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Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150556/still-bay-and-howiesons-poort-sites-south-africa-are-consistent-with-the-risk-hypothesis
#1
LETTER
Dwight W Read
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150555/reply-to-read-middle-stone-age-cultural-variability-and-the-risk-hypothesis
#2
Francesco d'Errico, William E Banks
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150554/cancer-cells-induce-interleukin-22-production-from-memory-cd4-t-cells-via-interleukin-1-to-promote-tumor-growth
#3
Cornelia Voigt, Peter May, Adrian Gottschlich, Anamarija Markota, Daniel Wenk, Inga Gerlach, Sebastian Voigt, Georgios T Stathopoulos, Kristina A M Arendt, Constanze Heise, Felicitas Rataj, Klaus-Peter Janssen, Melanie Königshoff, Hauke Winter, Isabelle Himsl, Wolfgang E Thasler, Max Schnurr, Simon Rothenfußer, Stefan Endres, Sebastian Kobold
IL-22 has been identified as a cancer-promoting cytokine that is secreted by infiltrating immune cells in several cancer models. We hypothesized that IL-22 regulation would occur at the interface between cancer cells and immune cells. Breast and lung cancer cells of murine and human origin induced IL-22 production from memory CD4(+) T cells. In the present study, we found that IL-22 production in humans is dependent on activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome with the subsequent release of IL-1β from both myeloid and T cells...
November 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146827/news-feature-the-genuine-problem-of-fake-news
#4
M Mitchell Waldrop
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 16, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146826/social-preferences-of-future-physicians
#5
Jing Li, William H Dow, Shachar Kariv
We measure the social preferences of a sample of US medical students and compare their preferences with those of the general population sampled in the American Life Panel (ALP). We also compare the medical students with a subsample of highly educated, wealthy ALP subjects as well as elite law school students and undergraduate students. We further associate the heterogeneity in social preferences within medical students to the tier ranking of their medical schools and their expected specialty choice. Our experimental design allows us to rigorously distinguish altruism from preferences regarding equality-efficiency tradeoffs and accurately measure both at the individual level rather than pooling data or assuming homogeneity across subjects...
November 16, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146825/toroidal-plasmoid-generation-via-extreme-hydrodynamic-shear
#6
Morteza Gharib, Sean Mendoza, Moshe Rosenfeld, Masoud Beizai, Francisco J Alves Pereira
Saint Elmo's fire and lightning are two known forms of naturally occurring atmospheric pressure plasmas. As a technology, nonthermal plasmas are induced from artificially created electromagnetic or electrostatic fields. Here we report the observation of arguably a unique case of a naturally formed such plasma, created in air at room temperature without external electromagnetic action, by impinging a high-speed microjet of deionized water on a dielectric solid surface. We demonstrate that tribo-electrification from extreme and focused hydrodynamic shear is the driving mechanism for the generation of energetic free electrons...
November 16, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142009/dominant-negative-mechanism-of-presenilin-1-mutations-in-fad
#7
Hirotaka Watanabe, Jie Shen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142008/converging-evidence-for-the-role-of-transmodal-cortex-in-cognition
#8
Daniel S Margulies, Jonathan Smallwood
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142007/quest-for-adequate-biodiversity-surrogates-in-a-time-of-urgency
#9
Félix Forest
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138326/better-support-for-a-small-effective-population-size-of-neandertals-and-a-long-shared-history-of-neandertals-and-denisovans
#10
LETTER
Fabrizio Mafessoni, Kay Prüfer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138325/reply-to-mafessoni-and-pr%C3%A3-fer-inferences-with-and-without-singleton-site-patterns
#11
Alan R Rogers, Ryan J Bohlender, Chad D Huff
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138324/transcription-start-site-associated-small-rnas-in-the-pten-gene
#12
LETTER
Ji-Long Liu, Wen-Qian Zhang, Ming-Yu Huang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138323/reply-to-liu-et-al-yin-and-yang-of-pten-regulation
#13
Per Johnsson, Nicholas Lister, Galina Shevchenko, James Walshe, Sandro F Ataide, Kevin V Morris
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138322/structures-of-the-type-i-dna-restriction-enzymes
#14
LETTER
David T F Dryden
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138321/in-vivo-bioluminescence-imaging-of-labile-iron-accumulation-in-a-murine-model-of-acinetobacter-baumannii-infection
#15
Allegra T Aron, Marie C Heffern, Zachery R Lonergan, Mark N Vander Wal, Brian R Blank, Benjamin Spangler, Yaofang Zhang, Hyo Min Park, Andreas Stahl, Adam R Renslo, Eric P Skaar, Christopher J Chang
Iron is an essential metal for all organisms, yet disruption of its homeostasis, particularly in labile forms that can contribute to oxidative stress, is connected to diseases ranging from infection to cancer to neurodegeneration. Iron deficiency is also among the most common nutritional deficiencies worldwide. To advance studies of iron in healthy and disease states, we now report the synthesis and characterization of iron-caged luciferin-1 (ICL-1), a bioluminescent probe that enables longitudinal monitoring of labile iron pools (LIPs) in living animals...
