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Journal of Bacteriology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739675/identification-of-the-regulon-of-aphb-and-its-essential-roles-in-luxr-and-exotoxin-asp-expression-in-the-pathogen-vibrio-alginolyticus
#1
Xiating Gao, Yang Liu, Huan Liu, Zhen Yang, Qin Liu, Yuanxing Zhang, Qiyao Wang
In Vibrios, AphB is essential to activate virulence cascades by sensing low pH and anaerobiosis signals. However, its regulon remains largely unknown. Here, AphB is found as a key virulence regulator in V. alginolyticus, a pathogen for marine animals and humans. Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput DNA sequencing (ChIP-seq) enabled the detection of 20 loci in the V. alginolyticus genome that contain AphB-binding peaks. An AphB-specific binding consensus was confirmed by electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA), and the regulation of genes flanking such binding sites was demonstrated using quantitative real-time PCR analysis...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739674/essential-role-of-the-cytoplasmic-chemoreceptor-tlpt-in-the-de-novo-formation-of-chemosensory-complexes-in-rhodobacter-sphaeroides
#2
Christopher W Jones, Judith P Armitage
Bacterial chemosensory proteins form large hexagonal arrays. Several key feature of chemotactic signalling depend on these large arrays, namely cooperativity between receptors, sensitivity, integration of different signals and adaptation. The best studied arrays are the membrane associated arrays found in most bacteria. Rhodobacter sphaeroides has two spatially distinct chemosensory arrays, one transmembrane and the other cytoplasmic. These two arrays work together to control a single flagellum. Deletion of one of the soluble chemoreceptors, TlpT, results in the loss of formation of the cytoplasmic array...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716960/bacterial-tubulin-a-b-exhibit-polarized-growth-mixed-polarity-bundling-and-destabilization-by-gtp-hydrolysis
#3
César Díaz-Celis, Viviana I Risca, Felipe Hurtado, Jessica K Polka, Scott D Hansen, Daniel Maturana, Rosalba Lagos, R Dyche Mullins, Octavio Monasterio
Bacteria of the genus Prosthecobacter express homologs of eukaryotic α- and β-tubulin, called BtubA and BtubB, that have been observed to assemble into filaments in presence of GTP. BtubA/B polymers are proposed to be composed in vitro by two to six protofilaments, in contrast to in vivo where they have been reported to form 5-protofilaments tubes named bacterial microtubules (bMTs). The btubAB genes likely entered the Prosthecobacter lineage via horizontal gene transfer and may derive from an early ancestor of the modern eukaryotic microtubule (MT)...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696279/defining-the-functionally-important-domain-and-amino-acid-residues-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-integration-host-factor-for-genome-stability-dna-binding-and-integrative-recombination
#4
Narayanaswamy Sharadamma, Yadumurthy Harshavardhana, Kalappa Muniyappa
The integration host factor of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (mIHF) consists of a single polypeptide chain, the product of the ihf gene. We previously revealed that mIHF is a novel member of a new class of nucleoid-associated proteins that have important roles in DNA damage response, nucleoid compaction and integrative recombination. The mIHF contains a region of 86 amino acids at its N-terminus, absent in both α- and β-subunits of Escherichia coli IHF. However, the functional significance of an extra 86-amino acid region in the full-length protein remains unknown...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696278/outer-membrane-permeability-of-cyanobacterium-synechocystis-sp-pcc-6803-studies-of-passive-diffusion-of-small-organic-nutrients-reveal-the-absence-of-classical-porins-and-intrinsically-low-permeability
#5
Hikaru Kowata, Saeko Tochigi, Hideyuki Takahashi, Seiji Kojima
The outer membrane of heterotrophic Gram-negative bacteria plays a role of selective permeability barrier that prevents the influx of toxic compounds, while allowing the non-specific passage of small, hydrophilic nutrients through porin channels. Compared with the heterotrophic Gram-negative bacteria, the outer membrane properties of cyanobacteria, the Gram-negative photoautotrophs, are not clearly understood. In this study, using small carbohydrates, amino acids, and inorganic ions as permeation probes, we determined the outer membrane permeability of Synechocystis sp...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696277/learning-from-adversity
