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PLoS Pathogens

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334017/genome-wide-rnai-selection-identifies-a-regulator-of-transmission-stage-enriched-gene-families-and-cell-type-differentiation-in-trypanosoma-brucei
#1
Eva Rico, Alasdair Ivens, Lucy Glover, David Horn, Keith R Matthews
Trypanosoma brucei, causing African sleeping-sickness, exploits quorum-sensing (QS) to generate the 'stumpy forms' necessary for the parasite's transmission to tsetse-flies. These quiescent cells are generated by differentiation in the bloodstream from proliferative slender forms. Using genome-wide RNAi selection we screened for repressors of transmission stage-enriched mRNAs in slender forms, using the stumpy-elevated ESAG9 transcript as a model. This identified REG9.1, whose RNAi-silencing alleviated ESAG9 repression in slender forms and tsetse-midgut procyclic forms...
March 23, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328962/the-blood-dna-virome-in-8-000-humans
#2
Ahmed Moustafa, Chao Xie, Ewen Kirkness, William Biggs, Emily Wong, Yaron Turpaz, Kenneth Bloom, Eric Delwart, Karen E Nelson, J Craig Venter, Amalio Telenti
The characterization of the blood virome is important for the safety of blood-derived transfusion products, and for the identification of emerging pathogens. We explored non-human sequence data from whole-genome sequencing of blood from 8,240 individuals, none of whom were ascertained for any infectious disease. Viral sequences were extracted from the pool of sequence reads that did not map to the human reference genome. Analyses sifted through close to 1 Petabyte of sequence data and performed 0.5 trillion similarity searches...
March 22, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328934/proviruses-with-identical-sequences-comprise-a-large-fraction-of-the-replication-competent-hiv-reservoir
#3
John K Bui, Michele D Sobolewski, Brandon F Keele, Jonathan Spindler, Andrew Musick, Ann Wiegand, Brian T Luke, Wei Shao, Stephen H Hughes, John M Coffin, Mary F Kearney, John W Mellors
The major obstacle to curing HIV infection is the persistence of cells with intact proviruses that can produce replication-competent virus. This HIV reservoir is believed to exist primarily in CD4+ T-cells and is stable despite years of suppressive antiretroviral therapy. A potential mechanism for HIV persistence is clonal expansion of infected cells, but how often such clones carry replication-competent proviruses has been controversial. Here, we used single-genome sequencing to probe for identical HIV sequence matches among viruses recovered in different viral outgrowth cultures and between the sequences of outgrowth viruses and proviral or intracellular HIV RNA sequences in uncultured blood mononuclear cells from eight donors on suppressive ART with diverse proviral populations...
March 22, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323883/ubiquitously-expressed-human-beta-defensin-1-hbd1-forms-bacteria-entrapping-nets-in-a-redox-dependent-mode-of-action
#4
Judith Raschig, Daniela Mailänder-Sanchez, Anne Berscheid, Jürgen Berger, Adam A Strömstedt, Lioba F Courth, Nisar P Malek, Heike Brötz-Oesterhelt, Jan Wehkamp
Ever since the discovery of endogenous host defense antimicrobial peptides it has been discussed how these evolutionary conserved molecules avoid to induce resistance and to remain effective. An Human ß-defensin 1 (hBD1) is an ubiquitously expressed endogenous antimicrobial peptide that exhibits qualitatively distinct activities between its oxidized and reduced forms. Here, we explore these antimicrobial mechanisms. Surprisingly, using electron microscopy we detected a so far unknown net-like structure surrounding bacteria, which were treated with the reduced but not the oxidized form of hBD1...
March 21, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306742/hpv16-and-18-genome-amplification-show-different-e4-dependence-with-16e4-enhancing-e1-nuclear-accumulation-and-replicative-efficiency-via-its-cell-cycle-arrest-and-kinase-activation-functions
#5
Nagayasu Egawa, Qian Wang, Heather M Griffin, Isao Murakami, Deborah Jackson, Radma Mahmood, John Doorbar
To clarify E1^E4's role during high-risk HPV infection, the E4 proteins of HPV16 and 18 were compared side by side using an isogenic keratinocyte differentiation model. While no effect on cell proliferation or viral genome copy number was observed during the early phase of either virus life cycle, time-course experiments showed that viral genome amplification and L1 expression were differently affected upon differentiation, with HPV16 showing a much clearer E4 dependency. Although E4 loss never completely abolished genome amplification, its more obvious contribution in HPV16 focused our efforts on 16E4...
March 17, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306723/the-redefinition-of-helicobacter-pylori-lipopolysaccharide-o-antigen-and-core-oligosaccharide-domains
#6
Hong Li, Tiandi Yang, Tingting Liao, Aleksandra W Debowski, Hans-Olof Nilsson, Alma Fulurija, Stuart M Haslam, Barbara Mulloy, Anne Dell, Keith A Stubbs, Barry J Marshall, Mohammed Benghezal
Helicobacter pylori lipopolysaccharide promotes chronic gastric colonisation through O-antigen host mimicry and resistance to mucosal antimicrobial peptides mediated primarily by modifications of the lipid A. The structural organisation of the core and O-antigen domains of H. pylori lipopolysaccharide remains unclear, as the O-antigen attachment site has still to be identified experimentally. Here, structural investigations of lipopolysaccharides purified from two wild-type strains and the O-antigen ligase mutant revealed that the H...
