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Journal of Bacteriology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920300/the-role-of-the-nifb1-and-nifb2-promoters-in-cell-type-specific-expression-of-two-mo-nitrogenases-in-the-cyanobacterium-anabaena-variabilis-atcc-29413
#1
Susan Vernon, Brenda S Pratte, Teresa Thiel
: Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413 has one Mo-nitrogenase that is made under oxic growth conditions in specialized cells called heterocysts and a second Mo-nitrogenase that is made only under anoxic conditions in vegetative cells. The two large nif gene clusters responsible for these two nitrogenases are under the control of the promoter of the first gene, nifB1 or nifB2, in the operon. Despite differences in expression patterns of nifB1 and nifB2 related to oxygen and cell type, the regions upstream of their transcription start sites (tss) show striking homology, including three highly conserved sequences (CS)...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920299/the-type-iii-secretion-system-effector-sptp-of-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhi
#2
Rebecca Johnson, Alexander Byrne, Cedric N Berger, Elizabeth Klemm, Valerie F Crepin, Gordon Dougan, Gad Frankel
: Salmonella enterica serovars causes gastroenteritis or typhoid fever in humans, with virulence depending on the action of two type III secretion systems (SPI-1 and SPI-2). SptP is a Salmonella SPI-1 effector, involved in mediating recovery of the host cytoskeleton post-infection. SptP requires a chaperone, SicP, for stability and secretion. SptP has 94% identity between S Typhimurium and S Typhi; direct comparison of the protein sequences revealed that S Typhi SptP has numerous amino acid changes within its chaperone-binding domain...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920298/malate-synthase-and-%C3%AE-methylmalyl-coa-lyase-reactions-in-the-methylaspartate-cycle-in-haloarcula-hispanica
#3
Farshad Borjian, Jing Han, Jing Hou, Hua Xiang, Jan Zarzycki, Ivan A Berg
: Haloarchaea are extremely halophilic heterotrophic microorganisms belonging to the class Halobacteria (Euryarchaeota). Almost half of the haloarchaea possesses the genes coding for enzymes of the methylaspartate cycle, a recently discovered anaplerotic acetate assimilation pathway. In this cycle, the enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle together with the dedicated enzymes of the methylaspartate cycle convert two acetyl-CoA molecules to malate. The methylaspartate cycle involves two reactions catalyzed by homologous enzymes belonging to the CitE-like enzyme superfamily, the malyl-CoA lyase/thioesterase (haloarchaeal malate synthase, hMS, Hah_2476 in Haloarcula hispanica) and the β-methylmalyl-CoA lyase (hMCL, Hah_1341)...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920297/role-of-ribonucleotide-reductase-on-bacillus-subtilis-stress-associated-mutagenesis
#4
Karla Viridiana Castro-Cerritos, Ronald E Yasbin, Eduardo A Robleto, Mario Pedraza-Reyes
: The Gram-positive microorganism Bacillus subtilis relies on a single class Ib ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) to generate 2' -deoxyribonucleotides (dNDPs) for DNA replication and repair. In this work, we investigated the influence of RNR levels on B. subtilis stationary-phase-associated mutagenesis (SPM). Since RNR is essential in this bacterium, we engineered a conditional mutant in the strain B. subtilis YB955 (hisC952, metB5, leu427) in which expression of the nrdEF operon was modulated by isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG)...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920296/a-sulfur-oxygenase-from-the-haloalkaliphilic-bacterium-thioalkalivibrio-paradoxus-with-atypically-low-reductase-activity
#5
Patrick Rühl, Uwe Pöll, Johannes Braun, Andreas Klingl, Arnulf Kletzin
: Sequence comparisons showed that the sulfur oxygenase reductase (SOR) of the haloalkaliphilic bacterium Thioalkalivibrio paradoxus Arh 1 (TpSOR) is branching deeply within dendrograms of these proteins (29-34% identity). A synthetic gene encoding the TpSOR expressed in E. coli resulted in a protein of 14.7±0.9 nm in diameter and an apparent molecular mass of 556 kDa. Sulfite and thiosulfate were formed from elemental sulfur in a temperature range of 10-98°C (Topt≈80°C) and a pH range of 6-11...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920295/a-novel-transcriptional-regulator-related-to-thiamine-phosphate-synthase-controls-thiamine-metabolism-genes-in-archaea
#6
Dmitry A Rodionov, Semen A Leyn, Xiaoqing Li, Irina A Rodionova
: Thiamine (vitamin B1) is a precursor of thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP), an essential coenzyme in the central metabolism of all living organisms. Bacterial thiamin biosynthesis and salvage genes are controlled at the RNA level by TPP-responsive riboswitches. In Archaea, TPP riboswitches are restricted to the Thermoplasmatales order. Mechanisms of transcriptional control of thiamine genes in other archaeal lineages remain unknown. Using the comparative genomics approach, we identified a novel family of transcriptional regulators (named ThiR) controlling thiamine biosynthesis and transport genes in diverse lineages from the Crenarchaeota phylum, as well as in the Halobacteria and Thermococci classes of the Euryarchaeota ThiR regulators are composed of an N-terminal DNA-binding domain and a C-terminal ligand-binding domain that is similar to the archaeal thiamin phosphate synthase ThiN...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920294/effects-of-increasing-the-affinity-of-card-for-rna-polymerase-on-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-growth-rrna-transcription-and-virulence
