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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160305/a-brief-visit-from-a-red-and-extremely-elongated-interstellar-asteroid
#1
Karen J Meech, Robert Weryk, Marco Micheli, Jan T Kleyna, Olivier R Hainaut, Robert Jedicke, Richard J Wainscoat, Kenneth C Chambers, Jacqueline V Keane, Andreea Petric, Larry Denneau, Eugene Magnier, Travis Berger, Mark E Huber, Heather Flewelling, Chris Waters, Eva Schunova-Lilly, Serge Chastel
None of the approximately 750,000 known asteroids and comets is thought to have originated outside our Solar System, but formation models suggest that orbital migration of the giant planets ejected a large fraction of the original planetesimals into interstellar space(1). The predicted interstellar number density(2) of icy interstellar objects of 2.4 × 10(-4) au(-3) suggested that these should have been detected by surveys, yet hitherto none had been seen. Many decades of asteroid and comet characterization have yielded formation models that explain the mass distribution, chemical abundances and planetary configuration of today's Solar System, but until now there has been no way to tell if our Solar System is typical...
November 20, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156454/site-selective-and-stereoselective-functionalization-of-non-activated-tertiary-c-h-bonds
#2
Kuangbiao Liao, Thomas C Pickel, Vyacheslav Boyarskikh, John Bacsa, Djamaladdin G Musaev, Huw M L Davies
The synthesis of complex organic compounds usually relies on controlling the reactions of the functional groups. In recent years, it has become possible to carry out reactions directly on the C-H bonds, previously considered to be unreactive. One of the major challenges is to control the site-selectivity because most organic compounds have many similar C-H bonds. The most well developed procedures so far rely on the use of substrate control, in which the substrate has one inherently more reactive C-H bond or contains a directing group or the reaction is conducted intramolecularly so that a specific C-H bond is favoured...
November 20, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160310/cyclin-d-cdk4-kinase-destabilizes-pd-l1-via-cul3-spop-to-control-cancer-immune-surveillance
#3
Jinfang Zhang, Xia Bu, Haizhen Wang, Yasheng Zhu, Yan Geng, Naoe Taira Nihira, Yuyong Tan, Yanpeng Ci, Fei Wu, Xiangpeng Dai, Jianping Guo, Yu-Han Huang, Caoqi Fan, Shancheng Ren, Yinghao Sun, Gordon J Freeman, Piotr Sicinski, Wenyi Wei
Treatments that target immune checkpoints, such as the one mediated by programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and its ligand PD-L1, have been approved for treating human cancers with durable clinical benefit(1,2). However, many cancer patients fail to respond to anti-PD-1/PD-L1 treatment, and the underlying mechanism(s) is not well understood(3-5). Recent studies revealed that response to PD-1/PD-L1 blockade might correlate with PD-L1 expression levels in tumor cells(6,7). Hence, it is important to mechanistically understand the pathways controlling PD-L1 protein expression and stability, which can offer a molecular basis to improve the clinical response rate and efficacy of PD-1/PD-L1 blockade in cancer patients...
November 16, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143824/pd-1-is-a-haploinsufficient-suppressor-of-t-cell-lymphomagenesis
#4
Tim Wartewig, Zsuzsanna Kurgyis, Selina Keppler, Konstanze Pechloff, Erik Hameister, Rupert Öllinger, Roman Maresch, Thorsten Buch, Katja Steiger, Christof Winter, Roland Rad, Jürgen Ruland
T cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas are a heterogeneous group of highly aggressive malignancies with poor clinical outcomes. T cell lymphomas originate from peripheral T cells and are frequently characterized by genetic gain-of-function variants in T cell receptor (TCR) signalling molecules. Although these oncogenic alterations are thought to drive TCR pathways to induce chronic proliferation and cell survival programmes, it remains unclear whether T cells contain tumour suppressors that can counteract these events...
