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BMC Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137620/isocitrate-dehydrogenase-mutation-in-vibrio-anguillarum-results-in-virulence-attenuation-and-immunoprotection-in-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#1
Xiangyu Mou, Edward J Spinard, Shelby L Hillman, David R Nelson
BACKGROUND: Vibrio anguillarum is an extracellular bacterial pathogen that is a causative agent of vibriosis in finfish and crustaceans with mortality rates ranging from 30% to 100%. Mutations in central metabolism (glycolysis and the TCA cycle) of intracellular pathogens often result in attenuated virulence due to depletion of required metabolic intermediates; however, it was not known whether mutations in central metabolism would affect virulence in an extracellular pathogen such as V...
November 14, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132302/immunomodulatory-role-for-membrane-vesicles-released-by-thp-1-macrophages-and-respiratory-pathogens-during-macrophage-infection
#2
Charlotte Volgers, Birke J Benedikter, Gert E Grauls, Paul H M Savelkoul, Frank R M Stassen
BACKGROUND: During infection, inflammation is partially driven by the release of mediators which facilitate intercellular communication. Amongst these mediators are small membrane vesicles (MVs) that can be released by both host cells and Gram-negative and -positive bacteria. Bacterial membrane vesicles are known to exert immuno-modulatory and -stimulatory actions. Moreover, it has been proposed that host cell-derived vesicles, released during infection, also have immunostimulatory properties...
November 13, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121863/multiplex-real-time-pcr-assay-for-detection-of-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-and-screening-for-non-o157-shiga-toxin-producing-e-coli
#3
Baoguang Li, Huanli Liu, Weimin Wang
BACKGROUND: Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), including E. coli O157:H7, are responsible for numerous foodborne outbreaks annually worldwide. E. coli O157:H7, as well as pathogenic non-O157:H7 STECs, can cause life-threating complications, such as bloody diarrhea (hemolytic colitis) and hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). Previously, we developed a real-time PCR assay to detect E. coli O157:H7 in foods by targeting a unique putative fimbriae protein Z3276. To extend the detection spectrum of the assay, we report a multiplex real-time PCR assay to specifically detect E...
November 9, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110642/in-vivo-functional-analysis-of-l-rhamnose-metabolic-pathway-in-aspergillus-niger-a-tool-to-identify-the-potential-inducer-of-rhar
#4
Claire Khosravi, Roland Sándor Kun, Jaap Visser, María Victoria Aguilar-Pontes, Ronald P de Vries, Evy Battaglia
BACKGROUND: The genes of the non-phosphorylative L-rhamnose catabolic pathway have been identified for several yeast species. In Schefferomyces stipitis, all L-rhamnose pathway genes are organized in a cluster, which is conserved in Aspergillus niger, except for the lra-4 ortholog (lraD). The A. niger cluster also contains the gene encoding the L-rhamnose responsive transcription factor (RhaR) that has been shown to control the expression of genes involved in L-rhamnose release and catabolism...
November 6, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100523/genome-level-comparisons-provide-insight-into-the-phylogeny-and-metabolic-diversity-of-species-within-the-genus-lactococcus
#5
Jie Yu, Yuqin Song, Yan Ren, Yanting Qing, Wenjun Liu, Zhihong Sun
BACKGROUND: The genomic diversity of different species within the genus Lactococcus and the relationships between genomic differentiation and environmental factors remain unclear. In this study, type isolates of ten Lactococcus species/subspecies were sequenced to assess their genomic characteristics, metabolic diversity, and phylogenetic relationships. RESULTS: The total genome sizes varied between 1.99 (Lactococcus plantarum) and 2.46 megabases (Mb; L. lactis subsp...
November 3, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096613/molecular-detection-of-porcine-circovirus-type-2-in-swine-herds-of-eastern-cape-province-south-africa
#6
Kayode Olayinka Afolabi, Benson Chuks Iweriebor, Larry Chikwelu Obi, Anthony Ifeanyi Okoh
BACKGROUND: Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) remains the main causative viral pathogen of porcine circovirus-associated diseases (PCVAD) of great economic importance in pig industry globally. This present study aims at determining the occurrence of the viral pathogen in swine herds of the Province. RESULTS: The data obtained revealed that 15.93% of the screened samples (54/339) from the swine herds of the studied areas were positive for PCV2; while the severity of occurrence of the viral pathogen as observed at farm level ranges from approximately 5...
November 2, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084513/cupriavidus-pinatubonensis-aeo106-deals-with-copper-induced-oxidative-stress-before-engaging-in-biodegradation-of-the-herbicide-4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic-acid
#7
Nanna Bygvraa Svenningsen, Mette Damgaard, Maria Rasmussen, Danilo Pérez-Pantoja, Ole Nybroe, Mette Haubjerg Nicolaisen
BACKGROUND: Microbial degradation of phenoxy acid (PA) herbicides in agricultural soils is important to minimize herbicide leaching to groundwater reservoirs. Degradation may, however, be hampered by exposure of the degrader bacteria to toxic metals as copper (Cu) in the soil environment. Exposure to Cu leads to accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in some bacteria, but it is not known how Cu-derived ROS and an ensuing oxidative stress affect the degradation of PA herbicides...
