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Cell Host & Microbe

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182952/conserved-fever-pathways-across-vertebrates-a-herpesvirus-expressed-decoy-tnf-%C3%AE-receptor-delays-behavioral-fever-in-fish
#1
Krzysztof Rakus, Maygane Ronsmans, Maria Forlenza, Maxime Boutier, M Carla Piazzon, Joanna Jazowiecka-Rakus, Derek Gatherer, Alekos Athanasiadis, Frédéric Farnir, Andrew J Davison, Pierre Boudinot, Thomas Michiels, Geert F Wiegertjes, Alain Vanderplasschen
Both endotherms and ectotherms (e.g., fish) increase their body temperature to limit pathogen infection. Ectotherms do so by moving to warmer places, hence the term "behavioral fever." We studied the manifestation of behavioral fever in the common carp infected by cyprinid herpesvirus 3, a native carp pathogen. Carp maintained at 24°C died from the infection, whereas those housed in multi-chamber tanks encompassing a 24°C-32°C gradient migrated transiently to the warmest compartment and survived as a consequence...
February 8, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182951/microbial-respiration-and-formate-oxidation-as-metabolic-signatures-of-inflammation-associated-dysbiosis
#2
Elizabeth R Hughes, Maria G Winter, Breck A Duerkop, Luisella Spiga, Tatiane Furtado de Carvalho, Wenhan Zhu, Caroline C Gillis, Lisa Büttner, Madeline P Smoot, Cassie L Behrendt, Sara Cherry, Renato L Santos, Lora V Hooper, Sebastian E Winter
Intestinal inflammation is frequently associated with an alteration of the gut microbiota, termed dysbiosis, which is characterized by a reduced abundance of obligate anaerobic bacteria and an expansion of facultative Proteobacteria such as commensal E. coli. The mechanisms enabling the outgrowth of Proteobacteria during inflammation are incompletely understood. Metagenomic sequencing revealed bacterial formate oxidation and aerobic respiration to be overrepresented metabolic pathways in a chemically induced murine model of colitis...
February 8, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182950/pseudogenization-of-the-secreted-effector-gene-ssei-confers-rapid-systemic-dissemination-of-s-typhimurium-st313-within-migratory-dendritic-cells
#3
Sarah E Carden, Gregory T Walker, Jared Honeycutt, Kyler Lugo, Trung Pham, Amanda Jacobson, Donna Bouley, Juliana Idoyaga, Renee M Tsolis, Denise Monack
Genome degradation correlates with host adaptation and systemic disease in Salmonella. Most lineages of the S. enterica subspecies Typhimurium cause gastroenteritis in humans; however, the recently emerged ST313 lineage II pathovar commonly causes systemic bacteremia in sub-Saharan Africa. ST313 lineage II displays genome degradation compared to gastroenteritis-associated lineages; yet, the mechanisms and causal genetic differences mediating these infection phenotypes are largely unknown. We find that the ST313 isolate D23580 hyperdisseminates from the gut to systemic sites, such as the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs), via CD11b(+) migratory dendritic cells (DCs)...
February 8, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182949/catalase2-coordinates-sa-mediated-repression-of-both-auxin-accumulation-and-ja-biosynthesis-in-plant-defenses
#4
Hong-Mei Yuan, Wen-Cheng Liu, Ying-Tang Lu
Plants defend against pathogen attack by modulating auxin signaling and activating the salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathways. SA and JA act antagonistically in resistance to specific pathogen types, yet how plants coordinate these phytohormones remains elusive. Here we report that biotrophic-pathogen-induced SA accumulation dampens both auxin and JA synthesis by inhibiting CATALASE2 (CAT2) activity in the model plant Arabidopsis. SA suppression of CAT2 results in increased H2O2 levels and subsequent sulfenylation of tryptophan synthetase β subunit 1, thus depleting the auxin biosynthetic precursor tryptophan...
February 8, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182948/zika-virus-pathogenesis-and-tissue-tropism
#5
REVIEW
Jonathan J Miner, Michael S Diamond
Although Zika virus (ZIKV) was isolated approximately 70 years ago, few experimental studies had been published prior to 2016. The recent spread of ZIKV to countries in the Western Hemisphere is associated with reports of microcephaly, congenital malformations, and Guillain-Barré syndrome. This has resulted in ZIKV being declared a public health emergency and has greatly accelerated the pace of ZIKV research and discovery. Within a short time period, useful mouse and non-human primate disease models have been established, and pre-clinical evaluation of therapeutics and vaccines has begun...
February 8, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182947/ho-2-pockets-myristoylated-gag
#6
Marilyn D Resh
Membrane binding of viral and cellular N-myristoylated proteins can be regulated by selectively sequestering myristate. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Zhu et al. (2017) report on a myristate binding site within the cellular protein heme oxygenase-2 that acts as a trap to inhibit N-myristoylated protein function.
