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BMC Microbiology

Ping Li, Wenwen Xin, Susu Xia, Yun Luo, Zhongwen Chen, Dazhi Jin, Shan Gao, Hao Yang, Bin Ji, Henghui Wang, Yong Yan, Lin Kang, Jinglin Wang
BACKGROUND: Vibrio parahaemolyticus is as an important food-borne pathogen circulating in China. Since 1996, the core serotype has become O3:K6, which has specific genetic markers. This serotype causes the majority of outbreaks worldwide. Until now, nearly 21 serotypes were considered as serovariants of O3:K6. Among these, O4:K68, O1:K25 and O1:KUT have caused pandemic outbreaks. O4:K8, a serovariant of O3:K6, has become the second most dominant serotype circulating in China after O3:K6...
November 13, 2018: BMC Microbiology
Erica L Plummer, Dieter M Bulach, Gerald L Murray, Susan E Jacobs, Sepehr N Tabrizi, Suzanne M Garland
BACKGROUND: The ProPrems trial, a multi-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial, previously reported a 54% reduction in necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) of Bell stage 2 or more from 4.4 to 2.0% in 1099 infants born before 32 completed weeks' gestation and weighing < 1500 g, receiving probiotic supplementation (with Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis BB-02, Streptococcus thermophilus TH-4 and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12). This sub-study investigated the effect of probiotic supplementation on the gut microbiota in a cohort of very preterm infants in ProPrems...
November 13, 2018: BMC Microbiology
Chendi Jing, Chenghua Liu, Fangjie Liu, Yaping Gao, Yu Liu, Zhangchun Guan, Bo Xuan, Yanyan Yu, Guang Yang
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of Gram-positive bacterial infections worldwide; however, the treatment of S. aureus infection has become increasingly difficult due to the prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus strains, highlighting the urgent need for the development of novel strategies. The complexity of S. aureus pathogenesis relies on virulence factors. Recent studies have demonstrated that leukocidins expressed by the majority of clinical isolates play important roles in the pathogenesis of S...
November 12, 2018: BMC Microbiology
Yushan Pan, Haoran An, Tong Fu, Shiyu Zhao, Chengwang Zhang, Genhui Xiao, Jingren Zhang, Xinfang Zhao, Gongzheng Hu
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pluranimalium is a new member of the Streptococcus genus isolated from multiple different animal hosts. It has been identified as a pathogen associated with subclinical mastitis, valvular endocarditis and septicaemia in animals. Moreover, this bacterium has emerged as a new pathogen for human infective endocarditis and brain abscess. However, the patho-biological properties of S. pluranimalium remain virtually unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the complete genome sequence of S...
November 12, 2018: BMC Microbiology
Lea Atanasova, Mukesh Dubey, Marica Grujić, Mikael Gudmundsson, Cindy Lorenz, Mats Sandgren, Christian P Kubicek, Dan Funck Jensen, Magnus Karlsson
BACKGROUND: Pectin is one of the major and most complex plant cell wall components that needs to be overcome by microorganisms as part of their strategies for plant invasion or nutrition. Microbial pectinolytic enzymes therefore play a significant role for plant-associated microorganisms and for the decomposition and recycling of plant organic matter. Recently, comparative studies revealed significant gene copy number expansion of the polysaccharide lyase 1 (PL1) pectin/pectate lyase gene family in the Clonostachys rosea genome, while only low numbers were found in Trichoderma species...
November 7, 2018: BMC Microbiology
Martin K M Engqvist
BACKGROUND: The ambient temperature of all habitats is a key physical property that shapes the biology of microbes inhabiting them. The optimal growth temperature (OGT) of a microbe, is therefore a key piece of data needed to understand evolutionary adaptations manifested in their genome sequence. Unfortunately there is no growth temperature database or easily downloadable dataset encompassing the majority of cultured microorganisms. We are thus limited in interpreting genomic data to identify temperature adaptations in microbes...
November 6, 2018: BMC Microbiology
Dai Zhang, Jia-Yu He, Parham Haddadi, Jie-Hua Zhu, Zhi-Hui Yang, Lisong Ma
BACKGROUND: Alternaria solani is a known air-born deuteromycete fungus with a polycyclic life cycle and is the causal agent of early blight that causes significant yield losses of potato worldwide. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the conidiation and pathogenicity remain largely unknown. RESULTS: We produced a high-quality genome assembly of A. solani HWC-168 that was isolated from a major potato-producing region of Northern China, which facilitated a comprehensive gene annotation, the accurate prediction of genes encoding secreted proteins and identification of conidiation-related genes...