November 15, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143823/salt-responsive-gut-commensal-modulates-th17-axis-and-disease
#5
Nicola Wilck, Mariana G Matus, Sean M Kearney, Scott W Olesen, Kristoffer Forslund, Hendrik Bartolomaeus, Stefanie Haase, Anja Mähler, András Balogh, Lajos Markó, Olga Vvedenskaya, Friedrich H Kleiner, Dmitry Tsvetkov, Lars Klug, Paul I Costea, Shinichi Sunagawa, Lisa Maier, Natalia Rakova, Valentin Schatz, Patrick Neubert, Christian Frätzer, Alexander Krannich, Maik Gollasch, Diana A Grohme, Beatriz F Côrte-Real, Roman G Gerlach, Marijana Basic, Athanasios Typas, Chuan Wu, Jens M Titze, Jonathan Jantsch, Michael Boschmann, Ralf Dechend, Markus Kleinewietfeld, Stefan Kempa, Peer Bork, Ralf A Linker, Eric J Alm, Dominik N Müller
A Western lifestyle with high salt consumption can lead to hypertension and cardiovascular disease. High salt may additionally drive autoimmunity by inducing T helper 17 (TH17) cells, which can also contribute to hypertension. Induction of TH17 cells depends on gut microbiota; however, the effect of salt on the gut microbiome is unknown. Here we show that high salt intake affects the gut microbiome in mice, particularly by depleting Lactobacillus murinus. Consequently, treatment of mice with L. murinus prevented salt-induced aggravation of actively induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and salt-sensitive hypertension by modulating TH17 cells...
November 15, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143822/cancer-immunotherapy-the-dark-side-of-pd-1-receptor-inhibition
#6
Aya Ludin, Leonard I Zon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 15, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143821/erratum-the-neuropeptide-nmu-amplifies-ilc2-driven-allergic-lung-inflammation
#7
Antonia Wallrapp, Samantha J Riesenfeld, Patrick R Burkett, Raja-Elie E Abdulnour, Jackson Nyman, Danielle Dionne, Matan Hofree, Michael S Cuoco, Christopher Rodman, Daneyal Farouq, Brian J Haas, Timothy L Tickle, John J Trombetta, Pankaj Baral, Christoph S N Klose, Tanel Mahlakõiv, David Artis, Orit Rozenblatt-Rosen, Isaac M Chiu, Bruce D Levy, Monika S Kowalczyk, Aviv Regev, Vijay K Kuchroo
This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/nature24029.
November 15, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143820/microbiota-a-high-pressure-situation-for-bacteria
#8
David A Relman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 15, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143819/archaeology-inequality-has-deep-roots-in-eurasia
#9
Michelle Elliott
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 15, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143818/visualization-of-chemical-modifications-in-the-human-80s-ribosome-structure
#10
S Kundhavai Natchiar, Alexander G Myasnikov, Hanna Kratzat, Isabelle Hazemann, Bruno P Klaholz
Chemical modifications of human ribosomal RNA (rRNA) are introduced during biogenesis and have been implicated in the dysregulation of protein synthesis, as is found in cancer and other diseases. However, their role in this phenomenon is unknown. Here we visualize more than 130 individual rRNA modifications in the three-dimensional structure of the human ribosome, explaining their structural and functional roles. In addition to a small number of universally conserved sites, we identify many eukaryote- or human-specific modifications and unique sites that form an extended shell in comparison to bacterial ribosomes, and which stabilize the RNA...
November 15, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143817/greater-post-neolithic-wealth-disparities-in-eurasia-than-in-north-america-and-mesoamerica
#11
Timothy A Kohler, Michael E Smith, Amy Bogaard, Gary M Feinman, Christian E Peterson, Alleen Betzenhauser, Matthew Pailes, Elizabeth C Stone, Anna Marie Prentiss, Timothy J Dennehy, Laura J Ellyson, Linda M Nicholas, Ronald K Faulseit, Amy Styring, Jade Whitlam, Mattia Fochesato, Thomas A Foor, Samuel Bowles
How wealth is distributed among households provides insight into the fundamental characters of societies and the opportunities they afford for social mobility. However, economic inequality has been hard to study in ancient societies for which we do not have written records, which adds to the challenge of placing current wealth disparities into a long-term perspective. Although various archaeological proxies for wealth, such as burial goods or exotic or expensive-to-manufacture goods in household assemblages, have been proposed, the first is not clearly connected with households, and the second is confounded by abandonment mode and other factors...
November 15, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143816/quantitative-microbiome-profiling-links-gut-community-variation-to-microbial-load
#12
Doris Vandeputte, Gunter Kathagen, Kevin D'hoe, Sara Vieira-Silva, Mireia Valles-Colomer, João Sabino, Jun Wang, Raul Y Tito, Lindsey De Commer, Youssef Darzi, Séverine Vermeire, Gwen Falony, Jeroen Raes
Current sequencing-based analyses of faecal microbiota quantify microbial taxa and metabolic pathways as fractions of the sample sequence library generated by each analysis. Although these relative approaches permit detection of disease-associated microbiome variation, they are limited in their ability to reveal the interplay between microbiota and host health. Comparative analyses of relative microbiome data cannot provide information about the extent or directionality of changes in taxa abundance or metabolic potential...
