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Cell Host & Microbe

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916476/genesis-evolution-and-prevalence-of-h5n6-avian-influenza-viruses-in-china
#1
Yuhai Bi, Quanjiao Chen, Qianli Wang, Jianjun Chen, Tao Jin, Gary Wong, Chuansong Quan, Jun Liu, Jun Wu, Renfu Yin, Lihua Zhao, Mingxin Li, Zhuang Ding, Rongrong Zou, Wen Xu, Hong Li, Huijun Wang, Kegong Tian, Guanghua Fu, Yu Huang, Alexander Shestopalov, Shoujun Li, Bing Xu, Hongjie Yu, Tingrong Luo, Lin Lu, Xun Xu, Yang Luo, Yingxia Liu, Weifeng Shi, Di Liu, George Fu Gao
Constant surveillance of live poultry markets (LPMs) is currently the best way to predict and identify emerging avian influenza viruses (AIVs) that pose a potential threat to public health. Through surveillance of LPMs from 16 provinces and municipalities in China during 2014-2016, we identified 3,174 AIV-positive samples and isolated and sequenced 1,135 AIVs covering 31 subtypes. Our analysis shows that H5N6 has replaced H5N1 as one of the dominant AIV subtypes in southern China, especially in ducks. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that H5N6 arose from reassortments of H5 and H6N6 viruses, with the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase combinations being strongly lineage specific...
November 25, 2016: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916477/modulation-of-a-circulating-uremic-solute-via-rational-genetic-manipulation-of-the-gut-microbiota
#2
A Sloan Devlin, Angela Marcobal, Dylan Dodd, Stephen Nayfach, Natalie Plummer, Tim Meyer, Katherine S Pollard, Justin L Sonnenburg, Michael A Fischbach
Renal disease is growing in prevalence and has striking co-morbidities with metabolic and cardiovascular disease. Indoxyl sulfate (IS) is a toxin that accumulates in plasma when kidney function declines and contributes to the progression of chronic kidney disease. IS derives exclusively from the gut microbiota. Bacterial tryptophanases convert tryptophan to indole, which is absorbed and modified by the host to produce IS. Here, we identify a widely distributed family of tryptophanases in the gut commensal Bacteroides and find that deleting this gene eliminates the production of indole in vitro...
November 24, 2016: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889463/noncanonical-fungal-autophagy-inhibits-inflammation-in-response-to-ifn-%C3%AE-via-dapk1
#3
Vasilis Oikonomou, Silvia Moretti, Giorgia Renga, Claudia Galosi, Monica Borghi, Marilena Pariano, Matteo Puccetti, Carlo A Palmerini, Lucia Amico, Alessandra Carotti, Lucia Prezioso, Angelica Spolzino, Andrea Finocchi, Paolo Rossi, Andrea Velardi, Franco Aversa, Valerio Napolioni, Luigina Romani
Defects in a form of noncanonical autophagy, known as LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP), lead to increased inflammatory pathology during fungal infection. Although LAP contributes to fungal degradation, the molecular mechanisms underlying LAP-mediated modulation of inflammation are unknown. We describe a mechanism by which inflammation is regulated during LAP through the death-associated protein kinase 1 (DAPK1). The ATF6/C/EBP-β/DAPK1 axis activated by IFN-γ not only mediates LAP to Aspergillus fumigatus but also concomitantly inhibits Nod-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) activation and restrains pathogenic inflammation...
November 16, 2016: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866900/a-viral-deamidase-targets-the-helicase-domain-of-rig-i-to-block-rna-induced-activation
#4
Jun Zhao, Yi Zeng, Simin Xu, Jie Chen, Guobo Shen, Caiqun Yu, David Knipe, Weiming Yuan, Jian Peng, Wenqing Xu, Chao Zhang, Zanxian Xia, Pinghui Feng
RIG-I detects double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) to trigger antiviral cytokine production. Protein deamidation is emerging as a post-translational modification that chiefly regulates protein function. We report here that UL37 of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is a protein deamidase that targets RIG-I to block RNA-induced activation. Mass spectrometry analysis identified two asparagine residues in the helicase 2i domain of RIG-I that were deamidated upon UL37 expression or HSV-1 infection. Deamidation rendered RIG-I unable to sense viral dsRNA, thus blocking its ability to trigger antiviral immune responses and restrict viral replication...
