journal
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784831/the-promise-of-genes-for-understanding-cause-and-effect
#1
Dalton Conley, Simone Zhang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784830/structural-basis-of-o-glcnac-recognition-by-mammalian-14-3-3-proteins
#2
Clifford A Toleman, Maria A Schumacher, Seok-Ho Yu, Wenjie Zeng, Nathan J Cox, Timothy J Smith, Erik J Soderblom, Amberlyn M Wands, Jennifer J Kohler, Michael Boyce
O-GlcNAc is an intracellular posttranslational modification that governs myriad cell biological processes and is dysregulated in human diseases. Despite this broad pathophysiological significance, the biochemical effects of most O-GlcNAcylation events remain uncharacterized. One prevalent hypothesis is that O-GlcNAc moieties may be recognized by "reader" proteins to effect downstream signaling. However, no general O-GlcNAc readers have been identified, leaving a considerable gap in the field. To elucidate O-GlcNAc signaling mechanisms, we devised a biochemical screen for candidate O-GlcNAc reader proteins...
May 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784829/short-chain-dehydrogenase-reductase-governs-steroidal-specialized-metabolites-structural-diversity-and-toxicity-in-the-genus-solanum
#3
Prashant D Sonawane, Uwe Heinig, Sayantan Panda, Netta Segal Gilboa, Meital Yona, S Pradeep Kumar, Noam Alkan, Tamar Unger, Samuel Bocobza, Margarita Pliner, Sergey Malitsky, Maria Tkachev, Sagit Meir, Ilana Rogachev, Asaph Aharoni
Thousands of specialized, steroidal metabolites are found in a wide spectrum of plants. These include the steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGAs), produced primarily by most species of the genus Solanum , and metabolites belonging to the steroidal saponins class that are widespread throughout the plant kingdom. SGAs play a protective role in plants and have potent activity in mammals, including antinutritional effects in humans. The presence or absence of the double bond at the C-5,6 position (unsaturated and saturated, respectively) creates vast structural diversity within this metabolite class and determines the degree of SGA toxicity...
May 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784828/biological-species-in-the-viral-world
#4
Louis-Marie Bobay, Howard Ochman
Due to their dependence on cellular organisms for metabolism and replication, viruses are typically named and assigned to species according to their genome structure and the original host that they infect. But because viruses often infect multiple hosts and the numbers of distinct lineages within a host can be vast, their delineation into species is often dictated by arbitrary sequence thresholds, which are highly inconsistent across lineages. Here we apply an approach to determine the boundaries of viral species based on the detection of gene flow within populations, thereby defining viral species according to the biological species concept (BSC)...
May 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784827/correction-for-li-et-al-g%C3%AE-i1-and-g%C3%AE-i3-regulate-macrophage-polarization-by-forming-a-complex-containing-cd14-and-gab1
#5
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784826/deletion-of-lrrtm1-and-lrrtm2-in-adult-mice-impairs-basal-ampa-receptor-transmission-and-ltp-in-hippocampal-ca1-pyramidal-neurons
#6
Mehdi Bhouri, Wade Morishita, Paul Temkin, Debanjan Goswami, Hiroshi Kawabe, Nils Brose, Thomas C Südhof, Ann Marie Craig, Tabrez J Siddiqui, Robert Malenka
Leucine-rich repeat transmembrane (LRRTM) proteins are synaptic cell adhesion molecules that influence synapse formation and function. They are genetically associated with neuropsychiatric disorders, and via their synaptic actions likely regulate the establishment and function of neural circuits in the mammalian brain. Here, we take advantage of the generation of a LRRTM1 and LRRTM2 double conditional knockout mouse ( LRRTM1,2 cKO) to examine the role of LRRTM1,2 at mature excitatory synapses in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons...
May 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784825/global-patterns-of-protection-of-elevational-gradients-in-mountain-ranges
#7
Paul R Elsen, William B Monahan, Adina M Merenlender
Protected areas (PAs) that span elevational gradients enhance protection for taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity and facilitate species range shifts under climate change. We quantified the global protection of elevational gradients by analyzing the elevational distributions of 44,155 PAs in 1,010 mountain ranges using the highest resolution digital elevation models available. We show that, on average, mountain ranges in Africa and Asia have the lowest elevational protection, ranges in Europe and South America have intermediate elevational protection, and ranges in North America and Oceania have the highest elevational protection...
May 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784824/imaging-nanobubble-nucleation-and-hydrogen-spillover-during-electrocatalytic-water-splitting
#8
Rui Hao, Yunshan Fan, Marco D Howard, Joshua C Vaughan, Bo Zhang
Nucleation and growth of hydrogen nanobubbles are key initial steps in electrochemical water splitting. These processes remain largely unexplored due to a lack of proper tools to probe the nanobubble's interfacial structure with sufficient spatial and temporal resolution. We report the use of superresolution microscopy to image transient formation and growth of single hydrogen nanobubbles at the electrode/solution interface during electrocatalytic water splitting. We found hydrogen nanobubbles can be generated even at very early stages in water electrolysis, i...
