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Nature Reviews. Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332945/the-human-skin-microbiome
#1
REVIEW
Allyson L Byrd, Yasmine Belkaid, Julia A Segre
Functioning as the exterior interface of the human body with the environment, skin acts as a physical barrier to prevent the invasion of foreign pathogens while providing a home to the commensal microbiota. The harsh physical landscape of skin, particularly the desiccated, nutrient-poor, acidic environment, also contributes to the adversity that pathogens face when colonizing human skin. Despite this, the skin is colonized by a diverse microbiota. In this Review, we describe amplicon and shotgun metagenomic DNA sequencing studies that have been used to assess the taxonomic diversity of microorganisms that are associated with skin from the kingdom to the strain level...
January 15, 2018: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307890/the-germ-organ-theory-of-non-communicable-diseases
#2
REVIEW
Mariana X Byndloss, Andreas J Bäumler
Gut dysbiosis is associated with many non-communicable human diseases, but the mechanisms maintaining homeostasis remain incompletely understood. Recent insights suggest that during homeostasis, epithelial hypoxia limits oxygen availability in the colon, thereby maintaining a balanced microbiota that functions as a microbial organ, producing metabolites contributing to host nutrition, immune education and niche protection. Dysbiosis is characterized by a shift in the microbial community structure from obligate to facultative anaerobes, suggesting oxygen as an important ecological driver of microbial organ dysfunction...
January 8, 2018: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307889/microbial-modulation-of-cardiovascular-disease
#3
REVIEW
J Mark Brown, Stanley L Hazen
Although diet has long been known to contribute to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease (CVD), research over the past decade has revealed an unexpected interplay between nutrient intake, gut microbial metabolism and the host to modify the risk of developing CVD. Microbial-associated molecular patterns are sensed by host pattern recognition receptors and have been suggested to drive CVD pathogenesis. In addition, the host microbiota produces various metabolites, such as trimethylamine-N-oxide, short-chain fatty acids and secondary bile acids, that affect CVD pathogenesis...
January 8, 2018: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29292390/parasite-biology-keeping-plasmodium-awake
#4
Andrea Du Toit
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2, 2018: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29292389/viral-infection-a-fungus-boosts-dengue-virus-in-the-mosquito-gut
#5
Ashley York
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2, 2018: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29292388/genome-watch-microbial-diversity-knows-no-borders
#6
Lindsay J Pike, Elisa Viciani, Nitin Kumar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2, 2018: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249812/uncovering-the-mechanisms-of-acinetobacter-baumannii-virulence
#7
REVIEW
Christian M Harding, Seth W Hennon, Mario F Feldman
Acinetobacter baumannii is a nosocomial pathogen that causes ventilator-associated as well as bloodstream infections in critically ill patients, and the spread of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter strains is cause for concern. Much of the success of A. baumannii can be directly attributed to its plastic genome, which rapidly mutates when faced with adversity and stress. However, fundamental virulence mechanisms beyond canonical drug resistance were recently uncovered that enable A. baumannii and, to a limited extent, other medically relevant Acinetobacter species to successfully thrive in the health-care environment...
December 18, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249813/inserting-proteins-into-the-bacterial-cytoplasmic-membrane-using-the-sec-and-yidc-translocases
#8
Kun Xie, Ross E Dalbey
This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/nrmicro3595.
December 11, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225357/marine-microbiology-illuminating-the-importance-of-nitrite-oxidation
#9
Ursula Hofer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 11, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176586/environmental-microbiology-around-the-globe-in-2-2-billion-sequences
#10
Ursula Hofer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 27, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176585/archaea-and-the-origin-of-eukaryotes
#11
Laura Eme, Anja Spang, Jonathan Lombard, Courtney W Stairs, Thijs J G Ettema
This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/nrmicro.2017.133.
