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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30429615/improved-reference-genome-of-aedes-aegypti-informs-arbovirus-vector-control
#1
Benjamin J Matthews, Olga Dudchenko, Sarah B Kingan, Sergey Koren, Igor Antoshechkin, Jacob E Crawford, William J Glassford, Margaret Herre, Seth N Redmond, Noah H Rose, Gareth D Weedall, Yang Wu, Sanjit S Batra, Carlos A Brito-Sierra, Steven D Buckingham, Corey L Campbell, Saki Chan, Eric Cox, Benjamin R Evans, Thanyalak Fansiri, Igor Filipović, Albin Fontaine, Andrea Gloria-Soria, Richard Hall, Vinita S Joardar, Andrew K Jones, Raissa G G Kay, Vamsi K Kodali, Joyce Lee, Gareth J Lycett, Sara N Mitchell, Jill Muehling, Michael R Murphy, Arina D Omer, Frederick A Partridge, Paul Peluso, Aviva Presser Aiden, Vidya Ramasamy, Gordana Rašić, Sourav Roy, Karla Saavedra-Rodriguez, Shruti Sharan, Atashi Sharma, Melissa Laird Smith, Joe Turner, Allison M Weakley, Zhilei Zhao, Omar S Akbari, William C Black, Han Cao, Alistair C Darby, Catherine A Hill, J Spencer Johnston, Terence D Murphy, Alexander S Raikhel, David B Sattelle, Igor V Sharakhov, Bradley J White, Li Zhao, Erez Lieberman Aiden, Richard S Mann, Louis Lambrechts, Jeffrey R Powell, Maria V Sharakhova, Zhijian Tu, Hugh M Robertson, Carolyn S McBride, Alex R Hastie, Jonas Korlach, Daniel E Neafsey, Adam M Phillippy, Leslie B Vosshall
Female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes infect more than 400 million people each year with dangerous viral pathogens including dengue, yellow fever, Zika and chikungunya. Progress in understanding the biology of mosquitoes and developing the tools to fight them has been slowed by the lack of a high-quality genome assembly. Here we combine diverse technologies to produce the markedly improved, fully re-annotated AaegL5 genome assembly, and demonstrate how it accelerates mosquito science. We anchored physical and cytogenetic maps, doubled the number of known chemosensory ionotropic receptors that guide mosquitoes to human hosts and egg-laying sites, provided further insight into the size and composition of the sex-determining M locus, and revealed copy-number variation among glutathione S-transferase genes that are important for insecticide resistance...
November 14, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30429614/linking-a-cell-division-gene-and-a-suicide-gene-to-define-and-improve-cell-therapy-safety
#2
Qin Liang, Claudio Monetti, Maria V Shutova, Eric J Neely, Sabiha Hacibekiroglu, Huijuan Yang, Christopher Kim, Puzheng Zhang, Chengjin Li, Kristina Nagy, Maria Mileikovsky, Istvan Gyongy, Hoon-Ki Sung, Andras Nagy
Human pluripotent cell lines hold enormous promise for the development of cell-based therapies. Safety, however, is a crucial prerequisite condition for clinical applications. Numerous groups have attempted to eliminate potentially harmful cells through the use of suicide genes1 , but none has quantitatively defined the safety level of transplant therapies. Here, using genome-engineering strategies, we demonstrate the protection of a suicide system from inactivation in dividing cells. We created a transcriptional link between the suicide gene herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) and a cell-division gene (CDK1); this combination is designated the safe-cell system...
November 14, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30429613/widespread-but-heterogeneous-responses-of-andean-forests-to-climate-change
#3
Belén Fadrique, Selene Báez, Álvaro Duque, Agustina Malizia, Cecilia Blundo, Julieta Carilla, Oriana Osinaga-Acosta, Lucio Malizia, Miles Silman, William Farfán-Ríos, Yadvinder Malhi, Kenneth R Young, Francisco Cuesta C, Jurgen Homeier, Manuel Peralvo, Esteban Pinto, Oswaldo Jadan, Nikolay Aguirre, Zhofre Aguirre, Kenneth J Feeley
Global warming is forcing many species to shift their distributions upward, causing consequent changes in the compositions of species that occur at specific locations. This prediction remains largely untested for tropical trees. Here we show, using a database of nearly 200 Andean forest plot inventories spread across more than 33.5° latitude (from 26.8° S to 7.1° N) and 3,000-m elevation (from 360 to 3,360 m above sea level), that tropical and subtropical tree communities are experiencing directional shifts in composition towards having greater relative abundances of species from lower, warmer elevations...
