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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922666/statues-researchers-to-mind-their-history
#1
Evelynn M Hammonds, Susan M Reverby
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 18, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922665/statues-sculpting-a-tarnished-legacy
#2
Melinda Baldwin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 18, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922664/patchy-particles-made-by-colloidal-fusion
#3
Zhe Gong, Theodore Hueckel, Gi-Ra Yi, Stefano Sacanna
Patches on the surfaces of colloidal particles provide directional information that enables the self-assembly of the particles into higher-order structures. Although computational tools can make quantitative predictions and can generate design rules that link the patch motif of a particle to its internal microstructure and to the emergent properties of the self-assembled materials, the experimental realization of model systems of particles with surface patches (or 'patchy' particles) remains a challenge. Synthetic patchy colloidal particles are often poor geometric approximations of the digital building blocks used in simulations and can only rarely be manufactured in sufficiently high yields to be routinely used as experimental model systems...
September 18, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922663/statues-an-editorial-response
#4
Philip Campbell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 18, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902843/the-apostasia-genome-and-the-evolution-of-orchids
#5
Guo-Qiang Zhang, Ke-Wei Liu, Zhen Li, Rolf Lohaus, Yu-Yun Hsiao, Shan-Ce Niu, Jie-Yu Wang, Yao-Cheng Lin, Qing Xu, Li-Jun Chen, Kouki Yoshida, Sumire Fujiwara, Zhi-Wen Wang, Yong-Qiang Zhang, Nobutaka Mitsuda, Meina Wang, Guo-Hui Liu, Lorenzo Pecoraro, Hui-Xia Huang, Xin-Ju Xiao, Min Lin, Xin-Yi Wu, Wan-Lin Wu, You-Yi Chen, Song-Bin Chang, Shingo Sakamoto, Masaru Ohme-Takagi, Masafumi Yagi, Si-Jin Zeng, Ching-Yu Shen, Chuan-Ming Yeh, Yi-Bo Luo, Wen-Chieh Tsai, Yves Van de Peer, Zhong-Jian Liu
Constituting approximately 10% of flowering plant species, orchids (Orchidaceae) display unique flower morphologies, possess an extraordinary diversity in lifestyle, and have successfully colonized almost every habitat on Earth. Here we report the draft genome sequence of Apostasia shenzhenica, a representative of one of two genera that form a sister lineage to the rest of the Orchidaceae, providing a reference for inferring the genome content and structure of the most recent common ancestor of all extant orchids and improving our understanding of their origins and evolution...
September 13, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902842/the-neuropeptide-nmu-amplifies-ilc2-driven-allergic-lung-inflammation
#6
Antonia Wallrapp, Samantha J Riesenfeld, Patrick R Burkett, Raja-Elie E Abdulnour, Jackson Nyman, Danielle Dionne, Matan Hofree, Michael S Cuoco, Christopher Rodman, Daneyal Farouq, Brian J Haas, Timothy L Tickle, John J Trombetta, Pankaj Baral, Christoph S N Klose, Tanel Mahlakõiv, David Artis, Orit Rozenblatt-Rosen, Isaac M Chiu, Bruce D Levy, Monika S Kowalczyk, Aviv Regev, Vijay K Kuchroo
Type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) both contribute to mucosal homeostasis and initiate pathologic inflammation in allergic asthma. However, the signals that direct ILC2s to promote homeostasis versus inflammation are unclear. To identify such molecular cues, we profiled mouse lung-resident ILCs using single-cell RNA sequencing at steady state and after in vivo stimulation with the alarmin cytokines IL-25 and IL-33. ILC2s were transcriptionally heterogeneous after activation, with subpopulations distinguished by expression of proliferative, homeostatic and effector genes...
September 13, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902841/cgas-senses-long-and-hmgb-tfam-bound-u-turn-dna-by-forming-protein-dna-ladders
#7
Liudmila Andreeva, Björn Hiller, Dirk Kostrewa, Charlotte Lässig, Carina C de Oliveira Mann, David Jan Drexler, Andreas Maiser, Moritz Gaidt, Heinrich Leonhardt, Veit Hornung, Karl-Peter Hopfner
Cytosolic DNA arising from intracellular pathogens triggers a powerful innate immune response. It is sensed by cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS), which elicits the production of type I interferons by generating the second messenger 2'3'-cyclic-GMP-AMP (cGAMP). Endogenous nuclear or mitochondrial DNA can also be sensed by cGAS under certain conditions, resulting in sterile inflammation. The cGAS dimer binds two DNA ligands shorter than 20 base pairs side-by-side, but 20-base-pair DNA fails to activate cGAS in vivo and is a poor activator in vitro...