November 27, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176584/parasite-development-the-missing-link-to-plasmodium-gametocytogenesis
#12
Ursula Hofer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 27, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176582/listeria-monocytogenes-towards-a-complete-picture-of-its-physiology-and-pathogenesis
#13
REVIEW
Lilliana Radoshevich, Pascale Cossart
Listeria monocytogenes is a food-borne pathogen responsible for a disease called listeriosis, which is potentially lethal in immunocompromised individuals. This bacterium, first used as a model to study cell-mediated immunity, has emerged over the past 20 years as a paradigm in infection biology, cell biology and fundamental microbiology. In this Review, we highlight recent advances in the understanding of human listeriosis and L. monocytogenes biology. We describe unsuspected modes of hijacking host cell biology, ranging from changes in organelle morphology to direct effects on host transcription via a new class of bacterial effectors called nucleomodulins...
November 27, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176581/functional-horizontal-gene-transfer-from-bacteria-to-eukaryotes
#14
REVIEW
Filip Husnik, John P McCutcheon
Bacteria influence eukaryotic biology as parasitic, commensal or beneficial symbionts. Aside from these organismal interactions, bacteria have also been important sources of new genetic sequences through horizontal gene transfer (HGT) for eukaryotes. In this Review, we focus on gene transfers from bacteria to eukaryotes, discuss how horizontally transferred genes become functional and explore what functions are endowed upon a broad diversity of eukaryotes by genes derived from bacteria. We classify HGT events into two broad types: those that maintain pre-existing functions and those that provide the recipient with new functionality, including altered host nutrition, protection and adaptation to extreme environments...
November 27, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151601/antimicrobials-daylight-robbery-by-acinetobacter
#15
Andrea Du Toit
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 20, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109555/pathogenesis-of-hiv-1-and-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-co-infection
#16
REVIEW
Lucy C K Bell, Mahdad Noursadeghi
Co-infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the leading cause of death in individuals infected with HIV-1. It has long been known that HIV-1 infection alters the course of M. tuberculosis infection and substantially increases the risk of active tuberculosis (TB). It has also become clear that TB increases levels of HIV-1 replication, propagation and genetic diversity. Therefore, co-infection provides reciprocal advantages to both pathogens. In this Review, we describe the epidemiological associations between the two pathogens, selected interactions of each pathogen with the host and our current understanding of how they affect the pathogenesis of TB and HIV-1/AIDS in individuals with co-infections...
November 7, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081496/the-evolution-of-seasonal-influenza-viruses
#17
REVIEW
Velislava N Petrova, Colin A Russell
Despite decades of surveillance and pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical interventions, seasonal influenza viruses continue to cause epidemics around the world each year. The key process underlying these recurrent epidemics is the evolution of the viruses to escape the immunity that is induced by prior infection or vaccination. Although we are beginning to understand the processes that underlie the evolutionary dynamics of seasonal influenza viruses, the timing and nature of emergence of new virus strains remain mostly unpredictable...
October 30, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062071/anti-crispr-discovery-mechanism-and-function
#18
REVIEW
April Pawluk, Alan R Davidson, Karen L Maxwell
CRISPR-Cas adaptive immune systems are widespread among bacteria and archaea. Recent studies have shown that these systems have minimal long-term evolutionary effects in limiting horizontal gene transfer. This suggests that the ability to evade CRISPR-Cas immunity must also be widespread in phages and other mobile genetic elements. In this Progress article, we discuss recent discoveries that highlight how phages inactivate CRISPR-Cas systems by using anti-CRISPR proteins, and we outline evolutionary and biotechnological implications of their activity...
October 24, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062070/new-opportunities-for-managing-acute-and-chronic-lung-infections
#19
REVIEW
William O C M Cookson, Michael J Cox, Miriam F Moffatt
Lung diseases caused by microbial infections affect hundreds of millions of children and adults throughout the world. In Western populations, the treatment of lung infections is a primary driver of antibiotic resistance. Traditional therapeutic strategies have been based on the premise that the healthy lung is sterile and that infections grow in a pristine environment. As a consequence, rapid advances in our understanding of the composition of the microbiota of the skin and bowel have not yet been matched by studies of the respiratory tree...
October 24, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332944/fungal-pathogenesis-wheat-stem-rust-effectors-revealed
#20
Ursula Hofer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 15, 2018: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
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