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Journal of Bacteriology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223313/active-multi-enzyme-assemblies-for-long-chain-olefinic-hydrocarbon-biosynthesis
#1
James K Christenson, Matthew R Jensen, Brandon R Goblirsch, Fatuma Mohamed, Wei Zhang, Carrie M Wilmot, Lawrence P Wackett
Bacteria from different Phyla produce long-chain olefinic hydrocarbons derived from an OleA-catalyzed Claisen condensation of two fatty acyl-CoA substrates, followed by reduction and oxygen elimination reactions catalyzed by the proteins OleB, OleC, and OleD. In this report, OleA, OleB, OleC, and OleD were individually purified as soluble proteins, and all were found to be essential for reconstituting hydrocarbon biosynthesis. Recombinant co-expression of tagged OleABCD proteins from Xanthomonas campestris in Escherichia coli and purification over His6x- and FLAG-columns resulted in OleA separating whilst OleBCD purified together, irrespective of which of the four Ole proteins were tagged...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193905/assessment-of-insertion-sequence-mobilization-as-an-adaptive-response-to-oxidative-stress-in-acinetobacter-baumannii-using-is-seq
#2
Meredith S Wright, Stephanie Mountain, Karen Beeri, Mark D Adams
Insertion sequence (IS) elements are found throughout bacterial genomes and contribute to genome variation by interrupting genes or altering gene expression. Few of the more than thirty IS elements described in Acinetobacter baumannii have been characterized for transposition activity or expression effects. A targeted sequencing method, IS-seq, was developed to efficiently map the locations of new insertion events in A. baumannii genomes and was used to identify novel IS sites following growth in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, which causes oxidative stress...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193904/the-effector-overlap-between-the-lac-and-mel-operons-of-escherichia-coli-induction-of-the-mel-operon-with-%C3%AE-galactosides
#3
Atul Narang, Stefan Oehler
The lac (lactose) operon (processes β-galactosides) and the mel (melibiose) operon (processes α-galactosides) of Escherichia coli have a close historical connection. A number of shared substrates and effectors of the permeases and regulatory proteins has been reported over the years. Up to now, β-thiogalactosides like TMG (methyl-β-D-thiogalactopyranoside) and IPTG (isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactopyranoside) are generally not considered inducers of the mel operon. The same is true for β-galactosides like lactose (β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1→4)-D-glucose), which is a substrate, but itself not an inducer of the lac operon...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193903/structural-analysis-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-homologues-of-the-eukaryotic-proteasome-assembly-chaperone-2-pac2
#4
Lin Bai, Jordan B Jastrab, Marta Isasa, Kuan Hu, Hongjun Yu, Steven P Gygi, K Heran Darwin, Huilin Li
A previous bioinformatics analysis identified the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) proteins Rv2125 and Rv2714 as orthologs of the eukaryotic proteasome assembly chaperone 2 (PAC2). We set out to investigate whether Rv2125 or Rv2714 could function in proteasome assembly. We solved the crystal structure of Rv2125 at 3.0 Å resolution, which showed an overall fold similar to that of the PAC2 family proteins that include the archaeal PbaB and the yeast Pba1. However, Rv2125 and Rv2714 formed trimers, whereas PbaB forms tetramers and Pba1 dimerizes with Pba2...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167526/vibrio-phage-kvp40-encodes-a-functional-nad-salvage-pathway
#5
Jae Yun Lee, Zhiqun Li, Eric S Miller
: The genome of T4-type Vibrio bacteriophage KVP40 has five genes predicted to encode proteins of pyridine nucleotide metabolism, of which two, nadV and natV, would suffice for an NAD(+) salvage pathway. NadV is an apparent nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAmPRTase) and NatV is an apparent bifunctional nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase (NMNATase) and nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide pyrophosphatase (Nudix hydrolase). Genes encoding the predicted salvage pathway were cloned, expressed in E...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167525/the-history-of-bordetella-pertussis-genome-evolution-includes-structural-rearrangement
