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BMC Microbiology

Nadchanok Rodrussamee, Pachara Sattayawat, Mamoru Yamada
BACKGROUND: Efficient bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass to bioethanol is one of key challenges in the situation of increasing bioethanol demand. The ethanologenic microbes for such conversion are required to possess abilities of utilization of various sugars including xylose and arabinose in lignocellulosic biomass. As required additional characteristics, there are a weak or no glucose repression that allows cells to simultaneously utilize various sugars together with glucose and thermotolerance for fermentation at high temperatures, which has several advantages including reduction of cooling cost...
July 13, 2018: BMC Microbiology
Anna Stedman, Carlos Maluquer de Motes, Sandrine Lesellier, Deanna Dalley, Mark Chambers, Jorge Gutierrez-Merino
BACKGROUND: Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) caused by Mycobacterium bovis is the most serious endemic disease affecting livestock in the UK. The European badger (Meles meles) is the most important wildlife reservoir of bTB transmission to cattle, making eradication particularly difficult. In this respect, oral vaccination with the attenuated M. bovis vaccine Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) has been suggested as a wide-scale intervention to reduce bTB infection in badgers. However, experimental studies show variable protection...
July 13, 2018: BMC Microbiology
Dominik Reitermayer, Thomas A Kafka, Christian A Lenz, Rudi F Vogel
Tween® 80 is a frequently used supplement of media for the cultivation of lactic acid bacteria. We investigated its effect on the cell physiology and stress tolerance of Lactobacillus (L.) plantarum. Data on the transcriptomic response to Tween 80 supplementation and its effects on cellular fatty acid profiles and growth characteristics are compared with data characterizing the effect of Tween 80, other Tween types and free fatty acids on the high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) tolerance of L. plantarum strain TMW 1...
July 13, 2018: BMC Microbiology
Akinobu Kajikawa, Shunya Suzuki, Shizunobu Igimi
BACKGROUND: While the overall composition of the mammalian gut microbiota has been intensively studied, the characteristics and ecologies of individual gut species are incompletely understood. Lactobacilli are considered beneficial commensals in the gastrointestinal mucosa and are relatively well-studied except for the uncommon species which exhibit motility. In this study, we evaluate the importance of motility on gut colonization by comparing motile and non-motile strains of Lactobacillus agilis in mice models...
July 11, 2018: BMC Microbiology
Ranjita Das, Wahengbam Romi, Rictika Das, Hridip Kumar Sharma, Debajit Thakur
BACKGROUND: Actinobacteria are often known to be great producers of antibiotics. The rapid increase in the global burden of antibiotic-resistance with the concurrent decline in the discovery of new antimicrobial molecules necessitates the search for novel and effective antimicrobial metabolites from unexplored ecological niches. The present study investigated the antimicrobial producing actinobacterial strains isolated from the soils of two microbiologically unexplored forest ecosystems, viz...
July 11, 2018: BMC Microbiology
Irina M Velsko, Luciana M Shaddox
BACKGROUND: Several in vitro oral biofilm growth systems can reliably construct oral microbiome communities in culture, yet their stability and reproducibility through time has not been well characterized. Long-term in vitro growth of natural biofilms would enable use of these biofilms in both in vitro and in vivo studies that require complex microbial communities with minimal variation over a period of time. Understanding biofilm community dynamics in continuous culture, and whether they maintain distinct signatures of health and disease, is necessary to determine the reliability and applicability of such models to broader studies...
July 11, 2018: BMC Microbiology
Yanliang Bi, Shuqin Zeng, Rong Zhang, Qiyu Diao, Yan Tu
BACKGROUND: The rumen bacterial community plays a critical role in feeds degradation and productivity. The effects of different forage to concentrate ratios on the ruminal microbial population structure have been studied extensively; however, research into changes in the ruminal bacterial community composition in heifers fed different energy level diets, with the same forage to concentrate ratio, has been very limited. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of different dietary energy levels, with the same forage to concentrate ratio, on ruminal bacterial community composition of heifers...