September 13, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902840/maternal-gut-bacteria-promote-neurodevelopmental-abnormalities-in-mouse-offspring
#8
Sangdoo Kim, Hyunju Kim, Yeong Shin Yim, Soyoung Ha, Koji Atarashi, Tze Guan Tan, Randy S Longman, Kenya Honda, Dan R Littman, Gloria B Choi, Jun R Huh
Maternal immune activation (MIA) contributes to behavioural abnormalities associated with neurodevelopmental disorders in both primate and rodent offspring. In humans, epidemiological studies suggest that exposure of fetuses to maternal inflammation increases the likelihood of developing autism spectrum disorder. In pregnant mice, interleukin-17a (IL-17a) produced by T helper 17 (TH17) cells (CD4(+) T helper effector cells involved in multiple inflammatory conditions) induces behavioural and cortical abnormalities in the offspring exposed to MIA...
September 13, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902839/sam-dependent-enzyme-catalysed-pericyclic-reactions-in-natural-product-biosynthesis
#9
Masao Ohashi, Fang Liu, Yang Hai, Mengbin Chen, Man-Cheng Tang, Zhongyue Yang, Michio Sato, Kenji Watanabe, K N Houk, Yi Tang
Pericyclic reactions-which proceed in a concerted fashion through a cyclic transition state-are among the most powerful synthetic transformations used to make multiple regioselective and stereoselective carbon-carbon bonds. They have been widely applied to the synthesis of biologically active complex natural products containing contiguous stereogenic carbon centres. Despite the prominence of pericyclic reactions in total synthesis, only three naturally existing enzymatic examples (the intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction, and the Cope and the Claisen rearrangements) have been characterized...
September 13, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902838/the-cryo-electron-microscopy-structure-of-human-transcription-factor-iih
#10
Basil J Greber, Thi Hoang Duong Nguyen, Jie Fang, Pavel V Afonine, Paul D Adams, Eva Nogales
Human transcription factor IIH (TFIIH) is part of the general transcriptional machinery required by RNA polymerase II for the initiation of eukaryotic gene transcription. Composed of ten subunits that add up to a molecular mass of about 500 kDa, TFIIH is also essential for nucleotide excision repair. The seven-subunit TFIIH core complex formed by XPB, XPD, p62, p52, p44, p34, and p8 is competent for DNA repair, while the CDK-activating kinase subcomplex, which includes the kinase activity of CDK7 as well as the cyclin H and MAT1 subunits, is additionally required for transcription initiation...
September 13, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902837/neuroscience-mum-s-bacteria-linked-to-baby-s-behaviour
#11
Craig M Powell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 13, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902836/hippocampal-ltp-and-contextual-learning-require-surface-diffusion-of-ampa-receptors
#12
A C Penn, C L Zhang, F Georges, L Royer, C Breillat, E Hosy, J D Petersen, Y Humeau, D Choquet
Long-term potentiation (LTP) of excitatory synaptic transmission has long been considered a cellular correlate for learning and memory. Early LTP (less than 1 h) had initially been explained either by presynaptic increases in glutamate release or by direct modification of postsynaptic AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid) receptor function. Compelling models have more recently proposed that synaptic potentiation can occur by the recruitment of additional postsynaptic AMPA receptors (AMPARs), sourced either from an intracellular reserve pool by exocytosis or from nearby extra-synaptic receptors pre-existing on the neuronal surface...
September 13, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902835/reversing-behavioural-abnormalities-in-mice-exposed-to-maternal-inflammation
#13
Yeong Shin Yim, Ashley Park, Janet Berrios, Mathieu Lafourcade, Leila M Pascual, Natalie Soares, Joo Yeon Kim, Sangdoo Kim, Hyunju Kim, Ari Waisman, Dan R Littman, Ian R Wickersham, Mark T Harnett, Jun R Huh, Gloria B Choi
Viral infection during pregnancy is correlated with increased frequency of neurodevelopmental disorders, and this is studied in mice prenatally subjected to maternal immune activation (MIA). We previously showed that maternal T helper 17 cells promote the development of cortical and behavioural abnormalities in MIA-affected offspring. Here we show that cortical abnormalities are preferentially localized to a region encompassing the dysgranular zone of the primary somatosensory cortex (S1DZ). Moreover, activation of pyramidal neurons in this cortical region was sufficient to induce MIA-associated behavioural phenotypes in wild-type animals, whereas reduction in neural activity rescued the behavioural abnormalities in MIA-affected offspring...