November 14, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30429612/the-hippocampus-is-crucial-for-forming-non-hippocampal-long-term-memory-during-sleep
#4
Anuck Sawangjit, Carlos N Oyanedel, Niels Niethard, Carolina Salazar, Jan Born, Marion Inostroza
There is a long-standing division in memory research between hippocampus-dependent memory and non-hippocampus-dependent memory, as only the latter can be acquired and retrieved in the absence of normal hippocampal function1,2 . Consolidation of hippocampus-dependent memory, in particular, is strongly supported by sleep3-5 . Here we show that the formation of long-term representations in a rat model of non-hippocampus-dependent memory depends not only on sleep but also on activation of a hippocampus-dependent mechanism during sleep...
November 14, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30429611/hemimastigophora-is-a-novel-supra-kingdom-level-lineage-of-eukaryotes
#5
Gordon Lax, Yana Eglit, Laura Eme, Erin M Bertrand, Andrew J Roger, Alastair G B Simpson
Almost all eukaryote life forms have now been placed within one of five to eight supra-kingdom-level groups using molecular phylogenetics1-4 . The 'phylum' Hemimastigophora is probably the most distinctive morphologically defined lineage that still awaits such a phylogenetic assignment. First observed in the nineteenth century, hemimastigotes are free-living predatory protists with two rows of flagella and a unique cell architecture5-7 ; to our knowledge, no molecular sequence data or cultures are currently available for this group...
November 14, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30429610/enhanced-strength-and-ductility-in-a-high-entropy-alloy-via-ordered-oxygen-complexes
#6
Zhifeng Lei, Xiongjun Liu, Yuan Wu, Hui Wang, Suihe Jiang, Shudao Wang, Xidong Hui, Yidong Wu, Baptiste Gault, Paraskevas Kontis, Dierk Raabe, Lin Gu, Qinghua Zhang, Houwen Chen, Hongtao Wang, Jiabin Liu, Ke An, Qiaoshi Zeng, Tai-Gang Nieh, Zhaoping Lu
Oxygen, one of the most abundant elements on Earth, often forms an undesired interstitial impurity or ceramic phase (such as an oxide particle) in metallic materials. Even when it adds strength, oxygen doping renders metals brittle1-3 . Here we show that oxygen can take the form of ordered oxygen complexes, a state in between oxide particles and frequently occurring random interstitials. Unlike traditional interstitial strengthening4,5 , such ordered interstitial complexes lead to unprecedented enhancement in both strength and ductility in compositionally complex solid solutions, the so-called high-entropy alloys (HEAs)6-10 ...
November 14, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30429609/polar-guided-signalling-complex-assembly-and-localization-drive-asymmetric-cell-division
#7
Anaxi Houbaert, Cheng Zhang, Manish Tiwari, Kun Wang, Alberto de Marcos Serrano, Daniel V Savatin, Mounashree J Urs, Miroslava K Zhiponova, Gustavo E Gudesblat, Isabelle Vanhoutte, Dominique Eeckhout, Sjef Boeren, Mansour Karimi, Camilla Betti, Thomas Jacobs, Carmen Fenoll, Montaña Mena, Sacco de Vries, Geert De Jaeger, Eugenia Russinova
Stomatal cell lineage is an archetypal example of asymmetric cell division (ACD), which is necessary for plant survival1-4 . In Arabidopsis thaliana, the GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE KINASE3 (GSK3)/SHAGGY-like kinase BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE 2 (BIN2) phosphorylates both the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling module5,6 and its downstream target, the transcription factor SPEECHLESS (SPCH)7 , to promote and restrict ACDs, respectively, in the same stomatal lineage cell. However, the mechanisms that balance these mutually exclusive activities remain unclear...