November 6, 2018: BMC Microbiology
Cristina D Cruz, Shreya Shah, Päivi Tammela
BACKGROUND: Biofilms are formed by a complex bacterial community encapsulated by a polymeric matrix, with strong adherent properties and persistent phenotype. Biofilms are considered one of the most challenging areas of modern medicine. Existing antibiotics have been developed against free-floating bacterial cells, and thus, many treatments of biofilm-related infection fail. In this study, we compared the effects of different media on biofilm growth of clinical reference strains of Staphylococci and Enterococci, including multi-drug resistant representatives...
November 3, 2018: BMC Microbiology
Gregg S Davis, Kara Waits, Lora Nordstrom, Heidi Grande, Brett Weaver, Katerina Papp, Joseph Horwinski, Benjamin Koch, Bruce A Hungate, Cindy M Liu, Lance B Price
BACKGROUND: We sought to determine if the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli differed across retail poultry products and among major production categories, including organic, "raised without antibiotics", and conventional. RESULTS: We collected all available brands of retail chicken and turkey-including conventional, "raised without antibiotic", and organic products-every two weeks from January to December 2012. In total, E. coli was recovered from 91% of 546 turkey products tested and 88% of 1367 chicken products tested...
November 3, 2018: BMC Microbiology
P Steuer, C Avilez, C Tejeda, N Gonzalez, A Ramirez-Reveco, F Ulloa, A Mella, I R Grant, M T Collins, M Salgado
BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of paratuberculosis, a contagious infectious disease that affects domestic and wild ruminants causing chronic inflammation of the intestine. MAP has proven to be very resistant to both physical and chemical processes, making it difficult to control this pathogen. Based on the recognized antimicrobial properties of copper, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of copper ions to reduce MAP numbers and/or MAP viability in a fluid matrix...
November 1, 2018: BMC Microbiology
Winschau F Van Zyl, Shelly M Deane, Leon M T Dicks
BACKGROUND: Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are major inhabitants and part of the normal microflora of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of humans and animals. Despite substantial evidence supporting the beneficial properties of LAB, only a few studies have addressed the migration and colonization of probiotic bacteria in the GIT. The reason for this is mostly due to the limitations, or lack of, efficient reporter systems. Here we describe the development and application of a non-invasive in vivo bioluminescence reporter system to study, in real-time, the spatial and temporal persistence of Lactobacillus plantarum 423 and Enterococcus mundtii ST4SA in the intestinal tract of mice...
October 30, 2018: BMC Microbiology
Marta Dec, Anna Nowaczek, Dagmara Stępień-Pyśniak, Jacek Wawrzykowski, Renata Urban-Chmiel
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to identify Lactobacillus isolates derived from turkeys from six Polish farms and to characterize their phenotypic and genotypic antibiotic resistance profiles. RESULTS: Among 62 isolates identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and restriction analysis of 16S rDNA, the dominant species was L. salivarius (35%), followed by L. crispatus (21%), L. ingluviei (14.5%) and L. johnsonii (10%). A high prevalence of resistance to tetracycline (68% resistant isolates), lincomycin (64...
October 29, 2018: BMC Microbiology
Stephen R Thomas, Stephanie Leung, Katy Knox, Tom M A Wilkinson, Karl J Staples, Pascal Lestrate, Dominique Wauters, Andrew Gorringe, Stephen C Taylor
BACKGROUND: Haemophilus influenzae is found in the nasopharynx of 80% of the human population. While colonisation with non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is usually asymptomatic, it is capable of causing acute and chronic otitis media (OM) in infants, invasive disease in susceptible groups and is the leading cause of exacerbations of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Current methods for assessing functional antibody immunity to NTHi are limited and labour intensive...
October 29, 2018: BMC Microbiology
Xu Zhang, Ting Li, Xi Chen, Suxia Wang, Zhaohui Liu
BACKGROUND: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is a common infectious disease of the lower genital tract. Nystatin, a polyene fungicidal antibiotic, is used as a topical antifungal agent for VVC treatment. The aim of the current study was to investigate the possible immunomodulatory effects of nystatin on the vaginal mucosal immune response during Candida albicans infection and examine its role in protection of vaginal epithelial cell (VEC) ultrastructure. RESULTS: Following infection with C...