November 15, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143815/genome-sequence-of-the-progenitor-of-the-wheat-d-genome-aegilops-tauschii
#13
Ming-Cheng Luo, Yong Q Gu, Daniela Puiu, Hao Wang, Sven O Twardziok, Karin R Deal, Naxin Huo, Tingting Zhu, Le Wang, Yi Wang, Patrick E McGuire, Shuyang Liu, Hai Long, Ramesh K Ramasamy, Juan C Rodriguez, Sonny L Van, Luxia Yuan, Zhenzhong Wang, Zhiqiang Xia, Lichan Xiao, Olin D Anderson, Shuhong Ouyang, Yong Liang, Aleksey V Zimin, Geo Pertea, Peng Qi, Jeffrey L Bennetzen, Xiongtao Dai, Matthew W Dawson, Hans-Georg Müller, Karl Kugler, Lorena Rivarola-Duarte, Manuel Spannagl, Klaus F X Mayer, Fu-Hao Lu, Michael W Bevan, Philippe Leroy, Pingchuan Li, Frank M You, Qixin Sun, Zhiyong Liu, Eric Lyons, Thomas Wicker, Steven L Salzberg, Katrien M Devos, Jan Dvořák
Aegilops tauschii is the diploid progenitor of the D genome of hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum, genomes AABBDD) and an important genetic resource for wheat. The large size and highly repetitive nature of the Ae. tauschii genome has until now precluded the development of a reference-quality genome sequence. Here we use an array of advanced technologies, including ordered-clone genome sequencing, whole-genome shotgun sequencing, and BioNano optical genome mapping, to generate a reference-quality genome sequence for Ae...
November 15, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143814/structural-basis-of-nucleotide-sugar-transport-across-the-golgi-membrane
#14
Joanne L Parker, Simon Newstead
Glycosylation is a fundamental cellular process that, in eukaryotes, occurs in the lumen of both the Golgi apparatus and the endoplasmic reticulum. Nucleotide sugar transporters (NSTs) are an essential component of the glycosylation pathway, providing the diverse range of substrates required for the glycosyltransferases. NSTs are linked to several developmental and immune disorders in humans, and in pathogenic microbes they have an important role in virulence. How NSTs recognize and transport activated monosaccharides, however, is currently unclear...
November 15, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160307/a-non-canonical-notch-complex-regulates-adherens-junctions-and-vascular-barrier-function
#15
William J Polacheck, Matthew L Kutys, Jinling Yang, Jeroen Eyckmans, Yinyu Wu, Hema Vasavada, Karen K Hirschi, Christopher S Chen
The vascular barrier that separates blood from tissues is actively regulated by the endothelium and is essential for transport, inflammation, and haemostasis1. Haemodynamic shear stress plays a critical role in maintaining endothelial barrier function2, but how this occurs remains unknown. Here, using an engineered organotypic model of perfused microvessels and confirming in mouse models, we identify that activation of the Notch1 transmembrane receptor directly regulates vascular barrier function through a non-canonical, transcription independent signalling mechanism that drives adherens junction assembly...