November 14, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30429608/sensitive-tumour-detection-and-classification-using-plasma-cell-free-dna-methylomes
#8
Shu Yi Shen, Rajat Singhania, Gordon Fehringer, Ankur Chakravarthy, Michael H A Roehrl, Dianne Chadwick, Philip C Zuzarte, Ayelet Borgida, Ting Ting Wang, Tiantian Li, Olena Kis, Zhen Zhao, Anna Spreafico, Tiago da Silva Medina, Yadon Wang, David Roulois, Ilias Ettayebi, Zhuo Chen, Signy Chow, Tracy Murphy, Andrea Arruda, Grainne M O'Kane, Jessica Liu, Mark Mansour, John D McPherson, Catherine O'Brien, Natasha Leighl, Philippe L Bedard, Neil Fleshner, Geoffrey Liu, Mark D Minden, Steven Gallinger, Anna Goldenberg, Trevor J Pugh, Michael M Hoffman, Scott V Bratman, Rayjean J Hung, Daniel D De Carvalho
The use of liquid biopsies for cancer detection and management is rapidly gaining prominence1 . Current methods for the detection of circulating tumour DNA involve sequencing somatic mutations using cell-free DNA, but the sensitivity of these methods may be low among patients with early-stage cancer given the limited number of recurrent mutations2-5 . By contrast, large-scale epigenetic alterations-which are tissue- and cancer-type specific-are not similarly constrained6 and therefore potentially have greater ability to detect and classify cancers in patients with early-stage disease...
November 14, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30429607/autophagy-maintains-tumour-growth-through-circulating-arginine
#9
Laura Poillet-Perez, Xiaoqi Xie, Le Zhan, Yang Yang, Daniel W Sharp, Zhixian Sherrie Hu, Xiaoyang Su, Anurag Maganti, Cherry Jiang, Wenyun Lu, Haiyan Zheng, Marcus W Bosenberg, Janice M Mehnert, Jessie Yanxiang Guo, Edmund Lattime, Joshua D Rabinowitz, Eileen White
Autophagy captures intracellular components and delivers them to lysosomes, where they are degraded and recycled to sustain metabolism and to enable survival during starvation1-5 . Acute, whole-body deletion of the essential autophagy gene Atg7 in adult mice causes a systemic metabolic defect that manifests as starvation intolerance and gradual loss of white adipose tissue, liver glycogen and muscle mass1 . Cancer cells also benefit from autophagy. Deletion of essential autophagy genes impairs the metabolism, proliferation, survival and malignancy of spontaneous tumours in models of autochthonous cancer6,7 ...
November 14, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30429606/similar-cranial-trauma-prevalence-among-neanderthals-and-upper-palaeolithic-modern-humans
#10
Judith Beier, Nils Anthes, Joachim Wahl, Katerina Harvati
Neanderthals are commonly depicted as leading dangerous lives and permanently struggling for survival. This view largely relies on the high incidences of trauma that have been reported1,2 and have variously been attributed to violent social behaviour3,4 , highly mobile hunter-gatherer lifestyles2 or attacks by carnivores5 . The described Neanderthal pattern of predominantly cranial injuries is further thought to reflect violent encounters with large prey mammals, resulting from the use of close-range hunting weapons1 ...
November 14, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30425342/author-correction-rock-fluidization-during-peak-ring-formation-of-large-impact-structures
#11
Ulrich Riller, Michael H Poelchau, Auriol S P Rae, Felix M Schulte, Gareth S Collins, H Jay Melosh, Richard A F Grieve, Joanna V Morgan, Sean P S Gulick, Johanna Lofi, Abdoulaye Diaw, Naoma McCall, David A Kring
In this Article, the middle initial of author Kosei E. Yamaguchi (of the IODP-ICDP Expedition 364 Science Party) was missing and his affiliation is to Toho University (not Tohu University). These errors have been corrected online.
