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Nature Reviews. Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109555/pathogenesis-of-hiv-1-and-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-co-infection
#1
REVIEW
Lucy C K Bell, Mahdad Noursadeghi
Co-infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the leading cause of death in individuals infected with HIV-1. It has long been known that HIV-1 infection alters the course of M. tuberculosis infection and substantially increases the risk of active tuberculosis (TB). It has also become clear that TB increases levels of HIV-1 replication, propagation and genetic diversity. Therefore, co-infection provides reciprocal advantages to both pathogens. In this Review, we describe the epidemiological associations between the two pathogens, selected interactions of each pathogen with the host and our current understanding of how they affect the pathogenesis of TB and HIV-1/AIDS in individuals with co-infections...
November 7, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109554/the-evolution-of-seasonal-influenza-viruses
#2
Velislava N Petrova, Colin A Russell
This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/nrmicro.2017.118.
November 7, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081496/the-evolution-of-seasonal-influenza-viruses
#3
REVIEW
Velislava N Petrova, Colin A Russell
Despite decades of surveillance and pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical interventions, seasonal influenza viruses continue to cause epidemics around the world each year. The key process underlying these recurrent epidemics is the evolution of the viruses to escape the immunity that is induced by prior infection or vaccination. Although we are beginning to understand the processes that underlie the evolutionary dynamics of seasonal influenza viruses, the timing and nature of emergence of new virus strains remain mostly unpredictable...
October 30, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062071/anti-crispr-discovery-mechanism-and-function
#4
REVIEW
April Pawluk, Alan R Davidson, Karen L Maxwell
CRISPR-Cas adaptive immune systems are widespread among bacteria and archaea. Recent studies have shown that these systems have minimal long-term evolutionary effects in limiting horizontal gene transfer. This suggests that the ability to evade CRISPR-Cas immunity must also be widespread in phages and other mobile genetic elements. In this Progress article, we discuss recent discoveries that highlight how phages inactivate CRISPR-Cas systems by using anti-CRISPR proteins, and we outline evolutionary and biotechnological implications of their activity...
October 24, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062070/new-opportunities-for-managing-acute-and-chronic-lung-infections
#5
REVIEW
William O C M Cookson, Michael J Cox, Miriam F Moffatt
Lung diseases caused by microbial infections affect hundreds of millions of children and adults throughout the world. In Western populations, the treatment of lung infections is a primary driver of antibiotic resistance. Traditional therapeutic strategies have been based on the premise that the healthy lung is sterile and that infections grow in a pristine environment. As a consequence, rapid advances in our understanding of the composition of the microbiota of the skin and bowel have not yet been matched by studies of the respiratory tree...
October 24, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062072/development-and-regulation-of-single-and-multi-species-candida-albicans-biofilms
#6
REVIEW
Matthew B Lohse, Megha Gulati, Alexander D Johnson, Clarissa J Nobile
Candida albicans is among the most prevalent fungal species of the human microbiota and asymptomatically colonizes healthy individuals. However, it is also an opportunistic pathogen that can cause severe, and often fatal, bloodstream infections. The medical impact of C. albicans typically depends on its ability to form biofilms, which are closely packed communities of cells that attach to surfaces, such as tissues and implanted medical devices. In this Review, we provide an overview of the processes involved in the formation of C...
October 3, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919636/parasite-development-parasites-talk-about-growth
#7
Irene Vacca
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 18, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081500/microbiome-the-microbiota-s-cryptic-message
#8
Ursula Hofer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081499/viral-evolution-closely-monitoring-influenza-virus
#9
Andrea Du Toit
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081498/genome-watch-microbiota-shuns-the-modern-world
#10
Nitin Kumar, Samuel C Forster
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081497/techniques-applications-expanding-the-genetic-toolbox-for-fungi
#11
Andrea Du Toit
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081495/marine-microbiology-synchronized-rhythms-in-the-ocean
#12
Andrea Du Toit
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062073/bacterial-pathogenesis-activating-helicobacter-effector-delivery
#13
Irene Vacca
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944770/targeting-microbial-biofilms-current-and-prospective-therapeutic-strategies
#14
REVIEW
Hyun Koo, Raymond N Allan, Robert P Howlin, Paul Stoodley, Luanne Hall-Stoodley
Biofilm formation is a key virulence factor for a wide range of microorganisms that cause chronic infections. The multifactorial nature of biofilm development and drug tolerance imposes great challenges for the use of conventional antimicrobials and indicates the need for multi-targeted or combinatorial therapies. In this Review, we focus on current therapeutic strategies and those under development that target vital structural and functional traits of microbial biofilms and drug tolerance mechanisms, including the extracellular matrix and dormant cells...
December 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781365/evolution-and-genome-architecture-in-fungal-plant-pathogens
#15
REVIEW
Mareike Möller, Eva H Stukenbrock
The fungal kingdom comprises some of the most devastating plant pathogens. Sequencing the genomes of fungal pathogens has shown a remarkable variability in genome size and architecture. Population genomic data enable us to understand the mechanisms and the history of changes in genome size and adaptive evolution in plant pathogens. Although transposable elements predominantly have negative effects on their host, fungal pathogens provide prominent examples of advantageous associations between rapidly evolving transposable elements and virulence genes that cause variation in virulence phenotypes...
December 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123230/environmental-microbiology-geographic-coordinates-guide-natural-product-discovery
#16
Andrea Du Toit
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 10, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123229/a-flourishing-field-going-back-to-the-roots-of-the-archaea
#17
EDITORIAL
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 10, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123228/host-response-granzyme-b-s-roundhouse-kick-against-bacteria
#18
Ursula Hofer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 10, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123227/the-enigmatic-archaeal-virosphere
#19
REVIEW
David Prangishvili, Dennis H Bamford, Patrick Forterre, Jaime Iranzo, Eugene V Koonin, Mart Krupovic
One of the most prominent features of archaea is the extraordinary diversity of their DNA viruses. Many archaeal viruses differ substantially in morphology from bacterial and eukaryotic viruses and represent unique virus families. The distinct nature of archaeal viruses also extends to the gene composition and architectures of their genomes and the properties of the proteins that they encode. Environmental research has revealed prominent roles of archaeal viruses in influencing microbial communities in ocean ecosystems, and recent metagenomic studies have uncovered new groups of archaeal viruses that infect extremophiles and mesophiles in diverse habitats...
November 10, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123226/evolution-and-genome-architecture-in-fungal-plant-pathogens
#20
Mareike Möller, Eva H Stukenbrock
This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/nrmicro.2017.76.
November 10, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
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