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Nature Reviews. Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867199/candida-albicans-cell-type-switching-and-functional-plasticity-in-the-mammalian-host
#1
Suzanne M Noble, Brittany A Gianetti, Jessica N Witchley
Candida albicans is a ubiquitous commensal of the mammalian microbiome and the most prevalent fungal pathogen of humans. A cell-type transition between yeast and hyphal morphologies in C. albicans was thought to underlie much of the variation in virulence observed in different host tissues. However, novel yeast-like cell morphotypes, including opaque(a/α), grey and gastrointestinally induced transition (GUT) cell types, were recently reported that exhibit marked differences in vitro and in animal models of commensalism and disease...
November 21, 2016: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818501/fungal-biology-a-key-regulator-of-secondary-metabolites
#2
Andrea Du Toit
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 7, 2016: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818500/viral-infection-rabies-virus-causes-stress
#3
Andrea Du Toit
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 7, 2016: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795568/how-multi-partner-endosymbioses-function
#4
Angela E Douglas
Various animals are associated with specific endosymbiotic microorganisms that provide the host with essential nutrients or confer protection against natural enemies. Genomic analyses of the many endosymbioses that are found in plant sap-feeding hemipteran insects have revealed independent acquisitions - and occasional replacements - of endosymbionts, such that many of these endosymbioses involve two or more microbial partners. In this Review, I discuss how partitioning of the genetic capacity for metabolic function between different endosymbionts has sustained nutritional function in multi-partner endosymbioses, and how the phenotypic traits of these endosymbionts can be shaped by co-evolutionary interactions with both co-occurring microbial taxa and the host, which often operate over long evolutionary timescales...
October 31, 2016: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795567/unearthing-the-roots-of-ectomycorrhizal-symbioses
#5
Francis Martin, Annegret Kohler, Claude Murat, Claire Veneault-Fourrey, David S Hibbett
During the diversification of Fungi and the rise of conifer-dominated and angiosperm- dominated forests, mutualistic symbioses developed between certain trees and ectomycorrhizal fungi that enabled these trees to colonize boreal and temperate regions. The evolutionary success of these symbioses is evident from phylogenomic analyses that suggest that ectomycorrhizal fungi have arisen in approximately 60 independent saprotrophic lineages, which has led to the wide range of ectomycorrhizal associations that exist today...
October 31, 2016: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795566/antimicrobials-putting-antibiotic-action-into-context
#6
Andrea Du Toit
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 31, 2016: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773924/bacterial-toxins-a-true-competitor
#7
Andrea Du Toit
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 24, 2016: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748368/cellular-microbiology-tagging-proteins-for-the-clp-protease
#8
Katharine H Wrighton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 17, 2016: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27640758/competing-endogenous-rnas-a-target-centric-view-of-small-rna-regulation-in-bacteria
#9
Lionello Bossi, Nara Figueroa-Bossi
Many bacterial regulatory small RNAs (sRNAs) have several mRNA targets, which places them at the centre of regulatory networks that help bacteria to adapt to environmental changes. However, different mRNA targets of any given sRNA compete with each other for binding to the sRNA; thus, depending on relative abundances and sRNA affinity, competition for regulatory sRNAs can mediate cross-regulation between bacterial mRNAs. This 'target-centric' perspective of sRNA regulation is reminiscent of the competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) hypothesis, which posits that competition for a limited pool of microRNAs (miRNAs) in higher eukaryotes mediates cross-regulation of mRNAs...
September 19, 2016: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890922/progress-in-imaging-methods-insights-gained-into-plasmodium-biology
#10
Mariana De Niz, Paul-Christian Burda, Gesine Kaiser, Hernando A Del Portillo, Tobias Spielmann, Freddy Frischknecht, Volker T Heussler
Over the past decade, major advances in imaging techniques have enhanced our understanding of Plasmodium spp. parasites and their interplay with mammalian hosts and mosquito vectors. Cryoelectron tomography, cryo-X-ray tomography and super-resolution microscopy have shifted paradigms of sporozoite and gametocyte structure, the process of erythrocyte invasion by merozoites, and the architecture of Maurer's clefts. Intravital time-lapse imaging has been revolutionary for our understanding of pre-erythrocytic stages of rodent Plasmodium parasites...
January 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890921/bacterial-physiology-quorum-sensing-controls-the-cost-of-crispr-cas
#11
Ursula Hofer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890920/protein-export-through-the-bacterial-sec-pathway
#12
Alexandra Tsirigotaki, Jozefien De Geyter, Nikolina Šoštaric, Anastassios Economou, Spyridoula Karamanou
The general secretory (Sec) pathway comprises an essential, ubiquitous and universal export machinery for most proteins that integrate into, or translocate through, the plasma membrane. Sec exportome polypeptides are synthesized as pre-proteins that have cleavable signal peptides fused to the exported mature domains. Recent advances have re-evaluated the interaction networks of pre-proteins with chaperones that are involved in pre-protein targeting from the ribosome to the SecYEG channel and have identified conformational signals as checkpoints for high-fidelity targeting and translocation...
January 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867200/antifungals-uncovering-new-drugs-and-targets
#13
Andrea Du Toit
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867198/probing-the-evolution-ecology-and-physiology-of-marine-protists-using-transcriptomics
#14
David A Caron, Harriet Alexander, Andrew E Allen, John M Archibald, E Virginia Armbrust, Charles Bachy, Callum J Bell, Arvind Bharti, Sonya T Dyhrman, Stephanie M Guida, Karla B Heidelberg, Jonathan Z Kaye, Julia Metzner, Sarah R Smith, Alexandra Z Worden
Protists, which are single-celled eukaryotes, critically influence the ecology and chemistry of marine ecosystems, but genome-based studies of these organisms have lagged behind those of other microorganisms. However, recent transcriptomic studies of cultured species, complemented by meta-omics analyses of natural communities, have increased the amount of genetic information available for poorly represented branches on the tree of eukaryotic life. This information is providing insights into the adaptations and interactions between protists and other microorganisms and macroorganisms, but many of the genes sequenced show no similarity to sequences currently available in public databases...
January 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694885/emerging-pathogenic-links-between-microbiota-and-the-gut-lung-axis
#15
Kurtis F Budden, Shaan L Gellatly, David L A Wood, Matthew A Cooper, Mark Morrison, Philip Hugenholtz, Philip M Hansbro
The microbiota is vital for the development of the immune system and homeostasis. Changes in microbial composition and function, termed dysbiosis, in the respiratory tract and the gut have recently been linked to alterations in immune responses and to disease development in the lungs. In this Opinion article, we review the microbial species that are usually found in healthy gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts, their dysbiosis in disease and interactions with the gut-lung axis. Although the gut-lung axis is only beginning to be understood, emerging evidence indicates that there is potential for manipulation of the gut microbiota in the treatment of lung diseases...
January 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932798/viral-infection-how-histones-go-viral
#16
Katharine H Wrighton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 9, 2016: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932797/microbiome-weight-loss-without-the-yo-yo-effect
#17
Andrea Du Toit
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 9, 2016: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932796/viral-evolution-uncovering-the-secrets-of-the-rna-virosphere
#18
Ashley York
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 9, 2016: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932795/marine-microbiology-when-a-relationship-turns-ugly
#19
Andrea Du Toit
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 9, 2016: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932794/last-parasite-standing
#20
Gavin G Rutledge, Thomas D Otto
This month's Genome Watch describes how whole-genome sequencing used for surveillance purposes has enabled the identification of new drug resistance markers in the malaria parasite.
December 9, 2016: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
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