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Cell Host & Microbe

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174403/a-bacterial-type-iii-effector-targets-the-master-regulator-of-salicylic-acid-signaling-npr1-to-subvert-plant-immunity
#1
Huan Chen, Jian Chen, Min Li, Ming Chang, Kaimei Xu, Zhenhua Shang, Yi Zhao, Ian Palmer, Yuqiang Zhang, Jon McGill, James R Alfano, Marc T Nishimura, Fengquan Liu, Zheng Qing Fu
Most plant bacterial pathogens rely on type III effectors to cause diseases. Although it is well known that the plant hormone salicylic acid (SA) plays an essential role in defense, whether the master regulator of SA signaling, NPR1, is targeted by any plant pathogen effectors is unknown. SA facilitates the reduction of cytosolic NPR1 oligomers into monomers, which enter the nucleus and function as transcriptional coactivators of plant defense genes. We show that SA promotes the interaction between the Pseudomonas syringae type III effector AvrPtoB and NPR1...
November 18, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174402/commensal-fungi-recapitulate-the-protective-benefits-of-intestinal-bacteria
#2
Tony T Jiang, Tzu-Yu Shao, W X Gladys Ang, Jeremy M Kinder, Lucien H Turner, Giang Pham, Jordan Whitt, Theresa Alenghat, Sing Sing Way
Commensal intestinal microbes are collectively beneficial in preventing local tissue injury and augmenting systemic antimicrobial immunity. However, given the near-exclusive focus on bacterial species in establishing these protective benefits, the contributions of other types of commensal microbes remain poorly defined. Here, we show that commensal fungi can functionally replace intestinal bacteria by conferring protection against injury to mucosal tissues and positively calibrating the responsiveness of circulating immune cells...
November 18, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199097/coagulase-negative-staphylococcal-strain-prevents-staphylococcus-aureus-colonization-and-skin-infection-by-blocking-quorum-sensing
#3
Alexandra E Paharik, Corey P Parlet, Nadjali Chung, Daniel A Todd, Emilio I Rodriguez, Michael J Van Dyke, Nadja B Cech, Alexander R Horswill
Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) and Staphylococcus aureus are part of the natural flora of humans and other mammals. We found that spent media from the CoNS species Staphylococcus caprae can inhibit agr-mediated quorum sensing by all classes of S. aureus. A biochemical assessment of the inhibitory activity suggested that the S. caprae autoinducing peptide (AIP) was responsible, and mass spectrometric analysis identified the S. caprae AIP as an eight-residue peptide (YSTCSYYF). Using a murine model of intradermal MRSA infection, the therapeutic efficacy of synthetic S...
November 17, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199098/antibiotic-induced-changes-to-the-host-metabolic-environment-inhibit-drug-efficacy-and-alter-immune-function
#4
Jason H Yang, Prerna Bhargava, Douglas McCloskey, Ning Mao, Bernhard O Palsson, James J Collins
Bactericidal antibiotics alter microbial metabolism as part of their lethality and can damage mitochondria in mammalian cells. In addition, antibiotic susceptibility is sensitive to extracellular metabolites, but it remains unknown whether metabolites present at an infection site can affect either treatment efficacy or immune function. Here, we quantify local metabolic changes in the host microenvironment following antibiotic treatment for a peritoneal Escherichia coli infection. Antibiotic treatment elicits microbiome-independent changes in local metabolites, but not those distal to the infection site, by acting directly on host cells...
November 16, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174401/the-gut-microbiota-facilitates-drifts-in-the-genetic-diversity-and-infectivity-of-bacterial-viruses
#5
Luisa De Sordi, Varun Khanna, Laurent Debarbieux
The intestinal microbiota and human health are intimately linked, but interactions between bacteria and bacteriophages in the context of the mammalian intestine remain largely unexplored. We used comparative population genomics to study a tripartite network consisting of a virulent bacteriophage, its bacterial host, and a phage-insensitive bacterial strain both in vitro and within the murine gut. The bacteriophage adapted to infect the insensitive strain when the three partners co-existed in the gut of conventional mice, but not in dixenic mice or in planktonic cultures...
