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Journal of Bacteriology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096449/specific-glucoside-transporters-influence-septal-structure-and-function-in-the-filamentous-heterocyst-forming-cyanobacterium-anabaena-sp-strain-pcc-7120
#1
Mercedes Nieves-Morión, Sigal Lechno-Yossef, Rocío López-Igual, José E Frías, Vicente Mariscal, Dennis J Nürnberg, Conrad W Mullineaux, C Peter Wolk, Enrique Flores
: When deprived of combined nitrogen, some filamentous cyanobacteria contain two cell types: vegetative cells that fix CO2 through oxygenic photosynthesis and heterocysts that are specialized in N2 fixation. In the diazotrophic filament, the vegetative cells provide the heterocysts with reduced carbon (mainly in the form of sucrose) and heterocysts provide the vegetative cells with combined nitrogen. Septal junctions traverse peptidoglycan through structures known as nanopores, and appear to mediate intercellular molecular transfer that can be traced with fluorescent markers, including the sucrose analog esculin (a coumarin glucoside) that is incorporated into the cells...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096448/loss-of-function-mutations-in-hspr-rescue-the-growth-defect-of-a-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-proteasome-activator-e-pafe-mutant
#2
Jordan B Jastrab, Marie I Samanovic, Richard Copin, Bo Shopsin, K Heran Darwin
: Mycobacterium tuberculosis uses a proteasome to degrade proteins by both ATP-dependent and -independent pathways. While much has been learned about ATP-dependent degradation, relatively little is understood about the ATP-independent pathway, which is controlled by Mycobacterium tuberculosis proteasome accessory factor E (PafE). Recently, we found that a Mycobacterium tuberculosis pafE mutant has slowed growth in vitro and is sensitive to killing by heat stress. However, we did not know if these phenotypes were caused by an inability to degrade the PafE-proteasome substrate HspR (heat shock protein repressor), an inability to degrade any damaged or misfolded proteins, or a defect in another protein quality control pathway...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096447/pbp1b-glycosyltransferase-and-transpeptidase-activities-play-different-essential-roles-during-the-de-novo-regeneration-of-rod-shaped-morphology-in-escherichia-coli
#3
Dev K Ranjit, Matthew A Jorgenson, Kevin D Young
: Peptidoglycan is a vital component of nearly all cell wall-bearing bacteria and is a valuable target for antibacterial therapy. However, despite decades of work, there remain important gaps in understanding how this macromolecule is synthesized and molded into a three-dimensional structure that imparts specific morphologies to individual cells. Here, we investigate the particularly enigmatic area of how peptidoglycan is synthesized and shaped during the first stages of creating cell shape de novo, that is, in the absence of a pre-existing template...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096446/the-rpn-yhga-like-proteins-of-escherichia-coli-k-12-and-their-contribution-to-reca-independent-horizontal-transfer
#4
Anthony W Kingston, Christine Ponkratz, Elisabeth A Raleigh
: Bacteria use a variety of DNA mobilizing enzymes to facilitate environmental niche adaptation via horizontal gene transfer. This has led to real world problems, like the spread of antibiotic resistance, yet many mobilization proteins remain undefined. Here, we investigate the uncharacterized family of YhgA-like "transposase_31" proteins (PF04754). Our primary focus was the genetic and biochemical properties of the five E. coli K-12 members of this family, which we designate RpnA-RpnE for recombination promoting nuclease...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069824/arta-dependent-processing-of-a-tat-substrate-containing-a-conserved-tripartite-structure-that-is-not-localized-at-the-c-terminus
#5
Mohd Farid Abdul Halim, Jonathan D Stoltzfus, Stefan Schulze, Micheal Hippler, Mechthild Pohlschroder
