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BMC Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330466/the-nasopharyngeal-microbiota-of-beef-cattle-before-and-after-transport-to-a-feedlot
#1
Devin B Holman, Edouard Timsit, Samat Amat, D Wade Abbott, Andre G Buret, Trevor W Alexander
BACKGROUND: The nasopharyngeal (NP) microbiota plays an important role in bovine health, comprising a rich and diverse microbial community. The nasopharynx is also the niche for potentially pathogenic agents which are associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD), a serious and costly illness in feedlot cattle. We used 14 beef heifers from a closed and disease-free herd to assess the dynamics of the NP microbiota of cattle that are transported to a feedlot. Cattle were sampled prior to transport to the feedlot (day 0) and at days 2, 7, and 14...
March 22, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327085/a-shift-in-the-virulence-potential-of-corynebacterium-pseudotuberculosis-biovar-ovis-after-passage-in-a-murine-host-demonstrated-through-comparative-proteomics
#2
Wanderson M Silva, Fernanda A Dorella, Siomar C Soares, Gustavo H M F Souza, Thiago L P Castro, Núbia Seyffert, Henrique Figueiredo, Anderson Miyoshi, Yves Le Loir, Artur Silva, Vasco Azevedo
BACKGROUND: Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis biovar ovis, a facultative intracellular pathogen, is the etiologic agent of caseous lymphadenitis in small ruminants. During the infection process, C. pseudotuberculosis changes its gene expression to resist different types of stresses and to evade the immune system of the host. However, factors contributing to the infectious process of this pathogen are still poorly documented. To better understand the C. pseudotuberculosis infection process and to identify potential factors which could be involved in its virulence, experimental infection was carried out in a murine model using the strain 1002_ovis and followed by a comparative proteomic analysis of the strain before and after passage...
March 22, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302074/clonality-outer-membrane-proteins-profile-and-efflux-pump-in-kpc-producing-enterobacter-sp-in-brazil
#3
Juliana Ferraz Rosa, Camila Rizek, Ana Paula Marchi, Thais Guimaraes, Lourdes Miranda, Claudia Carrilho, Anna S Levin, Silvia F Costa
BACKGROUND: Carbapenems resistance in Enterobacter spp. has increased in the last decade, few studies, however, described the mechanisms of resistance in this bacterium. This study evaluated clonality and mechanisms of carbapenems resistance in clinical isolates of Enterobacter spp. identified in three hospitals in Brazil (Hospital A, B and C) over 7-year. METHODS: Antibiotics sensitivity, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), PCR for carbapenemase and efflux pump genes were performed for all carbapenems-resistant isolates...
March 17, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302076/uropathogenic-escherichia-coli-pathogenicity-islands-and-other-expec-virulence-genes-may-contribute-to-the-genome-variability-of-enteroinvasive-e-coli
#4
Laís Cristina da Silva, Ana Carolina de Mello Santos, Rosa Maria Silva
BACKGROUND: Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) may be the causative agent of part of those million cases of diarrhea illness reported worldwide every year and attributable to Shigella. That is because both enteropathogens have many common characteristics that difficult their identification either by traditional microbiological methods or by molecular tools used in the clinical laboratory settings. While Shigella has been extensively studied, EIEC remains barely characterized at the molecular level...
March 16, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292261/genome-wide-analysis-of-a-avirulent-and-reveal-the-strain-induces-pro-tective-immunity-against-challenge-with-virulent-streptococcus-suis-serotype-2
#5
Jing Wang, Youjun Feng, Changjun Wang, Feng Zheng, Bachar Hassan, Liming Zhi, Wenjuan Li, Yi Yao, Elaine He, Shibo Jiang, Jiaqi Tang
BACKGROUND: It was previously reported in China that two recent large-scale outbreaks of Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (S. suis 2) infections in human were caused by two highly virulent S. suis 2 strains, from which a novel genomic island (GEI), associated with disease onset and progression and designated 89 K, was identified. Here, an avirulent strain, 05HAS68, was isolated from a clinically healthy pig. RESULTS: By comparing the genomes of this avirulent strain with virulent strains, it was found that massive genomic rearrangements occurred, resulting in alterations in gene expression that caused enormous single gene gain and loss...