November 16, 2016: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889464/enterocyte-purge-and-rapid-recovery-is-a-resilience-reaction-of-the-gut-epithelium-to-pore-forming-toxin-attack
#5
Kwang-Zin Lee, Matthieu Lestradet, Catherine Socha, Stefanie Schirmeier, Antonin Schmitz, Caroline Spenlé, Olivier Lefebvre, Céline Keime, Wennida M Yamba, Richard Bou Aoun, Samuel Liegeois, Yannick Schwab, Patricia Simon-Assmann, Frédéric Dalle, Dominique Ferrandon
Besides digesting nutrients, the gut protects the host against invasion by pathogens. Enterocytes may be subjected to damage by both microbial and host defensive responses, causing their death. Here, we report a rapid epithelial response that alleviates infection stress and protects the enterocytes from the action of microbial virulence factors. Intestinal epithelia exposed to hemolysin, a pore-forming toxin secreted by Serratia marcescens, undergo an evolutionarily conserved process of thinning followed by the recovery of their initial thickness within a few hours...
November 12, 2016: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866901/histones-are-rapidly-loaded-onto-unintegrated-retroviral-dnas-soon-after-nuclear-entry
#6
Gary Z Wang, Ying Wang, Stephen P Goff
Chromosomal structure of nuclear DNA is usually maintained by insertion of nucleosomes into preexisting chromatin, both on newly synthesized DNA at replication forks and at sites of DNA damage. But during retrovirus infection, a histone-free DNA copy of the viral genome is synthesized that must be loaded with nucleosomes de novo. Here, we show that core histones are rapidly loaded onto unintegrated Moloney murine leukemia virus DNAs. Loading of nucleosomes requires nuclear entry, but does not require viral DNA integration...
November 9, 2016: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818078/functional-and-genomic-architecture-of-borrelia-burgdorferi-induced-cytokine-responses-in-humans
#7
Marije Oosting, Mariska Kerstholt, Rob Ter Horst, Yang Li, Patrick Deelen, Sanne Smeekens, Martin Jaeger, Ekta Lachmandas, Hedwig Vrijmoeth, Mihaela Lupse, Mirela Flonta, Robert A Cramer, Bart Jan Kullberg, Vinod Kumar, Ramnik Xavier, Cisca Wijmenga, Mihai G Netea, Leo A B Joosten
Despite the importance of immune variation for the symptoms and outcome of Lyme disease, the factors influencing cytokine production during infection with the causal pathogen Borrelia burgdorferi remain poorly understood. Borrelia infection-induced monocyte- and T cell-derived cytokines were profiled in peripheral blood from two healthy human cohorts of Western Europeans from the Human Functional Genomics Project. Both non-genetic and genetic host factors were found to influence Borrelia-induced cytokine responses...
November 1, 2016: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746097/dai-senses-influenza-a-virus-genomic-rna-and-activates-ripk3-dependent-cell-death
#8
Roshan J Thapa, Justin P Ingram, Katherine B Ragan, Shoko Nogusa, David F Boyd, Asiel A Benitez, Haripriya Sridharan, Rachelle Kosoff, Maria Shubina, Vanessa J Landsteiner, Mark Andrake, Peter Vogel, Luis J Sigal, Benjamin R tenOever, Paul G Thomas, Jason W Upton, Siddharth Balachandran
Influenza A virus (IAV) is an RNA virus that is cytotoxic to most cell types in which it replicates. IAV activates the host kinase RIPK3, which induces cell death via parallel pathways of necroptosis, driven by the pseudokinase MLKL, and apoptosis, dependent on the adaptor proteins RIPK1 and FADD. How IAV activates RIPK3 remains unknown. We report that DAI (ZBP1/DLM-1), previously implicated as a cytoplasmic DNA sensor, is essential for RIPK3 activation by IAV. Upon infection, DAI recognizes IAV genomic RNA, associates with RIPK3, and is required for recruitment of MLKL and RIPK1 to RIPK3...
