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Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931579/reply-to-wuttke-our-reinterpretation-of-qens-does-not-violate-scattering-theory
#1
Hans Frauenfelder, Robert D Young, Paul W Fenimore
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931578/lipid-topology-and-electrostatic-interactions-underpin-lytic-activity-of-linear-cationic-antimicrobial-peptides-in-membranes
#2
David J Paterson, Manlio Tassieri, Julien Reboud, Rab Wilson, Jonathan M Cooper
Linear cationic antimicrobial peptides are a diverse class of molecules that interact with a wide range of cell membranes. Many of these peptides disrupt cell integrity by forming membrane-spanning pores that ultimately lead to their death. Despite these peptides high potency and ability to evade acquired bacterial drug resistance, there is a lack of knowledge on their selectivity and activity mechanisms. Such an understanding would provide an informative framework for rational design and could lead to potential antimicrobial therapeutic targets...
September 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931577/no-case-against-scattering-theory
#3
LETTER
Joachim Wuttke
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928151/comparative-analysis-reveals-genomic-features-of-stress-induced-transcriptional-readthrough
#4
Anna Vilborg, Niv Sabath, Yuval Wiesel, Jenny Nathans, Flonia Levy-Adam, Therese A Yario, Joan A Steitz, Reut Shalgi
Transcription is a highly regulated process, and stress-induced changes in gene transcription have been shown to play a major role in stress responses and adaptation. Genome-wide studies reveal prevalent transcription beyond known protein-coding gene loci, generating a variety of RNA classes, most of unknown function. One such class, termed downstream of gene-containing transcripts (DoGs), was reported to result from transcriptional readthrough upon osmotic stress in human cells. However, how widespread the readthrough phenomenon is, and what its causes and consequences are, remain elusive...
September 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928150/greater-internet-use-is-not-associated-with-faster-growth-in-political-polarization-among-us-demographic-groups
#5
Levi Boxell, Matthew Gentzkow, Jesse M Shapiro
We combine eight previously proposed measures to construct an index of political polarization among US adults. We find that polarization has increased the most among the demographic groups least likely to use the Internet and social media. Our overall index and all but one of the individual measures show greater increases for those older than 65 than for those aged 18-39. A linear model estimated at the age-group level implies that the Internet explains a small share of the recent growth in polarization.
September 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928149/topological-semimetal-in-honeycomb-lattice-lnsi
#6
Simin Nie, Gang Xu, Fritz B Prinz, Shou-Cheng Zhang
Recognized as elementary particles in the standard model, Weyl fermions in condensed matter have received growing attention. However, most of the previously reported Weyl semimetals exhibit rather complicated electronic structures that, in turn, may have raised questions regarding the underlying physics. Here, we report promising topological phases that can be realized in specific honeycomb lattices, including ideal Weyl semimetal structures, 3D strong topological insulators, and nodal-line semimetal configurations...
September 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928148/genome-wide-engineering-of-an-infectious-clone-of-herpes-simplex-virus-type-1-using-synthetic-genomics-assembly-methods
#7
Lauren M Oldfield, Peter Grzesik, Alexander A Voorhies, Nina Alperovich, Derek MacMath, Claudia D Najera, Diya Sabrina Chandra, Sanjana Prasad, Vladimir N Noskov, Michael G Montague, Robert M Friedman, Prashant J Desai, Sanjay Vashee
Here, we present a transformational approach to genome engineering of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), which has a large DNA genome, using synthetic genomics tools. We believe this method will enable more rapid and complex modifications of HSV-1 and other large DNA viruses than previous technologies, facilitating many useful applications. Yeast transformation-associated recombination was used to clone 11 fragments comprising the HSV-1 strain KOS 152 kb genome. Using overlapping sequences between the adjacent pieces, we assembled the fragments into a complete virus genome in yeast, transferred it into an Escherichia coli host, and reconstituted infectious virus following transfection into mammalian cells...
