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Nature Reviews. Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435161/biofilms-communities-in-sync
#1
Shimona Starling
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 24, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420885/oxidative-stress-protein-damage-and-repair-in-bacteria
#2
REVIEW
Benjamin Ezraty, Alexandra Gennaris, Frédéric Barras, Jean-François Collet
Oxidative damage can have a devastating effect on the structure and activity of proteins, and may even lead to cell death. The sulfur-containing amino acids cysteine and methionine are particularly susceptible to reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive chlorine species (RCS), which can damage proteins. In this Review, we discuss our current understanding of the reducing systems that enable bacteria to repair oxidatively damaged cysteine and methionine residues in the cytoplasm and in the bacterial cell envelope...
April 19, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420884/a-crispr-toolbox-to-study-virus-host-interactions
#3
REVIEW
Andreas S Puschnik, Karim Majzoub, Yaw Shin Ooi, Jan E Carette
Viruses depend on their hosts to complete their replication cycles; they exploit cellular receptors for entry and hijack cellular functions to replicate their genome, assemble progeny virions and spread. Recently, genome-scale CRISPR-Cas screens have been used to identify host factors that are required for virus replication, including the replication of clinically relevant viruses such as Zika virus, West Nile virus, dengue virus and hepatitis C virus. In this Review, we discuss the technical aspects of genome-scale knockout screens using CRISPR-Cas technology, and we compare these screens with alternative genetic screening technologies...
April 19, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420883/leukocidins-staphylococcal-bi-component-pore-forming-toxins-find-their-receptors
#4
REVIEW
András N Spaan, Jos A G van Strijp, Victor J Torres
Staphylococcus aureus is a major bacterial pathogen that causes disease worldwide. The emergence of strains that are resistant to commonly used antibiotics and the failure of vaccine development have resulted in a renewed interest in the pathophysiology of this bacterium. Staphylococcal leukocidins are a family of bi-component pore-forming toxins that are important virulence factors. During the past five years, cellular receptors have been identified for all of the bi-component leukocidins. The identification of the leukocidin receptors explains the cellular tropism and species specificity that is exhibited by these toxins, which has important biological consequences...
April 19, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392566/assembly-structure-function-and-regulation-of-type-iii-secretion-systems
#5
REVIEW
Wanyin Deng, Natalie C Marshall, Jennifer L Rowland, James M McCoy, Liam J Worrall, Andrew S Santos, Natalie C J Strynadka, B Brett Finlay
Type III secretion systems (T3SSs) are protein transport nanomachines that are found in Gram-negative bacterial pathogens and symbionts. Resembling molecular syringes, T3SSs form channels that cross the bacterial envelope and the host cell membrane, which enable bacteria to inject numerous effector proteins into the host cell cytoplasm and establish trans-kingdom interactions with diverse hosts. Recent advances in cryo-electron microscopy and integrative imaging have provided unprecedented views of the architecture and structure of T3SSs...
April 10, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392565/next-generation-approaches-to-understand-and-combat-the-antibiotic-resistome
#6
REVIEW
Terence S Crofts, Andrew J Gasparrini, Gautam Dantas
Antibiotic resistance is a natural feature of diverse microbial ecosystems. Although recent studies of the antibiotic resistome have highlighted barriers to the horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance genes between habitats, the rapid global spread of genes that confer resistance to carbapenem, colistin and quinolone antibiotics illustrates the dire clinical and societal consequences of such events. Over time, the study of antibiotic resistance has grown from focusing on single pathogenic organisms in axenic culture to studying antibiotic resistance in pathogenic, commensal and environmental bacteria at the level of microbial communities...
April 10, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344348/metal-homeostasis-and-resistance-in-bacteria
#7
REVIEW
Pete Chandrangsu, Christopher Rensing, John D Helmann
Metal ions are essential for many reactions, but excess metals can be toxic. In bacteria, metal limitation activates pathways that are involved in the import and mobilization of metals, whereas excess metals induce efflux and storage. In this Review, we highlight recent insights into metal homeostasis, including protein-based and RNA-based sensors that interact directly with metals or metal-containing cofactors. The resulting transcriptional response to metal stress takes place in a stepwise manner and is reinforced by post-transcriptional regulatory systems...
March 27, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239154/anti-trypanosomatid-drug-discovery-an-ongoing-challenge-and-a-continuing-need
#8
REVIEW
Mark C Field, David Horn, Alan H Fairlamb, Michael A J Ferguson, David W Gray, Kevin D Read, Manu De Rycker, Leah S Torrie, Paul G Wyatt, Susan Wyllie, Ian H Gilbert
The WHO recognizes human African trypanosomiasis, Chagas disease and the leishmaniases as neglected tropical diseases. These diseases are caused by parasitic trypanosomatids and range in severity from mild and self-curing to near invariably fatal. Public health advances have substantially decreased the effect of these diseases in recent decades but alone will not eliminate them. In this Review, we discuss why new drugs against trypanosomatids are required, approaches that are under investigation to develop new drugs and why the drug discovery pipeline remains essentially unfilled...
