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Cell Host & Microbe

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799910/diversity-of-functionally-permissive-sequences-in-the-receptor-binding-site-of-influenza-hemagglutinin
#1
Nicholas C Wu, Jia Xie, Tianqing Zheng, Corwin M Nycholat, Geramie Grande, James C Paulson, Richard A Lerner, Ian A Wilson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 9, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799909/inflammation-antibiotics-and-diet-as-environmental-stressors-of-the-gut-microbiome-in-pediatric-crohn-s-disease
#2
James D Lewis, Eric Z Chen, Robert N Baldassano, Anthony R Otley, Anne M Griffiths, Dale Lee, Kyle Bittinger, Aubrey Bailey, Elliot S Friedman, Christian Hoffmann, Lindsey Albenberg, Rohini Sinha, Charlene Compher, Erin Gilroy, Lisa Nessel, Amy Grant, Christel Chehoud, Hongzhe Li, Gary D Wu, Frederic D Bushman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 9, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799908/the-molecular-basis-of-erythrocyte-invasion-by-malaria-parasites
#3
REVIEW
Alan F Cowman, Christopher J Tonkin, Wai-Hong Tham, Manoj T Duraisingh
Plasmodium species cause malaria by proliferating in human erythrocytes. Invasion of immunologically privileged erythrocytes provides a relatively protective niche as well as access to a rich source of nutrients. Plasmodium spp. target erythrocytes of different ages, but share a common mechanism of invasion. Specific engagement of erythrocyte receptors defines target cell tropism, activating downstream events and resulting in the physical penetration of the erythrocyte, powered by the parasite's actinomyosin-based motor...
August 9, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799907/salmonella-spi-2-type-iii-secretion-system-effectors-molecular-mechanisms-and-physiological-consequences
#4
REVIEW
Elliott Jennings, Teresa L M Thurston, David W Holden
Serovars of Salmonella enterica cause both gastrointestinal and systemic diseases in a broad range of mammalian hosts, including humans. Salmonella virulence depends in part on its pathogenicity island 2 type III secretion system (SPI-2 T3SS), which is required to translocate at least 28 effector proteins from vacuolar-resident bacteria into host cells. Comparative genomic analysis reveals that all serovars encode a subset of "core" effectors, suggesting that they are critical for virulence in different hosts...
August 9, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799906/of-mice-macaques-and-men-broadly-neutralizing-antibody-immunotherapy-for-hiv-1
#5
REVIEW
Yoshiaki Nishimura, Malcolm A Martin
The neutralizing antibodies targeting the HIV-1 envelope protein have been a major focus for HIV therapy. Early studies with anti-HIV-1 neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) administered to infected individuals showed some promise, as they resulted in transient reductions in plasma viremia in some recipients. However, resistant viral variants rapidly emerged. A major development during the past 6 to 7 years has been the isolation and characterization of highly potent and broadly neutralizing mAbs (bNAbs) from infected individuals known as "elite neutralizers...
August 9, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799905/principles-of-broad-and-potent-antiviral-human-antibodies-insights-for-vaccine-design
#6
REVIEW
James E Crowe
Antibodies are the principal immune effectors that mediate protection against reinfection following viral infection or vaccination. Robust techniques for human mAb isolation have been developed in the last decade. The study of human mAbs isolated from subjects with prior immunity has become a mainstay for rational structure-based, next-generation vaccine development. The plethora of detailed molecular and genetic studies coupling the structure of antigen-antibody complexes with their antiviral function has begun to reveal common principles of critical interactions on which we can build better vaccines and therapeutic antibodies...
August 9, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799904/circadian-coordination-of-antimicrobial-responses
#7
REVIEW
Paola Tognini, Christoph A Thaiss, Eran Elinav, Paolo Sassone-Corsi
Microbial infection poses a threat to organismal homeostasis and therefore must be efficiently counteracted by host defense mechanisms. It has been recently demonstrated that the immune system may anticipate an emerging pathogenic exposure through a heightened inflammatory state. Such anticipatory responses to fluctuating environmental conditions are typically orchestrated by the circadian clock, an intrinsic time-keeping system that adapts tissue physiology to diurnal variations in external influences. Here, we review current knowledge about the interplay between the circadian clock and antimicrobial responses...