October 30, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078765/strain-dependent-interactions-of-streptococcus-gallolyticus-subsp-gallolyticus-with-human-blood-cells
#8
Imke Grimm, Melanie Weinstock, Ingvild Birschmann, Jens Dreier, Cornelius Knabbe, Tanja Vollmer
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus (S. gallolyticus) is the causative pathogen in up to 20% of streptococcal-induced infective endocarditis (IE) cases. However, the underlying mechanisms of pathogenesis in S. gallolyticus have not yet been solved. Pathogens causing IE need to employ virulent strategies to initiate and establish infections, such as escape the bloodstream, invade the host-cell, and persist intracellularly. In this study, we examined the induction of inflammation by different S...
October 27, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073903/characterizing-endophytic-competence-and-plant-growth-promotion-of-bacterial-endophytes-inhabiting-the-seed-endosphere-of-rice
#9
Denver I Walitang, Kiyoon Kim, Munusamy Madhaiyan, Young Kee Kim, Yeongyeong Kang, Tongmin Sa
BACKGROUND: Rice (Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica) seeds as plant microbiome present both an opportunity and a challenge to colonizing bacterial community living in close association with plants. Nevertheless, the roles and activities of bacterial endophytes remain largely unexplored and insights into plant-microbe interaction are compounded by its complexity. In this study, putative functions or physiological properties associated with bacterial endophytic nature were assessed. Also, endophytic roles in plant growth and germination that may allow them to be selectively chosen by plants were also studied...
October 26, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047333/electrochemical-performance-and-microbial-community-profiles-in-microbial-fuel-cells-in-relation-to-electron-transfer-mechanisms
#10
Naroa Uria, Isabel Ferrera, Jordi Mas
BACKGROUND: Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) operating with complex microbial communities have been extensively reported in the past, and are commonly used in applications such as wastewater treatment, bioremediation or in-situ powering of environmental sensors. However, our knowledge on how the composition of the microbial community and the different types of electron transfer to the anode affect the performance of these bioelectrochemical systems is far from complete. To fill this gap of knowledge, we designed a set of three MFCs with different constrains limiting direct and mediated electron transfer to the anode...
October 18, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969590/identification-of-nucleoid-associated-proteins-naps-under-oxidative-stress-in-staphylococcus-aureus
#11
Yuri Ushijima, Ryosuke L Ohniwa, Kazuya Morikawa
BACKGROUND: Bacterial nucleoid consists of genome DNA, RNA, and hundreds of nucleoid-associated proteins (NAPs). Escherichia coli nucleoid is compacted towards the stationary phase, replacing most log-phase NAPs with the major stationary-phase nucleoid protein, Dps. In contrast, Staphylococcus aureus nucleoid sustains the fiber structures throughout the growth. Instead, the Dps homologue, MrgA, expresses under oxidative stress conditions to clump the nucleoid, but the composition of the clumped nucleoid was elusive...
October 2, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950879/temporal-dynamics-in-microbial-soil-communities-at-anthrax-carcass-sites
#12
Karoline Valseth, Camilla L Nesbø, W Ryan Easterday, Wendy C Turner, Jaran S Olsen, Nils Chr Stenseth, Thomas H A Haverkamp
BACKGROUND: Anthrax is a globally distributed disease affecting primarily herbivorous mammals. It is caused by the soil-dwelling and spore-forming bacterium Bacillus anthracis. The dormant B. anthracis spores become vegetative after ingestion by grazing mammals. After killing the host, B. anthracis cells return to the soil where they sporulate, completing the lifecycle of the bacterium. Here we present the first study describing temporal microbial soil community changes in Etosha National Park, Namibia, after decomposition of two plains zebra (Equus quagga) anthrax carcasses...
September 26, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946864/impact-of-delivery-mode-on-the-colostrum-microbiota-composition
#13
Marco Toscano, Roberta De Grandi, Diego Giampietro Peroni, Enzo Grossi, Valentina Facchin, Pasquale Comberiati, Lorenzo Drago
BACKGROUND: Breast milk is a rich nutrient with a temporally dynamic nature. In particular, numerous alterations in the nutritional, immunological and microbiological content occur during the transition from colostrum to mature milk. The objective of our study was to evaluate the potential impact of delivery mode on the microbiota of colostrum, at both the quantitative and qualitative levels (bacterial abundance and microbiota network). METHODS: Twenty-nine Italian mothers (15 vaginal deliveries vs 14 Cesarean sections) were enrolled in the study...
September 25, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938872/effect-of-vitamin-a-supplementation-on-gut-microbiota-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders-a-pilot-study
#14
Juan Liu, Xiao Liu, Xue-Qin Xiong, Ting Yang, Ting Cui, Na-Li Hou, Xi Lai, Shu Liu, Min Guo, Xiao-Hua Liang, Qian Cheng, Jie Chen, Ting-Yu Li
BACKGROUND: Dysbiosis of gut microbiota are commonly reported in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and may contribute to behavioral impairment. Vitamin A (VA) plays a role in regulation of gut microbiota. This study was performed to investigate the role of VA in the changes of gut microbiota and changes of autism functions in children with ASD. RESULTS: Sixty four, aged 1 to 8 years old children with ASD completed a 6-month follow-up study with VA intervention. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to assess plasma retinol levels...
