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PLoS Pathogens

Camille Cohen, Armelle Corpet, Simon Roubille, Mohamed Ali Maroui, Nolwenn Poccardi, Antoine Rousseau, Constance Kleijwegt, Olivier Binda, Pascale Texier, Nancy Sawtell, Marc Labetoulle, Patrick Lomonte
Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) latency establishment is tightly controlled by promyelocytic leukemia (PML) nuclear bodies (NBs) (or ND10), although their exact contribution is still elusive. A hallmark of HSV-1 latency is the interaction between latent viral genomes and PML NBs, leading to the formation of viral DNA-containing PML NBs (vDCP NBs), and the complete silencing of HSV-1. Using a replication-defective HSV-1-infected human primary fibroblast model reproducing the formation of vDCP NBs, combined with an immuno-FISH approach developed to detect latent/quiescent HSV-1, we show that vDCP NBs contain both histone H3...
September 20, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Hongxin Guan, Juan Tian, Chu Zhang, Bo Qin, Sheng Cui
Poliovirus (PV) 2CATPase is the most studied 2C protein in the Picornaviridae family. It is involved in RNA replication, encapsidation and uncoating and many inhibitors have been found that target PV 2CATPase. Despite numerous investigations to characterize its functions, a high-resolution structure of PV 2C has not yet been determined. We report here the crystal structure of a soluble fragment of PV 2CATPase to 2.55Å, containing an ATPase domain, a zinc finger and a C-terminal helical domain but missing the N-terminal domain...
September 19, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Asma Ahmed, Vasista Adiga, Soumya Nayak, J Anto Jesuraj Uday Kumar, Chirag Dhar, Pravat Nalini Sahoo, Bharath K Sundararaj, George D Souza, Annapurna Vyakarnam
Chronic T cell activation is a hallmark of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). The mechanisms underpinning this important phenomenon are however, poorly elucidated, though known to rely on control of T effector cells (Teff) by regulatory T cells (Treg). Our studies show that circulating natural Treg cells in adults with PTB preserve their suppressive potential but Teff cells from such subjects are resistant to Treg-mediated suppression. We found this to be due to expansion of an activated Teff subset identified by Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)-DR expression...
September 19, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Lidia Mingorance, Victoria Castro, Ginés Ávila-Pérez, Gema Calvo, María Josefa Rodriguez, José L Carrascosa, Sofía Pérez-Del-Pulgar, Xavier Forns, Pablo Gastaminza
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection constitutes a significant health burden worldwide, because it is a major etiologic agent of chronic liver disease, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. HCV replication cycle is closely tied to lipid metabolism and infection by this virus causes profound changes in host lipid homeostasis. We focused our attention on a phosphatidate phosphate (PAP) enzyme family (the lipin family), which mediate the conversion of phosphatidate to diacylglycerol in the cytoplasm, playing a key role in triglyceride biosynthesis and in phospholipid homeostasis...
September 18, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Brad R Rosenberg, Marion Depla, Catherine A Freije, Denis Gaucher, Sabrina Mazouz, Maude Boisvert, Nathalie Bédard, Julie Bruneau, Charles M Rice, Naglaa H Shoukry
Most individuals exposed to hepatitis C virus (HCV) become persistently infected while a minority spontaneously eliminate the virus. Although early immune events influence infection outcome, the cellular composition, molecular effectors, and timeframe of the host response active shortly after viral exposure remain incompletely understood. Employing specimens collected from people who inject drugs (PWID) with high risk of HCV exposure, we utilized RNA-Seq and blood transcriptome module (BTM) analysis to characterize immune function in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) before, during, and after acute HCV infection resulting in spontaneous resolution...
September 17, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Li Chang, Ho-Hsiung Chang, Jui-Che Chang, Hsiang-Chia Lu, Tan-Tung Wang, Duen-Wei Hsu, Yuh Tzean, An-Po Cheng, Yi-Shu Chiu, Hsin-Hung Yeh
Salicylic acid (SA) is a key phytohormone that mediates a broad spectrum of resistance against a diverse range of viruses; however, the downstream pathway of SA governed antiviral immune response remains largely to be explored. Here, we identified an orchid protein containing A20 and AN1 zinc finger domains, designated Pha13. Pha13 is up-regulated upon virus infection, and the transgenic monocot orchid and dicot Arabidopsis overexpressing orchid Pha13 conferred greater resistance to different viruses. In addition, our data showed that Arabidopsis homolog of Pha13, AtSAP5, is also involved in virus resistance...
September 13, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Igor M Rouzine, Ganna Rozhnova
To escape immune recognition in previously infected hosts, viruses evolve genetically in immunologically important regions. The host's immune system responds by generating new memory cells recognizing the mutated viral strains. Despite recent advances in data collection and analysis, it remains conceptually unclear how epidemiology, immune response, and evolutionary factors interact to produce the observed speed of evolution and the incidence of infection. Here we establish a general and simple relationship between long-term cross-immunity, genetic diversity, speed of evolution, and incidence...