August 9, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799903/ten-strategies-of-interferon-evasion-by-viruses
#8
REVIEW
Adolfo García-Sastre
Viruses infecting vertebrate hosts must overcome the interferon (IFN)-mediated antiviral response to replicate and propagate to new hosts. The complex regulation of the IFN response allows viruses to antagonize IFN at multiple levels. However, no single strategy appears to be the golden ticket, and viruses have adopted multiple means to dampen this host defense. This Review does not exhaustively cover all mechanisms of viral IFN antagonism. Rather it examines the ten most common strategies that viruses use to subvert the IFN response with examples from publications appearing in the last 10 years of Cell Host & Microbe...
August 9, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799902/innate-immunity-to-intracellular-pathogens-balancing-microbial-elimination-and-inflammation
#9
REVIEW
Gabriel Mitchell, Ralph R Isberg
Recent excitement regarding immune clearance of intracellular microorganisms has focused on two systems that maintain cellular homeostasis. One system includes cellular autophagy components that mediate degradation of pathogens in membrane-bound compartments, in a process termed xenophagy. The second system is driven by interferon-regulated GTPases that promote rupture of pathogen-containing vacuoles and microbial degradation. In the case of xenophagy, pathogen sequestration and compartmentalization suppress inflammation...
August 9, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799901/commensal-fungi-in-health-and-disease
#10
REVIEW
Jose J Limon, Joseph H Skalski, David M Underhill
Fungi are increasingly being recognized as common members of the microbiomes found on nearly all mucosal surfaces, and interest is growing in understanding how these organisms may contribute to health and disease. In this review, we investigate recent developments in our understanding of the fungal microbiota or "mycobiota" including challenges faced in characterizing it, where these organisms are found, their diversity, and how they interact with host immunity. Growing evidence indicates that, like the bacterial microbiota, the fungal microbiota is often altered in disease states, and increasingly studies are being designed to probe the functional consequences of such fungal dysbiosis on health and disease...
August 9, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799900/establishing-causality-opportunities-of-synthetic-communities-for-plant-microbiome-research
#11
REVIEW
Julia A Vorholt, Christine Vogel, Charlotte I Carlström, Daniel B Müller
Plant microbiome research highlights the importance of indigenous microbial communities for host phenotypes such as growth and health. It aims to discover the molecular basis by which host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions shape and maintain microbial communities and to understand the role of individual microorganisms, as well as their collective ecosystem function. Here, we discuss reductionist approaches to disentangle the inherent complexity of interactions in situ. Experimentally tractable, synthetic communities enable testing of hypotheses by targeted manipulation in gnotobiotic systems...
August 9, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799899/the-gut-microbiota-food-science-and-human-nutrition-a-timely-marriage
#12
REVIEW
Michael J Barratt, Carlito Lebrilla, Howard-Yana Shapiro, Jeffrey I Gordon
Analytic advances are enabling more precise definitions of the molecular composition of key food staples incorporated into contemporary diets and how the nutrient landscapes of these staples vary as a function of cultivar and food processing methods. This knowledge, combined with insights about the interrelationship between consumer microbiota configurations and biotransformation of food ingredients, should have a number of effects on agriculture, food production, and strategies for improving the nutritional value of foods and health status...
August 9, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799898/reflections-on-a-decade
#13
(no author information available yet)
We invited ten Cell Host & Microbe authors, who are experts in their field, to join us in celebrating our anniversary by highlighting an area of host-microbe research that the journal has contributed to advancing.
August 9, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799897/10-for-10
#14
EDITORIAL
Christine Cosma, Ella Hinson, Lakshmi Goyal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 9, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704658/fusion-stage-of-hiv-1-entry-depends-on-virus-induced-cell-surface-exposure-of-phosphatidylserine
#15
Elena Zaitseva, Eugene Zaitsev, Kamran Melikov, Anush Arakelyan, Mariana Marin, Rafael Villasmil, Leonid B Margolis, Gregory B Melikyan, Leonid V Chernomordik
HIV-1 entry into host cells starts with interactions between the viral envelope glycoprotein (Env) and cellular CD4 receptors and coreceptors. Previous work has suggested that efficient HIV entry also depends on intracellular signaling, but this remains controversial. Here we report that formation of the pre-fusion Env-CD4-coreceptor complexes triggers non-apoptotic cell surface exposure of the membrane lipid phosphatidylserine (PS). HIV-1-induced PS redistribution depends on Ca(2+) signaling triggered by Env-coreceptor interactions and involves the lipid scramblase TMEM16F...
