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Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30642975/reflections-on-an-interdisciplinary-collaboration-to-inform-public-understanding-of-climate-change-mitigation-and-impacts
#1
Wändi Bruine de Bruin, M Granger Morgan
We describe two interdisciplinary projects in which natural scientists and engineers, as well as psychologists and other behavioral scientists, worked together to better communicate about climate change, including mitigation and impacts. One project focused on understanding and informing public perceptions of an emerging technology to capture and sequester carbon dioxide from coal-fired power plants, as well as other low-carbon electricity-generation technologies. A second project focused on public understanding about carbon dioxide's residence time in the atmosphere...
January 14, 2019: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30642974/structural-basis-of-a-potent-human-monoclonal-antibody-against-zika-virus-targeting-a-quaternary-epitope
#2
Feng Long, Michael Doyle, Estefania Fernandez, Andrew S Miller, Thomas Klose, Madhumati Sevvana, Aubrey Bryan, Edgar Davidson, Benjamin J Doranz, Richard J Kuhn, Michael S Diamond, James E Crowe, Michael G Rossmann
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a major human pathogen and member of the Flavivirus genus in the Flaviviridae family. In contrast to most other insect-transmitted flaviviruses, ZIKV also can be transmitted sexually and from mother to fetus in humans. During recent outbreaks, ZIKV infections have been linked to microcephaly, congenital disease, and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Neutralizing antibodies have potential as therapeutic agents. We report here a 4-Å-resolution cryo-electron microscopy structure of the ZIKV virion in complex with Fab fragments of the potently neutralizing human monoclonal antibody ZIKV-195...
January 14, 2019: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30642973/long-term-effects-of-institutional-rearing-foster-care-and-brain-activity-on-memory-and-executive-functioning
#3
Mark Wade, Nathan A Fox, Charles H Zeanah, Charles A Nelson
Children experiencing psychosocial deprivation as a result of early institutional rearing demonstrate many difficulties with memory and executive functioning (EF). To date, there is scant evidence that foster care placement remediates these difficulties during childhood. The current study examined longitudinal trajectories of memory and EF from childhood to adolescence in the Bucharest Early Intervention Project, a randomized controlled trial of foster care for institutionally reared children. We demonstrate that both ever- and never-institutionalized children show age-related improvements on several measures of memory and EF from age 8 to 16...
January 14, 2019: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30642972/four-decades-of-antarctic-ice-sheet-mass-balance-from-1979-2017
#4
Eric Rignot, Jérémie Mouginot, Bernd Scheuchl, Michiel van den Broeke, Melchior J van Wessem, Mathieu Morlighem
We use updated drainage inventory, ice thickness, and ice velocity data to calculate the grounding line ice discharge of 176 basins draining the Antarctic Ice Sheet from 1979 to 2017. We compare the results with a surface mass balance model to deduce the ice sheet mass balance. The total mass loss increased from 40 ± 9 Gt/y in 1979-1990 to 50 ± 14 Gt/y in 1989-2000, 166 ± 18 Gt/y in 1999-2009, and 252 ± 26 Gt/y in 2009-2017. In 2009-2017, the mass loss was dominated by the Amundsen/Bellingshausen Sea sectors, in West Antarctica (159 ± 8 Gt/y), Wilkes Land, in East Antarctica (51 ± 13 Gt/y), and West and Northeast Peninsula (42 ± 5 Gt/y)...
January 14, 2019: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30642971/gypsy-moth-genome-provides-insights-into-flight-capability-and-virus-host-interactions
#5
Jing Zhang, Qian Cong, Emily A Rex, Winnie Hallwachs, Daniel H Janzen, Nick V Grishin, Don B Gammon
Since its accidental introduction to Massachusetts in the late 1800s, the European gypsy moth (EGM; Lymantria dispar dispar ) has become a major defoliator in North American forests. However, in part because females are flightless, the spread of the EGM across the United States and Canada has been relatively slow over the past 150 years. In contrast, females of the Asian gypsy moth (AGM; Lymantria dispar asiatica ) subspecies have fully developed wings and can fly, thereby posing a serious economic threat if populations are established in North America...
