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Infection and Immunity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533472/yersinia-pestis-yopk-inhibits-bacterial-adhesion-to-host-cells-by-binding-to-the-extracellular-matrix-adaptor-protein-matrilin-2
#1
Yafang Tan, Wanbing Liu, Qingwen Zhang, Shiyang Cao, Haihong Zhao, Tong Wang, Zhizhen Qi, Yanping Han, Yajun Song, Xiaoyi Wang, Ruifu Yang, Zongmin Du
Pathogenic yersiniae harbor a type III secretion system (T3SS) that injects Yersinia outer protein (Yop) into host cells. YopK has been shown to control Yop translocation and prevent inflammasome recognition of T3SS by the innate immune system. Here, we demonstrate that YopK inhibits bacterial adherence to host cells by binding to the extracellular matrix adaptor protein matrilin-2 (MATN2). YopK binds to MATN2 and deleting the amino acids 91--124 disrupts binding of YopK to MATN2. A yopK null mutant exhibits hyper-adhesive phenotype, which could be responsible for the established Yop hyper-translocation phenotype of yopK mutant...
May 22, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533471/the-atypical-response-regulator-atvr-is-a-new-player-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-response-to-hypoxia-and-virulence
#2
Gilberto Hideo Kaihami, Leandro Carvalho Dantas Breda, José Roberto Fogaça de Almeida, Thays de Oliveira Pereira, Gianlucca Gonçalves Nicastro, Ana Laura Boechat, Sandro Rogério de Almeida, Regina Lúcia Baldini
Two-component systems are widespread in bacteria, allowing adaptation to environmental changes. The classical pathway is composed by a histidine kinase that phosphorylates an aspartate residue in the cognate response regulator (RR). RRs lacking the phosphorylable aspartate also occur, but their function and contribution during host-pathogen interaction are poorly characterized. AtvR (PA14_26570) is the only atypical response regulator with a DNA-binding domain in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa Macrophage infection with the atvR mutant strain resulted in higher TNF-α secretion as well as increased bacterial clearance as compared to macrophages infected with the wild-type strain...
May 22, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533470/aeromonas-salmonicida-growth-in-response-to-atlantic-salmon-mucins-differ-between-epithelial-sites-is-governed-by-sialylated-and-n-acetylhexosamine-containing-o-glycans-and-is-affected-by-ca-2
#3
János Tamás Padra, Henrik Sundh, Kristina Sundell, Vignesh Venkatakrishnan, Chunsheng Jin, Tore Samuelsson, Niclas G Karlsson, Sara K Lindén
Aeromonas salmonicida cause furunculosis in salmonids and is a threat to Atlantic salmon aquaculture. The epithelial surfaces that the pathogen colonizes are covered by a mucus layer, predominantly comprised of secreted mucins. Using mass spectrometry to identify mucin glycan structures with and without enzymatic removal of glycan residues, coupled to measurements of bacterial growth, we here show that the complex Atlantic salmon intestinal mucin glycans enhance A. salmonicida growth, whereas the more simple skin mucin glycans do not...
May 22, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533469/the-phenotype-and-function-of-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-induced-by-porphyromonas-gingivalis-infection
#4
Lingkai Su, Qingan Xu, Ping Zhang, Suzanne M Michalek, Jannet Katz
Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), a major etiologic agent of periodontitis, has been reported to induce the expansion of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC); however, little is known regarding the subpopulations of MDSC expanded by Pg infection. Flow cytometry was used to evaluate bone marrow and spleen cells from mice infected with Pg and controls for surface expression of CD11b, Ly6G and Ly6C. To characterize the phenotype of MDSC subpopulations induced by infection, cells were sorted based on the differential expression of Ly6G and Ly6C...
May 22, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533468/vacuolation-activity-and-intracellular-trafficking-of-artb-the-binding-subunit-of-an-ab5-toxin-produced-by-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhi
#5
Brock P Herdman, James C Paton, Hui Wang, Travis Beddoe, Adrienne W Paton
Various Salmonella enterica serovars, including S Typhi, encode an AB5 toxin (ArtAB), the A subunit of which is an ADP-ribosyltransferase related to the S1 subunit of pertussis toxin. However, although the A subunit is able to catalyse ADP-ribosylation of host G proteins, a cytotoxic phenotype has yet to be identified for the holotoxin. Here we show that its B subunit pentamer (ArtB) binds to receptors on the surface of Vero (African green monkey kidney), CHO (Chinese hamster ovary), U937 (human monocyte) and HBMEC (human brain microvascular endothelial) cell lines...