February 8, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182946/take-your-pick-vitamins-and-microbiota-facilitate-pathogen-clearance
#7
Vanessa Sperandio
The gut microbiota plays a chief role in vitamin production. Changes in its membership impact the gut metabolome and host susceptibility to pathogens. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Miki et al. (2017) show that RegIIIβ impacts microbiota composition, decreasing vitamin B6 production and promoting sustained colonization by Salmonella.
February 8, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182945/strange-new-world-bacteria-catalyze-ubiquitylation-via-adp-ribosylation
#8
David Komander, Felix Randow
Three recent papers, including one by Kotewicz et al. (2016) in this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, show that Legionella deploys a novel form of ubiquitylation to generate its replicative vacuole. Without E1 and E2 enzymes, SidE effectors ubiquitylate serine residues in substrates via an ADP-ribosylated ubiquitin intermediate.
February 8, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182944/the-cat-2-comes-back
#9
Musoki Mwimba, Xinnian Dong
Genetic and biochemical evidence supporting CATALASE2 as a salicylic acid (SA) receptor has finally emerged. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Yuan et al. (2017) show that SA binds to CATALASE2 to inhibit auxin and jasmonic acid biosynthetic enzymes as a means to strengthen plant immunity against biotrophic pathogens.
February 8, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132838/human-cytomegalovirus-tegument-protein-ul82-inhibits-sting-mediated-signaling-to-evade-antiviral-immunity
#10
Yu-Zhi Fu, Shan Su, Yi-Qun Gao, Pei-Pei Wang, Zhe-Fu Huang, Ming-Ming Hu, Wei-Wei Luo, Shu Li, Min-Hua Luo, Yan-Yi Wang, Hong-Bing Shu
Recognition of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) DNA by the cytosolic sensor cGAS initiates STING-dependent innate antiviral responses. HCMV can antagonize host immune responses to promote latency infection. However, it is unknown whether and how HCMV targets the cGAS-STING axis for immune evasion. Here we identified the HCMV tegument protein UL82 as a negative regulator of STING-dependent antiviral responses. UL82 interacted with STING and impaired STING-mediated signaling via two mechanisms. UL82 inhibited the translocation of STING from the ER to perinuclear microsomes by disrupting the STING-iRhom2-TRAPβ translocation complex...
February 8, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132837/pseudomonas-syringae-type-iii-effector-hopbb1-promotes-host-transcriptional-repressor-degradation-to-regulate-phytohormone-responses-and-virulence
#11
Li Yang, Paulo José Pereira Lima Teixeira, Surojit Biswas, Omri M Finkel, Yijian He, Isai Salas-Gonzalez, Marie E English, Petra Epple, Piotr Mieczkowski, Jeffery L Dangl
Independently evolved pathogen effectors from three branches of life (ascomycete, eubacteria, and oomycete) converge onto the Arabidopsis TCP14 transcription factor to manipulate host defense. However, the mechanistic basis for defense control via TCP14 regulation is unknown. We demonstrate that TCP14 regulates the plant immune system by transcriptionally repressing a subset of the jasmonic acid (JA) hormone signaling outputs. A previously unstudied Pseudomonas syringae (Psy) type III effector, HopBB1, interacts with TCP14 and targets it to the SCF(COI1) degradation complex by connecting it to the JA signaling repressor JAZ3...
February 8, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132836/heme-oxygenase-2-binds-myristate-to-regulate-retrovirus-assembly-and-tlr4-signaling
#12
Yiping Zhu, Shukun Luo, Yosef Sabo, Cheng Wang, Liang Tong, Stephen P Goff
N-myristoylation is the covalent attachment of myristic acid to the N terminus of proteins in eukaryotic cells. The matrix domain (MA) of HIV-1 Gag protein is N-myristoylated and plays an important role in virus budding. In screening for host factors that interact with HIV-1 MA, we found that heme oxygenase (HO-2) specifically binds the myristate moiety of Gag. HO-2 was also found to bind TRAM, an adaptor protein for Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), and thereby impact both virus replication and cellular inflammatory responses...
February 8, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111204/eat-well-or-get-roommates-who-do
#13
Lee M Kaplan, Joseph Brancale
In the January issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Griffin et al. (2017) report that the intestinal microbiome adapts to dietary practices. Restricted diversity induced by a typical American diet reflects a durable loss of taxa that is replenished only when dietary manipulation is accompanied by exposure to a healthier microbiota.