#7
Ashley L Garner, Jayan Rammohan, Jeremy P Huynh, Lucas M Onder, James Chen, Brian Bae, Drake Jensen, Leslie A Weiss, Ana Ruiz Manzano, Seth A Darst, Elizabeth A Campbell, Bryce E Nickels, Eric A Galburt, Christina L Stallings
: CarD is an essential RNA polymerase (RNAP) interacting protein in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) that stimulates formation of RNAP-promoter open complexes. CarD plays a complex role in Mtb growth and virulence that is not fully understood. Therefore, to gain further insight into the role of CarD in Mtb growth and virulence we determined the effect of increasing the affinity of CarD for RNAP. Using site-directed mutagenesis guided by crystal structures of CarD bound to RNAP, we identified amino acid substitutions that increase the affinity of CarD for RNAP...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895092/characterization-of-runella-slithyformis-hd-pnk-a-bifunctional-dna-rna-end-healing-enzyme-composed-of-an-n-terminal-2-3-phosphoesterase-hd-domain-and-a-c-terminal-5-oh-polynucleotide-kinase-domain
#8
Annum Munir, Stewart Shuman
: 5' and 3' end healing are key steps in nucleic acid break repair in which 5' -OH ends are phosphorylated by a polynucleotide kinase and 3' -PO4 or 2',3' -cyclic-PO4 ends are hydrolyzed by a phosphoesterase to generate the 5' -PO4 and 3' -OH termini required for sealing by classic polynucleotide ligases. End healing and sealing enzymes are present in diverse bacterial taxa, often organized as modular units within a single multifunctional polypeptide or as subunits of a repair complex...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872183/roles-of-the-essential-protein-ftsa-in-cell-growth-and-division-in-streptococcus-pneumoniae
#9
Andrea Mura, Daniela Fadda, Amilcar J Perez, Madeline L Danforth, Daniela Musu, Ana Isabel Rico, Marcin Krupka, Dalia Denapaite, Ho-Ching T Tsui, Malcolm E Winkler, Pavel Branny, Miguel Vicente, William Margolin, Orietta Massidda
: Streptococcus pneumoniae is an ovoid-shaped Gram-positive bacterium that grows by carrying out peripheral and septal peptidoglycan (PG) synthesis, analogous to model bacilli such as Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis In the model bacilli, FtsZ and FtsA proteins assemble into a ring at midcell and are dedicated to septal PG synthesis, but not peripheral PG synthesis; hence inactivation of FtsZ or FtsA results in long filamentous cells unable to divide. Here we demonstrate that FtsA and FtsZ colocalize at midcell in S...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872182/an-ompr-envz-two-component-system-ortholog-regulates-phase-variation-osmotic-tolerance-motility-and-virulence-in-acinetobacter-baumannii-strain-ab5075
#10
Kyle A Tipton, Philip N Rather
: Recently, a novel phase-variable colony opacity phenotype was discovered in Acinetobacter baumannii strain AB5075, where colonies interconvert between opaque and translucent variants. Opaque colonies become mottled/sectored after 24 hours of growth due to translucent variants arising within the colony. This easily distinguishable opaque colony phenotype was used to screen for random transposon insertions that increased the frequency of sectoring at a time point when wild-type colonies were uniformly opaque...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849176/both-adhe-and-a-separate-nadph-dependent-alcohol-dehydrogenase-adha-are-necessary-for-high-ethanol-production-in-thermoanaerobacterium-saccharolyticum
#11
Tianyong Zheng, Daniel G Olson, Sean J Murphy, Xiongjun Shao, Liang Tian, Lee R Lynd
: Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum has been engineered to produce ethanol at ∼90% theoretical yield and titer of 70 g/L. Its ethanol-producing ability has drawn attention to its metabolic pathways, which could potentially be transferred to other organisms of interest. Here we report that the iron-containing AdhA is important for ethanol production in the high-ethanol strain of T. saccharolyticum (LL1049). A single-gene deletion of adhA in LL1049 reduced ethanol production by ∼50%, whereas multiple gene deletions of all annotated alcohol dehydrogenases except adhA and adhE did not affect ethanol production...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849175/two-isoforms-of-clp-peptidase-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-control-distinct-aspects-of-cellular-physiology
#12
Branwen M Hall, Elena B M Breidenstein, César de la Fuente-Núñez, Fany Reffuveille, Gina D Mawla, Robert E W Hancock, Tania A Baker
Caseinolytic peptidases (ClpPs) regulate diverse aspects of cellular physiology in bacteria. Some species have multiple ClpPs including opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa in which there is an archetypical isoform, ClpP1, and a second isoform, ClpP2, about which little is known. Here we use phenotypic assays to investigate biological roles of ClpP1 and ClpP2 and biochemical assays to characterize purified ClpP1, ClpP2, ClpX and ClpA. Interestingly ClpP1 and ClpP2 have distinct intracellular roles for motility, pigment production, iron scavenging and biofilm formation...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849174/spot-42-srna-regulates-arabinose-inducible-arabad-promoter-activity-by-repressing-synthesis-of-the-high-affinity-low-capacity-arabinose-transporter
#13
Jiandong Chen, Susan Gottesman