#6
Michael R Weigand, Yanhui Peng, Vladimir Loparev, Dhwani Batra, Katherine E Bowden, Mark Burroughs, Pamela K Cassiday, Jamie K Davis, Taccara Johnson, Phalasy Juieng, Kristen Knipe, Marsenia H Mathis, Andrea M Pruitt, Lori Rowe, Mili Sheth, M Lucia Tondella, Margaret M Williams
: Despite high pertussis vaccine coverage, reported cases of whooping cough (pertussis) have increased over the last decade in the United States and other developed countries. Although Bordetella pertussis is well known for its limited gene sequence variation, recent advances in long-read sequencing technology have begun to reveal genome structural heterogeneity among otherwise indistinguishable isolates, even within geographically or temporally defined epidemics. We have compared rearrangements among complete genome assemblies from 257 B...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167524/gas-sensing-and-signaling-in-the-pas-heme-domain-of-the-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-aer2-receptor
#7
Darysbel Garcia, Emilie Orillard, Mark S Johnson, Kylie J Watts
: The Aer2 chemoreceptor from Pseudomonas aeruginosa contains a PAS sensing domain that coordinates b-type heme and signals in response to the binding of O2, CO or NO. PAS-heme structures suggest that Aer2 uniquely coordinates heme via a His residue on a 310 helix (H234 on Eη), stabilizes O2 binding via a Trp residue (W283), and signals via both W283 and an adjacent Leu residue (L264). Ligand binding may displace L264 and reorient W283 for hydrogen-bonding to the ligand. Here we clarified the mechanisms by which Aer2-PAS binds heme, regulates ligand-binding, and initiates conformational signaling...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167523/the-role-of-cyclic-di-gmp-and-exopolysaccharide-in-type-iv-pilus-dynamics
#8
Jan Ribbe, Amy E Baker, Sebstian Euler, George A O'Toole, Berenike Maier
For Pseudomonas aeruginosa the levels of cyclic di-GMP govern the transition from the planktonic state to biofilm formation. Type IV pili (T4P) are crucial determinants of biofilm structure and dynamics, but it is unknown how the levels of c-di-GMP affect pilus dynamics. Here, we scrutinized how c-di-GMP affects molecular motor properties and adhesive behavior of T4P. By means of retraction, T4P generated forces of ∼ 30 pN. Deletion mutants in the proteins with known roles in biofilm formation, swarming motility and exopolysaccharide (EPS) production, specifically, the diguanulate cyclases sadC and roeA or the c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase bifA, showed only modest effects on velocity or force of T4P retraction...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167522/decreased-expression-of-stable-rna-can-alleviate-the-lethality-associated-with-rnase-e-deficiency-in-escherichia-coli
#9
P Himabindu, K Anupama
The endoribonuclease RNase E participates in mRNA degradation, rRNA processing and tRNA maturation in Escherichia coli, but the precise reasons for its essentiality are unclear and much debated. The enzyme is most active on RNA substrates with a 5' -terminal monophosphate, which is sensed by a domain in the enzyme that includes residue R169; E. coli also possesses a 5' -pyrophosphohydrolase RppH that catalyses conversion of 5' -terminal-triphosphate to -monophosphate on RNAs. Although the C-terminal half (CTH), beyond residue approximately 500, of RNase E is dispensable for viability, the ΔCTH mutation is lethal when combined with an R169Q mutation or with deletion of rppH In this work, we show that both these lethalities can be rescued in derivatives in which four, or five, of the seven rrn operons in the genome have been deleted...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167521/ddar-pa1196-regulates-expression-of-dimethylarginine-dimethylaminohydrolase-for-the-metabolism-of-methylarginines-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-pao1
#10
Benjamin R Lundgren, Frank J Bailey, Gabriella Moley, Christopher T Nomura
: Dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolases or DDAHs catalyze the hydrolysis of methylarginines to yield L-citrulline and methylamines as products. DDAHs and their central roles in methylarginine metabolism have been characterized for eukaryotic cells. While DDAHs are known to exist in some bacteria, including Streptomyces coelicolor and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the physiological importance and genetic regulation of bacterial DDAHs remain poorly understood. To provide some insight into bacterial methylarginine metabolism, this study focused on identifying the key elements or factors regulating DDAH expression in P...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167520/a-new-essential-cell-division-protein-in-caulobacter-crescentus