October 8, 2016: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832592/receptor-mediated-sorting-of-typhoid-toxin-during-its-export-from-salmonella-typhi-infected-cells
#9
Shu-Jung Chang, Jeongmin Song, Jorge E Galán
Typhoid toxin is an essential virulence factor of Salmonella Typhi, the cause of typhoid fever. Typhoid toxin is secreted into the lumen of Salmonella-containing vacuole (SCV), after which it is packaged into vesicle carrier intermediates and released extracellularly through incompletely understood mechanisms. Following export, the toxin targets cells by interacting with human-specific Neu5Ac-terminated glycan receptors. We show that typhoid toxin is sorted from the SCV into vesicle carrier intermediates via interactions of its B subunit, PltB, with specific lumenal sialylated glycan packaging receptors...
November 9, 2016: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832591/a-herpesvirus-protein-selectively-inhibits-cellular-mrna-nuclear-export
#10
Danyang Gong, Yong Hoon Kim, Yuchen Xiao, Yushen Du, Yafang Xie, Kevin K Lee, Jun Feng, Nisar Farhat, Dawei Zhao, Sara Shu, Xinghong Dai, Sumit K Chanda, Tariq M Rana, Nevan J Krogan, Ren Sun, Ting-Ting Wu
Nuclear mRNA export is highly regulated to ensure accurate cellular gene expression. Viral inhibition of cellular mRNA export can enhance viral access to the cellular translation machinery and prevent anti-viral protein production but is generally thought to be nonselective. We report that ORF10 of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), a nuclear DNA virus, inhibits mRNA export in a transcript-selective manner to control cellular gene expression. Nuclear export inhibition by ORF10 requires an interaction with an RNA export factor, Rae1...
November 9, 2016: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832590/plasmodium-merozoite-trap-family-protein-is-essential-for-vacuole-membrane-disruption-and-gamete-egress-from-erythrocytes
#11
Daniel Y Bargieri, Sabine Thiberge, Chwen L Tay, Alison F Carey, Alice Rantz, Florian Hischen, Audrey Lorthiois, Ursula Straschil, Pallavi Singh, Shailja Singh, Tony Triglia, Takafumi Tsuboi, Alan Cowman, Chetan Chitnis, Pietro Alano, Jake Baum, Gabriele Pradel, Catherine Lavazec, Robert Ménard
Surface-associated TRAP (thrombospondin-related anonymous protein) family proteins are conserved across the phylum of apicomplexan parasites. TRAP proteins are thought to play an integral role in parasite motility and cell invasion by linking the extracellular environment with the parasite submembrane actomyosin motor. Blood stage forms of the malaria parasite Plasmodium express a TRAP family protein called merozoite-TRAP (MTRAP) that has been implicated in erythrocyte invasion. Using MTRAP-deficient mutants of the rodent-infecting P...
November 9, 2016: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832589/the-salmonella-effector-sted-mediates-march8-dependent-ubiquitination-of-mhc-ii-molecules-and-inhibits-t-cell-activation
#12
Ethel Bayer-Santos, Charlotte H Durkin, Luciano A Rigano, Andreas Kupz, Eric Alix, Ondrej Cerny, Elliott Jennings, Mei Liu, Aindrias S Ryan, Nicolas Lapaque, Stefan H E Kaufmann, David W Holden
The SPI-2 type III secretion system (T3SS) of intracellular Salmonella enterica translocates effector proteins into mammalian cells. Infection of antigen-presenting cells results in SPI-2 T3SS-dependent ubiquitination and reduction of surface-localized mature MHC class II (mMHCII). We identify the effector SteD as required and sufficient for this process. In Mel Juso cells, SteD localized to the Golgi network and vesicles containing the E3 ubiquitin ligase MARCH8 and mMHCII. SteD caused MARCH8-dependent ubiquitination and depletion of surface mMHCII...
November 9, 2016: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832588/secreted-effectors-encoded-within-and-outside-of-the-francisella-pathogenicity-island-promote-intramacrophage-growth
#13
Aria Eshraghi, Jungyun Kim, Alexandra C Walls, Hannah E Ledvina, Cheryl N Miller, Kathryn M Ramsey, John C Whitney, Matthew C Radey, S Brook Peterson, Brittany R Ruhland, Bao Q Tran, Young Ah Goo, David R Goodlett, Simon L Dove, Jean Celli, David Veesler, Joseph D Mougous
The intracellular bacterial pathogen Francisella tularensis causes tularemia, a zoonosis that can be fatal. The type VI secretion system (T6SS) encoded by the Francisella pathogenicity island (FPI) is critical for the virulence of this organism. Existing studies suggest that the complete repertoire of T6SS effectors delivered to host cells is encoded by the FPI. Using a proteome-wide approach, we discovered that the FPI-encoded T6SS exports at least three effectors encoded outside of the island. These proteins share features with virulence determinants of other pathogens, and we provide evidence that they can contribute to intramacrophage growth...