November 13, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30420607/author-correction-self-organization-of-a-human-organizer-by-combined-wnt-and-nodal-signalling
#12
I Martyn, T Y Kanno, A Ruzo, E D Siggia, A H Brivanlou
Ref. 7 from Benvenisty and colleagues was inadvertently omitted; this has now been cited in the text and added to the reference list, and subsequent references have been renumbered. The Letter has been corrected online.
November 12, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30420606/the-entropic-force-generated-by-intrinsically-disordered-segments-tunes-protein-function
#13
Nicholas D Keul, Krishnadev Oruganty, Elizabeth T Schaper Bergman, Nathaniel R Beattie, Weston E McDonald, Renuka Kadirvelraj, Michael L Gross, Robert S Phillips, Stephen C Harvey, Zachary A Wood
Protein structures are dynamic and can explore a large conformational landscape1,2 . Only some of these structural substates are important for protein function (such as ligand binding, catalysis and regulation)3-5 . How evolution shapes the structural ensemble to optimize a specific function is poorly understood3,4 . One of the constraints on the evolution of proteins is the stability of the folded 'native' state. Despite this, 44% of the human proteome contains intrinsically disordered peptide segments greater than 30 residues in length6 , the majority of which have no known function7-9 ...
November 12, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30410125/author-correction-a-global-slowdown-of-tropical-cyclone-translation-speed
#14
James P Kossin
In this Letter, two errors in the methodology are corrected, leading to changes in Figs. 1-3 and Extended Data Figs. 1 and 2, although the essential results are not affected. The original Letter has been corrected online.
November 8, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30410124/author-correction-necroptosis-microenvironment-directs-lineage-commitment-in-liver-cancer
#15
Marco Seehawer, Florian Heinzmann, Luana D'Artista, Jule Harbig, Pierre-François Roux, Lisa Hoenicke, Hien Dang, Sabrina Klotz, Lucas Robinson, Grégory Doré, Nir Rozenblum, Tae-Won Kang, Rishabh Chawla, Thorsten Buch, Mihael Vucur, Mareike Roth, Johannes Zuber, Tom Luedde, Bence Sipos, Thomas Longerich, Mathias Heikenwälder, Xin Wei Wang, Oliver Bischof, Lars Zender
In this Article, the pCaMIN construct consisted of 'mouse MYC and mouse NrasG12V ' instead of 'mouse Myc and human NRASG12V ; and the pCAMIA construct consisted of 'mouse Myc and human AKT1' instead of 'mouse Myc and Akt1' this has been corrected online.
November 8, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30405246/design-of-amidobenzimidazole-sting-receptor-agonists-with-systemic-activity
#16
Joshi M Ramanjulu, G Scott Pesiridis, Jingsong Yang, Nestor Concha, Robert Singhaus, Shu-Yun Zhang, Jean-Luc Tran, Patrick Moore, Stephanie Lehmann, H Christian Eberl, Marcel Muelbaier, Jessica L Schneck, Jim Clemens, Michael Adam, John Mehlmann, Joseph Romano, Angel Morales, James Kang, Lara Leister, Todd L Graybill, Adam K Charnley, Guosen Ye, Neysa Nevins, Kamelia Behnia, Amaya I Wolf, Viera Kasparcova, Kelvin Nurse, Liping Wang, Yue Li, Michael Klein, Christopher B Hopson, Jeffrey Guss, Marcus Bantscheff, Giovanna Bergamini, Michael A Reilly, Yiqian Lian, Kevin J Duffy, Jerry Adams, Kevin P Foley, Peter J Gough, Robert W Marquis, James Smothers, Axel Hoos, John Bertin
Stimulator of interferon genes (STING) is a receptor in the endoplasmic reticulum that propagates innate immune sensing of cytosolic pathogen-derived and self DNA1 . The development of compounds that modulate STING has recently been the focus of intense research for the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases and as vaccine adjuvants2 . To our knowledge, current efforts are focused on the development of modified cyclic dinucleotides that mimic the endogenous STING ligand cGAMP; these have progressed into clinical trials in patients with solid accessible tumours amenable to intratumoral delivery3 ...
