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PLoS Pathogens

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136651/structural-basis-of-glycan-specificity-of-p-19-vp8-implications-for-rotavirus-zoonosis-and-evolution
#1
Yang Liu, Shenyuan Xu, Andrew L Woodruff, Ming Xia, Ming Tan, Michael A Kennedy, Xi Jiang
Recognition of specific cell surface glycans, mediated by the VP8* domain of the spike protein VP4, is the essential first step in rotavirus (RV) infection. Due to lack of direct structural information of virus-ligand interactions, the molecular basis of ligand-controlled host ranges of the major human RVs (P[8] and P[4]) in P[II] genogroup remains unknown. Here, through characterization of a minor P[II] RV (P[19]) that can infect both animals (pigs) and humans, we made an important advance to fill this knowledge gap by solving the crystal structures of the P[19] VP8* in complex with its ligands...
November 14, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131852/unraveling-the-key-to-the-resistance-of-canids-to-prion-diseases
#2
Natalia Fernández-Borges, Beatriz Parra, Enric Vidal, Hasier Eraña, Manuel A Sánchez-Martín, Jorge de Castro, Saioa R Elezgarai, Martí Pumarola, Tomás Mayoral, Joaquín Castilla
One of the characteristics of prions is their ability to infect some species but not others and prion resistant species have been of special interest because of their potential in deciphering the determinants for susceptibility. Previously, we developed different in vitro and in vivo models to assess the susceptibility of species that were erroneously considered resistant to prion infection, such as members of the Leporidae and Equidae families. Here we undertake in vitro and in vivo approaches to understand the unresolved low prion susceptibility of canids...
November 13, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131851/gdsl-lipases-modulate-immunity-through-lipid-homeostasis-in-rice
#3
Mingjun Gao, Xin Yin, Weibing Yang, Sin Man Lam, Xiaohong Tong, Jiyun Liu, Xin Wang, Qun Li, Guanghou Shui, Zuhua He
Lipids and lipid metabolites play important roles in plant-microbe interactions. Despite the extensive studies of lipases in lipid homeostasis and seed oil biosynthesis, the involvement of lipases in plant immunity remains largely unknown. In particular, GDSL esterases/lipases, characterized by the conserved GDSL motif, are a subfamily of lipolytic enzymes with broad substrate specificity. Here, we functionally identified two GDSL lipases, OsGLIP1 and OsGLIP2, in rice immune responses. Expression of OsGLIP1 and OsGLIP2 was suppressed by pathogen infection and salicylic acid (SA) treatment...
November 13, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125880/mavs-activates-tbk1-and-ikk%C3%AE%C2%B5-through-trafs-in-nemo-dependent-and-independent-manner
#4
Run Fang, Qifei Jiang, Xiang Zhou, Chenguang Wang, Yukun Guan, Jianli Tao, Jianzhong Xi, Ji-Ming Feng, Zhengfan Jiang
Mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS) transmits signals from RIG-I-like receptors after RNA virus infections. However, the mechanism by which MAVS activates downstream components, such as TBK1 and IKKα/β, is unclear, although previous work suggests the involvement of NEMO or TBK1-binding proteins TANK, NAP1, and SINTBAD. Here, we report that MAVS-mediated innate immune activation is dependent on TRAFs, partially on NEMO, but not on TBK1-binding proteins. MAVS recruited TBK1/IKKε by TRAFs that were pre-associated with TBK1/IKKε via direct interaction between the coiled-coil domain of TRAFs and the SDD domain of TBK1/IKKε...
November 10, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125860/autophagy-pathway-induced-by-a-plant-virus-facilitates-viral-spread-and-transmission-by-its-insect-vector
#5
Yong Chen, Qian Chen, Manman Li, Qianzhuo Mao, Hongyan Chen, Wei Wu, Dongsheng Jia, Taiyun Wei
Many viral pathogens are persistently transmitted by insect vectors and cause agricultural or health problems. Generally, an insect vector can use autophagy as an intrinsic antiviral defense mechanism against viral infection. Whether viruses can evolve to exploit autophagy to promote their transmission by insect vectors is still unknown. Here, we show that the autophagic process is triggered by the persistent replication of a plant reovirus, rice gall dwarf virus (RGDV) in cultured leafhopper vector cells and in intact insects, as demonstrated by the appearance of obvious virus-containing double-membrane autophagosomes, conversion of ATG8-I to ATG8-II and increased level of autophagic flux...