November 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138320/structural-basis-for-antibody-recognition-of-the-nanp-repeats-in-plasmodium-falciparum-circumsporozoite-protein
#16
David Oyen, Jonathan L Torres, Ulrike Wille-Reece, Christian F Ockenhouse, Daniel Emerling, Jacob Glanville, Wayne Volkmuth, Yevel Flores-Garcia, Fidel Zavala, Andrew B Ward, C Richter King, Ian A Wilson
Acquired resistance against antimalarial drugs has further increased the need for an effective malaria vaccine. The current leading candidate, RTS,S, is a recombinant circumsporozoite protein (CSP)-based vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum that contains 19 NANP repeats followed by a thrombospondin repeat domain. Although RTS,S has undergone extensive clinical testing and has progressed through phase III clinical trials, continued efforts are underway to enhance its efficacy and duration of protection. Here, we determined that two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs 311 and 317), isolated from a recent controlled human malaria infection trial exploring a delayed fractional dose, inhibit parasite development in vivo by at least 97%...
November 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138319/frequent-nonallelic-gene-conversion-on-the-human-lineage-and-its-effect-on-the-divergence-of-gene-duplicates
#17
Arbel Harpak, Xun Lan, Ziyue Gao, Jonathan K Pritchard
Gene conversion is the copying of a genetic sequence from a "donor" region to an "acceptor." In nonallelic gene conversion (NAGC), the donor and the acceptor are at distinct genetic loci. Despite the role NAGC plays in various genetic diseases and the concerted evolution of gene families, the parameters that govern NAGC are not well characterized. Here, we survey duplicate gene families and identify converted tracts in 46% of them. These conversions reflect a large GC bias of NAGC. We develop a sequence evolution model that leverages substantially more information in duplicate sequences than used by previous methods and use it to estimate the parameters that govern NAGC in humans: a mean converted tract length of 250 bp and a probability of [Formula: see text] per generation for a nucleotide to be converted (an order of magnitude higher than the point mutation rate)...
November 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138318/snare-priming-is-essential-for-maturation-of-autophagosomes-but-not-for-their-formation
#18
Adi Abada, Smadar Levin-Zaidman, Ziv Porat, Tali Dadosh, Zvulun Elazar
Autophagy, a unique intracellular membrane-trafficking pathway, is initiated by the formation of an isolation membrane (phagophore) that engulfs cytoplasmic constituents, leading to generation of the autophagosome, a double-membrane vesicle, which is targeted to the lysosome. The outer autophagosomal membrane consequently fuses with the lysosomal membrane. Multiple membrane-fusion events mediated by SNARE molecules have been postulated to promote autophagy. αSNAP, the adaptor molecule for the SNARE-priming enzyme N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF) is known to be crucial for intracellular membrane fusion processes, but its role in autophagy remains unclear...
November 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138317/reviewer-bias-in-single-versus-double-blind-peer-review
#19
Andrew Tomkins, Min Zhang, William D Heavlin
Peer review may be "single-blind," in which reviewers are aware of the names and affiliations of paper authors, or "double-blind," in which this information is hidden. Noting that computer science research often appears first or exclusively in peer-reviewed conferences rather than journals, we study these two reviewing models in the context of the 10th Association for Computing Machinery International Conference on Web Search and Data Mining, a highly selective venue (15.6% acceptance rate) in which expert committee members review full-length submissions for acceptance...
November 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138316/germline-cas9-expression-yields-highly-efficient-genome-engineering-in-a-major-worldwide-disease-vector-aedes-aegypti
#20
Ming Li, Michelle Bui, Ting Yang, Christian S Bowman, Bradley J White, Omar S Akbari
The development of CRISPR/Cas9 technologies has dramatically increased the accessibility and efficiency of genome editing in many organisms. In general, in vivo germline expression of Cas9 results in substantially higher activity than embryonic injection. However, no transgenic lines expressing Cas9 have been developed for the major mosquito disease vector Aedes aegypti Here, we describe the generation of multiple stable, transgenic Ae. aegypti strains expressing Cas9 in the germline, resulting in dramatic improvements in both the consistency and efficiency of genome modifications using CRISPR...
November 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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