July 12, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704657/dual-blades-the-role-of-musashi-1-in-zika-replication-and-microcephaly
#16
Robyn S Klein
Infection with Zika virus (ZIKV) during pregnancy may cause severe developmental defects in the human brain via unknown mechanisms. In a recent issue of Science, Chavali et al. (2017) identified a neural progenitor cell (NPC)-specific RNA binding protein that may underlie the high levels of ZIKV replication and apoptosis observed in these cells during congenital infections.
July 12, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704656/induction-of-inkit-by-viral-infection-negatively-regulates-antiviral-responses-through-inhibiting-phosphorylation-of-p65-and-irf3
#17
Bin Lu, Yujie Ren, Xueqin Sun, Cuijuan Han, Hongyan Wang, Yuxuan Chen, Qianqian Peng, Yongbo Cheng, Xiaoliang Cheng, Qiyun Zhu, Wenxin Li, Hong-Liang Li, Hai-Ning Du, Bo Zhong, Zan Huang
The transcription factors p65 and IRF3 play key roles in the induction of cellular antiviral responses. Phosphorylation of p65 and IRF3 is required for their activity and constitutes a key checkpoint. Here we report that viral infection induced upregulation of INKIT, an inhibitor for NF-κB and IRF3 that restricted innate antiviral responses by blocking phosphorylation of p65 and IRF3. INKIT overexpression inhibited virus-induced phosphorylation of p65 and IRF3 and expression of downstream genes. In contrast, knockdown or knockout of INKIT had the opposite effect: Inkit(-/-) mice produced elevated levels of type I interferons and proinflammatory cytokines and were more resistant to lethal viral infection compared to wild-type...
July 12, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704655/war-on-viruses-lc3-recruits-gtpases
#18
Teneema Kuriakose, Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti
Interferon effector functions and autophagy are evolutionarily conserved arms of cell-autonomous immunity that restrict replication of intracellular pathogens. In this issue of Cell Host and Microbe, Biering et al., (2017) demonstrate how host cells co-opt sequential action of autophagy proteins and IFN-inducible GTPases to inhibit replication of positive-sense RNA viruses.
July 12, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704654/persistent-kshv-infection-increases-ebv-associated-tumor-formation-in%C3%A2-vivo-via-enhanced-ebv-lytic-gene-expression
#19
Donal McHugh, Nicole Caduff, Mario Henrique M Barros, Patrick C Rämer, Ana Raykova, Anita Murer, Vanessa Landtwing, Isaak Quast, Christine T Styles, Michael Spohn, Adeola Fowotade, Henri-Jacques Delecluse, Alexandra Papoudou-Bai, Yong-Moon Lee, Jin-Man Kim, Jaap Middeldorp, Thomas F Schulz, Ethel Cesarman, Andrea Zbinden, Riccarda Capaul, Robert E White, Martin J Allday, Gerald Niedobitek, David J Blackbourn, Adam Grundhoff, Christian Münz
The human tumor viruses Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) establish persistent infections in B cells. KSHV is linked to primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), and 90% of PELs also contain EBV. Studies on persistent KSHV infection in vivo and the role of EBV co-infection in PEL development have been hampered by the absence of small animal models. We developed mice reconstituted with human immune system components as a model for KSHV infection and find that EBV/KSHV dual infection enhanced KSHV persistence and tumorigenesis...
July 12, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704653/double-the-trouble-when-herpesviruses-join-hands
#20
Un Yung Choi, Angela Park, Jae U Jung
KSHV is the etiologic agent of PEL-an aggressive lymphoma. Interestingly, EBV concurrently exists in nearly 70% of PEL cases. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, McHugh et al. (2017) develop humanized mouse models for EBV/KSHV co-infection and identify their complementary effect on in vivo tumor formation.
July 12, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
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