November 13, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160304/il11-is-a-crucial-determinant-of-cardiovascular-fibrosis
#16
Sebastian Schafer, Sivakumar Viswanathan, Anissa A Widjaja, Wei-Wen Lim, Aida Moreno-Moral, Daniel M DeLaughter, Benjamin Ng, Giannino Patone, Kingsley Chow, Ester Khin, Jessie Tan, Sonia P Chothani, Lei Ye, Owen J L Rackham, Nicole S J Ko, Norliza E Sahib, Chee Jian Pua, Nicole T G Zhen, Chen Xie, Mao Wang, Henrike Maatz, Shiqi Lim, Kathrin Saar, Susanne Blachut, Enrico Petretto, Sabine Schmidt, Tracy Putoczki, Nuno Guimarães-Camboa, Hiroko Wakimoto, Sebastiaan van Heesch, Kristmundur Sigmundsson, See L Lim, Jia L Soon, Victor T T Chao, Yeow L Chua, Teing E Tan, Sylvia M Evans, Yee J Loh, Muhammad H Jamal, Kim K Ong, Kim C Chua, Boon-Hean Ong, Mathew J Chakaramakkil, Jonathan G Seidman, Christine E Seidman, Norbert Hubner, Kenny Y K Sin, Stuart A Cook
Fibrosis is a final common pathology in cardiovascular disease(1). In the heart, fibrosis causes mechanical and electrical dysfunction(1,2) and in the kidney, it predicts the onset of renal failure(3). Transforming growth factor β1 (TGFB1) is the principal pro-fibrotic factor(4,5) but its inhibition is associated with side effects due to its pleiotropic roles(6,7). We hypothesised that downstream effectors of TGFB1 in fibroblasts could be attractive therapeutic targets and lack upstream toxicities. Using integrated imaging-genomics analyses of primary human fibroblasts, we found that Interleukin 11 (IL11) upregulation is the dominant transcriptional response to TGFB1 exposure and required for its profibrotic effect...
November 13, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132143/a-jurassic-gliding-euharamiyidan-mammal-with-an-ear-of-five-auditory-bones
#17
Gang Han, Fangyuan Mao, Shundong Bi, Yuanqing Wang, Jin Meng
Gliding is a distinctive locomotion type that has been identified in only three mammal species from the Mesozoic era. Here we describe another Jurassic glider that belongs to the euharamiyidan mammals and shows hair details on its gliding membrane that are highly similar to those of extant gliding mammals. This species possesses a five-boned auditory apparatus consisting of the stapes, incus, malleus, ectotympanic and surangular, representing, to our knowledge, the earliest known definitive mammalian middle ear...
November 13, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132142/solar-abundance-ratios-of-the-iron-peak-elements-in-the-perseus-cluster
#18
(no author information available yet)
The metal abundance of the hot plasma that permeates galaxy clusters represents the accumulation of heavy elements produced by billions of supernovae. Therefore, X-ray spectroscopy of the intracluster medium provides an opportunity to investigate the nature of supernova explosions integrated over cosmic time. In particular, the abundance of the iron-peak elements (chromium, manganese, iron and nickel) is key to understanding how the progenitors of typical type Ia supernovae evolve and explode. Recent X-ray studies of the intracluster medium found that the abundance ratios of these elements differ substantially from those seen in the Sun, suggesting differences between the nature of type Ia supernovae in the clusters and in the Milky Way...
November 13, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132147/corrigendum-widespread-movement-of-meltwater-onto-and-across-antarctic-ice-shelves
#19
Jonathan Kingslake, Jeremy C Ely, Indrani Das, Robin E Bell
This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/nature22049.
November 8, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132146/identification-of-unique-neoantigen-qualities-in-long-term-survivors-of-pancreatic-cancer
#20
Vinod P Balachandran, Marta Łuksza, Julia N Zhao, Vladimir Makarov, John Alec Moral, Romain Remark, Brian Herbst, Gokce Askan, Umesh Bhanot, Yasin Senbabaoglu, Daniel K Wells, Charles Ian Ormsby Cary, Olivera Grbovic-Huezo, Marc Attiyeh, Benjamin Medina, Jennifer Zhang, Jennifer Loo, Joseph Saglimbeni, Mohsen Abu-Akeel, Roberta Zappasodi, Nadeem Riaz, Martin Smoragiewicz, Z Larkin Kelley, Olca Basturk, Mithat Gönen, Arnold J Levine, Peter J Allen, Douglas T Fearon, Miriam Merad, Sacha Gnjatic, Christine A Iacobuzio-Donahue, Jedd D Wolchok, Ronald P DeMatteo, Timothy A Chan, Benjamin D Greenbaum, Taha Merghoub, Steven D Leach
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is a lethal cancer with fewer than 7% of patients surviving past 5 years. T-cell immunity has been linked to the exceptional outcome of the few long-term survivors, yet the relevant antigens remain unknown. Here we use genetic, immunohistochemical and transcriptional immunoprofiling, computational biophysics, and functional assays to identify T-cell antigens in long-term survivors of pancreatic cancer. Using whole-exome sequencing and in silico neoantigen prediction, we found that tumours with both the highest neoantigen number and the most abundant CD8(+) T-cell infiltrates, but neither alone, stratified patients with the longest survival...
November 8, 2017: Nature
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