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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636606/molecular-biology-a-liquid-reservoir-for-silent-chromatin
#1
Adam Klosin, Anthony A Hyman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 21, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636605/catalytic-allylic-oxidation-of-internal-alkenes-to-a-multifunctional-chiral-building-block
#2
Liela Bayeh, Phong Q Le, Uttam K Tambar
The stereoselective oxidation of hydrocarbons is one of the most notable advances in synthetic chemistry over the past fifty years. Inspired by nature, enantioselective dihydroxylations, epoxidations and other oxidations of unsaturated hydrocarbons have been developed. More recently, the catalytic enantioselective allylic carbon-hydrogen oxidation of alkenes has streamlined the production of pharmaceuticals, natural products, fine chemicals and other functional materials. Allylic functionalization provides a direct path to chiral building blocks with a newly formed stereocentre from petrochemical feedstocks while preserving the olefin functionality as a handle for further chemical elaboration...
June 21, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636604/liquid-droplet-formation-by-hp1%C3%AE-suggests-a-role-for-phase-separation-in-heterochromatin
#3
Adam G Larson, Daniel Elnatan, Madeline M Keenen, Michael J Trnka, Jonathan B Johnston, Alma L Burlingame, David A Agard, Sy Redding, Geeta J Narlikar
Gene silencing by heterochromatin is proposed to occur in part as a result of the ability of heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) proteins to spread across large regions of the genome, compact the underlying chromatin and recruit diverse ligands. Here we identify a new property of the human HP1α protein: the ability to form phase-separated droplets. While unmodified HP1α is soluble, either phosphorylation of its N-terminal extension or DNA binding promotes the formation of phase-separated droplets. Phosphorylation-driven phase separation can be promoted or reversed by specific HP1α ligands...
June 21, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636603/trans-kingdom-mimicry-underlies-ribosome-customization-by-a-poxvirus-kinase
#4
Sujata Jha, Madeline G Rollins, Gabriele Fuchs, Dean J Procter, Elizabeth A Hall, Kira Cozzolino, Peter Sarnow, Jeffrey N Savas, Derek Walsh
Ribosomes have the capacity to selectively control translation through changes in their composition that enable recognition of specific RNA elements. However, beyond differential subunit expression during development, evidence for regulated ribosome specification within individual cells has remained elusive. Here we report that a poxvirus kinase phosphorylates serine/threonine residues in the human small ribosomal subunit protein, receptor for activated C kinase (RACK1), that are not phosphorylated in uninfected cells or cells infected by other viruses...
June 21, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636602/immunology-gut-sensor-halts-viral-attack
#5
Pedro H V Saavedra, Mohamed Lamkanfi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 21, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636601/crystal-structure-of-the-potassium-importing-kdpfabc-membrane-complex
#6
Ching-Shin Huang, Bjørn Panyella Pedersen, David L Stokes
Cellular potassium import systems play a fundamental role in osmoregulation, pH homeostasis and membrane potential in all domains of life. In bacteria, the kdp operon encodes a four-subunit potassium pump that maintains intracellular homeostasis, cell shape and turgor under conditions in which potassium is limiting. This membrane complex, called KdpFABC, has one channel-like subunit (KdpA) belonging to the superfamily of potassium transporters and another pump-like subunit (KdpB) belonging to the superfamily of P-type ATPases...
June 21, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636600/hidden-morphological-diversity-among-early-tetrapods
#7
Jason D Pardo, Matt Szostakiwskyj, Per E Ahlberg, Jason S Anderson
Phylogenetic analysis of early tetrapod evolution has resulted in a consensus across diverse data sets in which the tetrapod stem group is a relatively homogenous collection of medium- to large-sized animals showing a progressive loss of 'fish' characters as they become increasingly terrestrial, whereas the crown group demonstrates marked morphological diversity and disparity. The oldest fossil attributed to the tetrapod crown group is the highly specialized aïstopod Lethiscus stocki, which shows a small size, extreme axial elongation, loss of limbs, spool-shaped vertebral centra, and a skull with reduced centres of ossification, in common with an otherwise disparate group of small animals known as lepospondyls...