March 17, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278235/a-novel-zika-virus-mouse-model-reveals-strain-specific-differences-in-virus-pathogenesis-and-host-inflammatory-immune-responses
#7
Shashank Tripathi, Vinod R M T Balasubramaniam, Julia A Brown, Ignacio Mena, Alesha Grant, Susana V Bardina, Kevin Maringer, Megan C Schwarz, Ana M Maestre, Marion Sourisseau, Randy A Albrecht, Florian Krammer, Matthew J Evans, Ana Fernandez-Sesma, Jean K Lim, Adolfo García-Sastre
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito borne flavivirus, which was a neglected tropical pathogen until it emerged and spread across the Pacific Area and the Americas, causing large human outbreaks associated with fetal abnormalities and neurological disease in adults. The factors that contributed to the emergence, spread and change in pathogenesis of ZIKV are not understood. We previously reported that ZIKV evades cellular antiviral responses by targeting STAT2 for degradation in human cells. In this study, we demonstrate that Stat2-/- mice are highly susceptible to ZIKV infection, recapitulate virus spread to the central nervous system (CNS), gonads and other visceral organs, and display neurological symptoms...
March 9, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334041/virus-mediated-suppression-of-host-non-self-recognition-facilitates-horizontal-transmission-of-heterologous-viruses
#8
Songsong Wu, Jiasen Cheng, Yanping Fu, Tao Chen, Daohong Jiang, Said A Ghabrial, Jiatao Xie
Non-self recognition is a common phenomenon among organisms; it often leads to innate immunity to prevent the invasion of parasites and maintain the genetic polymorphism of organisms. Fungal vegetative incompatibility is a type of non-self recognition which often induces programmed cell death (PCD) and restricts the spread of molecular parasites. It is not clearly known whether virus infection could attenuate non-self recognition among host individuals to facilitate its spread. Here, we report that a hypovirulence-associated mycoreovirus, named Sclerotinia sclerotiorum mycoreovirus 4 (SsMYRV4), could suppress host non-self recognition and facilitate horizontal transmission of heterologous viruses...
March 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334040/macrophage-origin-limits-functional-plasticity-in-helminth-bacterial-co-infection
#9
Dominik Rückerl, Sharon M Campbell, Sheelagh Duncan, Tara E Sutherland, Stephen J Jenkins, James P Hewitson, Tom A Barr, Lucy H Jackson-Jones, Rick M Maizels, Judith E Allen
Rapid reprogramming of the macrophage activation phenotype is considered important in the defense against consecutive infection with diverse infectious agents. However, in the setting of persistent, chronic infection the functional importance of macrophage-intrinsic adaptation to changing environments vs. recruitment of new macrophages remains unclear. Here we show that resident peritoneal macrophages expanded by infection with the nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri altered their activation phenotype in response to infection with Salmonella enterica ser...
March 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334020/immune-correlates-of-hiv-associated-cryptococcal-meningitis
#10
Mark W Tenforde, James E Scriven, Thomas S Harrison, Joseph N Jarvis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319166/plos-pathogens-2016-reviewer-and-editorial-board-thank-you
#11
EDITORIAL
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301602/how-to-develop-viruses-into-anticancer-weapons
#12
Roberto Cattaneo, Stephen J Russell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301559/synergy-between-the-classical-and-alternative-pathways-of-complement-is-essential-for-conferring-effective-protection-against-the-pandemic-influenza-a-h1n1-2009-virus-infection
#13
Ajitanuj Rattan, Shailesh D Pawar, Renuka Nawadkar, Neeraja Kulkarni, Girdhari Lal, Jayati Mullick, Arvind Sahu
The pandemic influenza A(H1N1) 2009 virus caused significant morbidity and mortality worldwide thus necessitating the need to understand the host factors that influence its control. Previously, the complement system has been shown to provide protection during the seasonal influenza virus infection, however, the role of individual complement pathways is not yet clear. Here, we have dissected the role of intact complement as well as of its individual activation pathways during the pandemic influenza virus infection using mouse strains deficient in various complement components...
March 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296962/correction-structural-insights-into-viral-determinants-of-nematode-mediated-grapevine-fanleaf-virus-transmission
#14
Pascale Schellenberger, Claude Sauter, Bernard Lorber, Patrick Bron, Stefano Trapani, Marc Bergdoll, Aurélie Marmonier, Corinne Schmitt-Keichinger, Olivier Lemaire, Gérard Demangeat, Christophe Ritzenthaler
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1002034.].