March 14, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288582/the-proteins-of-fusobacterium-spp-involved-in-hydrogen-sulfide-production-from-l-cysteine
#6
Amina Basic, Madeleine Blomqvist, Gunnar Dahlén, Gunnel Svensäter
BACKGROUND: Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a toxic foul-smelling gas produced by subgingival biofilms in patients with periodontal disease and is suggested to be part of the pathogenesis of the disease. We studied the H2S-producing protein expression of bacterial strains associated with periodontal disease. Further, we examined the effect of a cysteine-rich growth environment on the synthesis of intracellular enzymes in F. nucleatum polymorphum ATCC 10953. The proteins were subjected to one-dimensional (1DE) and two-dimensional (2DE) gel electrophoresis An in-gel activity assay was used to detect the H2S-producing enzymes; Sulfide from H2S, produced by the enzymes in the gel, reacted with bismuth forming bismuth sulfide, illustrated as brown bands (1D) or spots (2D) in the gel...
March 14, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288581/prevalence-virulence-factor-genes-and-antibiotic-resistance-of-bacillus-cereus-sensu-lato-isolated-from-dairy-farms-and-traditional-dairy-products
#7
James Owusu-Kwarteng, Alhassan Wuni, Fortune Akabanda, Kwaku Tano-Debrah, Lene Jespersen
BACKGROUND: B. cereus are of particular interest in food safety and public health because of their capacity to cause food spoilage and disease through the production of various toxins. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, virulence factor genes and antibiotic resistance profile of B. cereus sensu lato isolated from cattle grazing soils and dairy products in Ghana. A total of 114 samples made up of 25 soil collected from cattle grazing farm land, 30 raw milk, 28 nunu (yoghurt-like product) and 31 woagashie (West African soft cheese)...
March 14, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288575/lactobacillus-derived-extracellular-vesicles-enhance-host-immune-responses-against-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci
#8
Ming Li, Kiho Lee, Min Hsu, Gerard Nau, Eleftherios Mylonakis, Bharat Ramratnam
BACKGROUND: Probiotic bacteria are known to modulate host immune responses against various pathogens. Recently, extracellular vesicles (EVs) have emerged as potentially important mediators of host-pathogen interactions. In this study, we explored the role of L. plantarum derived EVs in modulating host responses to vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) using both Caenorhabditis elegans and human cells. RESULTS: Our previous work has shown that probiotic conditioning C...
March 14, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288571/in-vivo-characterization-of-an-hfq-protein-encoded-by-the-bacillus-anthracis-virulence-plasmid-pxo1
#9
Andrea B Keefer, Eugenia K Asare, Andrei P Pomerantsev, Mahtab Moayeri, Craig Martens, Stephen F Porcella, Susan Gottesman, Stephen H Leppla, Catherine E Vrentas
BACKGROUND: Bacterial Hfq proteins post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression, primarily by mediating the interaction between sRNAs (small RNAs) and their target mRNAs. The role of Hfq-based regulation has been well defined in Gram-negative bacteria, but comparatively less is known about the impact of Hfq proteins in Gram-positive species. The Gram-positive pathogen Bacillus anthracis (causative agent of anthrax) is distinct in that it expresses three homologs of Hfq: Hfq1 and Hfq2 from the chromosome, and Hfq3 from the pXO1 virulence plasmid...