February 27, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239151/corrigendum-nuclear-landscape-of-hiv-1-infection-and-integration
#9
Marina Lusic, Robert F Siliciano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 27, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138140/hit-the-right-spots-cell-cycle-control-by-phosphorylated-guanosines-in-alphaproteobacteria
#10
REVIEW
Régis Hallez, Marie Delaby, Stefano Sanselicio, Patrick H Viollier
The class Alphaproteobacteria includes Gram-negative free-living, symbiotic and obligate intracellular bacteria, as well as important plant, animal and human pathogens. Recent work has established the key antagonistic roles that phosphorylated guanosines, cyclic-di-GMP (c-di-GMP) and the alarmones guanosine tetraphosphate and guanosine pentaphosphate (collectively referred to as (p)ppGpp), have in the regulation of the cell cycle in these bacteria. In this Review, we discuss the insights that have been gained into the regulation of the initiation of DNA replication and cytokinesis by these second messengers, with a particular focus on the cell cycle of Caulobacter crescentus...
January 31, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366941/structural-biology-the-tick-tock-of-circadian-clocks
#11
Ashley York
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344353/environmental-microbiology-is-evidence-for-ancient-microbial-life-set-in-stone
#12
Shimona Starling
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344352/bacterial-physiology-when-things-turn-sour-for-helicobacter
#13
Andrea Du Toit
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344351/viral-evolution-on-the-origin-of-capsids
#14
Ashley York
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344350/structural-biology-in-situ-architecture-of-the-type-iii-secretion-system
#15
Shimona Starling
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344349/microorganisms-maintain-crowding-homeostasis
#16
REVIEW
Jonas van den Berg, Arnold J Boersma, Bert Poolman
Macromolecular crowding affects the mobility of biomolecules, protein folding and stability, and the association of macromolecules with each other. Local differences in crowding that arise as a result of subcellular components and supramolecular assemblies contribute to the structural organization of the cytoplasm. In this Opinion article we discuss how macromolecular crowding affects the physicochemistry of the cytoplasm and how this, in turn, affects microbial physiology. We propose that cells maintain the overall concentration of macromolecules within a narrow range and discuss possible mechanisms for achieving crowding homeostasis...
May 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344347/evolve-and-survive
#17
Alena Pance
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316330/the-microbiota-of-the-respiratory-tract-gatekeeper-to-respiratory-health
#18
REVIEW
Wing Ho Man, Wouter A A de Steenhuijsen Piters, Debby Bogaert
The respiratory tract is a complex organ system that is responsible for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide. The human respiratory tract spans from the nostrils to the lung alveoli and is inhabited by niche-specific communities of bacteria. The microbiota of the respiratory tract probably acts as a gatekeeper that provides resistance to colonization by respiratory pathogens. The respiratory microbiota might also be involved in the maturation and maintenance of homeostasis of respiratory physiology and immunity...
May 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316329/xerotolerant-bacteria-surviving-through-a-dry-spell
#19
REVIEW
Pedro H Lebre, Pieter De Maayer, Don A Cowan
Water is vital for many biological processes and is essential for all living organisms. However, numerous macroorganisms and microorganisms have adapted to survive in environments in which water is scarce; such organisms are collectively termed xerotolerant. With increasing global desertification due to climate change and human-driven desertification processes, it is becoming ever more important to understand how xerotolerant organisms cope with a lack of water. In this Review, we discuss the environmental, physiological and molecular adaptations that enable xerotolerant bacteria to survive in environments in which water is scarce and highlight insights from modern 'omics' technologies...
May 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260786/virulence-of-the-zoonotic-agent-of-leptospirosis-still-terra-incognita
#20
REVIEW
Mathieu Picardeau
Pathogenic leptospires are the bacterial agents of leptospirosis, which is an emerging zoonotic disease that affects animals and humans worldwide. The success of leptospires as pathogens is explained by their spiral shape and endoflagellar motility (which enable these spirochetes to rapidly cross connective tissues and barriers), as well as by their ability to escape or hijack the host immune system. However, the basic biology and virulence factors of leptospires remain poorly characterized. In this Review, we discuss the recent advances in our understanding of the epidemiology, taxonomy, genomics and the molecular basis of virulence in leptospires, and how these properties contribute to the mechanism of pathogenesis of leptospirosis...
May 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
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