May 22, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507073/antibodies-against-in-vivo-expressed-antigens-are-sufficient-to-protect-against-lethal-aerosol-infection-with-burkholderia-mallei-and-burkholderia-pseudomallei
#6
Shawn M Zimmerman, Jeremy S Dyke, Tomislav P Jelesijevic, Frank Michel, Eric R Lafontaine, Robert J Hogan
Burkholderia mallei, a facultative intracellular bacterium and Tier 1 biothreat, causes the fatal zoonotic disease glanders. The organism possesses multiple genes encoding autotransporter proteins, which represent important virulence factors and targets for developing countermeasures in pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. In the present study, we investigated one of these autotransporters, BatA, and demonstrate that it displays lipolytic activity, aids in intracellular survival, is expressed in vivo, elicits production of antibodies during infection, and contributes to pathogenicity in a mouse aerosol challenge model...
May 15, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507072/recruitment-of-neutrophils-mediated-by-v%C3%AE-2-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells-deteriorate-liver-fibrosis-induced-by-schistosoma-japonicum-infection-in-c57bl-6-mice
#7
Li Zheng, Yuan Hu, Yanjuan Wang, Xibao Huang, Yuxin Xu, Yujuan Shen, Jianping Cao
Conventional adaptive T cell responses contribute to the pathogenesis of Schistosoma japonicum infection, leading to liver fibrosis. However, the role of gamma-delta (γδ) T cells in this disease is less clear. γδ T cells are known to secrete IL-17 in response to infection, exerting either protective or pathogenic functions. In the present study, mice infected with S. japonicum are used as a method to characterize the role of γδ T cells. Combined with the infection of S. japonicum, an extremely significant increase in the percentage of neutrophils in the CD45(+) cells was detected (from approximately 2...
May 15, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507071/characterization-of-the-protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-lmprl-1-secreted-by-leishmania-major-via-the-exosome-pathway
#8
Sabine Leitherer, Joachim Clos, Elisabeth M Liebler-Tenorio, Ulrike Schleicher, Christian Bogdan, Didier Soulat
Similar to other intracellular pathogens, Leishmania parasites are known to evade the antimicrobial effector functions of host immune cells. To date, however, only few virulence factors have been described for Leishmania (L.) major, one of the causative agents of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Here, we characterized the expression and function of a L. major phosphatase which we termed LmPRL-1. This enzyme shows a strong structural similarity to the human phosphatases of regenerating liver (PRL-1, -2, and -3) that are regulating the proliferation, differentiation and motility of cells...
May 15, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507070/limited-colonization-undermined-by-inadequate-early-immune-responses-define-the-dynamics-of-decidual-listeriosis
#9
Gabrielle Rizzuto, Elisa Tagliani, Priyanka Manandhar, Adrian Erlebacher, Anna I Bakardjiev
The bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes causes a food-borne systemic disease in pregnant women that can lead to preterm labor, stillbirth, or severe neonatal disease. Colonization of the maternal decidua appears to be an initial step in the maternal component of the disease as well as bacterial transmission to the placenta and fetus. Host-pathogen interactions in the decidua during this early stage of infection remain poorly understood. Here, we assessed the dynamics of L. monocytogenes infection in primary human decidual organ cultures and in the murine decidua in vivo...
May 15, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507069/saers-is-responsive-to-cellular-respiratory-status-and-regulates-fermentative-biofilm-formation-in-staphylococcus-aureus
#10
Ameya A Mashruwala, Casey M Gries, Tyler D Scherr, Tammy Kielian, Jeffrey M Boyd
Biofilms are multicellular communities of microorganisms living as a quorum rather than as individual cells. The bacterial human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus uses oxygen as a terminal electron acceptor during respiration. Infected human tissues are hypoxic or anoxic. We recently reported that impaired respiration elicits a programmed cell lysis (PCL) phenomenon in S. aureus leading to the release of cellular polymers that are utilized to form biofilms. PCL is dependent upon the AtlA murein hydrolase and is regulated, in part, by the SrrAB two-component regulatory system (TCRS)...