June 21, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636599/addendum-immune-clearance-of-highly-pathogenic-siv-infection
#8
Scott G Hansen, Michael Piatak, Abigail B Ventura, Colette M Hughes, Roxanne M Gilbride, Julia C Ford, Kelli Oswald, Rebecca Shoemaker, Yuan Li, Matthew S Lewis, Awbrey N Gilliam, Guangwu Xu, Nathan Whizin, Benjamin J Burwitz, Shannon L Planer, John M Turner, Alfred W Legasse, Michael K Axthelm, Jay A Nelson, Klaus Früh, Jonah B Sacha, Jacob D Estes, Brandon F Keele, Paul T Edlefsen, Jeffrey D Lifson, Louis J Picker
This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/nature12519.
June 21, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636598/astrophysics-stellar-siblings-grow-closer-with-age
#9
Aaron M Geller
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 21, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636597/phase-separation-drives-heterochromatin-domain-formation
#10
Amy R Strom, Alexander V Emelyanov, Mustafa Mir, Dmitry V Fyodorov, Xavier Darzacq, Gary H Karpen
Constitutive heterochromatin is an important component of eukaryotic genomes that has essential roles in nuclear architecture, DNA repair and genome stability, and silencing of transposon and gene expression. Heterochromatin is highly enriched for repetitive sequences, and is defined epigenetically by methylation of histone H3 at lysine 9 and recruitment of its binding partner heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1). A prevalent view of heterochromatic silencing is that these and associated factors lead to chromatin compaction, resulting in steric exclusion of regulatory proteins such as RNA polymerase from the underlying DNA...
June 21, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636596/selective-sp-3-c-h-alkylation-via-polarity-match-based-cross-coupling
#11
Chip Le, Yufan Liang, Ryan W Evans, Ximing Li, David W C MacMillan
The functionalization of carbon-hydrogen (C-H) bonds is one of the most attractive strategies for molecular construction in organic chemistry. The hydrogen atom is considered to be an ideal coupling handle, owing to its relative abundance in organic molecules and its availability for functionalization at almost any stage in a synthetic sequence. Although many C-H functionalization reactions involve C(sp(3))-C(sp(2)) coupling, there is a growing demand for C-H alkylation reactions, wherein sp(3) C-H bonds are replaced with sp(3) C-alkyl groups...
June 21, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636595/nlrp9b-inflammasome-restricts-rotavirus-infection-in-intestinal-epithelial-cells
#12
Shu Zhu, Siyuan Ding, Penghua Wang, Zheng Wei, Wen Pan, Noah W Palm, Yi Yang, Hua Yu, Hua-Bing Li, Geng Wang, Xuqiu Lei, Marcel R de Zoete, Jun Zhao, Yunjiang Zheng, Haiwei Chen, Yujiao Zhao, Kellie A Jurado, Ningguo Feng, Liang Shan, Yuval Kluger, Jun Lu, Clara Abraham, Erol Fikrig, Harry B Greenberg, Richard A Flavell
Rotavirus, a leading cause of severe gastroenteritis and diarrhoea in young children, accounts for around 215,000 deaths annually worldwide. Rotavirus specifically infects the intestinal epithelial cells in the host small intestine and has evolved strategies to antagonize interferon and NF-κB signalling, raising the question as to whether other host factors participate in antiviral responses in intestinal mucosa. The mechanism by which enteric viruses are sensed and restricted in vivo, especially by NOD-like receptor (NLR) inflammasomes, is largely unknown...
June 21, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636594/surface-tension-prevails-over-solute-effect-in-organic-influenced-cloud-droplet-activation
#13
Jurgita Ovadnevaite, Andreas Zuend, Ari Laaksonen, Kevin J Sanchez, Greg Roberts, Darius Ceburnis, Stefano Decesari, Matteo Rinaldi, Natasha Hodas, Maria Cristina Facchini, John H Seinfeld, Colin O' Dowd
The spontaneous growth of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) into cloud droplets under supersaturated water vapour conditions is described by classic Köhler theory. This spontaneous activation of CCN depends on the interplay between the Raoult effect, whereby activation potential increases with decreasing water activity or increasing solute concentration, and the Kelvin effect, whereby activation potential decreases with decreasing droplet size or increases with decreasing surface tension, which is sensitive to surfactants...