#11
Aurora Osorio, Laura Camarena, Miguel Angel Cevallos, Sebastian Poggio
: Bacterial cell division is a complex process that relies on a multiprotein complex composed of a core of widely conserved and generally essential proteins and on accessory proteins that vary in number and identity in different bacteria. The assembly of this complex and in particular, the initiation of constriction is a regulated process that has come under intensive study. In this work, we characterize the function of DipI, a protein conserved in alpha and beta proteobacteria that is essential in Caulobacter crescentus Our results show that DipI is a periplasmic protein that is recruited late to the division site and that is required for the initiation of constriction...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167519/regulation-of-polyhydroxybutyrate-accumulation-in-sinorhizobium-meliloti-by-the-trans-encoded-small-rna-mmgr
#12
Antonio Lagares, Germán Ceizel Borella, Uwe Linne, Anke Becker, Claudio Valverde
Riboregulation has a major role in the fine-tuning of multiple bacterial processes. Among the RNA players, trans-encoded untranslated small RNAs (sRNAs) regulate complex metabolic networks by tuning expression from multiple target genes in response to numerous signals. In Sinorhizobium meliloti, over 400 sRNAs are expressed under different stimuli. The sRNA MmgR-standing for Makes more granules Regulator-has been of particular interest to us since its sequence and structure are highly conserved among the α-proteobacteria, and its expression is regulated by the amount and quality of the bacterium's available nitrogen source...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167518/pleiotropic-regulation-of-virulence-genes-in-streptococcus-mutans-by-a-conserved-small-protein-sprv
#13
Manoharan Shankar, Mohammad S Hossain, Indranil Biswas
: Streptococcus mutans, an oral pathogen associated with dental caries, colonizes tooth surfaces as polymicrobial biofilms, known as dental plaque. S. mutans expresses several virulence factors that allow the organism to tolerate environmental fluctuations and to compete with other microorganisms. We recently identified that a small hypothetical protein (90 amino acids) was essential for normal growth of the bacterium. Inactivation of the gene SMU.2137 encoding this protein caused a significant growth defect and loss of various virulence-associated functions...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138102/alterations-in-peptidoglycan-cross-linking-suppress-the-secretin-assembly-defect-caused-by-mutation-of-gspa-in-the-type-ii-secretion-system
#14
Elizabeth M Vanderlinde, Timothy G Strozen, Sara B Hernández, Felipe Cava, S Peter Howard
: In Gram-negative bacteria, the peptidoglycan (PG) cell wall is a significant structural barrier for outer membrane protein assembly. In Aeromonas hydrophila, outer membrane multimerization of the type II secretion system (T2SS) secretin ExeD requires the function of the inner membrane assembly factor complex ExeAB. The putative mechanism of the complex involves the reorganization of PG and localization of ExeD, whereby ExeA functions by interacting with PG to form a site for secretin assembly and ExeB forms an interaction with ExeD...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138101/significance-of-a-post-translational-modification-of-the-pila-protein-of-geobacter-sulfurreducens-for-surface-attachment-biofilm-formation-and-growth-on-insoluble-extracellular-electron-acceptors
#15
Lubna V Richter, Ashley E Franks, Robert M Weis, Steven J Sandler
: Geobacter sulfurreducens, an anaerobic metal-reducing bacterium, possesses type IV pili. These pili are intrinsic structural elements in biofilm formation and together with a number of c-type cytochromes are thought to serve as conductive nanowires enabling long-range electron transfer (ET) to metal oxides and graphite anodes. Here, we report that a post-translational modification of a non-conserved amino acid residue within the PilA protein, the structural subunit of the type IV pili, is crucial for growth on insoluble extracellular electron acceptors...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138100/transposase-mediated-excision-conjugative-transfer-and-diversity-of-ice6013-in-staphylococcus-aureus