October 25, 2018: BMC Microbiology
Tülin Güven Gökmen, Yıldız Kalayci, Akgün Yaman, Fatih Köksal
BACKGROUND: Rapid detection of sources and transmission routes by molecular methods provides key data for risk management of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus-induced infections acquired in both the community and hospitals. This study aimed to determine the clonal relationship of methicillin-resistant S. aureus strains isolated from our hospital by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and Staphylococcal protein A (spa) typing methods and to identify the predominant clones in Cukurova Region, Turkey...
October 24, 2018: BMC Microbiology
Morgane Mailhe, Davide Ricaboni, Véronique Vitton, Jean-Michel Gonzalez, Dipankar Bachar, Grégory Dubourg, Frédéric Cadoret, Catherine Robert, Jérémy Delerce, Anthony Levasseur, Pierre-Edouard Fournier, Emmanouil Angelakis, Jean-Christophe Lagier, Didier Raoult
BACKGROUND: Most studies on the human microbiota have analyzed stool samples, although a large proportion of the absorption of nutrients takes place in upper gut tract. We collected samples from different locations along the entire gastrointestinal tract from six patients who had simultaneously undergone upper endoscopy and colonoscopy, to perform a comprehensive analysis using culturomics with matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation - time of flight (MALDI-TOF) identification and by metagenomics targeting the 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene...
October 24, 2018: BMC Microbiology
Santa S Naorem, Jin Han, Stephanie Y Zhang, Junyi Zhang, Lindsey B Graham, Angelou Song, Cameron V Smith, Fariha Rashid, Huatao Guo
BACKGROUND: Transposon mutagenesis is highly valuable for bacterial genetic and genomic studies. The transposons are usually delivered into host cells through conjugation or electroporation of a suicide plasmid. However, many bacterial species cannot be efficiently conjugated or transformed for transposon saturation mutagenesis. For this reason, temperature-sensitive (ts) plasmids have also been developed for transposon mutagenesis, but prolonged incubation at high temperatures to induce ts plasmid loss can be harmful to the hosts and lead to enrichment of mutants with adaptive genetic changes...
October 24, 2018: BMC Microbiology
Motohiro Nishimura, Susumu Kawakami, Hideaki Otsuka
BACKGROUND: Streptomyces sp. NL15-2K, previously isolated from the forest soil, features an extensive catabolic network for lignin-derived aromatic compounds, including pathways transforming ferulic acid to vanillin, vanillic acid, and protocatechuic acid. To successfully use Streptomyces sp. NL15-2K as a biocatalyst for vanillin production, it is necessary to characterize the vanillin dehydrogenase (VDH) that degrades the produced vanillin to vanillic acid, as well as the gene encoding this enzyme...
October 24, 2018: BMC Microbiology
Shogo Nishihata, Takahiko Kondo, Kosei Tanaka, Shu Ishikawa, Shinji Takenaka, Choong-Min Kang, Ken-Ichi Yoshida
BACKGROUND: Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens USDA110 nodulates soybeans for nitrogen fixation. It accumulates poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB), which is of physiological importance as a carbon/energy source for survival during starvation, infection, and nitrogen fixation conditions. PHB accumulation is orchestrated by not only the enzymes for PHB synthesis but also PHB-binding phasin proteins (PhaPs) stabilizing the PHB granules. The transcription factor PhaR controls the phaP genes. RESULTS: Inactivation of phaR led to decreases in PHB accumulation, less cell yield, increases in exopolysaccharide (EPS) production, some improvement in heat stress tolerance, and slightly better growth under microaerobic conditions...
October 24, 2018: BMC Microbiology
Ajoy Roy, Pinaki Sar, Jayeeta Sarkar, Avishek Dutta, Poulomi Sarkar, Abhishek Gupta, Balaram Mohapatra, Siddhartha Pal, Sufia K Kazy
BACKGROUND: Sustainable management of voluminous and hazardous oily sludge produced by petroleum refineries remains a challenging problem worldwide. Characterization of microbial communities of petroleum contaminated sites has been considered as the essential prerequisite for implementation of suitable bioremediation strategies. Three petroleum refinery sludge samples from North Eastern India were analyzed using next-generation sequencing technology to explore the diversity and functional potential of inhabitant microorganisms and scope for their on-site bioremediation...
October 22, 2018: BMC Microbiology
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