May 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784823/continuous-intrathecal-orexin-delivery-inhibits-cataplexy-in-a-murine-model-of-narcolepsy
#9
Mahesh K Kaushik, Kosuke Aritake, Aya Imanishi, Takashi Kanbayashi, Tadashi Ichikawa, Tetsuo Shimizu, Yoshihiro Urade, Masashi Yanagisawa
Narcolepsy-cataplexy is a chronic neurological disorder caused by loss of orexin (hypocretin)-producing neurons, associated with excessive daytime sleepiness, sleep attacks, cataplexy, sleep paralysis, hypnagogic hallucinations, and fragmentation of nighttime sleep. Currently, human narcolepsy is treated by providing symptomatic therapies, which can be associated with an array of side effects. Although peripherally administered orexin does not efficiently penetrate the blood-brain barrier, centrally delivered orexin can effectively alleviate narcoleptic symptoms in animal models...
May 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784822/%C3%AE-catenin-dependent-mechanotransduction-dates-back-to-the-common-ancestor-of-cnidaria-and-bilateria
#10
Ekaterina Pukhlyakova, Andrew J Aman, Kareem Elsayad, Ulrich Technau
Although the genetic regulation of cellular differentiation processes is well established, recent studies have revealed the role of mechanotransduction on a variety of biological processes, including regulation of gene expression. However, it remains unclear how universal and widespread mechanotransduction is in embryonic development of animals. Here, we investigate mechanosensitive gene expression during gastrulation of the starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis , a cnidarian model organism. We show that the blastoporal marker gene brachyury is down-regulated by blocking myosin II-dependent gastrulation movements...
May 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784821/characterization-of-gossypol-biosynthetic-pathway
#11
Xiu Tian, Ju-Xin Ruan, Jin-Quan Huang, Chang-Qing Yang, Xin Fang, Zhi-Wen Chen, Hui Hong, Ling-Jian Wang, Ying-Bo Mao, Shan Lu, Tian-Zhen Zhang, Xiao-Ya Chen
Gossypol and related sesquiterpene aldehydes in cotton function as defense compounds but are antinutritional in cottonseed products. By transcriptome comparison and coexpression analyses, we identified 146 candidates linked to gossypol biosynthesis. Analysis of metabolites accumulated in plants subjected to virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) led to the identification of four enzymes and their supposed substrates. In vitro enzymatic assay and reconstitution in tobacco leaves elucidated a series of oxidative reactions of the gossypol biosynthesis pathway...
May 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784820/efficient-collective-swimming-by-harnessing-vortices-through-deep-reinforcement-learning
#12
Siddhartha Verma, Guido Novati, Petros Koumoutsakos
Fish in schooling formations navigate complex flow fields replete with mechanical energy in the vortex wakes of their companions. Their schooling behavior has been associated with evolutionary advantages including energy savings, yet the underlying physical mechanisms remain unknown. We show that fish can improve their sustained propulsive efficiency by placing themselves in appropriate locations in the wake of other swimmers and intercepting judiciously their shed vortices. This swimming strategy leads to collective energy savings and is revealed through a combination of high-fidelity flow simulations with a deep reinforcement learning (RL) algorithm...
May 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784819/xenoprotein-engineering-via-synthetic-libraries
#13
Zachary P Gates, Alexander A Vinogradov, Anthony J Quartararo, Anupam Bandyopadhyay, Zi-Ning Choo, Ethan D Evans, Kathryn H Halloran, Alexander J Mijalis, Surin K Mong, Mark D Simon, Eric A Standley, Evan D Styduhar, Sarah Z Tasker, Faycal Touti, Jessica M Weber, Jessica L Wilson, Timothy F Jamison, Bradley L Pentelute
Chemical methods have enabled the total synthesis of protein molecules of ever-increasing size and complexity. However, methods to engineer synthetic proteins comprising noncanonical amino acids have not kept pace, even though this capability would be a distinct advantage of the total synthesis approach to protein science. In this work, we report a platform for protein engineering based on the screening of synthetic one-bead one-compound protein libraries. Screening throughput approaching that of cell surface display was achieved by a combination of magnetic bead enrichment, flow cytometry analysis of on-bead screens, and high-throughput MS/MS-based sequencing of identified active compounds...
May 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784818/acoustic-evolution-of-old-italian-violins-from-amati-to-stradivari
#14
Hwan-Ching Tai, Yen-Ping Shen, Jer-Horng Lin, Dai-Ting Chung
The shape and design of the modern violin are largely influenced by two makers from Cremona, Italy: The instrument was invented by Andrea Amati and then improved by Antonio Stradivari. Although the construction methods of Amati and Stradivari have been carefully examined, the underlying acoustic qualities which contribute to their popularity are little understood. According to Geminiani, a Baroque violinist, the ideal violin tone should "rival the most perfect human voice." To investigate whether Amati and Stradivari violins produce voice-like features, we recorded the scales of 15 antique Italian violins as well as male and female singers...