March 14, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288567/determining-clostridium-difficile-intra-taxa-diversity-by-mining-multilocus-sequence-typing-databases
#10
Marina Muñoz, Dora Inés Ríos-Chaparro, Manuel Alfonso Patarroyo, Juan David Ramírez
BACKGROUND: Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) is a highly discriminatory typing strategy; it is reproducible and scalable. There is a MLST scheme for Clostridium difficile (CD), a gram positive bacillus causing different pathologies of the gastrointestinal tract. This work was aimed at describing the frequency of sequence types (STs) and Clades (C) reported and evalute the intra-taxa diversity in the CD MLST database (CD-MLST-db) using an MLSA approach. RESULTS: Analysis of 1778 available isolates showed that clade 1 (C1) was the most frequent worldwide (57...
March 14, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288566/prevalence-of-plant-beneficial-and-human-pathogenic-bacteria-isolated-from-salad-vegetables-in-india
#11
Angamuthu Nithya, Subramanian Babu
BACKGROUND: The study aimed at enumerating, identifying and categorizing the endophytic cultivable bacterial community in selected salad vegetables (carrot, cucumber, tomato and onion). Vegetable samples were collected from markets of two vegetable hot spot growing areas, during two different crop harvest seasons. Crude and diluted vegetable extracts were plated and the population of endophytic bacteria was assessed based on morphologically distinguishable colonies. The bacterial isolates were identified by growth in selective media, biochemical tests and 16S rRNA gene sequencing...
March 14, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284195/zinc-stress-induces-copper-depletion-in-acinetobacter-baumannii
#12
Karl A Hassan, Victoria G Pederick, Liam D H Elbourne, Ian T Paulsen, James C Paton, Christopher A McDevitt, Bart A Eijkelkamp
BACKGROUND: The first row transition metal ions zinc and copper are essential to the survival of many organisms, although in excess these ions are associated with significant toxicity. Here, we examined the impact of zinc and copper stress on Acinetobacter baumannii, a common opportunistic pathogen. RESULTS: We show that extracellular zinc stress induces a copper-specific depletion phenotype in A. baumannii ATCC 17978. Supplementation with copper not only fails to rescue this phenotype, but further exacerbates the copper depletion...
March 11, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284180/candida-krusei-form-mycelia-along-agar-surfaces-towards-each-other-and-other-candida-species
#13
Jacob Fleischmann, Corey D Broeckling, Sarah Lyons
BACKGROUND: Candida krusei has been known to exhibit communal interactions such as pellicle formation and crawling out of nutritional broth. We noticed another possible interaction on agar surfaces, where C. krusei yeast cells formed mycelia along agar surfaces toward each other. We report here the results of experiments to study this interaction. RESULTS: When C.krusei yeast cells are plated in parallel streaks, they form mycelia along agar surfaces toward other yeasts...
March 11, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279152/the-altered-gut-microbiota-in-adults-with-cystic-fibrosis
#14
D G Burke, F Fouhy, M J Harrison, M C Rea, P D Cotter, O O'Sullivan, C Stanton, C Hill, F Shanahan, B J Plant, R P Ross
BACKGROUND: Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive disease that affects the function of a number of organs, principally the lungs, but also the gastrointestinal tract. The manifestations of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) dysfunction in the gastrointestinal tract, as well as frequent antibiotic exposure, undoubtedly disrupts the gut microbiota. To analyse the effects of CF and its management on the microbiome, we compared the gut microbiota of 43 individuals with CF during a period of stability, to that of 69 non-CF controls using 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene...
March 9, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274217/disruption-of-rcsb-by-a-duplicated-sequence-in-a-curli-producing-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-results-in-differential-gene-expression-in-relation-to-biofilm-formation-stress-responses-and-metabolism
#15
V K Sharma, D O Bayles, D P Alt, T Looft, B W Brunelle, J A Stasko
BACKGROUND: Escherichia coli O157:H7 (O157) strain 86-24, linked to a 1986 disease outbreak, displays curli- and biofilm-negative phenotypes that are correlated with the lack of Congo red (CR) binding and formation of white colonies (CR(-)) on a CR-containing medium. However, on a CR medium this strain produces red isolates (CR(+)) capable of producing curli fimbriae and biofilms. RESULTS: To identify genes controlling differential expression of curli fimbriae and biofilm formation, the RNA-Seq profile of a CR(+) isolate was compared to the CR(-) parental isolate...