September 12, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Jae-Hoon Kim, Min-Eun Park, Chamilani Nikapitiya, Tae-Hwan Kim, Md Bashir Uddin, Hyun-Cheol Lee, Eunhee Kim, Jin Yeul Ma, Jae U Jung, Chul-Joong Kim, Jong-Soo Lee
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1006398.].
September 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Anthony R Dawson, Andrew Mehle
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Cheng Fang, Bei Wu, Nhat T T Le, Thibaut Imberdis, Robert C C Mercer, David A Harris
Synaptic degeneration is one of the earliest pathological correlates of prion disease, and it is a major determinant of the progression of clinical symptoms. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying prion synaptotoxicity are poorly understood. Previously, we described an experimental system in which treatment of cultured hippocampal neurons with purified PrPSc, the infectious form of the prion protein, induces rapid retraction of dendritic spines, an effect that is entirely dependent on expression of endogenous PrPC by the target neurons...
September 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Joseph H Skalski, Jose J Limon, Purnima Sharma, Matthew D Gargus, Christopher Nguyen, Jie Tang, Ana Lucia Coelho, Cory M Hogaboam, Timothy R Crother, David M Underhill
The gastrointestinal microbiota influences immune function throughout the body. The gut-lung axis refers to the concept that alterations of gut commensal microorganisms can have a distant effect on immune function in the lung. Overgrowth of intestinal Candida albicans has been previously observed to exacerbate allergic airways disease in mice, but whether subtler changes in intestinal fungal microbiota can affect allergic airways disease is less clear. In this study we have investigated the effects of the population expansion of commensal fungus Wallemia mellicola without overgrowth of the total fungal community...
September 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Serre-Yu Wong, Ken Cadwell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Cristina Colomer-Winter, Ana L Flores-Mireles, Shannon P Baker, Kristi L Frank, Aaron J L Lynch, Scott J Hultgren, Todd Kitten, José A Lemos
Manganese (Mn) is an essential micronutrient that is not readily available to pathogens during infection due to an active host defense mechanism known as nutritional immunity. To overcome this nutrient restriction, bacteria utilize high-affinity transporters that allow them to compete with host metal-binding proteins. Despite the established role of Mn in bacterial pathogenesis, little is known about the relevance of Mn in the pathophysiology of E. faecalis. Here, we identified and characterized the major Mn acquisition systems of E...
September 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Judy J Brown, Bana Jabri, Terence S Dermody
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Yingpu Yu, Troels K H Scheel, Joseph M Luna, Hachung Chung, Eiko Nishiuchi, Margaret A Scull, Natalia Echeverría, Inna Ricardo-Lax, Amit Kapoor, W Ian Lipkin, Thomas J Divers, Douglas F Antczak, Bud C Tennant, Charles M Rice
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1006694.].
September 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Anice C Lowen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Sharon E Hopcraft, Samantha G Pattenden, Lindsey I James, Stephen Frye, Dirk P Dittmer, Blossom Damania
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiologic agent of three human malignancies, the endothelial cell cancer Kaposi's sarcoma, and two B cell cancers, Primary Effusion Lymphoma and multicentric Castleman's disease. KSHV has latent and lytic phases of the viral life cycle, and while both contribute to viral pathogenesis, lytic proteins contribute to KSHV-mediated oncogenesis. Reactivation from latency is driven by the KSHV lytic gene transactivator RTA, and RTA transcription is controlled by epigenetic modifications...
September 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Yanni Yin, Sisi Wu, Chaonan Chui, Tianling Ma, Huixian Jiang, Matthias Hahn, Zhonghua Ma
The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cassette of the cell wall integrity (CWI) pathway is primarily responsible for orchestrating changes of cell wall. However, functions of this cassette in other cellular processes are not well understood. Here, we found that the Botrytis cinerea mutant of MAPK kinase (BcMkk1) displays more serious defects in mycelial growth, conidiation, responses to cell wall and oxidative stresses, but possesses less reduced virulence than the mutants of its upstream (BcBck1) and downstream (BcBmp3) kinases...
September 2018: PLoS Pathogens
George S Deepe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Fengchao Lang, Zhiguo Sun, Yonggang Pei, Rajnish Kumar Singh, Hem Chandra Jha, Erle S Robertson
Shugoshin-1 (Sgo1) protects the integrity of the centromeres, and H2A phosphorylation is critical for this process. The mitotic checkpoint kinase Bub1, phosphorylates H2A and ensures fidelity of chromosome segregation and chromosome number. Oncogenic KSHV induces genetic alterations through chromosomal instability (CIN), and its essential antigen LANA regulates Bub1. We show that LANA inhibits Bub1 phosphorylation of H2A and Cdc20, important for chromosome segregation and mitotic signaling. Inhibition of H2A phosphorylation at residue T120 by LANA resulted in dislocation of Sgo1, and cohesin from the centromeres...
September 2018: PLoS Pathogens
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