November 10, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121649/spatiotemporal-dynamics-of-hsv-genome-nuclear-entry-and-compaction-state-transitions-using-bioorthogonal-chemistry-and-super-resolution-microscopy
#6
Eiki Sekine, Nora Schmidt, David Gaboriau, Peter O'Hare
We investigated the spatiotemporal dynamics of HSV genome transport during the initiation of infection using viruses containing bioorthogonal traceable precursors incorporated into their genomes (HSVEdC). In vitro assays revealed a structural alteration in the capsid induced upon HSVEdC binding to solid supports that allowed coupling to external capture agents and demonstrated that the vast majority of individual virions contained bioorthogonally-tagged genomes. Using HSVEdC in vivo we reveal novel aspects of the kinetics, localisation, mechanistic entry requirements and morphological transitions of infecting genomes...
November 9, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117247/a-mobile-loop-near-the-active-site-acts-as-a-switch-between-the-dual-activities-of-a-viral-protease-deubiquitinase
#7
Isabelle Jupin, Maya Ayach, Lucile Jomat, Sonia Fieulaine, Stéphane Bressanelli
The positive-strand RNA virus Turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) encodes an ovarian tumor (OTU)-like protease/deubiquitinase (PRO/DUB) protein domain involved both in proteolytic processing of the viral polyprotein through its PRO activity, and in removal of ubiquitin chains from ubiquitylated substrates through its DUB activity. Here, the crystal structures of TYMV PRO/DUB mutants and molecular dynamics simulations reveal that an idiosyncratic mobile loop participates in reversibly constricting its unusual catalytic site by adopting "open", "intermediate" or "closed" conformations...
November 8, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077761/in-vitro-characterization-of-the-antivirulence-target-of-gram-positive-pathogens-peptidoglycan-o-acetyltransferase-a-oata
#8
David Sychantha, Carys S Jones, Dustin J Little, Patrick J Moynihan, Howard Robinson, Nicola F Galley, David I Roper, Christopher G Dowson, P Lynne Howell, Anthony J Clarke
The O-acetylation of the essential cell wall polymer peptidoglycan occurs in most Gram-positive bacterial pathogens, including species of Staphylococcus, Streptococcus and Enterococcus. This modification to peptidoglycan protects these pathogens from the lytic action of the lysozymes of innate immunity systems and, as such, is recognized as a virulence factor. The key enzyme involved, peptidoglycan O-acetyltransferase A (OatA) represents a particular challenge to biochemical study since it is a membrane associated protein whose substrate is the insoluble peptidoglycan cell wall polymer...
October 27, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145516/preconceptual-zika-virus-asymptomatic-infection-protects-against-secondary-prenatal-infection
#9
Lucien H Turner, Jeremy M Kinder, Adrienne Wilburn, Rahul J D'Mello, Makayla R Braunlin, Tony T Jiang, Giang Pham, Sing Sing Way
Pregnant women, and their fetal offspring, are uniquely susceptible to Zika virus and other microbial pathogens capable of congenital fetal infection. Unavoidable exposure to Zika virus in endemic areas underscores the need for identifying at-risk individuals, and protecting expecting mothers and their fetal offspring against prenatal infection. Here we show that primary Zika virus asymptomatic infection in mice confers protection against re-infection, and that these protective benefits are maintained during pregnancy...
November 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145508/irruptive-mammal-host-populations-shape-tularemia-epidemiology
#10
Juan J Luque-Larena, François Mougeot, Beatriz Arroyo, Mª Dolors Vidal, Ruth Rodríguez-Pastor, Raquel Escudero, Pedro Anda, Xavier Lambin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145493/poxviruses-slipping-and-sliding-through-transcription-and-translation
#11
Derek Walsh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145483/sequential-inflammatory-processes-define-human-progression-from-m-tuberculosis-infection-to-tuberculosis-disease
#12
Thomas J Scriba, Adam Penn-Nicholson, Smitha Shankar, Tom Hraha, Ethan G Thompson, David Sterling, Elisa Nemes, Fatoumatta Darboe, Sara Suliman, Lynn M Amon, Hassan Mahomed, Mzwandile Erasmus, Wendy Whatney, John L Johnson, W Henry Boom, Mark Hatherill, Joe Valvo, Mary Ann De Groote, Urs A Ochsner, Alan Aderem, Willem A Hanekom, Daniel E Zak
Clincialtrials.gov, NCT01119521.