November 16, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154144/multi-platform-omics-analysis-of-human-ebola-virus-disease-pathogenesis
#6
Amie J Eisfeld, Peter J Halfmann, Jason P Wendler, Jennifer E Kyle, Kristin E Burnum-Johnson, Zuleyma Peralta, Tadashi Maemura, Kevin B Walters, Tokiko Watanabe, Satoshi Fukuyama, Makoto Yamashita, Jon M Jacobs, Young-Mo Kim, Cameron P Casey, Kelly G Stratton, Bobbie-Jo M Webb-Robertson, Marina A Gritsenko, Matthew E Monroe, Karl K Weitz, Anil K Shukla, Mingyuan Tian, Gabriele Neumann, Jennifer L Reed, Harm van Bakel, Thomas O Metz, Richard D Smith, Katrina M Waters, Alhaji N'jai, Foday Sahr, Yoshihiro Kawaoka
The pathogenesis of human Ebola virus disease (EVD) is complex. EVD is characterized by high levels of virus replication and dissemination, dysregulated immune responses, extensive virus- and host-mediated tissue damage, and disordered coagulation. To clarify how host responses contribute to EVD pathophysiology, we performed multi-platform 'omics analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and plasma from EVD patients. Our results indicate that EVD molecular signatures overlap with those of sepsis, imply that pancreatic enzymes contribute to tissue damage in fatal EVD, and suggest that Ebola virus infection may induce aberrant neutrophils whose activity could explain hallmarks of fatal EVD...
November 15, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120747/pla2g1b-places-worms-in-peril
#7
Mark Palma, Darine W El-Naccache, William C Gause
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 8, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120746/segmented-filamentous-bacteria-provoke-lung-autoimmunity-by-inducing-gut-lung-axis-th17-cells-expressing-dual-tcrs
#8
C Pierce Bradley, Fei Teng, Krysta M Felix, Teruyuki Sano, Debdut Naskar, Katharine E Block, Haochu Huang, Kenneth S Knox, Dan R Littman, Hsin-Jung Joyce Wu
Lung complications are a major cause of rheumatoid arthritis-related mortality. Involvement of gut microbiota in lung diseases by the gut-lung axis has been widely observed, but the underlying mechanism remains mostly unknown. Using an autoimmune arthritis model, we show that a constituent of the gut microbiota, segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB), distantly provoke lung pathology. SFB induce autoantibodies in lung during the pre-arthritic phase, and SFB-dependent lung pathology requires the T helper 17 (Th17) responses...
November 8, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120745/nrp2-and-cd63-are-host-factors-for-lujo-virus-cell-entry
#9
Matthijs Raaben, Lucas T Jae, Andrew S Herbert, Ana I Kuehne, Sarah H Stubbs, Yi-Ying Chou, Vincent A Blomen, Tomas Kirchhausen, John M Dye, Thijn R Brummelkamp, Sean P Whelan
Arenaviruses cause fatal hemorrhagic disease in humans. Old World arenavirus glycoproteins (GPs) mainly engage α-dystroglycan as a cell-surface receptor, while New World arenaviruses hijack transferrin receptor. However, the Lujo virus (LUJV) GP does not cluster with New or Old World arenaviruses. Using a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus containing LUJV GP as its sole attachment and fusion protein (VSV-LUJV), we demonstrate that infection is independent of known arenavirus receptor genes. A genome-wide haploid genetic screen identified the transmembrane protein neuropilin 2 (NRP2) and tetraspanin CD63 as factors for LUJV GP-mediated infection...
November 8, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120744/staphylococcus-aureus-virulent-psm%C3%AE-peptides-induce-keratinocyte-alarmin-release-to-orchestrate-il-17-dependent-skin-inflammation
#10
Seitaro Nakagawa, Masanori Matsumoto, Yuki Katayama, Rena Oguma, Seiichiro Wakabayashi, Tyler Nygaard, Shinobu Saijo, Naohiro Inohara, Michael Otto, Hiroyuki Matsue, Gabriel Núñez, Yuumi Nakamura
Staphylococcus aureus commonly colonizes the epidermis, but the mechanisms by which the host senses virulent, but not commensal, S. aureus to trigger inflammation remain unclear. Using a murine epicutaneous infection model, we found that S. aureus-expressed phenol-soluble modulin (PSM)α, a group of secreted virulence peptides, is required to trigger cutaneous inflammation. PSMα induces the release of keratinocyte IL-1α and IL-36α, and signaling via IL-1R and IL-36R was required for induction of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-17...
November 8, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120743/staphylococcus-aureus-epicutaneous-exposure-drives-skin-inflammation-via-il-36-mediated-t-cell-responses
#11
Haiyun Liu, Nathan K Archer, Carly A Dillen, Yu Wang, Alyssa G Ashbaugh, Roger V Ortines, Tracy Kao, Steven K Lee, Shuting S Cai, Robert J Miller, Mark C Marchitto, Emily Zhang, Daniel P Riggins, Roger D Plaut, Scott Stibitz, Raif S Geha, Lloyd S Miller
Staphylococcus aureus colonization contributes to skin inflammation in diseases such as atopic dermatitis, but the signaling pathways involved are unclear. Herein, epicutaneous S. aureus exposure to mouse skin promoted MyD88-dependent skin inflammation initiated by IL-36, but not IL-1α/β, IL-18, or IL-33. By contrast, an intradermal S. aureus challenge promoted MyD88-dependent host defense initiated by IL-1β rather than IL-36, suggesting that different IL-1 cytokines trigger MyD88 signaling depending on the anatomical depth of S...