: Most prokaryotic secreted proteins are transported to the cell surface using either the general secretion (Sec) or twin arginine translocation (Tat) pathway. A majority of secreted proteins are anchored to the cell surface while the remainder are released into the extracellular environment. The anchored surface proteins play a variety of important roles in cellular processes, ranging from facilitating interactions between cells to maintaining cell stability. The extensively studied S-layer glycoprotein (SLG) of Haloferax volcanii, previously thought to be anchored via C-terminal intercalation into the membrane, was recently shown to be lipidated and to have its C-terminal segment removed in processes dependent upon archaeosortase A (ArtA), a recently discovered enzyme...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069823/identification-of-a-residue-glu60-in-trap-required-for-inducing-efficient-transcription-termination-at-the-trp-attenuator-independent-of-binding-tryptophan-and-rna
#6
Natalie M McAdams, Andrea Patterson, Paul Gollnick
Transcription of the tryptophan (trp) operon in Bacillus subtilis is regulated by an attenuation mechanism. Attenuation is controlled by the trp RNA-binding attenuation protein (TRAP). TRAP binds to a site in the 5' leader region of the nascent trp transcript in response to the presence of excess intracellular tryptophan. This binding induces transcription termination upstream of the structural genes of the operon. In prior attenuation models, the role of TRAP was only to alter the secondary structure of the leader region RNA so as to promote formation of the trp attenuator, which was presumed to function as an intrinsic terminator...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069822/transcriptional-activation-of-virulence-genes-of-rhizobium-etli
#7
Luyao Wang, Benoît Lacroix, Jianhua Guo, Vitaly Citovsky
Recently, Rhizobium etli has emerged, in addition to Agrobacterium spp., as a prokaryotic species that encodes a functional machinery for DNA transfer to plant cells. To understand this R. etli-mediated genetic transformation, it would be useful to define how its vir genes respond to the host plants. Here, we explored the transcriptional activation of the vir genes contained on the R. etli p42a plasmid. Using a reporter construct harboring lacZ under the control of the R. etli virE promoter, we showed that the signal phenolic molecule acetosyringone (AS) induced R...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069821/characterization-of-engineered-preq1-riboswitches-for-inducible-gene-regulation-in-mycobacteria
#8
Erik R Van Vlack, Shana Topp, Jessica C Seeliger
: We report here the behavior of naturally occurring and rationally engineered preQ1 riboswitches and their application to inducible gene regulation in mycobacteria. Because mycobacteria lack preQ1 biosynthetic genes, we hypothesized that preQ1 could be used as an exogenous non-metabolite ligand to control riboswitches in mycobacteria. Selected naturally occurring preQ1 riboswitches were assayed and successfully drove preQ1-dependent repression of a GFP reporter in Mycobacterium smegmatis Using structure-based design, we engineered three preQ1 riboswitches from Thermoanaerobacter tencongensis, Bacillus subtilis, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus towards achieving higher response ratios and increased repression...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069820/comprehensive-spatial-analysis-of-the-borrelia-burgdorferi-lipoproteome-reveals-a-compartmentalization-bias-toward-the-bacterial-surface
#9
Alexander S Dowdell, Maxwell D Murphy, Christina Azodi, Selene K Swanson, Laurence Florens, Shiyong Chen, Wolfram R Zückert
: The Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi is unique among bacteria in its large number of lipoproteins that are encoded by a small, exceptionally fragmented and predominantly linear genome. Peripherally anchored in either the inner or outer membrane and facing either the periplasm or the external environment, these lipoproteins assume varied roles. A prominent subset functioning as the apparent linchpins of the enzootic tick-vertebrate infection cycle has been explored as vaccine targets...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031283/diversification-of-the-alpb-outer-membrane-protein-of-helicobacter-pylori-affects-biofilm-formation-and-cellular-adhesion
#10
Hideo Yonezawa, Takako Osaki, Toshiyuki Fukutomi, Tomoko Hanawa, Satoshi Kurata, Cynthia Zaman, Fuhito Hojo, Shigeru Kamiya