January 14, 2019: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30642970/species-delimitation-in-endangered-groundwater-salamanders-implications-for-aquifer-management-and-biodiversity-conservation
#6
Thomas J Devitt, April M Wright, David C Cannatella, David M Hillis
Groundwater-dependent species are among the least-known components of global biodiversity, as well as some of the most vulnerable because of rapid groundwater depletion at regional and global scales. The karstic Edwards-Trinity aquifer system of west-central Texas is one of the most species-rich groundwater systems in the world, represented by dozens of endemic groundwater-obligate species with narrow, naturally fragmented distributions. Here, we examine how geomorphological and hydrogeological processes have driven population divergence and speciation in a radiation of salamanders ( Eurycea ) endemic to the Edwards-Trinity system using phylogenetic and population genetic analysis of genome-wide DNA sequence data...
January 14, 2019: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30642969/evolutionary-history-of-polyneoptera-and-its-implications-for-our-understanding-of-early-winged-insects
#7
Benjamin Wipfler, Harald Letsch, Paul B Frandsen, Paschalia Kapli, Christoph Mayer, Daniela Bartel, Thomas R Buckley, Alexander Donath, Janice S Edgerly-Rooks, Mari Fujita, Shanlin Liu, Ryuichiro Machida, Yuta Mashimo, Bernhard Misof, Oliver Niehuis, Ralph S Peters, Malte Petersen, Lars Podsiadlowski, Kai Schütte, Shota Shimizu, Toshiki Uchifune, Jeanne Wilbrandt, Evgeny Yan, Xin Zhou, Sabrina Simon
Polyneoptera represents one of the major lineages of winged insects, comprising around 40,000 extant species in 10 traditional orders, including grasshoppers, roaches, and stoneflies. Many important aspects of polyneopteran evolution, such as their phylogenetic relationships, changes in their external appearance, their habitat preferences, and social behavior, are unresolved and are a major enigma in entomology. These ambiguities also have direct consequences for our understanding of the evolution of winged insects in general; for example, with respect to the ancestral habitats of adults and juveniles...
January 14, 2019: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30642968/neural-indicators-of-perceptual-variability-of-pain-across-species
#8
L Hu, G D Iannetti
Individuals exhibit considerable and unpredictable variability in painful percepts in response to the same nociceptive stimulus. Previous work has found neural responses that, while not necessarily responsible for the painful percepts themselves, can still correlate well with intensity of pain perception within a given individual. However, there is no reliable neural response reflecting the variability in pain perception across individuals. Here, we use an electrophysiological approach in humans and rodents to demonstrate that brain oscillations in the gamma band [gamma-band event-related synchronization (γ-ERS)] sampled by central electrodes reliably predict pain sensitivity across individuals...
January 14, 2019: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30642967/unraveling-the-seasonal-epidemiology-of-pneumococcus
#9
Matthieu Domenech de Cellès, Hélène Arduin, Daniel Lévy-Bruhl, Scarlett Georges, Cécile Souty, Didier Guillemot, Laurence Watier, Lulla Opatowski
Infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae -including invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPDs)-remain a significant public health concern worldwide. The marked winter seasonality of IPDs is a striking, but still enigmatic aspect of pneumococcal epidemiology in nontropical climates. Here we confronted age-structured dynamic models of carriage transmission and disease with detailed IPD incidence data to test a range of hypotheses about the components and the mechanisms of pneumococcal seasonality. We find that seasonal variations in climate, influenza-like illnesses, and interindividual contacts jointly explain IPD seasonality...
January 14, 2019: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30642966/vaccine-protection-against-sivmac239-acquisition
#10
Mauricio A Martins, Georg F Bischof, Young C Shin, William A Lauer, Lucas Gonzalez-Nieto, David I Watkins, Eva G Rakasz, Jeffrey D Lifson, Ronald C Desrosiers
The biological characteristics of HIV pose serious difficulties for the success of a preventive vaccine. Molecularly cloned SIVmac239 is difficult for antibodies to neutralize, and a variety of vaccine approaches have had great difficulty achieving protective immunity against it in rhesus monkey models. Here we report significant protection against i.v. acquisition of SIVmac239 using a long-lasting approach to vaccination. The vaccine regimen includes a replication-competent herpesvirus engineered to contain a near-full-length SIV genome that expresses all nine SIV gene products, assembles noninfectious SIV virion particles, and is capable of eliciting long-lasting effector-memory cellular immune responses to all nine SIV gene products...