March 8, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274205/rapid-detection-of-carbapenemase-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae-strains-derived-from-blood-cultures-by-matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionization-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry-maldi-tof-ms
#16
Christina Sakarikou, Marco Ciotti, Camilla Dolfa, Silvia Angeletti, Cartesio Favalli
BACKGROUND: Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE), particularly carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates, are important causative agents of nosocomial infections associated with significant mortality rates mostly in critical wards. The rapid detection and typing of these strains is critical either for surveillance purposes and to prevent outbreaks and optimize antibiotic therapy. In this study, the MALDI-TOF MS method was used to detect rapidly these isolates from blood cultures (BCs) and to obtain proteomic profiles enable to discriminate between carbapenemase-producing and non-carbapenemase-producing strains...
March 8, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274204/hisb-as-novel-selection-marker-for-gene-targeting-approaches-in-aspergillus-niger
#17
Markus R M Fiedler, Tarek Gensheimer, Christin Kubisch, Vera Meyer
BACKGROUND: For Aspergillus niger, a broad set of auxotrophic and dominant resistance markers is available. However, only few offer targeted modification of a gene of interest into or at a genomic locus of choice, which hampers functional genomics studies. We thus aimed to extend the available set by generating a histidine auxotrophic strain with a characterized hisB locus for targeted gene integration and deletion in A. niger. RESULTS: A histidine-auxotrophic strain was established via disruption of the A...
March 8, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270110/comparative-genomics-of-enterococcus-spp-isolated-from-bovine-feces
#18
Alicia G Beukers, Rahat Zaheer, Noriko Goji, Kingsley K Amoako, Alexandre V Chaves, Michael P Ward, Tim A McAllister
BACKGROUND: Enterococcus is ubiquitous in nature and is a commensal of both the bovine and human gastrointestinal (GI) tract. It is also associated with clinical infections in humans. Subtherapeutic administration of antibiotics to cattle selects for antibiotic resistant enterococci in the bovine GI tract. Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) may be present in enterococci following antibiotic use in cattle. If located on mobile genetic elements (MGEs) their dissemination between Enterococcus species and to pathogenic bacteria may be promoted, reducing the efficacy of antibiotics...
March 8, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270109/oral-microbe-host-interactions-influence-of-%C3%AE-glucans-on-gene-expression-of-inflammatory-cytokines-and-metabolome-profile
#19
Viviam de Oliveira Silva, Luciano José Pereira, Ramiro Mendonça Murata
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of β-glucan on the expression of inflammatory mediators and metabolomic profile of oral cells [keratinocytes (OBA-9) and fibroblasts (HGF-1) in a dual-chamber model] infected by Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. The periodontopathogen was applied and allowed to cross the top layer of cells (OBA-9) to reach the bottom layer of cells (HGF-1) and induce the synthesis of immune factors and cytokines in the host cells. β-glucan (10 μg/mL or 20 μg/mL) were added, and the transcriptional factors and metabolites produced were quantified in the remaining cell layers and supernatant...
March 7, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264654/diversity-phylogeny-anticancer-and-antimicrobial-potential-of-fungal-endophytes-associated-with-monarda-citriodora-l
#20
Meenu Katoch, Shipra Phull, Shagun Vaid, Shashank Singh
BACKGROUND: Present study focuses on diversity and distribution analysis of endophytic fungi associated with different tissues of the Monarda citriodora Cerv. ex Lag. (Lamiaceae/Labiatae). Anticancer and antimicrobial potential of isolated endophytes have also been investigated. RESULTS: A total of twenty eight fungal endophytes belonging to 11 different genera were isolated from this plant. All the endophytic fungi belonged to the Ascomycota phylum. The leaves were immensely rich in fungal species, while roots showed the highest tissue specific fungal dominance...
March 7, 2017: BMC Microbiology
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