Helicobacter pylori is one of the most common causes of bacterial infection in humans and forms biofilms on human gastric mucosal epithelium as well as on in vitro abiotic surfaces. Bacterial biofilm is critical not only for environmental survival but also for successful infection. We previously demonstrated that strain TK1402, which was isolated from a Japanese patient with duodenal and gastric ulcers, has a high biofilm forming ability in vitro relative to other strains. In addition, we showed that outer membrane vesicles (OMV) play an important role in biofilm formation...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031282/tonb-dependent-heme-hemoglobin-utilization-by-caulobacter-crescentus-huta
#11
Heloise Balhesteros, Yan Shipelskiy, Noah Long, Aritri Majumdar, Benjamin B Katz, Naara M Santos, Laura Leaden, Salete M Newton, Marilis V Marques, Phillip E Klebba
: Siderophore nutrition tests with Caulobacter crescentus strain NA1000 revealed that it utilized a variety of ferric hydroxamate siderophores, including asperchromes, ferrichromes, ferrichrome A, malonichrome and ferric aerobactin, as well as hemin and hemoglobin. C. crescentus did not transport ferrioxamine B or ferric catecholates. Because it did not use ferric enterobactin, the catecholate aposiderophore was an effective agent for iron deprivation. We determined the kinetics and thermodynamics of [(59)Fe]-apoferrichrome and [(59)Fe]-citrate binding and transport by NA1000...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031281/pnpase-rnase-e-g-and-ybey-are-involved-in-the-maturation-of-4-5s-rna-in-corynebacterium-glutamicum
#12
Tomoya Maeda, Yuya Tanaka, Masaaki Wachi, Masayuki Inui
: Corynebacterium glutamicum has been applied for industrial production of various metabolites such as amino acids. To understand the biosynthesis of membrane protein in this bacterium, we investigated the process of signal recognition particle (SRP) assembly. SRP is found in all three domains of life and plays an important role in the membrane insertion of proteins. SRP RNA is initially transcribed as precursor molecules; however, relatively little is known about its maturation. In C...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031280/proteolytic-cleavage-of-the-immunodominant-outer-membrane-protein-rompa-in-rickettsia-rickettsii
#13
Nicholas F Noriea, Tina R Clark, David Mead, Ted Hackstadt
: Rickettsia rickettsii, the causative agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever, contains two immunodominant proteins, rOmpA and rOmpB, in the outer membrane. Both rOmpA and rOmpB are conserved throughout spotted fever group rickettsiae as members of a family of autotransporter proteins. Previously, it was demonstrated that rOmpB is proteolytically processed with the cleavage site residing near the autotransporter domain at the carboxy-terminal end of the protein, cleaving the 168 kDa precursor into apparent 120 kDa and 32 kDa fragments...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031279/progress-in-understanding-of-the-molecular-basis-underlying-functional-diversification-of-cyclic-di-nucleotide-turnover-proteins
#14
Ute Römling, Zhao-Xun Liang, J Maxwell Dow
Cyclic di-GMP was the first cyclic di-nucleotide second messenger described, presaging the discovery of additional cyclic di-nucleotide messengers in bacteria and eukaryotes. The GGDEF diguanylate cyclase (DGC) and EAL and HD-GYP phosphodiesterase (PDE) domains conduct the turnover of cyclic di-GMP. These three unrelated domains belong to superfamilies that exhibit significant variations in function, to include both enzymatically active and inactive members with a subset involved in synthesis and degradation of other cyclic di-nucleotides...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031278/vfrb-is-a-key-activator-of-the-staphylococcus-aureus-saers-two-component-system
#15
Christina N Krute, Kelly C Rice, Jeffrey L Bose
During previous studies, we identified the fatty acid kinase VfrB as a potent regulator of α-hemolysin and other virulence factors in Staphylococcus aureus In this study, we have demonstrated that VfrB is a positive activator of the SaeRS two-component regulatory system. Analysis of vfrB, saeR, and saeS mutant strains revealed that VfrB is functioning in the same pathway as SaeRS. At the transcriptional level, promoter activity of SaeRS class I (coa) and class II (hla) target genes is down-regulated during exponential growth phase in the vfrB mutant compared to the wild-type strain...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994019/quorum-sensing-in-a-methane-oxidizing-bacterium
#16