November 7, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30405245/the-metabolite-bh4-controls-t-cell-proliferation-in-autoimmunity-and-cancer
#17
Shane J F Cronin, Corey Seehus, Adelheid Weidinger, Sebastien Talbot, Sonja Reissig, Markus Seifert, Yann Pierson, Eileen McNeill, Maria Serena Longhi, Bruna Lenfers Turnes, Taras Kreslavsky, Melanie Kogler, David Hoffmann, Melita Ticevic, Débora da Luz Scheffer, Luigi Tortola, Domagoj Cikes, Alexander Jais, Manu Rangachari, Shuan Rao, Magdalena Paolino, Maria Novatchkova, Martin Aichinger, Lee Barrett, Alban Latremoliere, Gerald Wirnsberger, Guenther Lametschwandtner, Meinrad Busslinger, Stephen Zicha, Alexandra Latini, Simon C Robson, Ari Waisman, Nick Andrews, Michael Costigan, Keith M Channon, Guenter Weiss, Andrey V Kozlov, Mark Tebbe, Kai Johnsson, Clifford J Woolf, Josef M Penninger
Genetic regulators and environmental stimuli modulate T cell activation in autoimmunity and cancer. The enzyme co-factor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is involved in the production of monoamine neurotransmitters, the generation of nitric oxide, and pain1,2 . Here we uncover a link between these processes, identifying a fundamental role for BH4 in T cell biology. We find that genetic inactivation of GTP cyclohydrolase 1 (GCH1, the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of BH4) and inhibition of sepiapterin reductase (the terminal enzyme in the synthetic pathway for BH4) severely impair the proliferation of mature mouse and human T cells...
November 7, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30405244/predictable-and-precise-template-free-crispr-editing-of-pathogenic-variants
#18
Max W Shen, Mandana Arbab, Jonathan Y Hsu, Daniel Worstell, Sannie J Culbertson, Olga Krabbe, Christopher A Cassa, David R Liu, David K Gifford, Richard I Sherwood
Following Cas9 cleavage, DNA repair without a donor template is generally considered stochastic, heterogeneous and impractical beyond gene disruption. Here, we show that template-free Cas9 editing is predictable and capable of precise repair to a predicted genotype, enabling correction of disease-associated mutations in humans. We constructed a library of 2,000 Cas9 guide RNAs paired with DNA target sites and trained inDelphi, a machine learning model that predicts genotypes and frequencies of 1- to 60-base-pair deletions and 1-base-pair insertions with high accuracy (r = 0...
November 7, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30405243/type-9-secretion-system-structures-reveal-a-new-protein-transport-mechanism
#19
Frédéric Lauber, Justin C Deme, Susan M Lea, Ben C Berks
The type 9 secretion system (T9SS) is the protein export pathway of bacteria of the Gram-negative Fibrobacteres-Chlorobi-Bacteroidetes superphylum and is an essential determinant of pathogenicity in severe periodontal disease. The central element of the T9SS is a so-far uncharacterized protein-conducting translocon located in the bacterial outer membrane. Here, using cryo-electron microscopy, we provide structural evidence that the translocon is the T9SS protein SprA. SprA forms an extremely large (36-strand) single polypeptide transmembrane β-barrel...
November 7, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30405242/palaeolithic-cave-art-in-borneo
#20
M Aubert, P Setiawan, A A Oktaviana, A Brumm, P H Sulistyarto, E W Saptomo, B Istiawan, T A Ma'rifat, V N Wahyuono, F T Atmoko, J-X Zhao, J Huntley, P S C Taçon, D L Howard, H E A Brand
Figurative cave paintings from the Indonesian island of Sulawesi date to at least 35,000 years ago (ka) and hand-stencil art from the same region has a minimum date of 40 ka1 . Here we show that similar rock art was created during essentially the same time period on the adjacent island of Borneo. Uranium-series analysis of calcium carbonate deposits that overlie a large reddish-orange figurative painting of an animal at Lubang Jeriji Saléh-a limestone cave in East Kalimantan, Indonesian Borneo-yielded a minimum date of 40 ka, which to our knowledge is currently the oldest date for figurative artwork from anywhere in the world...
November 7, 2018: Nature
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