November 9, 2016: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832587/the-liver-at-the-nexus-of-host-microbial-interactions
#14
REVIEW
Andrew J Macpherson, Mathias Heikenwalder, Stephanie C Ganal-Vonarburg
The liver receives blood from the intestine, from the spleen, and directly from the heart and holds a vital position in vertebrate physiology. It plays a role in intermediary metabolism, bile secretion, maintaining blood sterility, serum homeostasis, xenobiotic detoxification, and immunological activity. This article provides our perspective on the liver as a nexus in establishing and maintaining host microbial mutualism. We discuss the role of the liver not only in sanitizing the blood stream from penetrant live microbes, but also in metabolizing xenobiotics that are synthesized or modified by intestinal microbes, and how microbiota modify the signaling potential of bile acids...
November 9, 2016: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832586/the-human-microbiome-before-birth
#15
Martin J Blaser, Maria G Dominguez-Bello
The conservation of the microbiota within humans and other hominids suggests an ancient assembly that has been selected to optimize host fitness. Pregnancy induces changes in the maternal microbiome just before the intergenerational hand-off of the microbiota. Interventions, including peri-partum antibiotics and Cesarean sections, may have unintended effects on babies.
November 9, 2016: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832585/tackling-difficult-staphylococcus-aureus-infections-antibodies-show-the-way
#16
Bo Shopsin, Srini V Kaveri, Jagadeesh Bayry
The recent spread of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has brought increasing concerns of heightened disease severity and persistence following invasive disease. In line with the need for new treatment paradigms, two recent reports have shown that antibody-based therapies can restrict acute S. aureus infection and persistence and improve pathological symptoms.
November 9, 2016: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832584/getting-a-grip-on-flu-by-casting-the-dai
#17
Danielle M Clancy, Seamus J Martin
Influenza A initiates host cell death through unknown mechanisms. Thapa et al. (2016) in this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, along with recent work by Kuriakose et al. (2016), indicate that this virus provokes divergent modes of cell death, including apoptosis and necroptosis, via the nucleic acid sensor, DAI.
November 9, 2016: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832583/salmonella-gives-march-ing-orders-to-mhc-ii
#18
Patrick A McLaughlin, Adrianus W M van der Velden
How bacterial pathogens evade adaptive immunity is not well understood. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Bayer-Santos et al. (2016) show that the Salmonella effector protein SteD mediates MARCH8-dependent ubiquitination of class II MHC molecules, thereby inhibiting antigen presentation and limiting T cell responses.
November 9, 2016: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832582/rickettsia-evades-a-tense-situation
#19
Keith Ireton
Many bacterial pathogens remodel the plasma membrane of the host cell in order to promote infection. In a recent Cell paper, Lamason et al. (2016) identify a mechanism of remodeling by pathogenic Rickettsia that involves manipulation of plasma membrane tension.
November 9, 2016: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773536/dynamics-of-human-and-viral-rna-methylation-during-zika-virus-infection
#20
Gianluigi Lichinchi, Boxuan Simen Zhao, Yinga Wu, Zhike Lu, Yue Qin, Chuan He, Tariq M Rana
Infection with the flavivirus Zika (ZIKV) causes neurological, immunological, and developmental defects through incompletely understood mechanisms. We report that ZIKV infection affects viral and human RNAs by altering the topology and function of N(6)-adenosine methylation (m(6)A), a modification affecting RNA structure and function. m(6)A nucleosides are abundant in ZIKV RNA, with twelve m(6)A peaks identified across full-length ZIKV RNA. m(6)A in ZIKV RNA is controlled by host methyltransferases METTL3 and METTL14 and demethylases ALKBH5 and FTO, and knockdown of methyltransferases increases, while silencing demethylases decreases, ZIKV production...
November 9, 2016: Cell Host & Microbe
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