May 15, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507068/genome-wide-survey-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-pa14-reveals-a-role-for-the-glyoxylate-pathway-and-extracellular-proteases-in-the-utilization-of-mucin
#11
Jeffrey M Flynn, Chi Phan, Ryan C Hunter
Chronic airway infections by the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa are a major cause of mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. While this bacterium has been extensively studied for its virulence determinants, biofilm growth and immune evasion mechanisms, comparatively little is known about the nutrient sources that sustain its growth in vivo Respiratory mucins represent a potentially abundant bioavailable nutrient source, though we have recently shown that canonical pathogens inefficiently use these host glycoproteins as a growth substrate...
May 15, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507067/the-global-transcriptional-response-to-organic-hydroperoxide-and-the-role-of-ohrr-in-the-control-of-virulence-traits-in-chromobacterium-violaceum
#12
Maristela Previato Mello, Diogo de Abreu Meireles, Luis Eduardo Soares Netto, José Freire da Silva Neto
A major pathway for detoxification of organic hydroperoxides, such as cumene hydroperoxide (CHP), involves the MarR family transcriptional regulator OhrR and the peroxidase OhrA. However, the effect of these peroxides on the global transcriptome and the contribution of the OhrA/OhrR system on bacterial virulence remain poorly explored. Here, we analyzed the transcriptome profiles of Chromobacterium violaceum exposed to CHP and after deletion of ohrR, and we showed that OhrR controls virulence of this human opportunistic pathogen...
May 15, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507066/the-microbiome-of-site-specific-dental-plaque-of-children-with-different-caries-status
#13
Vincent P Richards, Andres J Alvarez, Amy R Luce, Molly Bedenbaugh, Mary Mitchell, Robert A Burne, Marcelle M Nascimento
The oral microbiota associated with the initiation and progression of dental caries has yet to be fully characterized. The Human Oral Microbe Identification using Next Generation Sequencing (HOMINGS) was used to analyze the microbiomes of site-specific supragingival dental plaques from children with different caries status. Fifty-five children (2-7 years) were assessed at baseline and 12-months, and grouped as: caries-free (CF), caries-active with enamel lesions (CAE), and caries-active with dentin carious lesions (CA)...
May 15, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507065/mutants-in-the-%C3%AE-subunit-of-the-rna-polymerase-impairing-the-surface-associated-motility-and-virulence-of-acinetobacter-baumannii
#14
María Pérez-Varela, Jordi Corral, Juan Andrés Vallejo, Soraya Rumbo-Feal, Germán Bou, Jesús Aranda, Jordi Barbé
Acinetobacter baumannii is a major cause of antibiotic-resistant nosocomial infections worldwide. In this study, several rifampin-resistant spontaneous mutants obtained from the A. baumannii ATCC 17978 strain were isolated that differed in their point mutations in the rpoB gene, encoding the β-subunit of the RNA polymerase. All mutants harboring amino acid substitutions in positions 522 or 540 of the RpoB protein were impaired in surface-associated motility and had attenuated virulence in the fertility model of Caenorhabditis elegans The transcriptional profile of these mutants included six down-regulated genes encoding proteins homologous to transporters and metabolic enzymes widespread among A...
May 15, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507064/tumor-necrosis-factor-receptor-associated-factor-6-traf6-mediates-ubiquitination-dependent-stat3-activation-upon-salmonella-typhimurium-infection
#15
Hai-Hua Ruan, Zhen Zhang, Su-Ying Wang, Logan M Nickels, Li Tian, Jian-Jun Qiao, Jun Zhu
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S Typhimurium) can inject effector proteins into host cells via Type III secretion systems (T3SSs). These effector proteins modulate a variety of host transcriptional responses to facilitate bacterial growth and survival. Here, we show that S Typhimurium infection of host cells specifically induces ubiquitination of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6). This TRAF6 ubiquitination is triggered by the Salmonella pathogenicity island-1 (SPI-I) T3SS effectors SopB and SopE2...