September 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928147/disconnecting-structure-and-dynamics-in-glassy-thin-films
#8
Daniel M Sussman, Samuel S Schoenholz, Ekin D Cubuk, Andrea J Liu
Nanometrically thin glassy films depart strikingly from the behavior of their bulk counterparts. We investigate whether the dynamical differences between a bulk and thin film polymeric glass former can be understood by differences in local microscopic structure. Machine learning methods have shown that local structure can serve as the foundation for successful, predictive models of particle rearrangement dynamics in bulk systems. By contrast, in thin glassy films, we find that particles at the center of the film and those near the surface are structurally indistinguishable despite exhibiting very different dynamics...
September 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928146/ant-inspired-density-estimation-via-random-walks
#9
Cameron Musco, Hsin-Hao Su, Nancy A Lynch
Many ant species use distributed population density estimation in applications ranging from quorum sensing, to task allocation, to appraisal of enemy colony strength. It has been shown that ants estimate local population density by tracking encounter rates: The higher the density, the more often the ants bump into each other. We study distributed density estimation from a theoretical perspective. We prove that a group of anonymous agents randomly walking on a grid are able to estimate their density within a small multiplicative error in few steps by measuring their rates of encounter with other agents...
September 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928145/structure-insight-of-gsdmd-reveals-the-basis-of-gsdmd-autoinhibition-in-cell-pyroptosis
#10
Siyun Kuang, Jun Zheng, Hui Yang, Suhua Li, Shuyan Duan, Yanfang Shen, Chaoneng Ji, Jianhua Gan, Xue-Wei Xu, Jixi Li
Recent findings have revealed that the protein gasdermin D (GSDMD) plays key roles in cell pyroptosis. GSDMD binds lipids and forms pore structures to induce pyroptosis upon microbial infection and associated danger signals. However, detailed structural information for GSDMD remains unknown. Here, we report the crystal structure of the C-terminal domain of human GSDMD (GSDMD-C) at 2.64-Å resolution. The first loop on GSDMD-C inserts into the N-terminal domain (GSDMD-N), which helps stabilize the conformation of the full-length GSDMD...
September 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928144/qnas-with-nancy-a-lynch
#11
Brian Doctrow
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923974/manipulation-of-ionized-impurity-scattering-for-achieving-high-thermoelectric-performance-in-n-type-mg3sb2-based-materials
#12
Jun Mao, Jing Shuai, Shaowei Song, Yixuan Wu, Rebecca Dally, Jiawei Zhou, Zihang Liu, Jifeng Sun, Qinyong Zhang, Clarina Dela Cruz, Stephen Wilson, Yanzhong Pei, David J Singh, Gang Chen, Ching-Wu Chu, Zhifeng Ren
Achieving higher carrier mobility plays a pivotal role for obtaining potentially high thermoelectric performance. In principle, the carrier mobility is governed by the band structure as well as by the carrier scattering mechanism. Here, we demonstrate that by manipulating the carrier scattering mechanism in n-type Mg3Sb2-based materials, a substantial improvement in carrier mobility, and hence the power factor, can be achieved. In this work, Fe, Co, Hf, and Ta are doped on the Mg site of Mg3.2Sb1.5Bi0.49Te0...
September 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923973/flow-induced-gelation-of-microfiber-suspensions
#13
Antonio Perazzo, Janine K Nunes, Stefano Guido, Howard A Stone
The flow behavior of fiber suspensions has been studied extensively, especially in the limit of dilute concentrations and rigid fibers; at the other extreme, however, where the suspensions are concentrated and the fibers are highly flexible, much less is understood about the flow properties. We use a microfluidic method to produce uniform concentrated suspensions of high aspect ratio, flexible microfibers, and we demonstrate the shear thickening and gelling behavior of such microfiber suspensions, which, to the best of our knowledge, has not been reported previously...
September 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923972/small-genome-symbiont-underlies-cuticle-hardness-in-beetles
#14
Hisashi Anbutsu, Minoru Moriyama, Naruo Nikoh, Takahiro Hosokawa, Ryo Futahashi, Masahiko Tanahashi, Xian-Ying Meng, Takashi Kuriwada, Naoki Mori, Kenshiro Oshima, Masahira Hattori, Manabu Fujie, Noriyuki Satoh, Taro Maeda, Shuji Shigenobu, Ryuichi Koga, Takema Fukatsu
Beetles, representing the majority of the insect species diversity, are characterized by thick and hard cuticle, which plays important roles for their environmental adaptation and underpins their inordinate diversity and prosperity. Here, we report a bacterial endosymbiont extremely specialized for sustaining beetle's cuticle formation. Many weevils are associated with a γ-proteobacterial endosymbiont lineage Nardonella, whose evolutionary origin is estimated as older than 100 million years, but its functional aspect has been elusive...