May 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784817/topography-of-epithelial-mesenchymal-plasticity
#15
Francesc Font-Clos, Stefano Zapperi, Caterina A M La Porta
The transition between epithelial and mesenchymal states has fundamental importance for embryonic development, stem cell reprogramming, and cancer progression. Here, we construct a topographic map underlying epithelial-mesenchymal transitions using a combination of numerical simulations of a Boolean network model and the analysis of bulk and single-cell gene expression data. The map reveals a multitude of metastable hybrid phenotypic states, separating stable epithelial and mesenchymal states, and is reminiscent of the free energy measured in glassy materials and disordered solids...
May 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784816/encephalitis-is-mediated-by-rop18-of-toxoplasma-gondii-a-severe-pathogen-in-aids-patients
#16
Ran An, Yuewen Tang, Lijian Chen, Haijian Cai, De-Hua Lai, Kang Liu, Lijuan Wan, Linli Gong, Li Yu, Qingli Luo, Jilong Shen, Zhao-Rong Lun, Francisco J Ayala, Jian Du
The neurotropic parasite Toxoplasma gondii is a globally distributed parasitic protozoan among mammalian hosts, including humans. During the course of infection, the CNS is the most commonly damaged organ among invaded tissues. The polymorphic rhoptry protein 18 (ROP18) is a key serine (Ser)/threonine (Thr) kinase that phosphorylates host proteins to modulate acute virulence. However, the basis of neurotropism and the specific substrates through which ROP18 exerts neuropathogenesis remain unknown. Using mass spectrometry, we performed proteomic analysis of proteins that selectively bind to active ROP18 and identified RTN1-C, an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein that is preferentially expressed in the CNS...
May 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784815/virb8-homolog-trae-from-plasmid-pkm101-forms-a-hexameric-ring-structure-and-interacts-with-the-virb6-homolog-trad
#17
Bastien Casu, Charline Mary, Aleksandr Sverzhinsky, Aurélien Fouillen, Antonio Nanci, Christian Baron
Type IV secretion systems (T4SSs) are multiprotein assemblies that translocate macromolecules across the cell envelope of bacteria. X-ray crystallographic and electron microscopy (EM) analyses have increasingly provided structural information on individual T4SS components and on the entire complex. As of now, relatively little information has been available on the exact localization of the inner membrane-bound T4SS components, notably the mostly periplasmic VirB8 protein and the very hydrophobic VirB6 protein...
May 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784814/distinct-encoding-of-decision-confidence-in-human-medial-prefrontal-cortex
#18
Dan Bang, Stephen M Fleming
Our confidence in a choice and the evidence pertaining to a choice appear to be inseparable. However, an emerging computational consensus holds that the brain should maintain separate estimates of these quantities for adaptive behavioral control. We have devised a psychophysical task to decouple confidence in a perceptual decision from both the reliability of sensory evidence and the relation of such evidence with respect to a choice boundary. Using human fMRI, we found that an area in the medial prefrontal cortex, the perigenual anterior cingulate cortex (pgACC), tracked expected performance, an aggregate signature of decision confidence, whereas neural areas previously proposed to encode decision confidence instead tracked sensory reliability (posterior parietal cortex and ventral striatum) or boundary distance (presupplementary motor area)...
May 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784813/coordination-of-the-leucine-sensing-rag-gtpase-cycle-by-leucyl-trna-synthetase-in-the-mtorc1-signaling-pathway
#19
Minji Lee, Jong Hyun Kim, Ina Yoon, Chulho Lee, Mohammad Fallahi Sichani, Jong Soon Kang, Jeonghyun Kang, Min Guo, Kang Young Lee, Gyoonhee Han, Sunghoon Kim, Jung Min Han
A protein synthesis enzyme, leucyl-tRNA synthetase (LRS), serves as a leucine sensor for the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), which is a central effector for protein synthesis, metabolism, autophagy, and cell growth. However, its significance in mTORC1 signaling and cancer growth and its functional relationship with other suggested leucine signal mediators are not well-understood. Here we show the kinetics of the Rag GTPase cycle during leucine signaling and that LRS serves as an initiating "ON" switch via GTP hydrolysis of RagD that drives the entire Rag GTPase cycle, whereas Sestrin2 functions as an "OFF" switch by controlling GTP hydrolysis of RagB in the Rag GTPase-mTORC1 axis...
May 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784812/distributed-and-dynamic-intracellular-organization-of-extracellular-information
#20
Alejandro A Granados, Julian M J Pietsch, Sarah A Cepeda-Humerez, Iseabail L Farquhar, Gašper Tkačik, Peter S Swain
Although cells respond specifically to environments, how environmental identity is encoded intracellularly is not understood. Here, we study this organization of information in budding yeast by estimating the mutual information between environmental transitions and the dynamics of nuclear translocation for 10 transcription factors. Our method of estimation is general, scalable, and based on decoding from single cells. The dynamics of the transcription factors are necessary to encode the highest amounts of extracellular information, and we show that information is transduced through two channels: Generalists (Msn2/4, Tod6 and Dot6, Maf1, and Sfp1) can encode the nature of multiple stresses, but only if stress is high; specialists (Hog1, Yap1, and Mig1/2) encode one particular stress, but do so more quickly and for a wider range of magnitudes...
May 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
journal
journal
20328
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"