#6
Robert B Bourret
Many two-component regulatory systems, including Escherichia coli PhoRB, are positively autoregulated, so that stimuli result in an increase in the concentration of signaling proteins. When the quantity of signaling proteins depends on exposure history, how do past conditions affect future responses to stimuli? Hoffer et al. previously reported (J Bacteriol 183:4914-4917, 2001, https://doi.org/10.1128/JB.183.16.4914-4917.2001) that E. coli "learn" from phosphate starvation and respond more rapidly to subsequent episodes of starvation...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696276/progress-in-our-understanding-of-wzx-flippase-for-translocation-of-bacterial-membrane-lipid-linked-oligosaccharide
#7
Yaoqin Hong, Michael A Liu, Peter R Reeves
Translocation of lipid-linked oligosaccharides is a common theme across prokaryotes and eukaryotes. For bacteria, such activity is used in cell wall construction, polysaccharide synthesis and the relatively recently discovered protein glycosylation. To the best of our knowledge, the Gram-negative inner-membrane flippase Wzx was the first protein identified as being involved in oligosaccharide translocation, and yet we still have only a limited understanding of this protein after three decades of research. At present, Wzx is known to be a multi-transmembrane protein with enormous sequence diversity that flips oligosaccharide substrates with varying degrees of preference...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674072/counterbalancing-regulation-in-response-memory-of-a-positively-autoregulated-two-component-system
#8
Rong Gao, Katherine A Godfrey, Mahir A Sufian, Ann M Stock
Fluctuations in nutrient availability often result in recurrent exposures to the same stimulus condition. The ability to memorize the past event and use the "memory" to make adjustments to current behaviors can lead to more efficient adaptation to the recurring stimulus. A short-term phenotypic memory can be conferred via carry-over of the response proteins to facilitate the recurrent response but the additional accumulation of response proteins can lead to deviation from response homeostasis. We used the Escherichia coli PhoB/PhoR two-component system (TCS) as a model system to study how cells cope with the recurrence of Pi starvation conditions...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674071/-major-tom-to-ground-control-how-lipoproteins-communicate-extra-cytoplasmic-stress-to-the-decision-center-of-the-cell
#9
Géraldine Laloux, Jean-François Collet
The envelope of bacteria is a complex multi-layered shield that ensures multiple essential functions, including protecting the cell from external assaults. Hence, bacterial cells have evolved intricate mechanisms, called envelope stress response systems (ESRS), to monitor all kinds of perturbations affecting the integrity of their envelope and mount an appropriate response to contain or repair the damage. In the model bacterium Escherichia coli, several ESRS are built around a two-component system, in which envelope stress triggers a phosphotransfer between a sensor protein in the inner membrane of the envelope and a response regulator in the cytoplasm...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674070/bacillus-subtilis-intramembrane-protease-rasp-activity-in-escherichia-coli-and-in-vitro
#10
Daniel Parrell, Yang Zhang, Sandra Olenic, Lee Kroos
RasP is a predicted intramembrane metalloprotease of Bacillus subtilis that has been proposed to cleave the stress response anti-sigma factors RsiW and RsiV, the cell division protein FtsL, and remnant signal peptides, within their transmembrane segments. To provide evidence for direct effects of RasP on putative substrates, we developed a heterologous coexpression system. Since expression of catalytically-inactive RasP E21A inhibited expression of other membrane proteins in Escherichia coli, we added extra transmembrane segments to RasP E21A, which allowed accumulation of most other membrane proteins...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674069/cyclic-di-gmp-and-vpsr-induce-the-expression-of-type-ii-secretion-in-vibrio-cholerae