: The L-arabinose-inducible araBAD promoter (PBAD) allows tightly controlled and tunable expression of genes of interest in a broad range of bacterial species. It has been successfully used to study bacterial sRNA regulation, where PBAD drives expression of target mRNA translational fusions. Here we report that in Escherichia coli, Spot 42 sRNA can regulate PBAD promoter activity by affecting arabinose uptake. We demonstrate that Spot 42 sRNA represses araF, a gene encoding the AraF subunit of the high-affinity low-capacity arabinose transporter AraFGH, through direct base pairing interactions...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849173/imaging-the-motility-and-chemotaxis-machineries-in-helicobacter-pylori-by-cryo-electron-tomography
#14
Zhuan Qin, Wei-Ting Lin, Shiwei Zhu, Aime T Franco, Jun Liu
: Helicobacter pylori is a bacterial pathogen that can cause many gastrointestinal diseases including ulcers and gastric cancer. A unique chemotaxis-mediated motility is critical for H. pylori to colonize in the human stomach and to establish chronic infection, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well understood. Here we employ cryo-electron tomography to reveal detailed structures of the H. pylori cell envelope including the sheathed flagella and chemotaxis arrays. Notably, H...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821608/the-role-of-ribonuclease-y-in-clostridium-perfringens-mrna-decay-and-processing
#15
Nozomu Obana, Kouji Nakamura, Nobuhiko Nomura
: Ribonuclease Y (RNase Y) is a major endoribonuclease that plays a crucial role in mRNA degradation and processing. We study the role of RNase Y in the Gram-positive anaerobic pathogen Clostridium perfringens, which has until now not been well understood. Our study implies an important role for RNase Y-mediated RNA degradation and processing in virulence gene expression and the physiological development of the organism. We began by constructing an RNase Y conditional knockdown strain in order to observe the importance of RNase Y on growth and virulence...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821607/novel-rpos-dependent-mechanisms-strengthen-the-envelope-permeability-barrier-during-stationary-phase
#16
Angela M Mitchell, Wei Wang, Thomas J Silhavy
: Gram-negative bacteria have effective methods of excluding toxic compounds including a largely impermeable outer membrane (OM) and a range of efflux pumps. Furthermore, when cells become nutrient-limited, RpoS enacts a global expression change providing cross-protection against many stresses. Here, we utilized sensitivity to an anionic detergent (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS) to model probe changes occurring to the cell's permeability barrier during nutrient limitation. Escherichia coli is resistant to SDS whether cells are actively growing, carbon-limited, or nitrogen-limited...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799329/the-unique-regulation-of-the-dosr-regulon-in-the-beijing-lineage-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#17
Pilar Domenech, Jason Zou, Alexandra Averback, Nishath Syed, Daniele Curtis, Samuel Donato, Michael B Reed
: The DosR regulon, a set of 48 genes normally expressed in Mycobacterium tuberculosis under conditions that inhibit aerobic respiration, is controlled via the DosR/S/T two-component system. While the regulon requires induction in most M. tuberculosis isolates, for members of the Beijing lineage its expression is uncoupled from the need for signaling. In our attempts to understand the mechanistic basis for this uncoupling in the Beijing background, we have previously reported the identification of two synonymous SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) within the adjacent Rv3134c gene...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799328/the-%C3%AF-subunit-governs-rna-polymerase-stability-and-transcriptional-specificity-in-staphylococcus-aureus
#18
Andy Weiss, Brittney D Moore, Miguel H J Tremblay, Dale Chaput, Astrid Kremer, Lindsey N Shaw
Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen that causes infection in a wide variety of sites within the human body. Its ability to adapt to the human host, and to produce a successful infection, requires precise orchestration of gene expression. While DNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RNAP) is generally well characterized, the role of several small accessory subunits within the complex has yet to be fully explored. This is particularly true for the omega (ω or RpoZ) subunit, which has been extensively studied in Gram-negative bacteria, but largely neglected in Gram-positive counterparts...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799327/call-for-original-research-papers-for-a-special-issue-in-journal-of-bacteriology-two-component-signal-transduction
#19
EDITORIAL
Ann M Stock, Igor B Zhulin
In the context of a Journal of Bacteriology special issue focused on Two-Component Signal Transduction, we would like to invite all our colleagues working on microbial signaling to participate in this issue via a research article.….
October 31, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799326/seca-a-new-twist-in-the-tale
#20
Ian Collinson
A paper published in this issue of JB[REF] provides us with a timely reminder that all is not as clear as we had previously thought in the general bacterial secretion system. The paper describes a new mode of secretion through the Sec system - "uncoupled co-translocation" for the passage of proteins across the bacterial inner membrane and suggests that we might re-think the nature and mechanism of the targeting and transport steps towards protein export.
October 31, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
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