September 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923971/prolactin-action-in-the-medial-preoptic-area-is-necessary-for-postpartum-maternal-nursing-behavior
#15
Rosemary S E Brown, Mari Aoki, Sharon R Ladyman, Hollian R Phillipps, Amanda Wyatt, Ulrich Boehm, David R Grattan
Pregnancy hormones, such as prolactin, sensitize neural circuits controlling parental interactions to induce timely activation of maternal behaviors immediately after parturition. While the medial preoptic area (MPOA) is known to be critical for maternal behavior, the specific role of prolactin in this brain region has remained elusive. Here, we evaluated the role of prolactin action in the MPOA using complementary genetic strategies in mice. We characterized prolactin-responsive neurons within the MPOA at different hormonal stages and delineated their projections in the brain...
September 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923970/synchronous-timing-of-food-resources-triggers-bears-to-switch-from-salmon-to-berries
#16
Stephanie M Carlson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923969/using-the-force-to-find-the-peptides-you-re-looking-for
#17
John R James
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923968/soft-tubular-microfluidics-for-2d-and-3d-applications
#18
Wang Xi, Fang Kong, Joo Chuan Yeo, Longteng Yu, Surabhi Sonam, Ming Dao, Xiaobo Gong, Chwee Teck Lim
Microfluidics has been the key component for many applications, including biomedical devices, chemical processors, microactuators, and even wearable devices. This technology relies on soft lithography fabrication which requires cleanroom facilities. Although popular, this method is expensive and labor-intensive. Furthermore, current conventional microfluidic chips precludes reconfiguration, making reiterations in design very time-consuming and costly. To address these intrinsic drawbacks of microfabrication, we present an alternative solution for the rapid prototyping of microfluidic elements such as microtubes, valves, and pumps...
September 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923967/correction-for-joh-et-al-inkjet-printed-point-of-care-immunoassay-on-a-nanoscale-polymer-brush-enables-subpicomolar-detection-of-analytes-in-blood
#19
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923966/amazon-plant-diversity-revealed-by-a-taxonomically-verified-species-list
#20
Domingos Cardoso, Tiina Särkinen, Sara Alexander, André M Amorim, Volker Bittrich, Marcela Celis, Douglas C Daly, Pedro Fiaschi, Vicki A Funk, Leandro L Giacomin, Renato Goldenberg, Gustavo Heiden, João Iganci, Carol L Kelloff, Sandra Knapp, Haroldo Cavalcante de Lima, Anderson F P Machado, Rubens Manoel Dos Santos, Renato Mello-Silva, Fabián A Michelangeli, John Mitchell, Peter Moonlight, Pedro Luís Rodrigues de Moraes, Scott A Mori, Teonildes Sacramento Nunes, Terry D Pennington, José Rubens Pirani, Ghillean T Prance, Luciano Paganucci de Queiroz, Alessandro Rapini, Ricarda Riina, Carlos Alberto Vargas Rincon, Nádia Roque, Gustavo Shimizu, Marcos Sobral, João Renato Stehmann, Warren D Stevens, Charlotte M Taylor, Marcelo Trovó, Cássio van den Berg, Henk van der Werff, Pedro Lage Viana, Charles E Zartman, Rafaela Campostrini Forzza
Recent debates on the number of plant species in the vast lowland rain forests of the Amazon have been based largely on model estimates, neglecting published checklists based on verified voucher data. Here we collate taxonomically verified checklists to present a list of seed plant species from lowland Amazon rain forests. Our list comprises 14,003 species, of which 6,727 are trees. These figures are similar to estimates derived from nonparametric ecological models, but they contrast strongly with predictions of much higher tree diversity derived from parametric models...
September 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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