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Nature Reviews. Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163311/cyclic-di-gmp-second-messenger-extraordinaire
#1
REVIEW
Urs Jenal, Alberto Reinders, Christian Lori
Cyclic dinucleotides (CDNs) are highly versatile signalling molecules that control various important biological processes in bacteria. The best-studied example is cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP). Known since the late 1980s, it is now recognized as a near-ubiquitous second messenger that coordinates diverse aspects of bacterial growth and behaviour, including motility, virulence, biofilm formation and cell cycle progression. In this Review, we discuss important new insights that have been gained into the molecular principles of c-di-GMP synthesis and degradation, which are mediated by diguanylate cyclases and c-di-GMP-specific phosphodiesterases, respectively, and the cellular functions that are exerted by c-di-GMP-binding effectors and their diverse targets...
February 6, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138140/hit-the-right-spots-cell-cycle-control-by-phosphorylated-guanosines-in-alphaproteobacteria
#2
REVIEW
Régis Hallez, Marie Delaby, Stefano Sanselicio, Patrick H Viollier
The class Alphaproteobacteria includes Gram-negative free-living, symbiotic and obligate intracellular bacteria, as well as important plant, animal and human pathogens. Recent work has established the key antagonistic roles that phosphorylated guanosines, cyclic-di-GMP (c-di-GMP) and the alarmones guanosine tetraphosphate and guanosine pentaphosphate (collectively referred to as (p)ppGpp), have in the regulation of the cell cycle in these bacteria. In this Review, we discuss the insights that have been gained into the regulation of the initiation of DNA replication and cytokinesis by these second messengers, with a particular focus on the cell cycle of Caulobacter crescentus...
January 31, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138139/biofilms-shocking-biofilms
#3
Ashley York
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 31, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111461/diversity-and-evolution-of-class-2-crispr-cas-systems
#4
REVIEW
Sergey Shmakov, Aaron Smargon, David Scott, David Cox, Neena Pyzocha, Winston Yan, Omar O Abudayyeh, Jonathan S Gootenberg, Kira S Makarova, Yuri I Wolf, Konstantin Severinov, Feng Zhang, Eugene V Koonin
Class 2 CRISPR-Cas systems are characterized by effector modules that consist of a single multidomain protein, such as Cas9 or Cpf1. We designed a computational pipeline for the discovery of novel class 2 variants and used it to identify six new CRISPR-Cas subtypes. The diverse properties of these new systems provide potential for the development of versatile tools for genome editing and regulation. In this Analysis article, we present a comprehensive census of class 2 types and class 2 subtypes in complete and draft bacterial and archaeal genomes, outline evolutionary scenarios for the independent origin of different class 2 CRISPR-Cas systems from mobile genetic elements, and propose an amended classification and nomenclature of CRISPR-Cas...
January 23, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111460/metagenomics-mining-for-crispr-cas
#5
Ashley York
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 23, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111458/structural-biology-high-order-integration
#6
Ashley York
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 23, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111457/bacterial-development-streptomyces-cue-to-leave
#7
Andrea Du Toit
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 23, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090077/clinical-and-biological-insights-from-viral-genome-sequencing
#8
REVIEW
Charlotte J Houldcroft, Mathew A Beale, Judith Breuer
Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of pathogens is becoming increasingly important not only for basic research but also for clinical science and practice. In virology, WGS is important for the development of novel treatments and vaccines, and for increasing the power of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genomics. In this Opinion article, we suggest that WGS of viruses in a clinical setting will become increasingly important for patient care. We give an overview of different WGS methods that are used in virology and summarize their advantages and disadvantages...
January 16, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090076/a-journey-into-the-brain-insight-into-how-bacterial-pathogens-cross-blood-brain-barriers
#9
REVIEW
Mathieu Coureuil, Hervé Lécuyer, Sandrine Bourdoulous, Xavier Nassif
The blood-brain barrier, which is one of the tightest barriers in the body, protects the brain from insults, such as infections. Indeed, only a few of the numerous blood-borne bacteria can cross the blood-brain barrier to cause meningitis. In this Review, we focus on invasive extracellular pathogens, such as Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, group B Streptococcus and Escherichia coli, to review the obstacles that bacteria have to overcome in order to invade the meninges from the bloodstream, and the specific skills they have developed to bypass the blood-brain barrier...
January 16, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090075/virus-host-interactions-and-their-roles-in-coral-reef-health-and-disease
#10
REVIEW
Rebecca Vega Thurber, Jérôme P Payet, Andrew R Thurber, Adrienne M S Correa
Coral reefs occur in nutrient-poor shallow waters, constitute biodiversity and productivity hotspots, and are threatened by anthropogenic disturbance. This Review provides an introduction to coral reef virology and emphasizes the links between viruses, coral mortality and reef ecosystem decline. We describe the distinctive benthic-associated and water-column- associated viromes that are unique to coral reefs, which have received less attention than viruses in open-ocean systems. We hypothesize that viruses of bacteria and eukaryotes dynamically interact with their hosts in the water column and with scleractinian (stony) corals to influence microbial community dynamics, coral bleaching and disease, and reef biogeochemical cycling...
16, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134265/consensus-statement-virus-taxonomy-in-the-age-of-metagenomics
#11
REVIEW
Peter Simmonds, Mike J Adams, Mária Benkő, Mya Breitbart, J Rodney Brister, Eric B Carstens, Andrew J Davison, Eric Delwart, Alexander E Gorbalenya, Balázs Harrach, Roger Hull, Andrew M Q King, Eugene V Koonin, Mart Krupovic, Jens H Kuhn, Elliot J Lefkowitz, Max L Nibert, Richard Orton, Marilyn J Roossinck, Sead Sabanadzovic, Matthew B Sullivan, Curtis A Suttle, Robert B Tesh, René A van der Vlugt, Arvind Varsani, F Murilo Zerbini
The number and diversity of viral sequences that are identified in metagenomic data far exceeds that of experimentally characterized virus isolates. In a recent workshop, a panel of experts discussed the proposal that, with appropriate quality control, viruses that are known only from metagenomic data can, and should be, incorporated into the official classification scheme of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). Although a taxonomy that is based on metagenomic sequence data alone represents a substantial departure from the traditional reliance on phenotypic properties, the development of a robust framework for sequence-based virus taxonomy is indispensable for the comprehensive characterization of the global virome...
January 3, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045106/microbiome-expanding-through-the-microbiota
#12
Andrea Du Toit
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 3, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045105/bacterial-physiology-building-a-bacterial-ribosome
#13
Ashley York
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 3, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045104/viral-infection-fine-tuning-hcv-replication
#14
Ashley York
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 3, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045103/parasite-biology-busting-out-from-the-inside
#15
Ashley York
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 3, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028309/symbiosis-new-horizons-for-wolbachia
#16
Ursula Hofer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 28, 2016: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990021/microbiome-rhythm-and-bacteria
#17
Ashley York
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 19, 2016: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111459/viral-infection-competing-membrane-proteins-regulate-picornavirus-genome-delivery
#18
Shimona Starling
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190885/bacterial-pathogenesis-microbial-manipulation-of-the-gut-brain-axis
#19
Shimona Starling
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 13, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190884/a-sea-change-for-virology
#20
EDITORIAL
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 13, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
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