March 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288207/type-vi-secretion-system-contributes-to-enterohemorrhagic-escherichia-coli-virulence-by-secreting-catalase-against-host-reactive-oxygen-species-ros
#15
Baoshan Wan, Qiufen Zhang, Jinjing Ni, Shuxian Li, Donghua Wen, Jun Li, Haihan Xiao, Ping He, Hong-Yu Ou, Jing Tao, Qihui Teng, Jie Lu, Wenjuan Wu, Yu-Feng Yao
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is one major type of contagious and foodborne pathogens. The type VI secretion system (T6SS) has been shown to be involved in the bacterial pathogenicity and bacteria-bacteria competition. Here, we show that EHEC could secrete a novel effector KatN, a Mn-containing catalase, in a T6SS-dependent manner. Expression of katN is promoted by RpoS and OxyR and repressed by H-NS, and katN contributes to bacterial growth under oxidative stress in vitro. KatN could be secreted into host cell cytosol after EHEC is phagocytized by macrophage, which leads to decreased level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and facilitates the intramacrophage survival of EHEC...
March 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288194/the-aromatic-amino-acid-hydroxylase-genes-aah1-and-aah2-in-toxoplasma-gondii-contribute-to-transmission-in-the-cat
#16
Zi T Wang, Shiv K Verma, Jitender P Dubey, L David Sibley
The Toxoplasma gondii genome contains two aromatic amino acid hydroxylase genes, AAH1 and AAH2 encode proteins that produce L-DOPA, which can serve as a precursor of catecholamine neurotransmitters. It has been suggested that this pathway elevates host dopamine levels thus making infected rodents less fearful of their definitive Felidae hosts. However, L-DOPA is also a structural precursor of melanins, secondary quinones, and dityrosine protein crosslinks, which are produced by many species. For example, dityrosine crosslinks are abundant in the oocyst walls of Eimeria and T...
March 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288189/complete-mapping-of-viral-escape-from-neutralizing-antibodies
#17
Michael B Doud, Scott E Hensley, Jesse D Bloom
Identifying viral mutations that confer escape from antibodies is crucial for understanding the interplay between immunity and viral evolution. We describe a high-throughput approach to quantify the selection that monoclonal antibodies exert on all single amino-acid mutations to a viral protein. This approach, mutational antigenic profiling, involves creating all replication-competent protein variants of a virus, selecting with antibody, and using deep sequencing to identify enriched mutations. We use mutational antigenic profiling to comprehensively identify mutations that enable influenza virus to escape four monoclonal antibodies targeting hemagglutinin, and validate key findings with neutralization assays...
March 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282450/secretory-proteins-are-delivered-to-the-septin-organized-penetration-interface-during-root-infection-by-verticillium-dahliae
#18
Ting-Ting Zhou, Yun-Long Zhao, Hui-Shan Guo
Successful infection of the host requires secretion of effector proteins to evade or suppress plant immunity. Secretion of effectors in root-infecting fungal pathogens, however, remains unexplored. We previously reported that Verticillium dahliae, a root-infecting phytopathogenic fungus, develops a penetration peg from a hyphopodium to infect cotton roots. In this study, we report that a septin ring, requiring VdSep5, partitions the hyphopodium and the invasive hypha and form the specialized fungus-host interface...
March 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282445/endothelial-cell-tropism-is-a-determinant-of-h5n1-pathogenesis-in-mammalian-species
#19
Smanla Tundup, Matheswaran Kandasamy, Jasmine T Perez, Nacho Mena, John Steel, Tamas Nagy, Randy A Albrecht, Balaji Manicassamy
The cellular and molecular mechanisms underpinning the unusually high virulence of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses in mammalian species remains unknown. Here, we investigated if the cell tropism of H5N1 virus is a determinant of enhanced virulence in mammalian species. We engineered H5N1 viruses with restricted cell tropism through the exploitation of cell type-specific microRNA expression by incorporating microRNA target sites into the viral genome. Restriction of H5N1 replication in endothelial cells via miR-126 ameliorated disease symptoms, prevented systemic viral spread and limited mortality, despite showing similar levels of peak viral replication in the lungs as compared to control virus-infected mice...
March 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282440/h1n1-influenza-viruses-varying-widely-in-hemagglutinin-stability-transmit-efficiently-from-swine-to-swine-and-to-ferrets
#20
Marion Russier, Guohua Yang, Atanaska Marinova-Petkova, Peter Vogel, Bryan S Kaplan, Richard J Webby, Charles J Russell
A pandemic-capable influenza virus requires a hemagglutinin (HA) surface glycoprotein that is immunologically unseen by most people and is capable of supporting replication and transmission in humans. HA stabilization has been linked to 2009 pH1N1 pandemic potential in humans and H5N1 airborne transmissibility in the ferret model. Swine have served as an intermediate host for zoonotic influenza viruses, yet the evolutionary pressure exerted by this host on HA stability was unknown. For over 70 contemporary swine H1 and H3 isolates, we measured HA activation pH to range from pH 5...
March 2017: PLoS Pathogens
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