Aaron W Puri, Amy L Schaefer, Yanfen Fu, David A C Beck, E Peter Greenberg, Mary E Lidstrom
: Aerobic methanotrophic bacteria use methane as their sole source of carbon and energy and serve as a major sink for the potent greenhouse gas methane in freshwater ecosystems. Dissecting the molecular details of how these organisms interact in the environment may increase our understanding of how they perform this important ecological role. Many bacterial species use quorum sensing (QS) systems to regulate gene expression in a cell density-dependent manner. We have identified a QS system in the genome of Methylobacter tundripaludum, a dominant methane-oxidizer in methane enrichments of sediment from Lake Washington (Seattle, WA, USA)...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994018/a-conserved-abc-transport-system-regulated-by-the-general-stress-response-pathways-of-alpha-and-gammaproteobacteria
#17
Julien Herrou, Jonathan W Willett, Daniel M Czyż, Gyorgy Babnigg, Youngchang Kim, Sean Crosson
: Brucella abortus σ(E1) is an EcfG-family sigma factor that regulates transcription of dozens of genes in response to diverse stress conditions, and is required for maintenance of chronic infection in a mouse model. A putative ATP-binding cassette transporter operon, bab1_0223-bab1_0226, is among the most highly activated gene sets in the σ(E1) regulon. The proteins encoded by this operon resemble quaternary ammonium compatible solute importers, but are most similar in sequence to the broadly conserved YehZYXW system, which remains largely uncharacterized...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994017/legionella-pneumophila-oxyr-is-a-redundant-transcriptional-regulator-that-contributes-to-expression-control-of-the-two-component-cpxra-system
#18
Jennifer R Tanner, Palak G Patel, Jacqueline R Hellinga, Lynda J Donald, Celine Jimenez, Jason J LeBlanc, Ann Karen C Brassinga
: Nominally an environmental organism, Legionella pneumophila is an intracellular parasite of protozoa, but is also the causative agent of the pneumonia termed Legionnaires' disease that results from inhalation of aerosolized bacteria by susceptible humans. Coordination of gene expression by a number of identified regulatory factors, including OxyR, assist L. pneumophila in adapting to the stresses of these changing environments. L. pneumophila OxyR (OxyRLp) is an ortholog of E. coli OxyR; however, OxyRLp was shown elsewhere to be functionally divergent such that it acts as a transcription regulator independent of the oxidative stress response...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956524/thermoregulation-of-biofilm-formation-in-burkholderia-pseudomallei-is-disrupted-by-mutation-of-a-putative-diguanylate-cyclase
#19
Brooke A Plumley, Kevin H Martin, Grace I Borlee, Nicole L Marlenee, Mary N Burtnick, Paul J Brett, David P AuCoin, Richard A Bowen, Herbert P Schweizer, Bradley R Borlee
: Burkholderia pseudomallei, a Tier 1 select agent and the etiological agent of melioidosis, transitions from soil and aquatic environments to infect a variety of vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. During the transition from an environmental saprophyte to a mammalian pathogen, B. pseudomallei encounters and responds to rapidly changing environmental conditions. Environmental sensing systems that control cellular levels of cyclic di-GMP promote pathogen survival in diverse environments...
December 12, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956523/the-master-regulators-of-the-fla1-and-fla2-flagella-of-rhodobacter-sphaeroides-control-the-expression-of-their-cognate-chey-proteins
#20
José Hernandez-Valle, Clelia Domenzain, Javier de la Mora, Sebastian Poggio, Georges Dreyfus, Laura Camarena
: Rhodobacter sphaeroides is a α-proteobacterium that has two complete sets of flagellar genes. The fla1 set was acquired by horizontal transfer from an ancestral γ-proteobacterium and is the only set of flagellar genes that is expressed during growth under standard laboratory conditions. The products of these genes assemble a single, subpolar flagellum. In the absence of the Fla1 flagellum, a gain-of-function mutation in the histidine kinase CckA turns on the expression of the fla2 flagellar genes through the response regulator CtrA...
December 12, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
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