January 14, 2019: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30642965/reducing-socioeconomic-disparities-in-the-stem-pipeline-through-student-emotion-regulation
#11
Christopher S Rozek, Gerardo Ramirez, Rachel D Fine, Sian L Beilock
Educational attainment is one lever that can increase opportunity for economically disadvantaged families-especially in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM). Unfortunately, students from lower-income backgrounds often perform poorly and fail high school STEM courses, which are a necessary step in pursuing fast-growing and lucrative STEM careers, graduating high school, and matriculating to college. We reasoned that, because high school STEM courses often use high-stakes tests to gauge performance, and such tests can be especially stressful for lower-income students, interventions that help students regulate their negative emotions during tests should reduce the achievement gap between higher- and lower-income students...
January 14, 2019: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30642964/profile-of-hao-wu
#12
Farooq Ahmed
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 14, 2019: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30642963/correction-for-kim-and-goldberg-ubl-domain-of-usp14-and-other-proteins-stimulates-proteasome-activities-and-protein-degradation-in-cells
#13
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 14, 2019: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30642962/cross-species-hybridization-and-the-origin-of-north-african-date-palms
#14
Jonathan M Flowers, Khaled M Hazzouri, Muriel Gros-Balthazard, Ziyi Mo, Konstantina Koutroumpa, Andreas Perrakis, Sylvie Ferrand, Hussam S M Khierallah, Dorian Q Fuller, Frederique Aberlenc, Christini Fournaraki, Michael D Purugganan
Date palm ( Phoenix dactylifera L.) is a major fruit crop of arid regions that were domesticated ∼7,000 y ago in the Near or Middle East. This species is cultivated widely in the Middle East and North Africa, and previous population genetic studies have shown genetic differentiation between these regions. We investigated the evolutionary history of P. dactylifera and its wild relatives by resequencing the genomes of date palm varieties and five of its closest relatives. Our results indicate that the North African population has mixed ancestry with components from Middle Eastern P...
January 14, 2019: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30642961/multistate-design-of-influenza-antibodies-improves-affinity-and-breadth-against-seasonal-viruses
#15
Alexander M Sevy, Nicholas C Wu, Iuliia M Gilchuk, Erica H Parrish, Sebastian Burger, Dina Yousif, Marcus B M Nagel, Kevin L Schey, Ian A Wilson, James E Crowe, Jens Meiler
Influenza is a yearly threat to global public health. Rapid changes in influenza surface proteins resulting from antigenic drift and shift events make it difficult to readily identify antibodies with broadly neutralizing activity against different influenza subtypes with high frequency, specifically antibodies targeting the receptor binding domain (RBD) on influenza HA protein. We developed an optimized computational design method that is able to optimize an antibody for recognition of large panels of antigens...
January 14, 2019: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30642960/political-ideology-shapes-the-amplification-of-the-accomplishments-of-disadvantaged-vs-advantaged-group-members
#16
Nour S Kteily, Matthew D Rocklage, Kaylene McClanahan, Arnold K Ho
Recent years have witnessed an increased public outcry in certain quarters about a perceived lack of attention given to successful members of disadvantaged groups relative to equally meritorious members of advantaged groups, exemplified by social media campaigns centered around hashtags, such as #OscarsSoWhite and #WomenAlsoKnowStuff. Focusing on political ideology, we investigate here whether individuals differentially amplify successful targets depending on whether these targets belong to disadvantaged or advantaged groups, behavior that could help alleviate or entrench group-based disparities...
January 14, 2019: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30642959/correction-for-lee-et-al-zfand5-znf216-is-an-activator-of-the-26s-proteasome-that-stimulates-overall-protein-degradation
#17
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 14, 2019: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30642958/correction-for-liu-et-al-the-genome-landscape-of-er%C3%AE-and-er%C3%AE-binding-dna-regions
#18
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 14, 2019: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30642957/molecular-origins-and-outcomes-of-status-and-stress-in-primates
#19
Caitlin N Friesen, Hans A Hofmann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 14, 2019: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30642956/on-the-future-of-transportation-in-an-era-of-automated-and-autonomous-vehicles
#20
P A Hancock, Illah Nourbakhsh, Jack Stewart
Automated vehicles (AVs) already navigate US highways and those of many other nations around the world. Current questions about AVs do not now revolve around whether such technologies should or should not be implemented; they are already with us. Rather, such questions are more and more focused on how such technologies will impact evolving transportation systems, our social world, and the individuals who live within it and whether such systems ought to be fully automated or remain under some form of direct human control...
January 14, 2019: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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