldwide. The success of leptospires as pathogens is explained by their spiral shape and endoflagellar motility (which enable these spirochetes to rapidly cross connective tissues and barriers), as well as by their ability to escape or hijack the host immune system. However, the basic biology and virulence factors of leptospires remain poorly characterized. In this Review, we discuss the recent advances in our understanding of the epidemiology, taxonomy, genomics and the molecular basis of virulence in leptospires, and how these properties contribute to the mechanism of pathogenesis of leptospirosis...
March 6, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239154/anti-trypanosomatid-drug-discovery-an-ongoing-challenge-and-a-continuing-need
#4
REVIEW
Mark C Field, David Horn, Alan H Fairlamb, Michael A J Ferguson, David W Gray, Kevin D Read, Manu De Rycker, Leah S Torrie, Paul G Wyatt, Susan Wyllie, Ian H Gilbert
The WHO recognizes human African trypanosomiasis, Chagas disease and the leishmaniases as neglected tropical diseases. These diseases are caused by parasitic trypanosomatids and range in severity from mild and self-curing to near invariably fatal. Public health advances have substantially decreased the effect of these diseases in recent decades but alone will not eliminate them. In this Review, we discuss why new drugs against trypanosomatids are required, approaches that are under investigation to develop new drugs and why the drug discovery pipeline remains essentially unfilled...
February 27, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239151/corrigendum-nuclear-landscape-of-hiv-1-infection-and-integration
#5
Marina Lusic, Robert F Siliciano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 27, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163311/cyclic-di-gmp-second-messenger-extraordinaire
#6
REVIEW
Urs Jenal, Alberto Reinders, Christian Lori
Cyclic dinucleotides (CDNs) are highly versatile signalling molecules that control various important biological processes in bacteria. The best-studied example is cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP). Known since the late 1980s, it is now recognized as a near-ubiquitous second messenger that coordinates diverse aspects of bacterial growth and behaviour, including motility, virulence, biofilm formation and cell cycle progression. In this Review, we discuss important new insights that have been gained into the molecular principles of c-di-GMP synthesis and degradation, which are mediated by diguanylate cyclases and c-di-GMP-specific phosphodiesterases, respectively, and the cellular functions that are exerted by c-di-GMP-binding effectors and their diverse targets...
February 6, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138140/hit-the-right-spots-cell-cycle-control-by-phosphorylated-guanosines-in-alphaproteobacteria
#7
REVIEW
Régis Hallez, Marie Delaby, Stefano Sanselicio, Patrick H Viollier
The class Alphaproteobacteria includes Gram-negative free-living, symbiotic and obligate intracellular bacteria, as well as important plant, animal and human pathogens. Recent work has established the key antagonistic roles that phosphorylated guanosines, cyclic-di-GMP (c-di-GMP) and the alarmones guanosine tetraphosphate and guanosine pentaphosphate (collectively referred to as (p)ppGpp), have in the regulation of the cell cycle in these bacteria. In this Review, we discuss the insights that have been gained into the regulation of the initiation of DNA replication and cytokinesis by these second messengers, with a particular focus on the cell cycle of Caulobacter crescentus...
January 31, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111461/diversity-and-evolution-of-class-2-crispr-cas-systems
#8
REVIEW
Sergey Shmakov, Aaron Smargon, David Scott, David Cox, Neena Pyzocha, Winston Yan, Omar O Abudayyeh, Jonathan S Gootenberg, Kira S Makarova, Yuri I Wolf, Konstantin Severinov, Feng Zhang, Eugene V Koonin
Class 2 CRISPR-Cas systems are characterized by effector modules that consist of a single multidomain protein, such as Cas9 or Cpf1. We designed a computational pipeline for the discovery of novel class 2 variants and used it to identify six new CRISPR-Cas subtypes. The diverse properties of these new systems provide potential for the development of versatile tools for genome editing and regulation. In this Analysis article, we present a comprehensive census of class 2 types and class 2 subtypes in complete and draft bacterial and archaeal genomes, outline evolutionary scenarios for the independent origin of different class 2 CRISPR-Cas systems from mobile genetic elements, and propose an amended classification and nomenclature of CRISPR-Cas...
January 23, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111460/metagenomics-mining-for-crispr-cas
#9
Ashley York
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 23, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111458/structural-biology-high-order-integration
#10
Ashley York
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 23, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111457/bacterial-development-streptomyces-cue-to-leave
#11
Andrea Du Toit
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 23, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090077/clinical-and-biological-insights-from-viral-genome-sequencing
#12
REVIEW
Charlotte J Houldcroft, Mathew A Beale, Judith Breuer
Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of pathogens is becoming increasingly important not only for basic research but also for clinical science and practice. In virology, WGS is important for the development of novel treatments and vaccines, and for increasing the power of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genomics. In this Opinion article, we suggest that WGS of viruses in a clinical setting will become increasingly important for patient care. We give an overview of different WGS methods that are used in virology and summarize their advantages and disadvantages...
January 16, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134265/consensus-statement-virus-taxonomy-in-the-age-of-metagenomics
#13
REVIEW
Peter Simmonds, Mike J Adams, Mária Benkő, Mya Breitbart, J Rodney Brister, Eric B Carstens, Andrew J Davison, Eric Delwart, Alexander E Gorbalenya, Balázs Harrach, Roger Hull, Andrew M Q King, Eugene V Koonin, Mart Krupovic, Jens H Kuhn, Elliot J Lefkowitz, Max L Nibert, Richard Orton, Marilyn J Roossinck, Sead Sabanadzovic, Matthew B Sullivan, Curtis A Suttle, Robert B Tesh, René A van der Vlugt, Arvind Varsani, F Murilo Zerbini
The number and diversity of viral sequences that are identified in metagenomic data far exceeds that of experimentally characterized virus isolates. In a recent workshop, a panel of experts discussed the proposal that, with appropriate quality control, viruses that are known only from metagenomic data can, and should be, incorporated into the official classification scheme of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). Although a taxonomy that is based on metagenomic sequence data alone represents a substantial departure from the traditional reliance on phenotypic properties, the development of a robust framework for sequence-based virus taxonomy is indispensable for the comprehensive characterization of the global virome...
January 3, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045104/viral-infection-fine-tuning-hcv-replication
#14
Ashley York
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 3, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045103/parasite-biology-busting-out-from-the-inside
#15
Ashley York
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 3, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028309/symbiosis-new-horizons-for-wolbachia
#16
Ursula Hofer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 28, 2016: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239155/bacterial-physiology-persisters-running-out-of-energy
#17
Andrea Du Toit
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239153/mimivirus-leading-the-way-in-the-discovery-of-giant-viruses-of-amoebae
#18
REVIEW
Philippe Colson, Bernard La Scola, Anthony Levasseur, Gustavo Caetano-Anollés, Didier Raoult
The accidental discovery of the giant virus of amoeba - Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus (APMV; more commonly known as mimivirus) - in 2003 changed the field of virology. Viruses were previously defined by their submicroscopic size, which probably prevented the search for giant viruses, which are visible by light microscopy. Extended studies of giant viruses of amoebae revealed that they have genetic, proteomic and structural complexities that were not thought to exist among viruses and that are comparable to those of bacteria, archaea and small eukaryotes...
April 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239152/crispr-patent-results
#19
Shimona Starling
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239150/bacterial-pathogenesis-hitching-a-ride-with-dcs
#20
Yvonne Bordon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
journal
journal
20330
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"