July 11, 2018: BMC Microbiology
Kgaugelo Edward Lekota, Oliver Keoagile Ignatius Bezuidt, Joseph Mafofo, Jasper Rees, Farai Catherine Muchadeyi, Evelyn Madoroba, Henriette van Heerden
BACKGROUND: Bacillus endophyticus is a soil plant-endophytic bacterium, while B. anthracis is the causative agent of anthrax. The virulence factors of B. anthracis are the plasmid encoded tripartite toxins (pXO1) and poly-γ-glutamic acid (PGA) capsule (pXO2). B. endophyticus isolated alongside B. anthracis from animals that died of anthrax in Northern Cape Province (NCP), South Africa, harbored polyglutamate genes. The study compared the characteristics of B. anthracis and B. endophyticus with other Bacillus species with a focus on the presence of the PGA capsule or/and unbound PGA...
July 9, 2018: BMC Microbiology
Pablo Villarreal, Mario Carrasco, Salvador Barahona, Jennifer Alcaíno, Víctor Cifuentes, Marcelo Baeza
BACKGROUND: Microorganisms have evolved a number of mechanisms to thrive in cold environments, including the production of antifreeze proteins, high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids, and ergosterol. In this work, several yeast species isolated from Antarctica were analyzed with respect to their freeze-thaw tolerance and production of the three abovementioned compounds, which may also have economic importance. RESULTS: The freeze-thaw tolerance of yeasts was widely variable among species, and a clear correlation with the production of any of the abovementioned compounds was not observed...
July 5, 2018: BMC Microbiology
Rundong Wang, Lijun Sun, Yaling Wang, Yijia Deng, Zhijia Fang, Ying Liu, Qi Deng, Dongfang Sun, Ravi Gooneratne
BACKGROUND: Two strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus (ATCC 17802 and 33847) in shrimp, oyster, freshwater fish, pork, chicken and egg fried rice were evaluated for production of hemolysin and exoenzymes of potential importance to the pathogenicity of this bacterium. RESULTS: The two strains of V. parahaemolyticus produced hemolysin, gelatinase, caseinase, phospholipase, urease, DNase and amylase in selected food matrices. Significantly higher (p < 0.05) hemolytic activity was produced by V...
July 5, 2018: BMC Microbiology
Takayoshi Yamaguchi, Naomi Higa, Nobuhiko Okura, Arina Matsumoto, Idam Hermawan, Tetsu Yamashiro, Toshihiko Suzuki, Claudia Toma
BACKGROUND: Leptospira interrogans is a pathogenic, spirochetal bacterium that is responsible for leptospirosis, an emerging worldwide zoonosis. Leptospires colonize the renal proximal tubules and chronically infect the kidney. Live bacteria are excreted into urine, contaminating the environment. While it is well known that leptospires can persist in the kidneys without signs of disease for several months, the interactions of leptospires with the proximal renal epithelial tubule cells that allow the chronic renal colonization have not been elucidated yet...
July 4, 2018: BMC Microbiology
Amandeep Kaur, Neena Capalash, Prince Sharma
BACKGROUND: Quorum sensing is a mechanism of cell to cell communication that requires the production and detection of signaling molecules called autoinducers. Although mesophilic bacteria is known to utilize this for synchronization of physiological processes such as bioluminescence, virulence, biofilm formation, motility and cell competency through signaling molecules (acyl homoserine lactones, AI-1; oligopeptides, peptide based system and furanosyl borate diester, AI-2), the phenomenon of quorum sensing in thermophiles is largely unknown...
June 28, 2018: BMC Microbiology
Gerard Sheehan, Gráinne Clarke, Kevin Kavanagh
BACKGROUND: Galleria mellonella larvae were infected with conidia of Aspergillus fumigatus and the cellular and humoral immune responses of larvae to the pathogen were characterized as invasive aspergillosis developed. RESULTS: At 2 h post-infection there was an increase in hemocyte density to 7.43 ± 0.50 × 106 /ml from 0.98 ± 0.08 × 106 /ml at 0 h. Hemocytes from larvae immune primed for 6 h with heat killed A. fumigatus conidia displayed superior anti-fungal activity...