November 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141021/correction-targeting-neutrophils-to-prevent-malaria-associated-acute-lung-injury-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-in-mice
#13
Michelle K Sercundes, Luana S Ortolan, Daniela Debone, Paulo V Soeiro-Pereira, Eliane Gomes, Elizabeth H Aitken, Antonio Condino-Neto, Momtchilo Russo, Maria R D' Império Lima, José M Alvarez, Silvia Portugal, Claudio R F Marinho, Sabrina Epiphanio
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1006054.].
November 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121119/how-alkalinization-drives-fungal-pathogenicity
#14
Tânia R Fernandes, David Segorbe, Dov Prusky, Antonio Di Pietro
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121116/got-herpes-yep-you-probably-do
#15
Eain A Murphy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121099/dengue-virus-ns1-cytokine-independent-vascular-leak-is-dependent-on-endothelial-glycocalyx-components
#16
Dustin R Glasner, Kalani Ratnasiri, Henry Puerta-Guardo, Diego A Espinosa, P Robert Beatty, Eva Harris
Dengue virus (DENV) is the most prevalent, medically important mosquito-borne virus. Disease ranges from uncomplicated dengue to life-threatening disease, characterized by endothelial dysfunction and vascular leakage. Previously, we demonstrated that DENV nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) induces endothelial hyperpermeability in a systemic mouse model and human pulmonary endothelial cells, where NS1 disrupts the endothelial glycocalyx-like layer. NS1 also triggers release of inflammatory cytokines from PBMCs via TLR4...
November 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112990/correction-persistent-mycobacteria-evade-an-antibacterial-program-mediated-by-phagolysosomal-tlr7-8-myd88-in-human-primary-macrophages
#17
Alexandre Gidon, Signe Elisabeth Åsberg, Claire Louet, Liv Ryan, Markus Haug, Trude Helen Flo
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1006551.].
November 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112968/fitness-cost-of-reassortment-in-human-influenza
#18
Mara Villa, Michael Lässig
Reassortment, which is the exchange of genome sequence between viruses co-infecting a host cell, plays an important role in the evolution of segmented viruses. In the human influenza virus, reassortment happens most frequently between co-existing variants within the same lineage. This process breaks genetic linkage and fitness correlations between viral genome segments, but the resulting net effect on viral fitness has remained unclear. In this paper, we determine rate and average selective effect of reassortment processes in the human influenza lineage A/H3N2...
November 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112952/natural-killer-cell-intrinsic-type-i-ifn-signaling-controls-klebsiella-pneumoniae-growth-during-lung-infection
#19
Masa Ivin, Amy Dumigan, Filipe N de Vasconcelos, Florian Ebner, Martina Borroni, Anoop Kavirayani, Kornelia N Przybyszewska, Rebecca J Ingram, Stefan Lienenklaus, Ulrich Kalinke, Dagmar Stoiber, Jose A Bengoechea, Pavel Kovarik
Klebsiella pneumoniae is a significant cause of nosocomial pneumonia and an alarming pathogen owing to the recent isolation of multidrug resistant strains. Understanding of immune responses orchestrating K. pneumoniae clearance by the host is of utmost importance. Here we show that type I interferon (IFN) signaling protects against lung infection with K. pneumoniae by launching bacterial growth-controlling interactions between alveolar macrophages and natural killer (NK) cells. Type I IFNs are important but disparate and incompletely understood regulators of defense against bacterial infections...
November 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108000/whole-genome-sequencing-of-extreme-phenotypes-identifies-variants-in-cd101-and-ube2v1-associated-with-increased-risk-of-sexually-acquired-hiv-1
#20
Romel D Mackelprang, Michael J Bamshad, Jessica X Chong, Xuanlin Hou, Kati J Buckingham, Kathryn Shively, Guy deBruyn, Nelly R Mugo, James I Mullins, M Juliana McElrath, Jared M Baeten, Connie Celum, Mary J Emond, Jairam R Lingappa
Host genetic variation modifying HIV-1 acquisition risk can inform development of HIV-1 prevention strategies. However, associations between rare or intermediate-frequency variants and HIV-1 acquisition are not well studied. We tested for the association between variation in genic regions and extreme HIV-1 acquisition phenotypes in 100 sub-Saharan Africans with whole genome sequencing data. Missense variants in immunoglobulin-like regions of CD101 and, among women, one missense/5' UTR variant in UBE2V1, were associated with increased HIV-1 acquisition risk (p = 1...
November 2017: PLoS Pathogens
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