September 13, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902834/alternative-evolutionary-histories-in-the-sequence-space-of-an-ancient-protein
#14
Tyler N Starr, Lora K Picton, Joseph W Thornton
To understand why molecular evolution turned out as it did, we must characterize not only the path that evolution followed across the space of possible molecular sequences but also the many alternative trajectories that could have been taken but were not. A large-scale comparison of real and possible histories would establish whether the outcome of evolution represents an optimal state driven by natural selection or the contingent product of historical chance events; it would also reveal how the underlying distribution of functions across sequence space shaped historical evolution...
September 13, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902833/rabies-screen-reveals-gpe-control-of-cocaine-triggered-plasticity
#15
Kevin T Beier, Christina K Kim, Paul Hoerbelt, Lin Wai Hung, Boris D Heifets, Katherine E DeLoach, Timothy J Mosca, Sophie Neuner, Karl Deisseroth, Liqun Luo, Robert C Malenka
Identification of neural circuit changes that contribute to behavioural plasticity has routinely been conducted on candidate circuits that were preselected on the basis of previous results. Here we present an unbiased method for identifying experience-triggered circuit-level changes in neuronal ensembles in mice. Using rabies virus monosynaptic tracing, we mapped cocaine-induced global changes in inputs onto neurons in the ventral tegmental area. Cocaine increased rabies-labelled inputs from the globus pallidus externus (GPe), a basal ganglia nucleus not previously known to participate in behavioural plasticity triggered by drugs of abuse...
September 13, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892810/a-spin-transition-mechanism-for-cooperative-adsorption-in-metal-organic-frameworks
#16
Douglas A Reed, Benjamin K Keitz, Julia Oktawiec, Jarad A Mason, Tomče Runčevski, Dianne J Xiao, Lucy E Darago, Valentina Crocellà, Silvia Bordiga, Jeffrey R Long
Cooperative binding, whereby an initial binding event facilitates the uptake of additional substrate molecules, is common in biological systems such as haemoglobin. It was recently shown that porous solids that exhibit cooperative binding have substantial energetic benefits over traditional adsorbents, but few guidelines currently exist for the design of such materials. In principle, metal-organic frameworks that contain coordinatively unsaturated metal centres could act as both selective and cooperative adsorbents if guest binding at one site were to trigger an electronic transformation that subsequently altered the binding properties at neighbouring metal sites...
September 11, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869973/palmitoylation-dependent-activation-of-mc1r-prevents-melanomagenesis
#17
Shuyang Chen, Bo Zhu, Chengqian Yin, Wei Liu, Changpeng Han, Baoen Chen, Tongzheng Liu, Xin Li, Xiang Chen, Chunying Li, Limin Hu, Jun Zhou, Zhi-Xiang Xu, Xiumei Gao, Xu Wu, Colin R Goding, Rutao Cui
The melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R), a G-protein-coupled receptor, has a crucial role in human and mouse pigmentation. Activation of MC1R in melanocytes by α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) stimulates cAMP signalling and melanin production and enhances DNA repair after ultraviolet irradiation. Individuals carrying MC1R variants, especially those associated with red hair colour, fair skin and poor tanning ability (denoted as RHC variants), are associated with higher risk of melanoma. However, how MC1R activity is modulated by ultraviolet irradiation, why individuals with red hair are more prone to developing melanoma, and whether the activity of RHC variants might be restored for therapeutic benefit are unknown...
September 6, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869972/cell-signalling-red-alert-about-lipid-s-role-in-skin-cancer
#18
Ian J Jackson, E Elizabeth Patton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 6, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869971/leukaemia-vitamin-c-regulates-stem-cells-and-cancer
#19
Peter G Miller, Benjamin L Ebert
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 6, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869970/competing-memories-of-mitogen-and-p53-signalling-control-cell-cycle-entry
#20
Hee Won Yang, Mingyu Chung, Takamasa Kudo, Tobias Meyer
Regulation of cell proliferation is necessary for immune responses, tissue repair, and upkeep of organ function to maintain human health. When proliferating cells complete mitosis, a fraction of newly born daughter cells immediately enter the next cell cycle, while the remaining cells in the same population exit to a transient or persistent quiescent state. Whether this choice between two cell-cycle pathways is due to natural variability in mitogen signalling or other underlying causes is unknown. Here we show that human cells make this fundamental cell-cycle entry or exit decision based on competing memories of variable mitogen and stress signals...
September 6, 2017: Nature
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