#11
Rudolph E Sloup, Ashley E Konal, Geoffrey B Severin, Michelle L Korir, Mira M Bagdasarian, Michael Bagdasarian, Christopher M Waters
Vibrio cholerae is a human pathogen which alternates between growth in environmental reservoirs and infection of human hosts causing severe diarrhea. The second messenger cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) mediates this transition by controlling a wide range of functions such as biofilms, virulence, and motility. Here we report that c-di-GMP induces expression of the extracellular protein secretion (eps) gene cluster, which encodes the Type II Secretion System (T2SS) in V. cholerae Analysis of the eps genes confirmed the presence of two promoters located upstream of epsC, the first gene in the operon, one of which is induced by c-di-GMP...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674068/structural-and-functional-analysis-of-the-escherichia-coli-acid-sensing-histidine-kinase-evgs
#12
Hrishiraj Sen, Nikhil Aggarwal, Chibueze Ishionwu, Nosheen Hussain, Chandni Parmar, Mohammed Jamshad, Vassiliy N Bavro, Peter A Lund
The EvgS/EvgA two component system of E. coli is activated in response to low pH and alkali metals, and regulates many genes including the glutamate dependent acid resistance system and a number of efflux pumps. EvgS, the sensor kinase, is one of five unconventional histidine kinases in E. coli, and has a large periplasmic domain and a cytoplasmic PAS domain in addition to phospho-acceptor, HK and dimerization, internal receiver, and phosphotransfer domains. Mutations that constitutively activate the protein at pH 7 map to the PAS domain...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674067/genome-scale-mutational-analysis-of-geobacter-sulfurreducens-reveals-distinct-molecular-mechanisms-for-respiration-and-sensing-of-poised-electrodes-vs-fe-iii-oxides
#13
Chi Ho Chan, Caleb E Levar, Fernanda Jiménez-Otero, Daniel R Bond
Geobacter sulfurreducens generates electrical current by coupling intracellular oxidation of organic acids to reduction of proteins on the cell surface that are able to interface with electrodes. This ability is attributed to the bacterium's capacity to respire other extracellular electron acceptors that require contact, such as insoluble metal oxides. To directly investigate the genetic basis of electrode-based respiration, we constructed Geobacter sulfurreducens transposon-insertion sequencing (Tn-Seq) libraries for growth with soluble fumarate or an electrode as the electron acceptor...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674066/contribution-of-the-chromosomal-ccdab-operon-to-bacterial-drug-tolerance
#14
Kritika Gupta, Arti Tripathi, Alishan Sahu, Raghavan Varadarajan
One of the first identified and best studied toxin-antitoxin systems in Escherichia coli is the F-plasmid based CcdAB system. This system is involved in plasmid maintenance through post-segregational killing. More recently, ccdAB homologs have been found on the chromosome, including in pathogenic strains of E. coli and other bacteria. However the functional role of chromosomal ccdAB genes, if any, has remained unclear. We show that both the native ccd operon of the E.coliO157 strain, as well as the ccd operon from the F- plasmid, when inserted on the E...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674065/attention-seeker-production-modification-and-release-of-inflammatory-peptidoglycan-fragments-in-neisseria
#15
Jia Mun Chan, Joseph P Dillard
Maintenance of the structural macromolecule peptidoglycan (PG), which involves regulated cycles of PG synthesis and PG degradation, is pivotal for cellular integrity and survival. PG fragments generated from the degradation process are usually efficiently recycled by Gram-negative bacteria. However, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and a limited number of Gram-negative bacteria release sufficient amounts of PG fragments to induce host tissue inflammation and damage during an infection. Due to limited redundancy in PG modifying machineries and genetic tractability, N...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652302/metabolism-dealing-with-thermal-degradation-of-nad-in-the-hyperthermophilic-archaeon-thermococcus-kodakarensis