May 15, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507063/the-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-mmpl11-cell-wall-lipid-transporter-is-important-for-biofilm-formation-intracellular-growth-and-non-replicating-persistence
#16
Catherine C Wright, Fong Fu Hsu, Eusondia Arnett, Jennifer L Dunaj, Patrick M Davidson, Sophia A Pacheco, Melanie J Harriff, David M Lewinsohn, Larry S Schlesinger, Georgiana E Purdy
The mycobacterial cell wall is crucial to the host-pathogen interface since it provides a barrier against antibiotics and the host immune response. In addition, cell wall lipids are mycobacterial virulence factors. The mycobacterial membrane protein large (MmpL) proteins are cell wall lipid transporters that are important for basic mycobacterial physiology and M. tuberculosis pathogenesis. MmpL3 and MmpL11 are conserved across pathogenic and nonpathogenic mycobacteria, consistent with an important role in the basic physiology of the bacterium...
May 15, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483856/tlr2-and-mincle-cooperatively-sense-corynebacterial-cell-wall-glycolipids
#17
Judith Schick, Philipp Etschel, Rebeca Bailo, Lisa Ott, Apoorva Bhatt, Bernd Lepenies, Carsten Kirschning, Andreas Burkovski, Roland Lang
Non-toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae and C. ulcerans cause invasive disease in humans and animals. Host sensing of corynebacteria is largely uncharacterized, albeit recognition of lipoglycans by TLR2 appears to be important for macrophage activation by corynebacteria. The members of the order Corynebacterinae (e.g. mycobacteria, nocardia, rhodococci) share a glycolipid-rich cell wall dominated by mycolic acids (termed corynomycolic acids in corynebacteria). The mycolic acid-containing cord factor of mycobacteria, trehalose dimycolate, activates the C-type lectin receptor (CLR) Mincle...
May 8, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483855/the-association-of-metal-homeostasis-and-p-ppgpp-regulation-in-the-pathophysiology-of-enterococcus-faecalis
#18
C Colomer-Winter, A O Gaca, J A Lemos
In Enterococcus faecalis, the regulatory nucleotides pppGpp and ppGpp, collectively (p)ppGpp, are required for growth in blood, survival within macrophages and virulence. However, a clear understanding of how (p)ppGpp promotes virulence in E. faecalis and other bacterial pathogens is still lacking. In the host, the essential transition metals iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) are not readily available to invading pathogens because of a host-driven process called nutritional immunity. Considering its central role in adaptation to nutritional stresses, we hypothesized that (p)ppGpp mediates E...
May 8, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461392/infection-of-hysterectomized-mice-with-chlamydia-muridarum-and-chlamydia-trachomatis
#19
Chunfu Yang, William M Whitmire, Gail L Sturdevant, Kevin Bock, Ian Moore, Harlan D Caldwell
We studied infection and immunity of hysterectomized mice infected with Chlamydia muridarum and Chlamydia trachomatis to determine if there were differences between these strains in their ability to infect vagina squamous epithelial cells in vivo independent of proximal upper genital tract tissues. We found C. muridarum readily colonized and infected vaginal squamous epithelial cells whereas C. trachomatis did not. Primary infection of the vaginal epithelium with C. muridarum produced infections of longer duration than that reported for normal mice...
May 1, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461391/host-serine-threonine-kinases-mtor-and-protein-kinase-c-%C3%AE-promote-inlb-mediated-entry-of-listeria-monocytogenes
#20
Manmeet Bhalla, Daria Law, Georgina C Dowd, Keith Ireton
The bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes causes food-borne illnesses resulting in gastroenteritis, meningitis, or abortion. Listeria induces its internalization into some human cells through interaction of the bacterial surface protein InlB with the host receptor tyrosine kinase Met. InlB-dependent entry requires localized polymerization of the host actin cytoskeleton. Signal transduction pathways that act downstream of Met to regulate actin filament assembly or other processes during Listeria uptake remain incompletely characterized...
May 1, 2017: Infection and Immunity
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