November 8, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120742/the-human-microbiome-and-obesity-moving-beyond-associations
#12
REVIEW
Padma Maruvada, Vanessa Leone, Lee M Kaplan, Eugene B Chang
Mounting evidence indicates that the gut microbiome responds to diet, antibiotics, and other external stimuli with speed and high precision and in ways that impact a variety of metabolic conditions including obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Despite a decade of research establishing a strong association between the gut microbiota and obesity in humans, a causal relationship and the underlying mechanism remain outstanding. Several technological and methodological limitations in obesity and microbiome research have made it difficult to establish causality in this complex relationship...
November 8, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120741/getting-your-head-around-cerebral-malaria
#13
Jeffrey D Dvorin
Cerebral malaria is one of the most severe complications of human infection by the Plasmodium falciparum parasite. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Kessler et al. (2017) provide valuable insights into the diagnosis and pathogenesis of this poorly understood manifestation of malaria.
November 8, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120740/breaking-the-barrier-host-cell-invasion-by-lujo-virus
#14
Stefan Kunz, Juan Carlos de la Torre
Lujo virus (LUJV) is an arenavirus that emerged in 2008 associated with a cluster of human cases of severe hemorrhagic fever. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Raaben et al. (2017) identify neuropilin (NRP)-2 as cell surface receptor and the tetraspannin protein CD63 as intracellular entry factor for LUJV.
November 8, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120739/lipoyl-e2-pdh-gets-a-second-job
#15
Seth W Dickey, Michael Otto
Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) plays a well-known metabolic role inside cells. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Grayczyk et al. (2017) show that the bacterial pathogen Staphylococcus aureus unexpectedly secretes and repurposes the lipoylated E2 subunit of PDH to suppress TLR-mediated activation of host macrophages by bacterial lipoproteins.
November 8, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120738/staphylococcus-aureus-master-manipulator-of-the-skin
#16
Michael R Williams, Teruaki Nakatsuji, Richard L Gallo
Skin colonization by Staphylococcus aureus is associated with severity of atopic dermatitis (AD). Two papers in this issue of Cell Host & Microbe by Nakagawa et al. (2017) and Liu et al. (2017) define a pathway by which epicutaneous Staphylococcus aureus promotes skin inflammation and may contribute to AD.
November 8, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120737/a-swiss-army-knife-to-cut-malaria-transmission
#17
Mathilde Gendrin
The mosquito microbiota is known to naturally limit malaria transmission, acting directly on parasites and via effects on mosquito immunity and fitness. Using genetically modified bacteria and mosquitoes, two studies uncover new potential of this multipotent prospective tool to reduce disease transmission.
November 8, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120736/mind-your-cs-and-gs
#18
Oliver I Fregoso
How can an innate immune sensor shape viral evolution? In recent work, Takata et al. (2017) determined that the antiviral protein ZAP recognizes CG dinucleotide composition to differentiate self from non-self. This pressure may have driven CG dinucleotide suppression in HIV-1 and other RNA viruses to evade host antiviral defenses.
November 8, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107644/the-glycolytic-pyruvate-kinase-is-recruited-directly-into-the-viral-replicase-complex-to-generate-atp-for-rna-synthesis
#19
Chingkai Chuang, K Reddisiva Prasanth, Peter D Nagy
Viruses accomplish their replication by exploiting many cellular resources, including metabolites and energy. Similarly to other (+)RNA viruses, tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) induces major changes in infected cells. However, the source of energy required to fuel TBSV replication is unknown. We find that TBSV co-opts the cellular glycolytic ATP-generating pyruvate kinase (PK) directly into the viral replicase complex to boost progeny RNA synthesis. The co-opted PK generates high levels of ATP within the viral replication compartment at the expense of a reduction in cytosolic ATP pools...
November 8, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107643/nuclear-trim25-specifically-targets-influenza-virus-ribonucleoproteins-to-block-the-onset-of-rna-chain-elongation
#20
Nicholas R Meyerson, Ligang Zhou, Yusong R Guo, Chen Zhao, Yizhi J Tao, Robert M Krug, Sara L Sawyer
TRIM25 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that activates RIG-I to promote the antiviral interferon response. The NS1 protein from all strains of influenza A virus binds TRIM25, although not all virus strains block the interferon response, suggesting alternative mechanisms for TRIM25 action. Here we present a nuclear role for TRIM25 in specifically restricting influenza A virus replication. TRIM25 inhibits viral RNA synthesis through a direct mechanism that is independent of its ubiquitin ligase activity and the interferon pathway...
November 8, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
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