#16
Shin-Ichi Hachisuka, Takaaki Sato, Haruyuki Atomi
NAD(+) is an important cofactor for enzymatic oxidation reactions in all living organisms including (hyper)thermophiles. However, NAD(+) is susceptible to thermal degradation at high temperatures. It can thus be expected that (hyper)thermophiles harbor mechanisms that maintain in vivo NAD(+) concentrations and possibly remove and/or reuse undesirable degradation products of NAD(+) Here we confirmed that at 85°C, thermodegradation of NAD(+) results mostly in the generation of nicotinamide and ADP-ribose, the latter known to display toxicity by spontaneously linking to proteins...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652301/stand-alone-eal-domain-proteins-form-a-distinct-subclass-of-eal-proteins-involved-in-regulation-of-cell-motility-and-biofilm-formation-in-enterobacteria
#17
Youssef El Mouali, Hyunhee Kim, Irfan Ahmad, Annelie Brauner, Ying Liu, Mikael Skurnik, Michael Y Galperin, Ute Römling
The second messenger cyclic di-GMP is almost ubiquitous among bacteria and so are the cyclic di-GMP turnover proteins, which mediate the transition between motility and sessility. EAL domain proteins have been characterized as cyclic di-GMP-specific phosphodiesterases. While most EAL domain proteins contain additional, usually N-terminal, domains, there is a distinct family of proteins within stand-alone EAL domains, exemplified by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium proteins STM3611 (YhjH/PdeH), a c-di-GMP-specific phosphodiesterase, and the enzymatically inactive STM1344 (YdiV/CdgR) and STM1697, which regulate bacterial motility through interaction with the flagella master regulator FlhDC...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652300/the-proline-variant-of-the-w-f-l-m-t-s-r-c-di-gmp-binding-motif-suppresses-dependence-on-signal-association-for-regulator-function
#18
Daniel M Chodur, Linda Guo, Meng Pu, Eric Bruger, Nico Fernandez, Chris Waters, Dean A Rowe-Magnus
Vibrio vulnificus is an estuarine bacteria and potent opportunistic human pathogen. It enters the food-chain by asymptomatically colonizing a variety of marine organisms, most notably oysters. Expression of the brp-encoded extracellular polysaccharide, which enhances cell-surface adherence, is regulated by c-di-GMP and the activator BrpT. The V. cholerae and V. parahaemolyticus homologs, VpsT and CpsQ, directly bind c-di-GMP via a novel W[F/L/M][T/S]R motif and c-di-GMP binding is absolutely required for activity...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630130/how-a-genetically-stable-extremophile-evolves-modes-of-genome-diversification-in-the-archaeon-sulfolobus-acidocaldarius
#19
Dominic Mao, Dennis W Grogan
In order to analyze in molecular terms how Sulfolobus genomes diverge, damage-induced mutations and natural polymorphisms (PMs) were identified in laboratory constructs and wild-type isolates, respectively, of Sulfolobus acidocaldarius Among wild-type isolates drawn from one local population, pairwise nucleotide divergence averaged 4 x 10(-6), which is about 0.15% of the corresponding divergence reported for Sulfolobus islandicus The most variable features of wild-type S. acidocaldarius genomes were homopolymer (mononucleotide) tracts and longer tandem repeats, consistent with the spontaneous mutations that occur under laboratory conditions...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630129/the-polar-organizing-protein-popz-is-required-for-chromosome-segregation-in-agrobacterium-tumefaciens
#20
Haley M Ehrle, Jacob T Guidry, Rebecca Iacovetto, Anne K Salisbury, D J Sandidge, Grant Bowman
Despite being perceived as relatively simple organisms, many bacteria exhibit an impressive degree of sub-cellular organization. In Caulobacter crescentus, the evolutionarily conserved polar organizing protein PopZ facilitates cytoplasmic organization by recruiting chromosome centromeres and regulatory proteins to the cell poles. Here, we characterize the localization and function of PopZ in Agrobacterium tumefaciens, a genetically related species with distinct anatomy. In this species, we find that PopZ molecules are relocated from the old pole to the new pole in the minutes following cell division...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
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