February 8, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111203/systematic-characterization-and-analysis-of-the-taxonomic-drivers-of-functional-shifts-in-the-human-microbiome
#14
Ohad Manor, Elhanan Borenstein
Comparative analyses of the human microbiome have identified both taxonomic and functional shifts that are associated with numerous diseases. To date, however, microbiome taxonomy and function have mostly been studied independently and the taxonomic drivers of functional imbalances have not been systematically identified. Here, we present FishTaco, an analytical and computational framework that integrates taxonomic and functional comparative analyses to accurately quantify taxon-level contributions to disease-associated functional shifts...
February 8, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111202/the-bactericidal-lectin-regiii%C3%AE-prolongs-gut-colonization-and-enteropathy-in-the-streptomycin-mouse-model-for-salmonella-diarrhea
#15
Tsuyoshi Miki, Ryosuke Goto, Mayuka Fujimoto, Nobuhiko Okada, Wolf-Dietrich Hardt
The bactericidal lectin RegIIIβ is inducibly produced by intestinal epithelial cells as a defense against infection by enteropathogens. In the gut lumen, RegIIIβ kills not only certain enteropathogens, but also some commensal bacteria; thus, RegIIIβ is also thought to be an innate immune effector shaping microbiota composition and establishing intestinal homeostasis. Using the streptomycin mouse model for Salmonella colitis, we show that RegIIIβ can promote sustained gut colonization of Salmonella Typhimurium and prolong enteropathy...
February 8, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041930/a-single-legionella-effector-catalyzes-a-multistep-ubiquitination-pathway-to-rearrange-tubular-endoplasmic-reticulum-for-replication
#16
Kristin M Kotewicz, Vinay Ramabhadran, Nicole Sjoblom, Joseph P Vogel, Eva Haenssler, Mengyun Zhang, Jessica Behringer, Rebecca A Scheck, Ralph R Isberg
Intracellular pathogens manipulate host organelles to support replication within cells. For Legionella pneumophila, the bacterium translocates proteins that establish an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated replication compartment. We show here that the bacterial Sde proteins target host reticulon 4 (Rtn4) to control tubular ER dynamics, resulting in tubule rearrangements as well as alterations in Rtn4 associated with the replication compartment. These rearrangements are triggered via Sde-promoted ubiquitin transfer to Rtn4, occurring almost immediately after bacterial uptake...
February 8, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081446/host-to-host-transmission-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-is-driven-by-its-inflammatory-toxin-pneumolysin
#17
M Ammar Zafar, Yang Wang, Shigeto Hamaguchi, Jeffrey N Weiser
Host-to-host transmission is a critical step for infection. Here we studied transmission of the opportunistic pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae in an infant mouse model. Transmission from nasally colonized pups required high levels of bacterial shedding in nasal secretions and was temporally correlated with, and dependent upon, the acute inflammatory response. Pneumolysin, a pore-forming cytotoxin and major virulence determinant, was both necessary and sufficient to promote inflammation, which increased shedding and allowed for intralitter transmission...
January 11, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081445/bringing-the-dynamic-microbiome-to-life-with-animations
#18
Yoshiki Vázquez-Baeza, Antonio Gonzalez, Larry Smarr, Daniel McDonald, James T Morton, Jose A Navas-Molina, Rob Knight
Our bodies and natural environment contain complex microbial communities, colloquially termed microbiomes. We previously created a web-based application, EMPeror, for visualizing ordinations derived from comparisons of these microbiome communities. We have now improved EMPeror to create interactive animations that connect successive samples to highlight patterns over time.
January 11, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081444/host-to-host-transmission-of-the-pneumococcus-new-victims-of-a-toxic-relationship
#19
Claudia Trappetti, James C Paton
Host-to-host transmission is critical for survival of the human-adapted bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Zafar et al. (2017) show that transmission is dependent on nasopharyngeal inflammation elicited by the toxin pneumolysin, causing increased shedding and enhanced survival of the bacterium in the environment.
January 11, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081443/the-bacterial-t6ss-effector-evpp-prevents-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-by-inhibiting-the-ca-2-dependent-mapk-jnk-pathway
#20
Hao Chen, Dahai Yang, Fajun Han, Jinchao Tan, Lingzhi Zhang, Jingfan Xiao, Yuanxing Zhang, Qin Liu
Inflammasome activation is an important innate immune defense mechanism against bacterial infection, and in return, bacteria express virulence determinants that counteract inflammasome activation. Many such effectors are secreted into host cells via specialized bacterial secretion systems. Here, the intracellular pathogenic bacterium Edwardsiella tarda was demonstrated to activate NLRC4 and NLRP3 inflammasomes via a type III secretion system (T3SS), and to inhibit NLRP3 inflammasome via a type VI secretion system (T6SS), indicating the antagonistic roles of these systems in inflammasome signaling...
January 11, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
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