June 21, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636593/t-cells-from-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease-recognize-%C3%AE-synuclein-peptides
#14
David Sulzer, Roy N Alcalay, Francesca Garretti, Lucien Cote, Ellen Kanter, Julian Agin-Liebes, Christopher Liong, Curtis McMurtrey, William H Hildebrand, Xiaobo Mao, Valina L Dawson, Ted M Dawson, Carla Oseroff, John Pham, John Sidney, Myles B Dillon, Chelsea Carpenter, Daniela Weiskopf, Elizabeth Phillips, Simon Mallal, Bjoern Peters, April Frazier, Cecilia S Lindestam Arlehamn, Alessandro Sette
Genetic studies have shown the association of Parkinson's disease with alleles of the major histocompatibility complex. Here we show that a defined set of peptides that are derived from α-synuclein, a protein aggregated in Parkinson's disease, act as antigenic epitopes displayed by these alleles and drive helper and cytotoxic T cell responses in patients with Parkinson's disease. These responses may explain the association of Parkinson's disease with specific major histocompatibility complex alleles.
June 21, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636592/quantifiable-predictive-features-define-epitope-specific-t-cell-receptor-repertoires
#15
Pradyot Dash, Andrew J Fiore-Gartland, Tomer Hertz, George C Wang, Shalini Sharma, Aisha Souquette, Jeremy Chase Crawford, E Bridie Clemens, Thi H O Nguyen, Katherine Kedzierska, Nicole L La Gruta, Philip Bradley, Paul G Thomas
T cells are defined by a heterodimeric surface receptor, the T cell receptor (TCR), that mediates recognition of pathogen-associated epitopes through interactions with peptide and major histocompatibility complexes (pMHCs). TCRs are generated by genomic rearrangement of the germline TCR locus, a process termed V(D)J recombination, that has the potential to generate marked diversity of TCRs (estimated to range from 10(15) (ref. 1) to as high as 10(61) (ref. 2) possible receptors). Despite this potential diversity, TCRs from T cells that recognize the same pMHC epitope often share conserved sequence features, suggesting that it may be possible to predictively model epitope specificity...
June 21, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636591/infectious-diseases-predictions-of-virus-spillover-across-species
#16
James O Lloyd-Smith
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 21, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636590/host-and-viral-traits-predict-zoonotic-spillover-from-mammals
#17
Kevin J Olival, Parviez R Hosseini, Carlos Zambrana-Torrelio, Noam Ross, Tiffany L Bogich, Peter Daszak
The majority of human emerging infectious diseases are zoonotic, with viruses that originate in wild mammals of particular concern (for example, HIV, Ebola and SARS). Understanding patterns of viral diversity in wildlife and determinants of successful cross-species transmission, or spillover, are therefore key goals for pandemic surveillance programs. However, few analytical tools exist to identify which host species are likely to harbour the next human virus, or which viruses can cross species boundaries. Here we conduct a comprehensive analysis of mammalian host-virus relationships and show that both the total number of viruses that infect a given species and the proportion likely to be zoonotic are predictable...
June 21, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636589/identifying-specificity-groups-in-the-t-cell-receptor-repertoire
#18
Jacob Glanville, Huang Huang, Allison Nau, Olivia Hatton, Lisa E Wagar, Florian Rubelt, Xuhuai Ji, Arnold Han, Sheri M Krams, Christina Pettus, Nikhil Haas, Cecilia S Lindestam Arlehamn, Alessandro Sette, Scott D Boyd, Thomas J Scriba, Olivia M Martinez, Mark M Davis
T cell receptor (TCR) sequences are very diverse, with many more possible sequence combinations than T cells in any one individual. Here we define the minimal requirements for TCR antigen specificity, through an analysis of TCR sequences using a panel of peptide and major histocompatibility complex (pMHC)-tetramer-sorted cells and structural data. From this analysis we developed an algorithm that we term GLIPH (grouping of lymphocyte interactions by paratope hotspots) to cluster TCRs with a high probability of sharing specificity owing to both conserved motifs and global similarity of complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) sequences...
June 21, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636588/immunology-the-patterns-of-t-cell-target-recognition
#19
Sai T Reddy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 21, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628922/observation-of-three-component-fermions-in-the-topological-semimetal-molybdenum-phosphide
#20
B Q Lv, Z-L Feng, Q-N Xu, X Gao, J-Z Ma, L-Y Kong, P Richard, Y-B Huang, V N Strocov, C Fang, H-M Weng, Y-G Shi, T Qian, H Ding
In quantum field theory, Lorentz invariance leads to three types of fermion-Dirac, Weyl and Majorana. Although the existence of Weyl and Majorana fermions as elementary particles in high-energy physics is debated, all three types of fermion have been proposed to exist as low-energy, long-wavelength quasiparticle excitations in condensed-matter systems. The existence of Dirac and Weyl fermions in condensed-matter systems has been confirmed experimentally, and that of Majorana fermions is supported by various experiments...
June 19, 2017: Nature
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