June 28, 2018: BMC Microbiology
Salma A Lajhar, Jeremy Brownlie, Robert Barlow
On page 4of the original publication [1], the correct sentence should read.
June 19, 2018: BMC Microbiology
L E Lamb, X Zhi, F Alam, M Pyzio, C L Scudamore, S Wiles, S Sriskandan
BACKGROUND: The development of vaccines and evaluation of novel treatment strategies for invasive group A streptococcal (iGAS) disease requires suitable models of human infection that can be monitored longitudinally and are preferably non-invasive. Bio-photonic imaging provides an opportunity to reduce use of animals in infection modelling and refine the information that can be obtained, however the range of bioluminescent GAS strains available is limited. In this study we set out to develop bioluminescent iGAS strains for use in in vivo pneumonia and soft tissue disease models...
June 19, 2018: BMC Microbiology
José R Valverde, Sonia Gullón, Rafael P Mellado
BACKGROUND: Streptomyces lividans has demonstrated its value as an efficient host for protein production due to its ability to secrete functional proteins directly to the media. Secretory proteins that use the major Sec route need to be properly folded outside the cell, whereas secretory proteins using the Tat route appear outside the cell correctly folded. This feature makes the Tat system very attractive for the production of natural or engineered Tat secretory proteins. S. lividans cells are known to respond differently to overproduction and secretion of Tat versus Sec proteins...
June 14, 2018: BMC Microbiology
Simon Heinze, Petra Kornberger, Christian Grätz, Wolfgang H Schwarz, Vladimir V Zverlov, Wolfgang Liebl
BACKGROUND: The genus Bacillus includes a great variety of species with potential applications in biotechnology. While species such as B. subtilis or B. licheniformis are well-known and used to provide various products at industrial scale, other Bacillus species are less characterized and are not yet used in commercial processes. One reason for this is the fact that genetic manipulation of new isolates is usually complicated with conventional techniques which have to be adapted to each new strain...
June 8, 2018: BMC Microbiology
Yinghua Li, Guangnan Liu, Jianquan Zhang, Xiaoning Zhong, Zhiyi He
BACKGROUND: Airway epithelium is the primary target for pathogens. It functions not only as a mechanical barrier, but also as an important sentinel of the innate immune system. However, the interactions and processes between host airway epithelium and pathogens are not fully understood. RESULTS: In this study, we identified responses of the human airway epithelium cells to respiratory pathogen infection. We retrieved three mRNA expression microarray datasets from the Gene Expression Omnibus database, and identified 116 differentially expressed genes common to all three datasets...
June 8, 2018: BMC Microbiology
John Bosco Kalule, Karen H Keddy, Mark P Nicol
BACKGROUND: Shiga toxin producing E. coli (STEC) is an emerging zoonotic pathogen that can cause acute renal failure, especially in children. Clinical microbiology laboratories may fail to detect STEC and other diarrhoeic E. coli unless purposive rigorous screening procedures are followed using appropriate diagnostic technology; CHROMagar™STEC has rarely been used for isolation of African diarrhoeic E. coli hence characteristics of isolates on this medium are not yet fully understood...
June 8, 2018: BMC Microbiology
Madhan R Tirumalai, Victor G Stepanov, Andrea Wünsche, Saied Montazari, Racquel O Gonzalez, Kasturi Venkateswaran, George E Fox
BACKGROUND: Bacillus strains producing highly resistant spores have been isolated from cleanrooms and space craft assembly facilities. Organisms that can survive such conditions merit planetary protection concern and if that resistance can be transferred to other organisms, a health concern too. To further efforts to understand these resistances, the complete genome of Bacillus safensis strain FO-36b, which produces spores resistant to peroxide and radiation was determined. The genome was compared to the complete genome of B...
June 8, 2018: BMC Microbiology
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