#16
Emily A Sansevere, Xiao Luo, Joo Youn Park, Sunghyun Yoon, Keun Seok Seo, D Ashley Robinson
: ICE6013 represents one of two families of integrative conjugative elements (ICEs) identified in the pan-genome of the human and animal pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus Here we investigate the excision and conjugation functions of ICE6013 and further characterize the diversity of this element. ICE6013 excision is not significantly affected by growth, temperature, pH or UV exposure and does not depend on recA The IS30-like DDE transposase (Tpase; orf1 and orf2) of ICE6013 must be uninterrupted for excision to occur, whereas disruption of three other orfs on the element significantly affect the level of excision...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138099/polysaccharide-utilization-loci-fuelling-microbial-communities
#17
Julie M Grondin, Kazune Tamura, Guillaume Déjean, D Wade Abbott, Harry Brumer
The complex carbohydrates of terrestrial and marine biomass represent a rich nutrient source for free-living and mutualistic microbes alike. The enzymatic saccharification of these diverse substrates is of critical importance for fuelling a variety of complex microbial communities, including marine, soil, ruminant, and monogastric microbiota. Consequently, highly specific carbohydrate-active enzymes, recognition proteins, and transporters are enriched in the genomes of certain species, and are of critical importance in competitive environments...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138098/genetic-and-mechanistic-analyses-of-the-periplasmic-domain-of-the-enterohemorrhagic-e-coli-ehec-qsec-histidine-sensor-kinase
#18
Christopher T Parker, Regan Russell, Jacqueline W Njoroge, Angel G Jimenez, Ron Taussig, Vanessa Sperandio
: The histidine sensor kinase (HK) QseC, senses autoinducer-3 (AI-3), and the adrenergic hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine. Upon sensing these signals, QseC acts through three response regulators (RRs) to regulate expression of virulence genes in enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC). The QseB, QseF and KdpE RRs that are phosphorylated by QseC constitute a tripartite signaling cascade having different and overlapping targets, including flagella and motility, the type three secretion system encoded by the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE), and Shiga toxin...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138097/the-n-terminus-of-the-pdub-protein-binds-the-protein-shell-of-the-pdu-microcompartment-to-its-enzymatic-core
#19
Brent P Lehman, Chiranjit Chowdhury, Thomas A Bobik
: Bacterial microcompartments (MCPs) are extremely large proteinaceous organelles that consist of an enzymatic core encapsulated within a complex protein shell. A key question in MCP biology is the nature of the interactions that guide the assembly of thousands of protein subunits into a well-ordered metabolic compartment. In this report, we show that the N-terminal 37 amino acids of the PduB protein has a critical role in binding the shell of the 1,2-propanediol utilization (Pdu) microcompartment to its enzymatic core...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115548/the-fatty-acid-regulator-fadr-influences-the-expression-of-the-virulence-cascade-in-the-el-tor-biotype-of-vibrio-cholerae-by-modulating-the-levels-of-toxt-via-two-different-mechanisms
#20
Gabriela Kovacikova, Wei Lin, Ronald K Taylor, Karen Skorupski
: FadR is a master regulator of fatty acid (FA) metabolism that coordinates the pathways of FA degradation and biosynthesis in enteric bacteria. We show here that a ΔfadR mutation in the El Tor biotype of Vibrio cholerae prevents the expression of the virulence cascade by influencing both the transcription and post-translational regulation of the master virulence regulator ToxT. FadR is a transcriptional regulator that represses the expression of genes involved in FA degradation, activates the expression of genes involved in unsaturated FA (UFA) biosynthesis and also activates the expression of two operons involved in saturated FA (SFA) biosynthesis...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
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