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Nature Reviews. Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090077/clinical-and-biological-insights-from-viral-genome-sequencing
#1
Charlotte J Houldcroft, Mathew A Beale, Judith Breuer
Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of pathogens is becoming increasingly important not only for basic research but also for clinical science and practice. In virology, WGS is important for the development of novel treatments and vaccines, and for increasing the power of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genomics. In this Opinion article, we suggest that WGS of viruses in a clinical setting will become increasingly important for patient care. We give an overview of different WGS methods that are used in virology and summarize their advantages and disadvantages...
January 16, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090076/a-journey-into-the-brain-insight-into-how-bacterial-pathogens-cross-blood-brain-barriers
#2
Mathieu Coureuil, Hervé Lécuyer, Sandrine Bourdoulous, Xavier Nassif
The blood-brain barrier, which is one of the tightest barriers in the body, protects the brain from insults, such as infections. Indeed, only a few of the numerous blood-borne bacteria can cross the blood-brain barrier to cause meningitis. In this Review, we focus on invasive extracellular pathogens, such as Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, group B Streptococcus and Escherichia coli, to review the obstacles that bacteria have to overcome in order to invade the meninges from the bloodstream, and the specific skills they have developed to bypass the blood-brain barrier...
January 16, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090075/virus-host-interactions-and-their-roles-in-coral-reef-health-and-disease
#3
Rebecca Vega Thurber, Jérôme P Payet, Andrew R Thurber, Adrienne M S Correa
Coral reefs occur in nutrient-poor shallow waters, constitute biodiversity and productivity hotspots, and are threatened by anthropogenic disturbance. This Review provides an introduction to coral reef virology and emphasizes the links between viruses, coral mortality and reef ecosystem decline. We describe the distinctive benthic-associated and water-column- associated viromes that are unique to coral reefs, which have received less attention than viruses in open-ocean systems. We hypothesize that viruses of bacteria and eukaryotes dynamically interact with their hosts in the water column and with scleractinian (stony) corals to influence microbial community dynamics, coral bleaching and disease, and reef biogeochemical cycling...
January 16, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045107/collateral-damage-insights-into-bacterial-mechanisms-that-predispose-host-cells-to-cancer
#4
Aurélie Gagnaire, Bertrand Nadel, Didier Raoult, Jacques Neefjes, Jean-Pierre Gorvel
Infections are estimated to contribute to 20% of all human tumours. Viruses are known to induce cell transformation, but evidence has also linked bacteria, such as Helicobacter pylori and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhi, to different cancer types. In addition, Chlamydia trachomatis, Fusobacterium nucleatum and Bacteroides fragilis are associated with the development of cancer, although a causal relationship has not yet been established. Bacterial effectors such as colibactin and the virulence factor cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) can promote cancer directly by influencing host cell signalling cascades, such as the WNT and ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) pathways, or indirectly by inducing tissue damage and inflammatory responses...
January 3, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045106/microbiome-expanding-through-the-microbiota
#5
Andrea Du Toit
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 3, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045105/bacterial-physiology-building-a-bacterial-ribosome
#6
Ashley York
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 3, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045104/viral-infection-fine-tuning-hcv-replication
#7
Ashley York
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 3, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045103/parasite-biology-busting-out-from-the-inside
#8
Ashley York
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 3, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028309/symbiosis-new-horizons-for-wolbachia
#9
Ursula Hofer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 28, 2016: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990021/microbiome-rhythm-and-bacteria
#10
Ashley York
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 19, 2016: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941817/nuclear-landscape-of-hiv-1-infection-and-integration
#11
Marina Lusic, Robert F Siliciano
To complete its life cycle, HIV-1 enters the nucleus of the host cell as reverse-transcribed viral DNA. The nucleus is a complex environment, in which chromatin is organized to support different structural and functional aspects of cell physiology. As such, it represents a challenge for an incoming viral genome, which needs to be integrated into cellular DNA to ensure productive infection. Integration of the viral genome into host DNA depends on the enzymatic activity of HIV-1 integrase and involves different cellular factors that influence the selection of integration sites...