September 22, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938870/evaluation-of-prokaryotic-diversity-of-five-hot-springs-in-eritrea
#15
Amanuel M Ghilamicael, Nancy L M Budambula, Sylvester E Anami, Tadesse Mehari, Hamadi I Boga
BACKGROUND: Total community rDNA was used to determine the diversity of bacteria and archaea from water, wet sediment and microbial mats samples of hot springs in the Eastern lowlands of Eritrea. The temperatures of the springs range from 49.5 °C to 100 °C while pH levels varied from 6.97 to 7.54. Akwar and Maiwooi have high carbonate levels. The springs near the seashore, Garbanabra and Gelti, are more saline with higher levels of sodium and chlorides. Elegedi, situated in the Alid volcanic area, has the highest temperature, iron and sulfate concentrations...
September 22, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946848/a-modified-multilocus-sequence-typing-protocol-to-genotype-kingella-kingae-from-oropharyngeal-swabs-without-bacterial-isolation
#16
Nawal El Houmami, Janek Bzdrenga, Jean-Christophe Pons, Philippe Minodier, Guillaume André Durand, Anis Oubraham, Dimitri Ceroni, Pablo Yagupsky, Didier Raoult, Philippe Bidet, Pierre-Edouard Fournier
BACKGROUND: Outbreaks of Kingella kingae infection are an emerging public health concern among daycare attendees carrying epidemic clones in the oropharynx. However, genotyping of such epidemic clones from affected cases is limited by the low performance of current methods to detect K. kingae from blood samples and lack of specimens available from infected sites. We aimed at developing a modified multilocus sequence typing (MLST) method to genotype K. kingae strains from oropharyngeal samples without prior culture...
September 21, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934947/-1-h-nmr-spectroscopy-based-metabolomics-analysis-for-the-diagnosis-of-symptomatic-e-coli-associated-urinary-tract-infection-uti
#17
Milena Lussu, Tania Camboni, Cristina Piras, Corrado Serra, Francesco Del Carratore, Julian Griffin, Luigi Atzori, Aldo Manzin
BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common diagnoses in girls and women, and to a lesser extent in boys and men younger than 50 years. Escherichia coli, followed by Klebsiella spp. and Proteus spp., cause 75-90% of all infections. Infection of the urinary tract is identified by growth of a significant number of a single species in the urine, in the presence of symptoms. Urinary culture is an accurate diagnostic method but takes several hours or days to be carried out...
September 21, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934943/identification-of-new-corynebacterium-pseudotuberculosis-antigens-by-immunoscreening-of-gene-expression-library
#18
Cleber Eduardo Galvão, Stenio Perdigão Fragoso, Carina Elisei de Oliveira, Odinéia Forner, Renata Ribeiro Bastos Pereira, Cleber Oliveira Soares, Grácia Maria Soares Rosinha
BACKGROUND: Caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) is a disease that affects sheep, goats and occasionally humans. The etiologic agent is the Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis bacillus. The objective of this study was to build a gene expression library from C. pseudotuberculosis and use immunoscreening to identify genes that encode potential antigenic proteins for the development of DNA and subunit vaccines against CLA. RESULTS: A wild strain of C. pseudotuberculosis was used for extraction and partial digestion of genomic DNA...
September 21, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927382/a-rapid-seamless-method-for-gene-knockout-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#19
Weiliang Huang, Angela Wilks
BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a model organism for the study of quorum sensing, biofilm formation, and also leading cause of nosocomial infections in immune compromised patients. As such P. aeruginosa is one of the most well studied organisms in terms of its genetics. However, the construction of gene deletions and replacements in Pseudomonas aeruginosa is relatively time-consuming, requiring multiple steps including suicide vector construction, conjugation, inactivation with insertion of antibiotic resistance cassettes and allelic exchange...
September 19, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927379/regulation-of-bacteria-population-behaviors-by-ai-2-consumer-cells-and-supplier-cells
#20
Yufen Quan, Fankang Meng, Xinyu Ma, Xinhao Song, Xiao Liu, Weixia Gao, Yulei Dang, Yao Meng, Mingfeng Cao, Cunjiang Song
BACKGROUND: Autoinducer-2 (AI-2) is a universal signal molecule and enables an individual bacteria to communicate with each other and ultimately control behaviors of the population. Harnessing the character of AI-2, two kinds of AI-2 "controller cells" ("consumer cells" and "supplier cells") were designed to "reprogram" the behaviors of entire population. RESULTS: For the consumer cells, genes associated with the uptake and processing of AI-2, which includes LsrACDB, LsrFG, LsrK, were overexpressed in varying combinations...
September 19, 2017: BMC Microbiology
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