December 12, 2016: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941816/cellulosomes-bacterial-nanomachines-for-dismantling-plant-polysaccharides
#12
Lior Artzi, Edward A Bayer, Sarah Moraïs
Cellulosomes are multienzyme complexes that are produced by anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria for the degradation of lignocellulosic biomass. They comprise a complex of scaffoldin, which is the structural subunit, and various enzymatic subunits. The intersubunit interactions in these multienzyme complexes are mediated by cohesin and dockerin modules. Cellulosome-producing bacteria have been isolated from a large variety of environments, which reflects their prevalence and the importance of this microbial enzymatic strategy...
December 12, 2016: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867199/candida-albicans-cell-type-switching-and-functional-plasticity-in-the-mammalian-host
#13
Suzanne M Noble, Brittany A Gianetti, Jessica N Witchley
Candida albicans is a ubiquitous commensal of the mammalian microbiome and the most prevalent fungal pathogen of humans. A cell-type transition between yeast and hyphal morphologies in C. albicans was thought to underlie much of the variation in virulence observed in different host tissues. However, novel yeast-like cell morphotypes, including opaque(a/α), grey and gastrointestinally induced transition (GUT) cell types, were recently reported that exhibit marked differences in vitro and in animal models of commensalism and disease...
November 21, 2016: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818501/fungal-biology-a-key-regulator-of-secondary-metabolites
#14
Andrea Du Toit
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 7, 2016: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818500/viral-infection-rabies-virus-causes-stress
#15
Andrea Du Toit
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 7, 2016: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795568/how-multi-partner-endosymbioses-function
#16
Angela E Douglas
Various animals are associated with specific endosymbiotic microorganisms that provide the host with essential nutrients or confer protection against natural enemies. Genomic analyses of the many endosymbioses that are found in plant sap-feeding hemipteran insects have revealed independent acquisitions - and occasional replacements - of endosymbionts, such that many of these endosymbioses involve two or more microbial partners. In this Review, I discuss how partitioning of the genetic capacity for metabolic function between different endosymbionts has sustained nutritional function in multi-partner endosymbioses, and how the phenotypic traits of these endosymbionts can be shaped by co-evolutionary interactions with both co-occurring microbial taxa and the host, which often operate over long evolutionary timescales...
October 31, 2016: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795567/unearthing-the-roots-of-ectomycorrhizal-symbioses
#17
Francis Martin, Annegret Kohler, Claude Murat, Claire Veneault-Fourrey, David S Hibbett
During the diversification of Fungi and the rise of conifer-dominated and angiosperm- dominated forests, mutualistic symbioses developed between certain trees and ectomycorrhizal fungi that enabled these trees to colonize boreal and temperate regions. The evolutionary success of these symbioses is evident from phylogenomic analyses that suggest that ectomycorrhizal fungi have arisen in approximately 60 independent saprotrophic lineages, which has led to the wide range of ectomycorrhizal associations that exist today...
October 31, 2016: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090080/you-are-where-you-live
#18
Samuel E Kidman, Josephine M Bryant
This month's Genome Watch discusses how whole-genome sequencing of bacteria from several body sites has provided insights into the spatial diversity of bacteria within patients.
January 16, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090079/archaeal-evolution-evolutionary-insights-from-the-vikings
#19
Ashley York
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 16, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890922/progress-in-imaging-methods-insights-gained-into-plasmodium-biology
#20
Mariana De Niz, Paul-Christian Burda, Gesine Kaiser, Hernando A Del Portillo, Tobias Spielmann, Freddy Frischknecht, Volker T Heussler
Over the past decade, major advances in imaging techniques have enhanced our understanding of Plasmodium spp. parasites and their interplay with mammalian hosts and mosquito vectors. Cryoelectron tomography, cryo-X-ray tomography and super-resolution microscopy have shifted paradigms of sporozoite and gametocyte structure, the process of erythrocyte invasion by merozoites, and the architecture of Maurer's clefts. Intravital time-lapse imaging has been revolutionary for our understanding of pre-erythrocytic stages of rodent Plasmodium parasites...
January 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
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